Your search returned 23 results. Subscribe to this search

Not what you expected? Check for suggestions
|
1. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Different Extracts Of Opuntia Dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. Leaves Against Common Poultry Pathogens

by Sadaf Raana | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Opuntia dillenii Haw. stems against common poultry pathogens. Pathogens used were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens type A and Haemophilus species. This study was conducted to assess antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of O. dillenii Hexane, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion method in which zones of inhibition were measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts was evaluated by micro broth dilution method. The extracts which showed the antimicrobial activity were evaluated for cytotoxicity by using MTT assay on Vero cell line. Cell culture media was prepared and cell lines were propagated, monolayer was formed. Monolayer was exposed to plant extract dilutions. After 24-48 hours, MTT dye was introduced and cell survival percentage was calculated. O. dillenii stems extracts inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Chloroform and ethanol extracts of O. dillenii showed significant antibacterial activity against all the pathogens studied as compared to hexane and aqueous extracts. Hexane extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against Haemophilus species (13mm), for chloroform extract maximum zone of inhibition was obtained for C. perfringens (25.6mm), for ethanol extract maximum zone of inhibition was obtained for C. perfringens (23.0mm) and for aqueous extract maximum zone of inhibition was obtained for C. perfringens (23.0mm). Minimum inhibitory concentration for chloroform extract was lowest for all the tested strains. For S. aureus, C. perfringens type A and S. enterica MIC was 1250μg/mL. For E. coli and CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 88 Haemophilus species MIC was 2083.3 and 2916μg/mL, respectively. The extracts were further investigated to test cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line using MTT assay. Only ethanol extract was observed to be cytotoxic. Statistical analysis was conducted with Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 16, SPSS inc, Chicago, IL, USA). The results of antibacterial activity and MTT assay were evaluated for significance of difference using analysis of variance (ANOV). The homogeneity of groups was verified by Duncan’s test at an alpha level equal to 5%. Chloroform extract of O. dillenii stems possess antibacterial activity and can be used to design traditional medicines for the development of therapeutic agent which will be more safe, effective and economical. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2281-T] (1).

2. Antinematodal Efficacy Of Ivermectin (Oral) And Extracts Of Coriandrum Sativum In Sheep

by Memrez Khushal Gigyani (2013-VA-564) | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Muhammad Mushtaq | Mr. Qamar Niaz | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum plant extracts against sheep nematodes. Anthelmentic resistance (AR) is one of the major problems all over the world. This project was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Chloroformic and methanolic extracts of Coriandrum sativum against sheep nematodes. For this purpose sixty sheep positive for nematodal infection in BLPRI Kherimurat (Punjab) were selected after fecal examination. Experimental animals were divided into 6 groups (Group A, Group B, Group C, Group D, Group E and Group F) having 10 animals in each group. Group A was Un-treated control. Group B was given Ivermectin (orally), Group C and D was treated with Chloroformic extract of Coriandrum sativum at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively by oral route. Group E and F was treated with methalonic extract of Coriandrum sativum at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively by oral route. Percent efficacy of Group A on day 7, 14 and day 28 post treatment was 0%. The percent efficacy of the Group B was calculated on day 7 was 81.4 %, on day 14 was 87.17 % and on day 28 was 92.60 %. The efficacy of Group C on day 7, 14 and 28 was 0. Similarly the efficacy of Group D on day 7, day 14 and day 28 was also 0. Percent efficacy of Group E i.e 50 mg/kg body weight Methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum was 20.81 % on day 7, 27.14 % on day 14, and 33.48 % on day 28. Percent efficacy of Group F i.e 100 mg/kg body weight Methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum was 49.76 % on day 7, 56.27 % on day 14 and 60.69 % on day 28. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the methanolic extract of the Coriandrum sativum has good anthelmintic effect against nematodes in sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2280-T] (1).

3. Genotoxic And Mutogenic Study Of Formaldehyde, Sodium Hypochlorite And Cresol

by Ann Fatima (2012-VA-995) | Prof.Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Disinfectants are used to control, prevent or destroy harmful microorganisms on inanimate surfaces. These chemicals are being used to dispose the contagious hospital wastes like disposable plastics and microbiological waste. Various factors like temperature, contact period concentration of disinfectant, organic soil and nature of water used for dilution affect of disinfection process. So, disinfectants must be tested prior to any specific applications for its proper effectiveness. This study has been designed to study the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of three commonly used disinfectants, formaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and cresol alone and in combination. Different dilutions of formaldehyde (1, 0.3, 0.1, 0.006, and 0.003%) sodium hypochlorite (8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5%) and cresol (7.6, 3.8, 1.9, 0.95, and 0.475%) alone and in combination were investigated for mutagenicity as well as genotoxicity in vitro. Mutagenicity was investigated by Ames Salmonella/Microsome assay with and without metabolic activation system; S-9 with the help of two strains of Salmonella typhimurium, TA 100 and TA 98 and genotoxicity was checked by Comet assay using peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results were analyzed by statistical package of Social Sciences; results were presented as mean ± S.D and the data analysis was done by using one-way analysis of variance. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Summary 83 Formaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite & cresol showed significantly mutagenic potential against TA 100 & TA 98 strains of Salmonella with and without metabolic activation system and genotoxic effects. A higher concentration showed more significant results. Formaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite & cresol has both mutagenic and genotoxic potential. But this mutagenicity and genotoxicity has been observed more with higher concentrations as compared to low concentration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2305-T] (1).

4. Assessment Of Genotoxicity Of Propofol, Thiopental And Ketamine In Patients Under Balanced Anesthesia With Isoflurane

by Maidah Mehtab (2013-VA-597) | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Tanveer Akhter Butt | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Exposure of anesthetic agents to the patients and operating room staff may involve a genotoxic risk so the knowledge of their effects on genetic material can give valuable support to anesthesia care providers to make better treatment performance and improve patient safety. Comet assay was used to study the genotoxic actions of three IV anesthetic agents (propofol, thiopental and ketamine) that were used for induction during balanced anesthesia with inhalational anesthetic isoflurane. Three groups consisted of total18 patients who were undergone elective abdominal procedure lasted about 2 hours. Intravenous samples of blood were obtained before anesthesia induction (T0 —baseline), immediately after anesthesia induction (T1), 10 min (T2), 60 min (T3) 120 min (T4), 6 hours (T5) and 12 hours (T6) after anesthesia induction. Lymphocytes were isolated and single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay was used in which the cell suspension on agarosed slides was lysed in high salts and detergents containing lysing solution, exposed to alkaline buffer solution for DNA unwinding and then following electrophoresis at 24 volts and 300 mA and stained with ethidium bromide. These preapared slides were analyzed under fluorescent microscope. The anesthetics induced damage to DNA on 50 cells per sample per patient was measured as total comet length (i.e. damage index) categorized as undamaged to highly damaged (class0- class3) cells. The data collected was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) Post Hoc Test LSD using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). By comparing the genotoxicity of propofol, thiopental and ketamine, it can be concluded that propofol causes the least or no genotoxicity during balanced anesthesia with isoflurane and could be the best choice for induction when isoflurane is used for maintenance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2323-T] (1).

5. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Different Extracts Of Zingiber Officinale Rhizome Against Common Poultry Pathogens

by Ghalia Qayyum (2013-VA-779) | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Qamar Niaz | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Antimicrobial compounds having plant origin inhibit bacteria through different mechanisms and can be used for the treatment of infections against resistant microbes. Majority of antibacterial drugs in clinical use are derived from natural origin. Hence, the present study is designed for antibacterial and cytotoxic evaluation of different extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome against common poultry pathogens. The four sequential i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Antibacterial activity of these extracts was determined by agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens type A, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Haemophilus paragallinarum. Zone of inhibitions were determined by well diffusion method. MICs of plant extracts were determined by micro broth dilution method. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by applying MTT assay on Vero cell lines The zone of inhibitions showed by hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale against Staphylococcus. aureus were 12.33mm, 13.67mm, 16.33mm and 14mm; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 12mm, 16.33mm, 14mm and 8.33mm; against Escherichia coli were 14.33mm, 13.33mm, 14.33mm and 12mm; against Salmonella enterica were 17mm, 17.33mm and 12mm; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were 12.67mm, 13mm and 14mm respectively. Hexane extract showed no zone of inhibition against Salmonella enterica and aqueous extract was ineffective against Haemophillus paragallinarum. MICs values of hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome against Staphylococcus. aureus were 2500µg/ml, 625µg/ml, 2500µg/ml and 2083.33µg/ml; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 2500µg/ml, 312.5µg/ml, 1250µg/ml and 5000µg/ml; against Escherichia coli were 5000µg/ml, 1250µg/ml, 5000µg/ml and 5000µg/ml; against Salmonella enterica were 312.5µg/ml, 5000µg/ml, 5000µg/ml; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were 2500µg/ml, 1458.33µg/ml and 2500µg/ml respectively. MIC was not performed against hexane extract of Salmonella enterica and aqueous extract of Haemophillus paragallinarum as no zone of inhibition observed against them. Hexane extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome was cytotoxic at concentration ≥ 750µg/ml, chloroform extract at concentration ≥ 1500µg/ml and aqueous extract at concentration ≥5000µg/ml. Ethanol extract at concentration ranging from 1500µg/ml to 2.92µg/ml was not cytotoxic to cell. The indigenous plant Zingiber officinale have antibacterial activity against common poultry pathogens and helpful to develop new drug from plant origin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2324-T] (2).

6. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Different Extracts Of Zingiber Officinale Rhizome Against Common Poultry Pathogens

by Shumaila Nawaz (2013-VA-442) | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive molecules, making them rich source of different types of medicines. Calotropis procera, a giant milk weed, is known for its pharmacological importance for centuries. This shrub has been known to possess analgesic, antitumor, antihelmintic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-diarrhoeal, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, oestrogenic, anti-nociceptive and anti-malarial activity. A very little information is available regarding the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Calotropis procera so the present study is designed to evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of this plant. This study was conducted to access antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Calotropis procera. Hexane, chloroform and ethanol, aqueous extracts were prepared by sequential extraction method and antibacterial activity was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Clostridium perfringens type A and Haemophilus paragallinarum by agar well diffusion method in which inhibitory zones were measured. The extracts which showed the antimicrobial activity were evaluated for cytotoxicity by using MTT assay on Vero cell line. Cell culture media was prepared and cell lines were propagated, monolayer formed. Monolayer was exposed to plant extract dilutions. After 24-48 hours, MTT dye was introduced and cell survival percentage was calculated. Statistical analysis was conducted with Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 16, SPSS inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Results will be compared using one way ANOVA analysis. 102 SUMMARY Chloroform and ethanol extracts of Calotropis procera leaves have antibacterial activity. It may help to design traditional medicines for the development of therapeutic agent which will be more safe, effective and economical. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2330-T] (1).

7. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Sequential Extracts Of Eucalyptus Globulus Leaves Against Common Poultry Pathogens

by Asma Iqbal (2013-VA-563) | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Qamar Niaz | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Phytomedicines mark the major component of health care as natural medicines have always provided the strong foothold for the discovery and manufacturing of synthetic drugs. So plants are a rich source of bioactive compounds having many therapeutic activities and majority of them are still untapped. Eucalyptus globulus is a medicinal plant known for its value to cure asthma, respiratory infections, cough and allergic reactions. The antimicrobial activity, insecticidal and hypoglycemic activity have also been credited to the plant. Most of the studies have been conducted on the essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and little work has been reported on extracts. Whereas, sequential extracts has not been employed yet. Hexane, chloroform and ethanol, aqueous extracts were prepared by the sequential extraction on Soxhlet apparatus and antibacterial activity was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Clostridium perfringens type A and Haemophilus paragallinarum by agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution method. The zones of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration were determined. The extracts showing antimicrobial activity were further evaluated for cytotoxicity by using MTT assay on Vero cell line. The cell culture media was prepared and cell lines were propagated to form monolayer then monolayer was exposed to plant extract dilutions. After 24-48 hours, MTT dye was introduced and cell survival percentage was calculated. The statistical analysis was conducted with help of Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 16, SPSS inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and results were compared using one way ANOVA. Summary 89 The zones of inhibitions showed by hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus against Staphylococcus aureus were 0.0, 19.3, 20.3 and 23.3mm; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 14, 22.3, 14.0 and 15.3mm; against Escherichia coli were 0.0, 12.6, 13.3 and 15.6mm; against Salmonella enterica were 10, 12.3, 18.6 and 21mm; against Haemophilus paragallinarum were 0.0, 8.6, 14 and 18mm respectively. Hexane extract showed no zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus paragallinarum. The MICs values of hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus against Staphylococcus aureus were 0.00, 104.1, 32.55 and 312.5 μg/ml; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 52.08, 39.06, 16.27 and 312.5 μg/ml; against Escherichia coli were 0.00, 78.12, 260.4 and 625.0 μg/ml; against Salmonella enterica were 13.02, 104.1, 130.2 and 416.6 μg/ml; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were 0.00, 104.1, 260.4 and 416.6 μg/ml respectively. MIC was not performed against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Haemophilus paragallinarum for hexane extract as no zone of inhibition was observed against them. Hexane extract of Eucalyptus globulus was cytotoxic at concentration ≥ 312.5μg/ml, chloroform extract at concentration ≥ 375μg/ml, ethanol extract at concentration ≥ 625μg/ml and aqueous extract was cytotoxic at concentration ≥312.5 μg/ml. The indigenous plant Eucalyptus globulus has antibacterial activity against common poultry pathogens and can be helpful for development of new drugs of plant origin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2429-T] (1).

8. Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity And Embryonic Toxicity Of Doxycycline, Ciprofloxacin Alone And In Combination With Ibuprofen Against Avian Influenza H9

by Aisha Nazir (2013-VA-851) | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: This project was designed to analyze the antiviral and embryotoxicity of doxycycline, ciprofloxacin alone and incombination with ibuprofen against H9 virus by using embryonated chicken eggs of 10 days old. The different concentrations of these agents were taken and two fold dilutions were made. Dilutions were mixed with avian influenza H9 virus and inoculated in embryonated eggs. Eggs viability was checked during incubation at 37°c temperature. After overnight chilling, haemagglutinition test was performed for evaluation of antiviral activity. Antiviral activity of these dilutions was calculated as embryo survival percentage and positive and negative hemagglutination activity. For embryotoxicity, dilutions were made in normal saline without virus and checked the results by mortality ratio after 48 hours of incubation. The study provided information regarding antiviral activity and embryotoxicity of doxycycline, ciprofloxacin alone and incombination with ibuprofen at different concentrations. The present study showed that antiviral activity increased when used doxycycline and ibuprofen incombination. After using incombination it’s antiviral activity was high at these concentrations. Results of antiviral analysis showed that doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and ibuprofen had mild antiviral activity alone and after using combination of doxycycline and ibuprofen the antiviral activity was increased. So these agents can be used as alternative therapy against avian influenza H9 virus. The outcomes were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Post-hoc Test was used to compare difference of means. Comparative analysis of antiviral activity of doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and ibuprofen alone and in combination showed that doxycycline and ibuprofen when used incombination had comparatively strong antiviral activity. It’s antiviral activity was stronger as compare when these agents used alone. In term of embryotoxicity these agents are not toxic. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2437-T] (1).

9. Evaluation Of Comparative Antiviral Activity Of Indomethacin, Naproxen & Mefenamic Acid Against Avian Influenza H9 Virus

by Shahida Jamil Ahmed (2013-VA-850) | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Arfan Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs play a vital role due to their multi therapeutic approach. In this study, the antiviral activity of indomethacin, naproxen, and mefenamic acid against avian influenza H9 virus was evaluated In ovo. The stock solutions of each drug were prepared in their perspective solvent and preserved. From the stock, three different dilutions (10µg/ml, 20µg/ml, 40µg/ml of indomethacin, 25µg/ml, 50µg/ml, 100µg/ml of naproxen and 20µg/ml, 40µg/ml, 80µg/ml of mefenamic acid) of each drug were prepared. For each of drug to be tested, 25 embryonated chicken eggs were assigned to 5 groups having 5 eggs each, to evaluate both antiviral activity and embryonic toxicity parameters. For evaluating antiviral activity, the groups of embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 4HA virus, antibiotics and different concentrations of indomethacin, naproxen and mefenamic acid. For evaluation of embryonic toxicity, embryos of each group were injected with normal saline, antibiotics and different concentrations of indomethacin, naproxen and mefenamic acid. Two controls i.e. positive control of virus (received 4HA Virus only) and negative control (received normal saline) were also included to validate the test results. With avian influenza H9 virus the different concentrations of each drug were mixed and 0.2 ml of this suspension was inoculated to 9th to 10th day embryonated eggs along with positive and negative controls having only virus and normal saline respectively. Amantadine, standard drug, was inoculated by following the mentioned manner. These inoculated embryonated chicken eggs were incubated at 37oC and were checked after 12 – 72 hours. After 72 hours of post inoculation, chilling was done by placing all the eggs at 4oC in fridge for overnight section of time and the allantoic fluid was collected. The embryo survival percentage, positive or negative spot haemagglutination activity and determination of virus titre by haemagglutination test confirmed the antiviral activity. The embryonic toxicity effects of indomethacin, naproxen, mefenamic acid and amantadine were assessed by only inoculating the drug of respective concentrations as used for antiviral activity in embryonated chicken eggs and incubating for 72 hours. Among the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin showed significant antiviral activity against influenza H9 virus as compared to naproxen and mefenamic acid. Naproxen showed antiviral activity against influenza H9 virus greater than that of mefenamic acid. However, antiviral activity of mefenamic acid as compared to naproxen and indomethacin is negligible against influenza H9 virus when confirmed by Spot Hemagglutination test while reduction in viral titre was observed by Hemagglutination test. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2432-T] (1).

10. Veterinary Toxicology

by Tiwari, Radhey Mohan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Jaipur: Oxford Book Company; 2010Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08959 Tiwari 31343 1st 2010 Pharmacology] (2).

11. In Vitro Antibacterial Evaluation Of Ceftriaxone Alone And In Combination With Ascorbic Acid In Post Surgical Infections

by Umbreen Anwar (2013-VA-853) | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Muhammmad Ovais Omer | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Nosocomial infectionshave frequently been reported by several hospitals worldwide. A patient infected with such infections is presented with complaint of fever, inflammation, redness and pus. These infections are also called post-surgical or surgical site infections and a suitable antibiotic therapy can be used to cure these infections(Soriano et al. 2006).Nosocomial infections occur in patients with in 2 days of admittance in hospital three days of liberation or 30 days of incision, it causes increase in hospital stay in infected patients (Inweregbu et al.2013). Surgical site infections including urinary tract infection and pneumonia are most common hospital acquired infections and are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungus (Timsitet al.2012). These infections occur up to thirty days after surgery (Owenset al.2008). Surgical Site infections increase the rate of morbidity and mortality among surgically operated individuals (Powell et al. 2005).Controllingfactors for these infections includesage, gender, prophylactic administration of antibiotics and aseptic procedures(Lavallee et al. 2014). There are number of risk factors in development of hospoital acquired infections. Obesity is also an important risk factor in developing post operative infections and is directly associated with under dosage of antibiotic given prophylactically (Hunttunen et al.2013). Surgeon should be aware of antibiotic choice, dose and duration based on reliable guidelines for prophylaxis to avoid common type of adverse effects on surgical sites (Rafati et al. 2014). Motie et al. (2014) found that there was an inverse relation between length of surgical incision and rate of surgical infections it was found that type of surgery is main risk factor in developing of infections. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were combination of ceftriaxone and metronidazole (51.6%).The contaminated and clean contaminated wounds are associated with higher rate of surgical site infections. Post-surgical infections are known to major health issue, that are responsible for high treatment cost, more readmission in hospitals, increased stay in hospital and increase in rate of infections and even death of surgically operated patient (Mengesha et al. 2014). The rate of occurrence increases due to use of mini sterile gloves, operating costumes, face masks and other specific surgical coverings in operating rooms (Salassa and Swiontkowski 2014). Both Gram positive and Gram negative species of bacteria are responsible in causing such infections and most common isolates obtained from pus areStaphylococcusepidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabillis, Escherichia coli etc.Post surgical abdominal infections are more common after abdominal surgeries. But the disclosure of these infections in early stage is considerably difficult in old age patients along the condition of hyperthermia and increased level of C reactive protein are visible sign in such type of infections (Lin et al. 2002).A variety of natural and synthetic antibiotics are used to treat infections. Ascorbic acid, zinc and garlic are useful in killing bacteria, improving immunity and thus preventing diseases.The most important thing about these antibiotics is that these are less toxic and less harmful thus can be used in pregnant women reducing the chance of urinary tract infections. Also the intake of 100mg ascorbic acid or vitamin c as important vitamin in balanced diet daily causes improvement of health in pregnant women(Ochoa et al. 2007). There is much rapid increase in morbidity and mortality in postpartum women day by day although many antibiotics are used peri operatively along with other precautions and preventive measures. So obstetricians are facing a lot of complications in operatingmany caesarean deliveries (Haas et al. 2014). The usage of appropriate antibiotics peri operatively for prophylaxis along following withan appropriate aseptic procedure before, during and after surgery proved effective in controlling these infections (Michalopoulos and Sparos 2002). Optimal dosage and duration while administration of prophylactic antibiotics to patients must be considered because use of antibiotic for inappropriate duration of time can result in increased risk of post-operative brain infections (Wu et al. 2013).A large number of cephalosporins speciallyof second generationhave been proved very effective in reduction of development of post-operative infections but dosage and duration of these antibiotics varied from patient to patient (Gelijns et al. 2014).Intra-abdominal pus can be reduced by the correct use of antibiotics and by following sterile procedures (Romano et al. 2014).Cephalosporins are useful for eradication of pathogens of skin like Staphylococcus aureus. An antibiotic cefazolin belonging to first generation antibiotics plays major role against pathogens in many clean wound incisions (Page et al.1993). In field of gynaecology surgery some antibiotics are also prescribed in combinations and thus proved more efficacious (Bratzler et al. 2013). Ceftriaxone from the group of third generation cephalosporins given before surgery was as useful in prevention of major pelvic infections and urinary tract infections as compared to three doses of cefazolin given over 14 hours peri operatively (Hemsell et al. 1984). Ascorbic acid is a potentantioxidant which markedly reduced the growth of E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcusand it provided significant effectiveness in combination with levofloxacin (Carlssonet al.2005).Ascorbic acid increases wound healing, immune system activation, collagen formation due to its oxidative property.Alsonutritional deficiencies decreases wound healing after surgeries (MacKay and Miller 2003).Ascorbic acid inhibits the growth of Stayphylococusaureus bacteria by producing oxidative radical thus increasing the oxidative stress,affecting the metabolism and inhibiting the growth of bacteria invitro(Kallio et al. 2012). The use of ascorbic acid with antibiotics is significant, high doses of ascorbic acid with antibiotics have shown synergistic effects and resulted in prevention of life threating diseases thus high potency vitamin supplementation can reduce morbidity and speed recovery (Ishida et al.1998). The aim of this study project is to identify the prevalence of microbes involved inpost-operative infections and also to determine the sensitivity patterns of isolated pathogens by using culture sensitivity test against most commonly prescribed antibiotic (ceftriaxone) alone and in combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in vitro. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2466-T] (1).

12. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Sequential Extracts Of Astragalus Membranaceus Roots

by Sadia Alvi (2013-VA-595) | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate antibacterial and cytotoxic evaluation of different extracts of Astragalus membranaceus root against common poultry pathogens. Sequential extraction with hexane, ethanol, chloroform and aqueous solvents was prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated by using agar well diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts was evaluated by micro broth dilution test. The extracts exhibiting antimicrobial activity were further evaluated for cytotoxicity by using MTT assay on Vero cell line. Cell culture media was prepared and cell lines were propagated, monolayer was formed. This monolayer was exposed to plant extract dilutions. After 24-48 hours, MTT dye was introduced and cell survival percentage was calculated. Statistical analysis was conducted with Statistic Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 16, SPSS inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Results of antibacterial activity and MTT assay were compared using DMR posthoc test. Growth of Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus species, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus inhibited by all extracts of Astragalus except aqueous extract which shows no zones of inhibition against C. perfringes. MIC values were higher for aqueous extract against all selected bacteria and lowest for chloroform against E. coli, S. enterica and Staph. aureus (208.3ug/ml, 156.25ug/ml, 78.125ug/ml respectively) for hexane against Haemophilus species (833.3ug/ml) and for all three extracts against C.perfringes (1250ug/ml). Hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts were appeared to be safe at all concentrations except ≥ 2000μg/ml, ≥1000μg/ml and ≥3000μg/ml respectively while aqueous extracts showed cytotoxicity at concentrations ≥625μg/ml. Astragalus membranaceus SUMMARY 104 showed antibacterial activity against all selected pathogens. Chloroform and hexane extracts showed greater antibacterial activity than ethanol and aqueous. Cytotoxicity values for chloroform extract are safer than rest of three extracts. Astragalus membranaceus may be used to design traditional medicines for the development of therapeutic agent which will be more safe, effective and economical. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2444-T] (1).

13. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Sequential Extracts Of Ocimum Basilicum Leaves Against Common Poultry Pathogens

by Shomaila Naz (2013-VA-1001) | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Antimicrobial compounds having plant origin inhibit bacteria through different mechanisms and can be used for the treatment of infections against resistant microbes. Majority of antibacterial drugs in clinical use are derived from natural origin. Hence, the present study is designed for antibacterial and cytotoxic evaluation of different extracts of Ocimum basilicum seeds against common poultry pathogens. The four sequential i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum leaves and seeds were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Antibacterial activity of these extracts was determined by agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens type A, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Haemophilus paragallinarum. Zone of inhibitions were determined by well diffusion method. MICs of plant extracts were determined by micro broth dilution method. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by applying MTT assay on Vero cell lines. All the results were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and compared means by Duncan’s multiple range of posthoc test at significance level of P≤0.05. The results of zone of inhibitions showed by Ocimum basilicum leaves and seeds extracts ranging from 11.33-20.0 mm values of MIC results ranging from 4.889 μg/ml-2500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform and ethanol. The aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum have no activity against any bacterial pathogen. Ethanol extract of Ocimum basilicum leaves was cytotoxic at 500 μg/ml. Hexane extract of Ocimum basilicum seeds was cytotoxic at concentration ≥625 μg/ml, chloroform at concentration ≥19.53 μg/ml and ethanol extract at concentration ≥750 μg/ml. The indigenous plant Ocimum basilicum have antibacterial activity against common poultry pathogens and helpful to develop new drug from plant origin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2443-T] (1).

14. Antibacterial And Cytotoxic Evaluation Of Different Extracts Of Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Liquorice) Roots Against Common Poultry Pathogens

by Javaria Arooj (2013-VA-596) | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Majority of antibacterial drugs in clinical use are derived from natural origin. Hence, the present study is designed for antibacterial and cytotoxic evaluation of different extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. roots against common poultry pathogens. The four sequential i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. roots were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Antibacterial activity of these extracts was determined by agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens type A, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Haemophilus paragallinarum. Zone of inhibitions were determined by well diffusion method. MICs of plant extracts were determined by micro broth dilution method. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by applying MTT assay on Vero cell lines. The zone of inhibitions showed by hexane, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. roots against Staphylococcus. aureus were10.3mm, 13.0mm, 11.6mm; against Clostridium perfringens type A were20.0mm, 17.3mm, 17.3mm; against Escherichia coli were11.6mm, 19.3mm, 16.0mm; against Salmonella enterica were13.6mm, 14.0mm,14.0mm; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were13.0mm, 15.0mm, 17.0mm respectively. Aqueous extract showed no zone of inhibition against any test bacteria. MICs values of hexane, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. roots against Staphylococcu aureus were 13.0μg/ml, 312.5μg/ml and 104.1μg/ml; against Clostridium perfringens type A were 9.766μg/ml, 71.61μg/ml and 520.8μg/ml; against Escherichia coli were 65.1μg/ml, 52.8μg/ml and 156.25μg/ml; against Salmonella enterica were Summary 86 19.5μg/ml, 130.2μg/ml and 78.12μg/ml; against Haemophillus paragallinarum were 91.1μg/ml, 29.2μg/ml and 130.2μg/ml respectively. Aqueous extract showed no MIC value as no zone of inhibitions wereobserved against them. Hexane extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. roots was cytotoxic at concentration ≥ 650μg/ml, chloroform extract at concentration ≥ 2500μg/ml and ethanolic extract was not cytotoxic to cell. The indigenous plant Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. roots have antibacterial activity against common poultry pathogens and helpful to develop new drug from plant origin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2442-T] (1).

15. Antibacterial Activity Of Piroxicam And Ketorolac Alone And In Combination With Antibiotics Against Bacterial Isolates

by Saba Shahbaz (2013-VA-852) | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Antibiotic resistance has become a global public health problem due to the excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics, which has resulted in many emerging multidrug-resistant microorganisms. This study is designed for the evaluation of different dilutions of piroxicam and ketorolac alone and in combination with amoxicillin and tigecycline by using broth dilution method.Different dilutions of piroxicam and ketorolac alone and in combination with amoxicillin and tigecycline were checked for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcusaureus and Escherichia coli.The isolates were obtained from Quality Operations Laboratory. The pathogens were tested for their sensitivity to amoxicillin and tigecycline. The sensitivity was checked by broth/tube dilution method. Dilutions were prepared by two fold dilution method.Collected data was analyzed by using statistic package for social sciences (SPSS, windows version, Chicago, IL, USA). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and descriptive statistics was applied.This work is designed to observe the effects of piroxicam and ketorolac alone and in combination with amoxicillin and tigecycline against bacterial pathogens to improve the quality of life of patients and will minimize the chances of infections.Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined by broth dilution method. The results suggested that NSAIDs enhanced the antibacterial effect when combined with these antibiotics. Combination of amoxicillin with piroxicam (9.76µg/ml+80µg/ml), and tigecycline in combination with ketorolac (0.156µg/ml+20µg/ml) was effective against Staphylococcusaureus. The combination of amoxicillin with piroxicam (9.76µg/ml+20µg/ml), amoxicillin with ketorolac (4.88µg/ml+20µg/ml), tigecycline with piroxicam (0.3125µg/ml +10µg/ml), tigecycline with ketorolac (0.312µg/ml+20µg/ml) showed efficacy against Escherichia coli. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2448-T] (1).

16. Evaluation Of Antibacterial Effect Of Gymnema Sylvestre Species Cultivated In Pakistan

by Muhammad Tahir (2011-VA-339) | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr. Qamar Niaz | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: This study was conducted to determine the use of medicinal plants as an antibacterial agent and its potential to as an alternative medicine against bacterial infections. For this purpose Sequential extracts (i.e. Hexane, Chloroform, Ethanol and Aqueous) of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. were tested against S. aureus, E. coli, S. enterica, C. perfringens type-A, H. paragallinarum. Of each bacterium 3 isolates were tested by using well diffusion method. The results were obtained by determining the ZOI by well diffusion method and MIC by using 96 well ELISA plate. The mean ZOI and mean MIC values of G. sylvestre leaves extracts showed that chloroform and ethanolic extracts have more antibacterial activity against all five microorganisms. Only chloroform and ethanolic extracts showed antibacterial activity against all 5 microorganisms while hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against S. enterica, S. aureus, H. paragallinarum, C. perfringens type- A but no activity was observed against E. coli. On the other hand aqueous extract have showed antibacterial activity only against C. perfringens type-A but no antibacterial activity against remaining four bacteria under study. While analyzing results based upon MIC, the chloroform extract has more antibacterial effect when compared with hexane. Hexane extract was more potent than aqueous extract whereas ethanolic extract was the least potent. When overall antibacterial effect of all the extracts was evaluated against all bacterial strains, it was observed that C. perfringens type-A was the bacterium most vulnerable to antibacterial activity of sequential extracts of dried leaves of G. sylvestre as it responded Summary 94 to all four sequential extracts and gave maximum zone of inhibition (10-22mm range) while no other bacteria showed such bigger zone of inhibition. On the basis of MIC, it can be assumed that chloroform extracts have more antibacterial components as compared to hexane extract. Hexane extracts have more antibacterial components as compared to ethanolic extracts. The activity of aqueous extracts is negligible as it showed response against only one bacterium. MTT assay was performed on supersaturated solutions of sequential extracts of dried leaves of G. sylvestre. Results revealed that small concentrations of these extracts are not toxic. Cell survival percentage (CSP) values below 50% were given at concentrations of 5800μg/ml (38.76%), 7225μg/ml (43.71%), 8150μg/ml (44.90%) and 3125μg/ml (41.84%) by hexane, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. Finally, on the basis of MIC and CSP for all of four sequential extracts, it is concluded that chloroformic extract is the most active and safe extract against all of 5 experimental bacteria, while hexane extract is safe against only C. perfringens type-A and ethanolic and aqueous extracts are cytotoxic on their MIC values for all the experimental bacteria. Statistical analysis showed that ZOI and MIC values were significantly different between the groups while within the same group they were non-significant. Finally it can be concluded that the leaves of plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. cultivated in Pakistan has considerable antibacterial activity and considerable safety profile so it must be further studied, characterized, purified and chemically isolated so that may be converted to proper dosage form and this miracle plant may be used therapeutically to cure various ailments including bacterial infections especially poultry infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2503-T] (1).

17. Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity And Embryonic Toxicity Of Ivermectin And Ibuprofen Alone And In Combination Against Avian Influenza H9

by Huma Minhas (2014-VA-499) | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Qamar Niaz | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: This project was designed to analyze the antiviral andembryotoxicity of ivermectin and ibuprofenalone and in combination against H9 virus by using embryonated chicken eggsof 10 days old. Three different concentrations of these agents were selected for current project and two fold dilutions were made. Mixing of drug dilutionnswith avian influenza H9 virus was done and administered in embryonated eggs. They were kept in incubator for 72 hours. Eggs viability was checked during incubation at 37°c temperature. After overnight chilling,haemagglutinition test was done to evaluate antiviral activity. Antiviral activity of these dilutions was calculated as embryo survival percentage and positive and negative hemagglutination activity. To checkembryotoxicity,drug dilutions were made without virus and mortality ratio was checked after 48 hours of incubation. The study provided information regarding antiviral activity and embryotoxicity of ivermectin and ibuprofen alone and incombination at different concentrations. The present study showed that antiviral activity of ivermectin was very strong at all concentrations however at higher concentration it was toxic for embryo. Results of antiviral analysis showed that ivermectinand ibuprofen had antiviral activity alone and in combination afterusing combination of ivermectin and ibuprofen the antiviral activity was further increased and embrytoxicity was also diminished by combination therapyso these agents can be used as alternative therapy against avian influenza H9 virus. The outcomes were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Post-hoc Test was used to compare difference of means. Comparative analysis of antiviral activity of ivermectin and ibuprofen alone and in combination showed that ivermectin had very strong antiviral activity but it was embryotoxic at higher concentrations when ibuprofen was used in combination then had further strong antiviral activity. It’s antiviral activity was stronger as compare when these agents used alone. In term of embryotoxicity these these agents were not toxic in combination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2588-T] (1).

18. Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Textile Dyeing Industry Wastewater

by Muhammad Furqan Akhtar (2011-VA-265) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity, pathological lesions and oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to quantify metals and identify organic pollutants in untreated textile dyeing industry wastewater, to determine the bacterial load of wastewater, isolate and identify heavy metals tolerant bacteria and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, influence on normal physiology and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis through AAS revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Various organic pollutants such as chlorpyrifos, cucurbitacin-b and phthalates were identified by screening through GC-MS. Microbiological evaluation of textile dyeing industry wastewater revealed a high bacterial load. Different bacteria isolated from wastewater such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphyoloccus epidermidis and Micrococcus varians exhibited resistance to Cr and Cu salts and antibiotics to varying degree. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. Bacterial reverse mutation assay revealed that the mutagenicity of textile dyeing industry wastewater decreased with increase in dilution of wastewater. In-vitro comet assay revealed the evidence of high oxidative DNA damage induced by textile wastewater. Wastewater exhibited concentration dependent genotoxicity in sheep SUMMARY 147 peripheral lymphocytes. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/ plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C at a dose of 50mg/Kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. Industrial effluents may decrease activities of T-SOD and CAT and concentration of H2O2 in liver, kidney and blood/plasma of Wistar rats. Vitamin C may have a possible ameliorating effect on industrial effluent induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wastewater exposed rats exhibited necrosis of epithelial cells of nephron, pulmonary emphysema, and inflammation of the lungs, degradation and infiltration of cardiac myocytes, fibrosis of the liver, damage to the intestinal mucosa and sloughing off epithelial cells from the intestinal lumen. This study concludes that untreated textile dyeing wastewater being a complex mixture of inorganic and organic pollutants may be highly eco-toxic and may contaminate of the environment via continuous release of various organic and inorganic pollutants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2580-T] (1).

19. Chemical Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Pharmaceutical Effluent Wastewater

by Ali Sharif (2011-VA-266) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pharmaceutical effluent being a complex mixture of drugs and heavy metals may affect human health exhibiting a strong potential of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induction along with pathological changes in various organs of the body. The current study was focused to quantify the presence of heavy metals, detection of various drugs, determining the bacterial load along with isolation and identification of different bacteria and assessment of the mutagenic and genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress induction of pharmaceutical effluent wastewater when exposed to sheep lymphocytes, Salmonella typhimurium strains, cell lines and rats respectively. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to quantify heavy metals and showed the presence of arsenic, chromium, lead and iron in concentrations above the normal limits recommended by WHO and EPA. Gas Chromatograph mass spectrophotometer analysis shown the presence of digitoxin, lignocaine, caffeine and trimethoprim and various other organic pollutants. Microbiological evaluation showed a high bacterial load in the pharmaceutical waste water. Several bacteria were also found in PEW in the presence of different drugs and heavy metals. Aeromonas sobria, Micrococcus varians, Staphyoloccus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium showed tolerance to potassium di chromate and copper sulphate and resistance to various antibiotic discs. Ames assay revealed a strong mutagenic potential with and without the presence of metabolic activation mixtures. A concentration dependent effect was observed when samples were tested with increasing dilution factor. MTT assay and comet assay also showed a concentration dependent effect. The BHK-21 cell line was used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cell viability decreased with increasing concentration of PEW. Sheep lymphocytes used in comet assay exhibited a concentration dependent DNA damage. Different antioxidant enzymes were also evaluated. Rats were exposed to PEW at different concentrations and following 60 days oral exposure, rats were evaluated for the presence of total superoxide dismutase, catalase and hydrogen peroxide in kidney, liver and plasma. Exposure to Pharmaceutical waste water significantly decreased the (TSOD), (CAT) and (H2O2) levels in plasma, liver and kidney. Treatment with Vitamin E significantly ameliorated the levels of enzymes. Exposed rats were also evaluated for any pathological changes. Coagulative necrosis of renal epithelial cells were observed along with severe degeneration and cellular swelling in hepatocytes of hepatic cord. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2600-T] (1).

20. Effect Of Colchicine On Cellular And Humoral Immune Responses In Mice

by Shahzada Khurram Syed (2007-VA-444) | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Shahbaz Yousaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Colchicine is a medication that treats gout. It is a natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants Colchicum autumnale .It causes modulation of chemokine and prostanoid production and inhibition of neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecules by which it interferes with the initiation and amplification of the joint inflammation. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of colchicine on cellular and humoral immunity in mice. There were five groups for each assay i.e. group I (negative control), positive control and three colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg). The number of mice in each group was five to eight. All these groups were administered doses intraperitoneally. To determine the effect of colchicine on cell mediated immunity , delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay, macrophage engulfment assay, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test and nitric oxide production was performed .DTH was performed by measuring skin thickness. DTH showed significant difference (P<0.001) of negative control to colchicine treated groups 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg. With increasing dose, there was decrease in skin thickness of the mice. Highest reduction of skin was found at 160μg/kg. Macrophage engulfment assay was performed to evaluate the effect of macrophage induced phagocytosis. There was significant ( P <0.001) difference of engulfment of SRBCs by macrophages with negative control to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III(80μg/kg) and group IV(160μg/kg) groups. There was significant difference of engulfment of macrophages at 45 and 90 minutes. Cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test was performed to assess the effect of colchicine on total leukocyte count (TLC) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). There was SUMMARY 77 reduction of TLC to about 45.3% in control to 48.3%, 54.68% and 65.42% in group II (40μg/kg), group III (80 μg/ kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) respectively when these were compared with primary values of TLC. There was significant difference of reduction in the neutrophil count of negative control 1057 (±120) to 902 (±67) in group II (40μg/kg), 734(±69) in group III (80 μg/ kg) and 609 (±71) in group IV (160μg/kg) of doses of colchicine. This test showed that with the increasing dose of colchicine, there was significant (P<0.001) difference of TLC count and neutrophil count. Nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages was performed for measuring different concentrations of nitric oxide produced. There was significant difference (P<0.001) in NO production by macrophages alone and LPS stimulated between negative control to group II (40 μg /kg), group III (80μg/kg), group IV (160μg/kg) of colchicine. With increasing dose, there was significant reduction in production of NO. There was significant P<0.0001 reduction in body weight andspleen weight difference of mice in different groups of colchicine treated 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg from negative control after treatment. There was difference of weight of Thymus of group II (40 μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) but difference was statistically not significant. There were no histopathological changes observed in spleen and Thymus at 40μg/kg and 80μg/kg doses of colchicine. At 160μg/kg dose, increase in thickness of trabecular was seen .due to edema in the spleen. For evaluation of colchicine effect on humoral immunity, haemagglutination assay, mice lethality test and Jerne hemolytic plaque formation were performed. Haemagglutination assay (HA) was performed by using red blood cells injected intraperitoneally in mice to measure antibody titer. There was significant difference of (P >0.001) to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg)with group I (negative control).With the increasing dose, there was reduction in the SUMMARY 78 HA titer. Mice lethality test was performed by testing immune response of the mice to the challenge infection of P.multocida. It was performed by comparing mortality ratio of mice after administration of drug. There was no death of mice in the negative control group in which there was administration of PBS and vaccine. At 40μg/kg dose of colchicine, there was 50% mortality ratio. At 80μg/kg dose of colchicine 75% mortality ratio was observed. Maximum mortality ratio was observed at the 160μg/kg colchicine dose i.e. 100%. Jerne plaque formation test was performed and plaques formed was enumerated and recorded as the number of plaque forming cells (PFCs) per million cells. There was significant difference (P<0.001) of reduction in number of plaques from negative control to all doses of colchicine 40 μg/kg, 80 μg/kg and 160μg/kg. Antibody formation was decreased with increasing the dose of colchicine. Therefore, it is concluded that colchicine suppresses the cellular and humoral responses in mice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2650-T] (1).

21. Animal Models in Toxicology / 3rd ed.

by Gad, Shayne Cox.

Edition: 3rd ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 615.9 Gad 32016 3rd 2016 Pharmacology] (1).

22. Nephroprotective Effect Of Nifedipine Against Lead Toxicity In Mice

by Muhammad Mazhar Munir (2010-VA-179) | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Qamar Niaz | Dr. Muhammad Asad Ali.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: This study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of nifedipine against lead toxicity in mice. Exposure to lead can induce kidney damage, which is related to induction of oxidative damage and disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Twenty mice, weighing 20.0 ±2.0 g were selected for the experiment. Twenty mice were divided randomly into four groups having five mice in every group as follows: control, lead, low-dose nifedipine and high-dose nifedipine. Mice of the low- dose and high-dose nifedipine groups were given nifedipine perorally at 10 and 20 mg/Kg/day, respectively. While the mice of the lead and control groups were administrated perorally with isovolumic saline. The mice of the low-dose nifedipine, high-dose nifedipine and lead groups were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate 40 mg/Kg/day after treatment with nifedipine. Mice in the control group were injected intraperitoneally with isovolumic saline. The whole treatment period remains for ten days. The nephroprotective effect of Nifedipine was assessed by a decrease in histological damage to the kidneys and the concentration of lead in kidney homogenate. Moreover, the levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in the serum were also determined. Data was examined as mean ± SEM (standard error mean). Data was statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. The current study showed reduction in the concentration of lead in kidney homogenate in nifedipine treated groups compared to control positive. The lead concentration in kidney homogenate was less in the control negative group than control positive group. The level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen was remarkably increased in the control positive group as compared to the control negative group. Moreover the treatment with nifedipine decreased the levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in serum. Histopathological study of the kidney tissue also showed that nifedipine could improve the lead induced injury in mice It was concluded from this experiment that nifedipine has potential to minimize the lead induced nephrotoxicity in mice, as indicated by the lead concentration in kidney homogenate, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and histopathological examination. It is, therefore recommended that nifedipine can further be investigated for nephroprotective effects against heavy metal toxicities in other animal species including livestock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2863-T] (1).

23. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics for the veterinary technician

by Bill, Robert.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Canada: Elsevier; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08951 Bill 32689 4th 2017 Pharmacology] (1). Checked out (1).



Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Email:rehana.kousar@uvas.edu.pk Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.