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1. Polymorphisms Of Bovine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene And Its Association With Mastitis In Sahiwal Cows

by Huma Sattar (2013-VA-03) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mastitis is one of the shocking maladies of milch animals causing high production losses to livestock industry of Pakistan (Kenyanjui et al. 2011). It is an inflammatory condition of udder; represent a major problem in dairy cow management. It is one of the most common and frequent disease of dairy industry. Producers suffer a huge loss due to veterinary treatment costs and necessary culling of the infected animals. It negatively affects the milk production, quality of milk, and farm economics (Fourichon et al. 2005). Increasing the disease resistance among dairy cattle is therefore desirable because without controlling mastitis, the national goals of developing dairy farming on commercial and scientific lines and production of wholesome milk which conforms to the standards of WTO Accord would remain elusive. Mastitis is inflammation of udder that caused by physiological and metabolical changes (Schalm and Noorlander 1957). There are two main types of mastitis; clinical mastitis (characterized by classical symptoms i.e., swelling of udder, redness, clumps and clots in milk etc) and sub-clinical mastitis (not show any symptoms, Milk appear normal, udder appear normal) (Schrick et al. 2001). Mastitis is ranked as a top disease of dairy herds (Rinaldi et al. 2010). This mammary gland infection caused by pathogenic micro organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Esherichia coli in the mammary gland (Heringstad et al. 2000). India, China and United States are the larger producer of milk and Pakistan is on forth number in milk yield. Pakistan almost produces 36.5 million tons of milk yeild per year (Cady et al. 1983).The Sahiwal breed is well known among for its superior dairy qualities (Barker et al. 1998). Both cross and pure breed Sahiwal cows have high milk production rate (Khan et al. 2013). It is very difficult to comprehend this disease because numerous environmental and genetic factors are involved in the origin and development of mastitis (Bradley 2002; Carvajal et al. 2013). Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is a complex trait influenced by genetic variation of animals. Among these variations, the polymorphisms in immunity genes are principal key factors in defensive mechanism of mammary gland (Ibeagha-Awemu et al. 2008). The mammary gland tissue is protected by immune system by two defense system; innate and acquired immunity. Innate immunity response by the host is a quick response of bacterial defense system (Mesquita et al. 2012). Innate system is a rapid and effective mechanism that activated on recognition of antigen (Akira et al. 2006). Innate immune system is activated when specific pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that are present on the surfaces which are attach to the specific pathogen (Shuster et al. 1996). PRR are presnt on leucocytes in milk and on the epithelial cells lining of udder. It is reported that T- lymphocyte subset i.e., CD4+, CD8+ and ɤδT are present in infected bovine mammary glands. (Goldammer et al. 2004; Strandberg et al. 2005). Innate defense (nonspecific) of the mammary gland is stimulated by the physical barrier such as teat end, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, macrophages and certain other soluble factors. The teat cannals are considering the main line of defense. Microorganisms enter from teat canal in milk. The main roles of teat sphincter muscles are to remain orifice close so that bacteria cannot enter. This teat canal also lined with keratin, whose estrified and non estified fatty acid function as bacteriostatics that provide protection and play role to eliminate bacteria causing mastitis (Oviedo-Boyso et al. 2007). If a pathogen is not eliminated by the physical barrier, the acquired immune system is triggered. In comparison, this system is much faster than other immune response. The memory response is significantly stronger, long durable and more efficient to kill the pathogen. The acquired immune system (memory response) have ability to differentiate self or nonself cells and produce antibodies only against antigens through membrane bound protein called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Specific immune system activate only when antigens bind with an MHC that is present on the surface of certain cells, this process is referred as antigen presentation. Recognition of pathogenic factors for elimination is mediated by macrophages, several lymphoid, and immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies (Sordillo and Streicher 2002). The most acute responding macrophages and T-cell cytokines are TNF-α, LTF, IL1, IL6, IL8, and IFN-ɤ present in intramammary infection in cows. These genes play important role in improvement of immunity to mastitis (Burton and Erskine 2003). Tumor necrosis factor alpha is main pro-inflammatory adipokine that is part of systematic immune defense. The main function of TNF-α gene is responsible for proliferation, differentiation and activity of many immune system cells; B lymphocytes, NK (natural killer). It also induces the production and release of many other cytokines (Wojdak Maksymiec et al. 2013) and also enhances the chemotactic and phagocytic effects of immune response. TNF-α gene contains four exons and three introns that are present on chromosome BTA23q22 (Bannerman 2009; Moyes et al. 2009). TNF-α is a member of a group of cytokines that stimulate the specific immune system. TNF consist of 212 amino acid arranged in stable homotrimers (Kriegler et al. 1988; Tang et al. 1996). The 17-kilodalton (kDa) TNF protomers are composed of two β-pleated sheets and β-strands, joined together antiparallel (Tang et al. 1996). TNF-α is a component of natural protection systems of humans and animals. Milk gives nourishment and disease resistance to the new born. Various cellular and soluble immune components are important for protecting the mammary gland from infectious diseases like mastitis. Mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and cost the dairy industry about 2 million dollars annually (National Mastitis Council (1996). Dairy cattle are especially susceptible to mastitis due to diminished mammary gland defense mechanisms (Sordillo and Streicher 2002). TNF-α is not only produced by activation of macrophages, but also other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1).TNF-α stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and activity of many immune system cells; B lymphocytes, NK (natural killer). TNF-α induces the release of many other cytokines (Wojdak-Maksymiec and Mikolajczyk 2012). TNF-α also enhance the chemotactic and phagocytic effects of immune response. . The present study is designed to determine the genetic polymorphism in exon 4 of TNF-α gene of mastitic cows and its association resistance and susceptibility towards mastitis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2224-T] (1).

2. Delignification Of Rice Husk By Organic Solvent Treatment To Increase It’s In Vitro Digestibility

by Awais Alam (2012-VA-604) | Dr. AbuSaeed Hashmi | Miss Huma Mujahid | Dr. Asif Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: The major constituent of plant cell wall is lignocellulose. Plant biomass mostly consist of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin alongside little measures of pectin, protein, extractives (dissolvable nonstructural materials, for example, sugars, nitrogenous material, chlorophyll, waxes) and ash. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant organic material in nature. There is an expected yearly overall production of 10–50 billion dry tons representing about 50% of the worldwide biomass yield (Parveen et al. 2009). Numerous physicochemical, structural and compositional variables decrease the digestibility of cellulose present in lignocellulosic material. So a treatment is required to increase the digestibility of lignocellulose biomass by exposing the cellulose present in plant fibers. Different techniques have been utilized for treatment, including chemical treatment, ammonia fiber explosion, biological treatment and steam explosion to modify the cellulosic structure to increase the availability of cellulose for digestion (Haoran et al. 2013). At that point, acids, bases and enzymes might be utilized to break down the cellulose into its respective sugars. Cellulolytic enzymesare broadly used to break down cellulose into its constituent sugars. Among various agricultural wastes a broadly available waste is Rice husk (RH) which is rich in lignocellulosic material. Internationally, roughly 600 million tons of rice paddy is delivered every year. By and large 20% of the rice paddy is husk, giving a yearly aggregate generation of 120 million tons (Abbas et al. 2010). Pakistan is a rice producing country a great part of the husk produced from processing of rice is either blazed or dumped as waste. Rice husk yield in Pakistan is more than 1780 thousand tons every year (Asif et al. 2013). Rice husk produced during rice refining, makes disposal issue because of less business interest. Additionally, handling and transportation of RH is hazardous because of its low density. Rice husk ash (RHA) is an incredible environmental risk bringing about harm to land and encompassing range here it is dumped. Thus, business utilization of rice husk and its ash is the option answer for disposal problem (Dilip et al. 2014). RH are essentially made up of lignocellulose (60wt. %) and silica (11wt. %). The greater part of past investigations concentrated on the preparation of silica or other silicon based materials from RH, while the lignocellulose in RH was mostly glazed and then wasted. Thus, a methodology for comprehensive usage of RH has been produced to expand its digestibility by the breakdown of lignocellulosic mass. (Ajay et al. 2012) Numerous techniques have been adopted for treating lignocellulosic feedstocks. However just a few of them appear to be encouraging. These treatment techniques include dilute acid treatment, steam blast (CO2 blast), pH controlled water treatment, ammonia fiber expension, ammonia recycle percolation (ARP) and lime treatment. Some survey articles have been appeared for microbial biomass treatment. But the present study gave presentations on organosolv treatment process. Despite the fact that organosolv treatment is more expensive at present than the leading treatment forms, it can give some significant side products. It appears that organosolv treatment is more practical for biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass which considers the usage of every bit of biomass parts. An essential streamlining and usage of side products may lead the organosolv treatment to be a guaranteeing one for bio refining lignocellulosic feedstock in future. Organosolv treatment yields three different parts: dry lignin, a watery hemicellulose stream and a moderately pure cellulose division (Xuebing et al. 2009). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2230-T] (1).

3. DNA Based Characterization of Xylanase Gene From Hyperthermophilic Archeon

by Saima Zulfiqar (2012-VA-539) | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Faiza Masood | Dr.Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Blank CD Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2233-T] (1).

4. Dna Based Characterization Of Triacyl Glycerol Lipase Gene From Geobacillus Sp. Sbs-4s

by Maheen Aslam (2012-VA-803) | Dr. Muhammed Tayyab | Ms. Asma Waris | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Lipases are hydrolases responsible for the liberation of fatty acids from triglycerides (Akoh et al. 2004). With the exception of hydrolysis, lipolytic enzymes can also catalyze transesterification, esterification and interesterification in low aqueous conditions (Goldberg et al. 2005). Under micro-aqueous conditions, lipases have exceptional ability to catalyze the reverse reactions that leads to acidolysis, alcoholysis and esterification (Jaegar and Reetz 1998). Previously production of lipases has been reported from various sources like microorganisms, animals and plants (Lee et al. 2006). Lipases extracted from different sources have broad spectrum properties depending on their sources regarding pH optima, positional specificity, thermostability, fatty acid specificity, etc (Gupta et al. 2004). Thermostable lipases are important for many industries due to their distinct feature (Demirjian et al. 2001). Psychrophilic lipases have high activity at low optimum temperature so they are fascinated for the production of relatively frail compounds and their use has been increased in the organic synthesis of chiral intermediates (Joseph et al. 2008). Alkali stable lipases have ability to work optimally at alkaline pH and are highly suitable to be used in detergents (Sarethy et al. 2011). Lipases are the component of additives in biotransformations, environmental bioremediations, molecular biology applications, food and detergent industry and heterologous gene expression in psychrophilic hosts to prevent formation of inclusion bodies (Houde et al. 2004). Lipases occur in almost all organisms from bacteria to complex organisms. In complex eukaryotes, pig and human pancreas are the main source for lipase production. In eukaryotes, lipases carry out lipoproteins metabolism, fat digestion, reconstitution and adsorption. Lipases have also been extracted from plants. They are found in higher plants and energy reserve tissues. (Treichel et al. 2010). However, microorganisms are preferred for the production of enzymes over plants and animals because of their shortest generation time, the high yields, great flexibility in environmental conditions, ease of cultivation conditions, variety in catalytic activities, regular supply due to absence of seasonal fluctuations, simplicity in genetic manipulation and quick growth of microorganisms on economical media (Gurung et al. 2013). The production of microbial enzymes is safer and more expedient and they have more stability than their corresponding animal and plant enzymes (Messaoudi et al. 2010). Lipases share a common architecture of α/β-hydrolase fold and a highly conserved pentapeptide catalytic triad G-X1-S-X2-G, where G for glycine, S for serine, X1 for histidine and X2 for glutamic or aspartic acid (Widmann et al. 2010). In the highly conserved catalytic triad there is a nucleophilic residue comprising serine and a catalytic residue containing aspartic or glutamic acid and histidine (Anobom et al. 2014). Lipases have alkyl groups on the surface of their structure due to which they are strongly hydrophobic. Broad substrate specificity is another remarkable characteristic of lipases. Also they catalyze the hydrolysis of alcohols with various chain lengths and esters of fatty acids. The long chain fatty acids of varying chain lengths hydrolysis form triglycerides correspondingly (Patil et al. 2011). Lipases are biotechnologically important enzymes and they have vast applications in leather, food, textile, pharmaceutical, detergent, paper, cosmetic industries and in biodiesel formation (Gupta et al. 2004). Lipases are used in processing of food by the esterification and transesterication of oils and fats. These enzymes are involved in the enhancement of flavor, prolong shelf life and improves aroma of bakery goods, beverages, dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In food Introduction 3 industry egg yolk is treated with phospholipase to hydrolyze egg lecithin and isolecithin which improves its heating stability and emulsification capacity. This treated egg yolk is then used for the processing of mayonnaise, baby foods, custards, salad or food dressings and sauces. Lipases are also used to remove fats from meat and fish (Aravindan et al. 2006). In textile industry lipases are used in processing of fabrics, thus improving its quality and absorbing ability by removing size lubricants. Polyethylene terephthalate is an important synthetic fiber in the textile industry (Araujo et al. 2008). Lipases action on that fiber improves its hydrophilicity and anti-static ability (Contesini et al. 2010). Lipases in therapeutics are involved in the synthesis of macrolide products. Macrolide products have potential antitumor activity against a broad spectrum of human tumor lines including multidrug resistant cell lines. In pharmaceutical industries, lipases are used for esterification, transesterication and asymmetric hydrolysis of racemic alcohols and carboxylic acids to produce their enantiomeric forms. Many β-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-asthamic drugs are pharmacologically active in their one enantiomeric form while toxic in other form like “profens and ibuprofen” are pharmacologically active in their (S)-enantiomeric form whereas (S)-thalidomide has severe side-effects (Jegannathan and Nielsen 2014). Leather manufacturing industries use lipases for degreasing which is the process of removing fats and grease from skins and hides of cattle. Organic solvents and surfactants are also used to process leather but these methods are not eco-friendly and results in the emission of volatile organic compounds. Besides fat dispersion lipases also improve the quality of leather by making it water proof and low fogging (Horchani et al. 2012). Lipase is used as a catalyst in the tranesterification of vegetable oil or alcohols to form emollient esters like myristyl myristate. Emollient esters due to their moisturizing properties are Introduction 4 used in beauty creams. Lipases have also been used in anti-obese creams and they are added as texturing agents to improve the consistency of creams and lotions (Sharma and kanwar 2014). Laundry detergents have surfactants as their primary constituent which remove stains. But they require a considerable amount of energy and also they are toxic to our environment, released in water even they are harmful to aquatic life. The detergent industries are developing trends to use such agents that are eco-friendly and require less energy. Nowadays enzymes are being used in the detergents to remove tough stains and give softness, resiliency to fabrics, antistaticness, dispersible in water and mild to eyes and skin. Lipases are used specially to remove oil and grease stains (Ghuncheva and Zhiryacova 2011). The demand of industries for lipases has grown in the past decade for their environment friendly nature, biodegradability, high specificity and high catalytic efficiency. The commercial applications of lipases are a billion-dollar business that comprises their use in a broad spectrum of industries. Many techniques are being used nowadays to improve the features of lipases e.g., stability, activity, specificity and selectivity, reduction of inhibition (Rebeiro et al. 2011). The main advantage of using immobilized lipases is that it is possible to reuse them, since they can be easily recovered, thus making the process economically feasible, not interacting chemically with the polymer, thus avoiding its denaturation in detergent industry and ester formation (Sharma and Kanwar 2014). Genetic engineering has been used to modify the industrial enzymes to enhance its properties (Adrio and Demain 2014). For lipases as potential candidates of detergent industry, these have to be thermostable, alkali stable, stable against proteolysis, action of oxidative compounds and other chemicals used in detergents. In food and pharmaceutical industry usage Introduction 5 lipases should be more stable in organic solvents and they must show high stereospecificity (Verma et al. 2012). Geobacillus sp. SBS-4S is a thermophillic microorganism that was isolated from Gilgit bultistan, Northern areas of Pakistan. It was found to be gram positive, rod shaped aerobic endospore-forming bacterium. It grows optimally on pH 7 and temperature 55 °C. It produces several industrially important extracellular enzymes including amylases, proteases and lipases (Tayyab et al. 2011). The present study deals with the characterization of triacylglycerol lipase gene responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2234-T] (1).

5. Sequence Analysis Of Mitochondrial Atpase 8/6 Gene Variants In Equine

by Kashif Hameed Anjum (2012-VA-905) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Mr.Maryam Javed | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Human has been using horses for doing different jobs like transportation, hunts, carrying loads, warfare and sports (Zhang et al. 2012). In Pakistan, horses and donkeys are mostly used for transportation whilehorses are also used for racing and playing games like polo.There are two main types of horses:Equuscaballusare domesticated horses and Equusferus are the wild horses. There are more than 300 breeds of horses in the world today (Barbara and Dafydd, 2007). The horse population is estimated as 0.32 million and has been decreasing over the years in Pakistan. Main breeds of horses that are found all over the Pakistan are Kajlan, Kakka, Balochi, Morna, Shien, Anmol, Makra, Pak-thoroughbred,Heerzaiand Waziri (Khan, 2004). Seventy percent of the population earns living from the land. Agriculture contributes nearly 21% to gross domestic product and generates 43% of all jobs. Over 30 million people in rural areas derive their livelihood from livestock production. The number of impoverished communities moving from the country to find work in Pakistan’s towns and cities is rising. Many of these people rely on working equine animals to earn a living. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are frequently used in animal genetic research. Nuclear genomeis generally a huge and complicated molecule and is not well studied in many species. However mitochondrial DNA being small sized and having high mutation rate is used frequently for the purpose of genetic research (Stanley et al. 1994). Characteristic of having fast evolution rate as compared to nuclear DNA makes mitochondrial genes a good tool for genetic studies (Avise, 1994). Several studies have investigated the genetic relationship among horse and donkey breeds using mitochondrial sequences as a marker for breed characterization and phylogenetic. Each mitochondrion contains its own circular DNA, replication, transcription and translation machinery and serves as semi-autonomous organelle. Mitochondria perform so many important functions in our body like metabolism(oxidative phosphorylation), apoptosis and aging(Weinberg, 2007). The advent ofpolymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing techniques with the use of mtDNA as a phylogenetic marker has been extended to much greater levels of phylogenetic inclusiveness (Zardoya and Meyer,1996). The special features of mtDNAi-e,lack of introns, maternal inheritance, absence of recombination events and haploidy have made it the most common type of sequence information used to estimate phylogenies among both closely and distantly related texa(Meyer, 1993). Four of the five mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, namely C1, C3, C4 and C5 (ATP synthase) contain subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA (Kadenbach, 2012). ATP synthase (Complex5) functions to make ATP that is used by the cell (Von et al. 2009). ATP synthasecomprisesan integral membrane cylindrical, the F0 particle and a peripheral matrix-facing F1 particle, the catalytic ATP synthase domain (Boyer, 1997). All aerobically respiring organisms possess ATP synthase enzymes and are located inthe cell membrane in prokaryotes, the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes and the chloroplast thylakoid membrane (Ackerman and Tzagoloff, 2005). This enzyme is responsible for the final step of oxidative phosphorylation. The protons move down their concentration gradient from inter membrane space to matrix through F0 particle while F1particleuses the energy provided by influx of these protons and converts ADP molecule into ATP. ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 proteins are components of F0 particle where they play direct role in maintaining the structure and function of ATP synthase (complex 5). All five subunits of F1 and most of the F0 subunits are nuclear encoded(Collinson et al. 1996). Only two proteins i-e, ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 are encoded by mtDNA (Boyer, 1993). The present study is designed to investigate the diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Thoroughbred Pakistani horse and donkey breeds on the basis of ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 genes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2236-T] (1).

6. Detection And Analysis Of Improvised Explosive Devices Used In Terrorism Activities In Pakistan

by Arslan Nazar (2012-VA-630) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | FaizaMasood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Defence and security organizations are in steadyrequirement of finding new options for the detection of explosives. Fundamental applied research in this area focuses on uncovering of highly energetic substances as well as home-basedexplosives that could be a weapon of mass devastation (Marshal and oxley, 2009 yinon and Zitrin 1996, Scubert and Rimiski-Korsakove, 2006). Current methods of detection for explosives or highly energetic materials are based on a wide variety of technologies that focus on either massexplosives or little portions of explosives. Mass explosives can be distinguishedin some way by imaging features,character of the explosives charge, wires and detonators or unswervingly by spotting the chemistry and dielectric characteristics of the explosive substance. Trace recognition method relay on revealing of vapours given off by the explosives or on explosive’sconstituent part that are set down on nearbyexteriors (national Academy of sciences Committee, 2004). Even though, numerous published material is available about methods of sensing of explosives present in air,water, clothing,soiletc and these put forward the benefit of providing traceconfines of sensation at ppb intensities (Caron et al,. 2010; Hilimi and Luonge). Inthe bulk of the criminal acts, sampling is done at the scene trailed by a sample preparationmove, to be shortly processed by a particular technique for analysis. Sampling and samples preparation are amidmajor, shortcomings in explosive uncovering in many cases frightening the physical condition and life of examiner and the responding officer. Improvised explosive devices are widely used by military in wars and police to keep up regulation and command. Gush of terrorist activities and increase in criminal conduct have been a matter of great concern worldwide and particularly for Pakistan. There have been motiveless annihilation of private and community properties as well as industrial centres, causing irretrievabledamages to state and local markets and imperillinghumanexistence(Shen et al. 2005). Potentially perilous explosives like dynamite, varied military explosives havingnitroglycerine (NG), Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine commonly known as RDX, Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine and alternativehome-produced low explosives and provocative devices are now currently promptly obtainable to scandalous and terrorists. The haphazard and deliberate uses of these explosives consist ofextortion of cash and taking vengeance, unlawful transportation of prohibited substances, assassinations, terrorist and delinquent activities in numerous regions of the country (Sharma and Lahiri 2005). Recognition of detonating method, estimating the path ways taken by explosive transportation andarresting the anti-social charactersconnected with unstable materials and explosions is primary aim of explosive analysis. For this purpose various explosive substances and explosive remains are to be examined qualitatively and the ingredients are to be approximated quantitatively using primarily by thin layer chromatography (TLC). TLC is a technique employed for the screening of organic constituents at hand in the post blast samples. The identification of explosives containing alkylammonium nitrate is done by TLC. Secondly Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique with the benefit of anelevated resolving supremacy is avitalapparatus for the analysis of chemical composition of explosives. The extremelyproficient GC analysis withcapillary columns authorizes the examination of explosive hydrocarbons, identical substances of nitroaromatics, hexogen (RDX) and the high explosive pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) in a single run. The spectroscopic identification of explosive materials by FTIR is striking due to the intrinsicpotential of real-time detection, non-vicious analysis, and nominal sample preparation, thirdly the scanning electron microscope (SEM) produces an increased image of the sample based on the contact of an electron beam with the sample’s exterior. Finding of minutemasses of explosive remains play an important part in forces, inhabitant, and counter terrorism requests(Pacheco-Londono et al. 2005). To press on explosives sensor methods, present methods need to become affordable and transportable without disturbing the integrity of the devices. The uncovering of ordinary explosives as well as trinitrotoluene (TNT), RDX, HMX, 2,4,6 Trinitrophenyl-N-methylnitramine (TETRYL)Pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PENT), and NG were carried out using diverseprocedures(Sanchez et al. 2007). Detection of explosives is anparticularly relevant analytical concern for law enforcement personals and for the environmental protection agencies. As the use of explosive substances have been increased by the terrorists, problems have increased for law enforcement and environment and security agencies regarding the detection ofexplosives residues in baggage, parcels vehicles, aeroplane, on travellers, etc. In bomb scene investigations, it is important to find debris that includes detection of explosive residues. Mobile and hand held explosives detectors, similar to those used for detecting hidden explosives, can be of great help in detecting such residues. Several methods i.e. GC/MS, SEM, FTIR were used in Punjab Forensic Science Agency (PFSA) to analyze residues of explosives. The detection of landmines is an acute, urgent worldwide problem that needs specific and effective detection methods (Yinon 2002). Keeping in mind the above said situations, the project was designed with following objectives Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2235-T] (1).

7. DNA Based Characterization Of Arginase Gene From Geobacillus Sp. SBS-4s

by Raabia Bibi (2012-VA-537) | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Geobacillus is a group gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, endospore-forming and obligate thermophilic bacteria, isolated from the diverse habitats, hot springs, thermal environments, terrestrial soils, deep sea sediments (Zeigler, 2014), petroleum and soil of desserts (Claus and Berkeley 1986). It grows at a wide range of temperature from 45 to 75°C and pH ranging from 6.2 to 7.8 (Nazina et al. 2001). These bacteria survives at higher temperature where most of other living species fail to survive (Claus and Berkeley 1986). Geobacillus have achieved a significant population with a worldwide distribution, probably in large part due to adaptive features of their spores (Zeigler, 2014). These can be found singly or in short chains and motile by means of peritrichous flagella and is capable of secreting a wide variety of extracellular and intracellular enzymes i.e amylase, lipase, carboxypeptidase, cellulase, xylanase, protease and galactosidase (Fogarth et al. 1974; Obeidat et al. 2012). Geobacillus sp. SBS-4S was isolated from hot spring located in Gilgit, Northern areas of Pakistan. It was found to be an aerobic, gram-positive and rod-shaped bacteria having ability to hydrolyze a variety of sugars, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures from 45 to 75°C. SBS-4S was found to be involved in the production of various intra and extra cellular enzymes (Tayyab et al. 2011). Arginase is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of arginine resulting in the production of urea and ornithine (Kaur et al. 2009). It is accomplished by the cleaving of the guanidinium group from arginine which yields urea (Turras et al. 2008). Arginase present in many mammals (Homo sapiens), Bacilli (cyanobacteria), protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fungi (Neurospora crassa) and plants (Lathyrus sativus) etc (Kaur et al. 2009). The crystal structure of arginases have been determined by X ray crystallographic studies. This is a manganese dependent enzyme. The enzyme shows its activity through the metal ion. Metal ion is actively responsible for the incorporation of water molecules essential for the activity of the enzyme. A second proposed mechanism, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies postulates direct coordination of the substrate to manganese and disruption of the aqua bridge. Arginases are homo-oligomers, with a typical subunit mass of 32 to 36 kDa (Bewley et al. 1999). There are two types of arginases, arginase-I and arginase-II, located in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, respectively. The principal ureagenic enzyme activity arginase-I is most abundant in normal mammalian liver and acts in coordination with the other enzymes of the urea cycle to sequester and eliminate excess nitrogen from the body. The second form arginase-II can be found in many organs, with the highest levels found in kidney and prostate where as lower levels in macrophages and lactating mammary glands (Iyer et al. 2002). Important role of arginase in controlling the cellular levels of arginine and ornithine, which are required for various critical metabolic processes, including protein synthesis and the production of creatine, polyamines, proline and nitric oxide (NO). Type II arginase is found in a variety of different tissues and have a key role in the regulation of urea cycle arginine metabolism by regulating levels of arginine in the cell (Bewley et al. 1999). The enzyme arginase plays key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders such as asthma through dysregulation of L-arginine metabolism and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis and it also play role in the development of chronic airway remodeling through formation of ornithine with downstream production of polyamines and L-proline, which are involved in processes of cellular proliferation and collagen deposition (Benson et al. 2011). Arginase involved in tissue repair processes by the synthesis of L-ornithine, which is the precursor of polyamines and proline that are involved in cell proliferation and collagen synthesis (Maarsingh et al. 2009). Genetically engineered arginase as fusion protein with prolonged half-life and increased efficacy are used to treat different tumor lines that inhibit cell proliferation and impaired cellular migration in vitro and in vivo (Li et al. 2013). This is a arginine-degrading and ornithine producing enzyme and is used to treat arginine-dependent cancers (Yu et al. 2013). Chemically modified arginase-II has been employed for the treatment of taper liver tumor and L5178Y murine leukemia (Kaur et al. 2009). The enzyme was cloned and expressed in E. coli and subsequently conjugated to polyethylene glycol to increase the circulating half-life and decrease the immunogenicity of the recombinant mycoplasma enzyme. The human hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma cell lines and tissue samples do not express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), making them auxotrophic for arginine and thus reasonable candidates for arginine deprivation (Yang et al. 2010). Arginase is induced in murine myeloid cells mainly by T-helper 2 cells cytokines and inflammatory agents and participates in a variety of inflammatory diseases by down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis, induction of fibrosis and tissue regeneration. In humans, arginase I is constitutively expressed in polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is liberated during inflammation. Myeloid cell arginase-mediated L-arginine depletion profoundly suppresses T cell immune responses and this is a fundamental mechanism of inflammation-associated immunosuppression. Pharmacological interference with L-arginine metabolism is a novel promising strategy in the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity or unwanted immune deviation (Munder, 2009). Arginase has very important role in nitrogen fixation and fruit ripening (Yu et al. 2013). Putrescine (1,4-butanediamine) is the product obtained from arginine with the highest market value and it is used as an intermediate in a large number of industries, including the pharmaceutical industry, agrochemical industry and textile industry (Turras et al. 2008). Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid and is the precursor for the formation of nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthases (Getz and Reardon, 2006). One of the major functions of arginine within the body is as an intermediate in the urea cycle. In the cytosol of hepatocytes, arginase-I removes the guanidine group from arginine to produce urea and ornithine. Urea is then transported from the hepatocyte into the bloodstream and ornithine is used to regenerate arginine within the hepatocyte. Arginine deficiency causes several disorder like, hyper cholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, hyper homo-cysteinemia, smoking, and aging (Alvares et al. 2012). Arginine is used to modulate the cellular immune response during infection. The generation of nitric oxide from arginine is responsible for efficient immune response (Das et al. 2010). Arginine is synthesised in humans and other mammals from citrulline in two steps through the urea cycle enzymes, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). ASS catalyses the conversion of citrulline and aspartic acid to argininosuccinate, which is then converted to arginine and fumaric acid by ASL (Yang et al. 2010). Ararinase play important role in conversion of arginine to 1,4–butanediamine (a building block for nylon-4,6), through two main transformations: the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea; and the decarboxylation of ornithine to 1,4–butanediamine and carbon dioxide. Both steps can be catalyzed chemically or enzymatically (Turras et al. 2008). The present study deals with the characterization of arginase gene. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2244-T] (1).

8. Bioinformatics for Dummies

by Claverie, Jean-Michel | Notredame, Cedric.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India : 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 572.80285 Claverie 32560 1st 2007 Bioinformatics] (2).

9. Assessment Of Evolutionary Rate In Different Serotypes Of Foot & Mouth Disease Virus

by Muhammad Farooq (2011-va-823) | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Prof. Dr. Thair Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: FMDV belongs to the family Picornaviridae with seven serotypes around the world. Nevertheless, serotypes prevalent in Asia includes A, O and Asia-1. Because of evolution in genomic sequence of FMDV, it is becoming difficult to control the problem through conventional methods. Changes in the genome can be detected using software through sequence analysis. In the software, evolutionary models are used to measure the evolutionary change for the identification of new sub lineages. In current study genomes sequence data (1998 - 2011) of bovine FMD serotypes (A, O and Asia 1) was collected through NCBI in FASTA format. This data was converted into PHYLIP format. On Dell workstation, with Microsoft Windows 8.1 operating system, BioEdit, TipDate V.1.2 was deployed. Sequence data was aligned through CLUSTAL W algorithm of Multiple Sequence Alignment using BioEdit. Using TipDate, genome sequence data was analyzed using three evolutionary models (F84, HKY and REV) and phylogenetic trees were produced showing evolutionary rate and likelihood ratio of FMDV serotypes O, A and Asia-1.. Results of the current study showed higher values of evolutionary rate in bovine FMD virus which was estimated 7.49 x 10-4 with likelihood value -1429.507680 in serotype A, 2.418 x 10-3 with likelihood -3707.168484 in serotype O and2.16 x 10-3 with likelihood value -3723.344884 in serotype Asia-1, respectively. Markove Reversible Model showed higher rates of evolution in all three serotype with best likelihood values. Phylogenetic results showed higher rate of evolution or substitution in viruses. Furthermore serotypes A, O and Asia-1are mutating with passage of time and new variants are being observed. It was also observed that this evolutionary process is continued in these three serotypes during 1998-2011. This study confirmed the evolutionary changes in FMDV serotypes prevalent in Pakistan during the period 1998 – 2011. This study showed that isolate are evolving with increasing rate. High rate of mutation in Asia-1 was observed than serotype A and serotype O. F84 and HKY85 models produced close results but these models are not identical works on equal and unequal base frequencies. Markove model estimated average base substitution with mutation and depicts good phylogenetic trees of sequence data. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2372-T] (1).

10. Physical, Chemical and Biological Treatment of Rice Husk to Improve Its Nutrative Value

by Rahat Naseer (2003-VA-196) | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Prof. Dr. Habib ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis submitted without CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2450-T] (1).

11. Genetic Polymorphism Of Prss12 Gene Responsible For Cognitive Dysfunction And Its Homology Analysis With Canine

by Hafsa Amjad (2014-VA-776) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Mr. Shahid Abass.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Neurotrypsin a multi domain serine protease predominantly expressed in brain is considered to be involved in cognition by the establishment and maintenance of synapses in mammals. Mutations in PRSS12 gene have been reported for cognitive disability in Algerian family. In present study, DNA of 10 enrolled non-relative cognitive dysfunctioned patients was extracted through organic method. The normal individual samples of siblings and parents of relevant families was also included in this study as control. This amplification exon 7 of PRSS12 was done after designing primer by using Primer3 software. Exons was sequenced by using BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Kit(Perkin Elmer/ABI) and read in automated sequener, ABI Prism model 3730 (Perkin Elmer). No significant mutation was identified in affected individuals. Computational comparative sequence analysis tools were used for the nucleotide and amino acid sequences to predict the homology in PRSS12 gene among mammals of well-developed cognition. PROSITE domain database search was performed to determine domain organization and Phyre software was used to develop secondary structural features and 3D protein models and ReptroX for multiple sequence alignment of tertiary structures. Using the generated alignments highly conserved regions in primary and secondary structures of neurotrypsin in mammals were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated highest similarity of human PRSS12 with non-human primates (chimpanzee, orangutan and monkey) followed by Catecians, Felis, and Canine evolving from the same ancestor. The predicted domain architecture shows the neurotrypsin consisting of kringle domain, four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 68 domains and a serine protease domain named trypsin. Whereas mouse consists of only three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. Prediction and comparison of domains in mammals indicated that primates and catecians protein domains have high similarity with humans. Computational analysis by using animal models can aid in evolutionary studies and. understanding the role of neurotrypsin in cognition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2498-T] (1).

12. Development Of Dna Based Diagnosis Of Theileriosis In Cattle And Its Specificity With Blood Smear Microscopy

by Uzma Sarwar (2014-VA-777) | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. M. Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Theileria annulata and Theileria parva are intra-erythrocytic parasites which are responsible for causing tropical theileriosis and East Coast fever in cattle respectively. This parasite is transmitted by ticks to vertebrate host i.e. cattle. Currently used diagnostic methods for diagnosis of bovine theileriosis are clinical symptoms, peripheral blood smear microscopy and serological tests (IFAT and ELISA). Current study was conducted to compare the specificity and sensitivity of blood smear microscopy and PCR techniques to diagnose bovine theileriosis. This study is comparative as well as developmental in nature. Although peripheral blood smears microscopy is cost effective and quick method of diagnosis in case of high or moderate parasitaemia in blood. But the limitations associated with microscopy include false negative diagnosis in case of low parasitaemia in chronic and asymptomatic infection, morphological similarity of Theileria with other species of Plasmodium and Babesia. These limitations may lead to misdiagnose the infection due to which disease may remain unnoticed. PCR based method, developed in this study, and is found to be more specific and sensitive than conventional microscopy. Fifty blood samples were collected from September, 2015 to November, 2015. These samples were screened microscopically as well as with PCR for presence of Theileria. Nine samples were found to be positive microscopically but 18 samples were found positive by PCR. The results obtained from the study clearly show that PCR is more reliable, precise and sensitive assay for diagnosis of bovine theileriosis then microscopy. It is hoped that proposed method to diagnose Theileria will help to nullify the problems associated with microscopy. This will ultimately facilitate in the formulation of effective treatment control and vaccine development strategies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2547-T] (1).

13. Molecular Exploration Of Zbed6 Gene For Growth Trait In Lohi Sheep

by Usman Sagheer (2014-VA-03) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: ZBED6 gene is a central transcription factor. It is as a repressor of IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor II) interpretation in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. It is essentially included in organism development, signaling, cell to cell collaboration, hepatic fibrosis, clathrin intervened endocytosis and tight intersection signaling falls. Chromatin immune precipitation (ChIP) sequencing utilizing C2C12 cells recognized around 2,500 ZBED6 binding locations in the genome, and the derived accord theme gave an immaculate match with the set up tying site in IGF2. Silencing of ZBED6 in myoblast cells influences IGF2 expression, wound healing, cell proliferation and myotube arrangement. Genes connected with ZBED6 binding sites demonstrated a very huge advancement for certain Gene Ontology groupings, including improvement and transcriptional regulation. Forty two blood samples were collected. DNA extraction was done by using organic extraction method. Primers for PCR amplification designed using Primer3 software. PCR products were sequenced and then analyzed by using BioEdit software. Expasy translational tool for translation and POPGENE 32 software for analysis of population genetics at all the loci were used. Using this software the overall allele frequency, heterozygosity, probability using Chi-square test and Likelihood ratio test and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, genotype distribution at all SNP position, summary of genetic variation statistics for all loci and association were calculated. After this, for the association one way ANOVA was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism within ZBED6 could be potential candidate gene to be serving as genetic marker for the selection of animals with higher tendencies towards weight gain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2539-T] (1).

14. Biochemical And Homology Analysis Of Jak2 Gene In Canines And Hominidae

by Marya Saadullah Khan (2014-VA-324) | Ms. Huma Mujahid | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Cancers are considered to be the most lethal of all diseases known out of which myeloproliferative neoplasms comprise of a very little percentage.The frequency of these disorders is known in human beings and a lot of work has been done on humans. But there is a lot of scope for research on this area in canines. As dogs were found to have strong homology with human beings, we compared canine cJAK2 exon 13 sequence with the humanhJAK2 exon 13 and found 96 % homology. Mutations in JAK2 gene are well known to cause three types of disorders i.e. polycythemia vera caused by a well-known point mutation in exon 14 causing substitution of valine for phenylalanine in JH2 domain of the protein.Essential thrombocythemia and idiopathic myelofibrosis may also be caused by this mutation but similar clinical conditions arise without the presence of this mutation. Studies have revealed that other point mutations such as deletion, addition or substitution are also responsible for these disorders. JAK2 is an intracellular protein which performs phosphorylation of STAT molecules upon their activation. Although the whole protein in its good state is important for its function but the two domains JH1 and JH2 are vital. JH1 domain acts as a tyrosine kinase enzyme and its activity is controlled by JH2 domain also known as pseudo tyrosine kinase domain. Any mutation in these domains leads to protein conformation defect and thus prevents its performance. Besides V617F mutation, other mutations are being discovered in this part of gene. Researchers have found mutations in exon 12, 13 and 15 that have been found to be involved in development of myeloproliferative neoplasms in different cases of patients. Blood picture do not reveal any direct clue except for increased erythrocytes alone or along with other cells like increased platelets. Therefore blood indices are not reliable parameter to indicate the type of mutation involved in these disorders. Also LDH and EPO levels are not correlated with the disorder. Although EPO test must be done to exclude the possibility of secondary PV and erythropoiesis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2544-T] (1).

15. Molecular Exploration Of Zinc Finger Bed-Type Containing 6 Gene For Growth Trait In Beetal Goat

by Kanwal Rashid (2014-VA-496) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), is a novel transcription factor.It acts as a repressor of IGF2 transcription in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. it is mainly involved in organism development, signaling, cell to cell interaction, hepatic fibrosis, clathrin mediated endocytosis and tight junction signaling cascades. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing using C2C12 cells identified about 2,500 ZBED6 binding sites in the genome, and the deduced consensus motif gave a perfect match with the established binding site in Igf2. Silencing of Zbed6 in myoblast cells affect Igf2 expression, cell proliferation, wound healing, and myotube formation. Genes associated with ZBED6 binding sites showed a highly significant enrichment for certain Gene Ontology classifications, including development and transcriptional regulation.Functional and signaling assays of BED6 gene indicate its probable role in controlling growth traits in Goat. Blood samples (n = 40) were collected. Inorganic method of DNA extraction used. Primers for PCR amplification will be designed using Primer3 software. PCR products will be sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer. The results of sequencing were analyzed using CHROMAS software. Sequence alignment tools (blast 2)were used for SNPs identification. Difference between allele and genotype frequency of studied gene evaluated by chi square test, likelihood test and analysis was done by POPGENE and one way ANOVA.Novel Variations identified which have probable implementation in selection of superior goats with higher tendencies towards weight gain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2554-T] (1).

16. Molecular Phylogeny And Diversity Analysis Of Bovidae (Boselaphus Tragocamelus, Antilope Cervicapra) And Cervidae (Axis Axis, Axis Porcinus) In Pakistan

by Ghulam Abbas (2011-VA-748) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Mansoor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Many species of mammals have declined within the past two centuries due to human caused disturbances and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Molecular methods have an important role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. The present study was designed for diversity analysis of Boselaphus tragocamelus & Antelope cervicapra (Bovidae) and Axis axis & Axis porcinus (Cervidae) family in Pakistan. A total of 25 samples from each of the four species were collected from different parks, zoos and natural habitats. DNA was extracted, PCR primers were designed and cytochrome-b, cytochrome-c gene and d-loop regions were amplified by PCR. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally by Big DyeTM Terminator. Bioinformatics tools, Blast 2 sequences, Clustal-W, MEGA-6, Bioconductor in “R” were applied for analysis. The clustering of the samples indicates that each species contains less within-population genetic variability. Same pattern was observed when sequence of three genes was combined and MDS plot was constructed. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequences revealed that each species comprised a clade that is clearly distinct from the clade comprised of other species of deer selected for this study. Finding of this study indicated that these species of deer have significant genetic variations among-species that differentiate them from each other. This is the first report from our region. The information of selected species of deer is prerequisite for designing effective strategy in future conservation practices. However further genomic investigations should be carried out at larger scale. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2560-T] (1).

17. Molecular Investigation Of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Causing Familial Hypercholesterolemia And Its Evolutionary Relationship With Pan Troglodytes

by Rida Zainab (2014-VA-808) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) phenotype is related to improper metabolism of low density lipoproteins due to mutations in Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene with increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Genetic variants in LDLR gene are associated with defective catabolism of cholesterol effecting lipid metabolism which results in familial hypercholesterolemia. It occurs in both forms: Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Patients having high cholesterol were identified by observing the values of their serum lipid profile test reports. Their detailed history was taken and blood samples from the identified patients of familial hypercholesterolemia were collected. DNA extraction was done by Organic method. Primers were synthesized and PCR was conducted using optimized recipe and conditions. PCR products were sequenced. Sequenced data was analyzed using Chromas or BioEdit software. BLAST was performed and sequences were aligned individually by comparing it to the reference sequence. This showed difference in any specific position of a mutated sequence against the reference sequence. CLUSTALW aligned all the sequences together in one time. Sequences were compared with reference sequence to detect the presence of any mutation or SNPs. SNPs were identified manually and the peaks were observed in order to determine if the genotype is heterozygous or homozygous. Statistical Analysis was done and any amino acid change due to the observed SNPs was determined by using Expasy Translate Tool. It was found that both the SNPs showed amino acid changes. In the end, homology analysis was done which showed that Homo sapiens had their LDLR gene closest to that of Gorilla gorilla gorilla. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2551-T] (1).

18. Identification And Expression Analysis Of Genes Involved In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder In Pakistani Population

by Javeria (2008-VA-627) | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The background of this study is that WHO reports that psychiatry disorders affect worldwide 0.8 to 2% population. Anxiety illnesses are a class of illness associated with unreasonable and disturbing sensation of fear and tension. There are several types of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social phobia, OCD. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic disabling condition. OCD is characterized by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, and impulses and by repetitive, ritualistic physical or mental acts performed to reduce the attendant anxiety. The severity of OCD depends on the amount obsessions and compulsions. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is a reliable and consistent scoring system that can be used to categorize OCD. The major genes involve in OCD are SLC6A4, BDNF, SLC1A1 and COMT genes. The study was enrolled patients treated for OCD. Blood samples have been collected from the patients. DNA extracted from fresh blood. Primers were designed. Then DNA amplification have done by Bio-Rad thermal cycler. Then gel electrophoresis was done for PCR product quantification. PCR products precipitated and sequenced. SNPs were identified. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for each sample with TaqMan Universal PCR mastermix which showed down regulation of COMT gene in OCD patients in Pakistani population. The aim of this study was SNP identification in Pakistani Population in Obsessive Compulsive disorder and to analyze the gene expression of COMT gene involved in OCD in Pakistani Population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2620-T] (1).

19. Conversion Of Pretreated Rice Husk Hydrolysates Into Ethanol By Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

by Jehanzaib (2014-VA-08) | Dr. Rahat Naseer | Miss Faiza Masood | Prof. Dr. Saima Naveed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Biodegradable wastes wereresidues of commercial crops.Agricultural wastes such as rice husk was utilized for biofuel production such as ethanol by breaking downinto its components using chemicals or enzymes. This was achievedthrough anaerobic digestion, distillation and fermentation for use as a resource of heat and fuel (bioethanol).Bioethanol meansan alternative to petrol which is produced from plants such as sugar cane or maize and rice husks.Agricultural wastes can be utilized for the biofuel, rice husk often pose.Acid and alkali pretreatment was enhanced the yield of ethanol from rice husk.Rice husk wastreated with alkali and acids to produce glucose. Glucose can be estimated byusing glucose oxidase method (GOD). Glucose was then converted into ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol production was estimated by using spectrophotometer.The purposed project wasfocusing on bioethanol from the rice husk residues in which rice husk was pre-treated for the hydrolysis to produced maximum yield of sugar by selection of best pretreated method. And then sugars were converted into bioethanol by fermentation. Alkaline solutionswere remove lignin, while the acidic solutionswere remove hemicellulose. It was clearly showed in the graph.4.1 and 4.2 that best concentration of alkali 4% for the maximum yield of sugar was 50.4 mg/dl from the maximum 15g substrate of rice husk was used at 70˚C for 3hrs while in case of 4% acid treatment was also best for the maximum 42.6mg/dl sugar yield was obtainedat 70˚C for 3hrs. According to statistical analysis and graphs 4.3 and 4.4 showed that maximum yieldi.e, 68.7 ml ethanolwas produced from the 15g rice husk when treated with 4%alkali,maximum temperature 35˚C with PH 6.0 and after 3days.While in case of 4%acid treatmentmaximum 63.7 ml ethanol was producedwhen maximum 15g rice husk was used at temperature 35˚C andPH with 6.0.after 3days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2644-T] (1).

20. Molecular Biotechnology

by Dehlinger, Carolyn.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Jones and Bartlett; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 572.838 Dehlinger 32226 1st 2016 Biotechnology] (1).

21. Nanobiotechnology

by Niemeyer, Christof M | Mirkin, Chad A.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Delhi: Wiley India; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 660.6 Niemeyer 32261 Vol.1 2013 Biotechnology] (2).

22. Abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants

by Singh, Ajay.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi: Random Publications; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 571.2 Singh 32572 1st 2015 IBBT] (1).

23. Phycotoxins Chemistry and Biochemistry

by Botana Luis M.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Australia: Blackwell Publishing; 2007Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 615.945 Botana 33367 1st 2007 IBBT] (1).

24. Practical Biochemistry

by Gupta R.C.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Dehli: CBS Publishers & Distributors; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: IPS Library [Call number: 612.015028 Gupta 33096 5th 2017 Biochemistry] (1).

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