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1. Textbook of Physiology

by Sathya, Devanand.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: New Delhi: CBS Publishers & Distributors, 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 612 SAT 29313 1st 2014 Physiology] (1).

2. The Ruminant Animal

by Church, D. C.

Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Waveland Press, 1993Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.084 Chuech 1st 1988 30007 A.Nutrition] (1).

3. Anatomy and Physiology for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses

by Sturtz, Robin | Asprea, Lori.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK : Wiley-Blackwell, 2012Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0892 Sturtz 1st 2012 50611 Physiology] (2), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0892 Sturtz 1st 2012 29663 Physiology] (1).

4. Biophysics : An Introduction

by Cotterill, Rodney M. J.

Edition: 1ST ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India : John Wiley & Sons, 2004Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 571.4 Cotterill 1st 2004 29644 Genetics] (1). Checked out (1).

5. Inroduction to Environmental Physiology

by Folk,Edgar G.

Edition: 1stedMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lea& Febiger 1966Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 571.5 Folk 9341 1/e 1966 Env.Science] (3).

6. Series Handbook of Biochemistry

by Florini, James Ralph.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : CRC Press, 1981Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 573.44 Florini 13311 1st 1981 Biochemistry] (1).

7. Progress in Research on Energy and Protein Metabolism

by Souffrant, W.B | Souffrant, W.B | Metges, C.C.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 1st : Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 612.39 Souffrant 18083 1st 2003 A.Nutrition] (1).

8. Energy Metabolism In Animals

by Chwalibog ,A | University, Purdue | Jakobsen, Kirsten [Editor].

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: [UK: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2001Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 612.39 Chwalibog 18082 1st 2001 A.Nutrition] (1).

9. Principles of Exercise Biochemistry

by Poortmans,J.R | Poortmans, J. R.

Edition: 3rd Revised EditionMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Switzerland : S Karger Pub, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 573.44 Poortmans 23111 1st 2004 Biochemistry] (1).

10. Experimental Animal Physiology and Biochemistry

by Nigam, S.C | Omkar.

Material type: book Book Publisher: India : New Age International Pvt Ltd Publishers, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0892 Nigam 19276 1st 2003 Physiology] (1).

11. Guide to Yeast Genetics and Molecular and Cell Biology/ Vol.350

by Guthrie, Christine: Fink, Gerald R | Meurant, Gerard.

Material type: book Book Publisher: U.S.A: Academic Press; 2002Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 612.01 Guthrie 20832 Vol.B 2002 Genetics] (1).

12. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology / 12th ed

by Hall, John E.

Edition: 12th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Sounders; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 612 Hall 50489 13th 2018 Physiology] (4). Checked out (1).

13. Reproduction in Farm Animals / 7th ed

by Hafez, B | Hafez, E. S. E.

Edition: 7thMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: U.S.A. Wiley-Blackwell; 2000Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08926 Hafez 22508 7th 2000 Theriogenology] (33).

14. Animal Physiology & Biochemistry

by Srivastava, Anil K | Agarwal, R. A | Kaushal, Kumar.

Material type: book Book Publisher: Delhi: S Chand & Co Ltd; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 571.1 Anil 33061 1st 2018 Biochemistry] (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 571.1 Anil 20904 1st 2005 Biochemistry] (1).

15. Introduction to Human Physiology / 8th ed

by Sherwood, Lauralee.

Edition: 8th International ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: China: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2013Availability: No items available Checked out (2).

16. Physiology / 5th ed

by Linda S. Costanzo.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: China : Saunders, 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 612 Costanzo 30784 5th 2014 Physiology] (2).

17. Principles of Human Physiology

by Stanfield, Cindy L.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Pearson, 2012Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 612 Stainfield 30288 5th 2013 Physiology] (1).

18. Comparative Blood Chemistry Of Lactating Buffaloes And Cows

by Razia Sultana | Mubasher Ahmed Shah | mubasher | Saghir Ahmed Jafri.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0092,T] (1).

19. Effect Of Vitamine (Alpha-Tocopherol) Supplementation On Total Lipid Profile In Rabbits

by Aman Ullah | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An experimental trial of forty five days duration was conducted in July and August, 2004 at Physiology Department, Faculty of Bio-Sciences, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. The study was conducted to see the effect of vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) on total lipid profile in rabbits. Thirty two, 2 months old white rabbits were purchased, weighed and randomly divided into four groups, comprising of eight rabbits each i.e. group A, B, C and D. The rabbits of group A were fed on normal diet and acted as control animasl. The rabbits of group B were also fed on normal diet along with replacement of 2% cholesterol. The objective to add cholesterol is to induced hypercholesterolemia artificially from the beginning of the experiment. They were orally administered cholesterol powder through disposable syringes from start to end of experiment. During the experiment these rabbits were not treated with vitamin E (alpha tocopherol). The rabbits of group C were also fed on normal diet alongwith replacement of 2% cholesterol for first fifteen days of experiment to induced hypercholesterolemia. After the induction of hypercholesterolemia these rabbits were treated with vitamin E at a dose rate of 50 mg/kg body weight. The rabbits of group D were also fed on normal diet alongwith replacement of 2% cholesterol for first fifteen days of experiment to induced hypercholesterolemia. After the induction of hypercholesterolemia these rabbits were treated with vitamin E at a dose rate of 75 mg/kg body weight. The feed for rabbits were prepared and were given with green fodder twice a day. The rabbits were reared in room carpeted with dry forage and dry soil, from the start to the end of the experiment. Standard conditions of feeding, water and temperature were maintained. The rabbits were kept in light for 24 hours throughout the experimental period. Biochemical analysis i.e. serum cholesterol, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL), serum triglycerides (TG) and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) carried out. It was concluded that vitamin E has significant effect on total lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Vitamin E as an antioxidant can reduce the incidents of atherosclerosis in hypercholeterolemic rabbits and ultimately reducing the risk of heart disease in rabbits as a human model. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0888,T] (1).

20. Bioavailability Of Norfloxacin After Flock Medication Via Drinking Water In Broilers

by Irfan Obaid Ullah | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was done to determine the plasma concentration of Norfioxacin in broiler chickens after its administration through drinking water, stability of Norfioxacin in drinking water and to check the bioavailability of two products of Norfioxacin of two different companies by using the technique of microbiological assay. In this project collected 60 birds which were divided into two groups which were further divided into six sub-groups containing 5 birds each. Two different Norfioxacin products (Norexcel given to group A and Anflox to group B) was used at the dose rate of lml/1 through drinking water and then blood samples were taken at different specific time intervals to determine the plasma concentration of Norfioxacin through microbiological assay technique. The Maximum plasma concentration (Cpmax) attained by group A was 2.700±0.0683µg/ml and group B was 2.583±0.083µg/ml. The Maximum time (Tmax) for both group A and B was 2 hours. Area under the curve for group A was 201.166 ± 3.387µg/hr/ml and for group B was 203.616 ± 2. 674µg/hr/ml and Cpmjn. for group A was 1.150±0.0428 µg/ml and for group B was 1.016±O.0401µg/ml. This project showed that Oral administration of Norfioxacin, gave better bio-availability than other routes of administration of drug. Maximum plasma concentration (Cpmax) achieved by Norfioxacin in this study is enough to check the sensitive micro-organism. The medication of Norfioxacin through drinking water is better because it remains stable in water, and its stability in water is upto 90% which checked after every 4 hours, so no suggestions for renewal of fresh solution of Norfioxacin. According to this data we concluded that the dose given in this project (1m1/l) of drinking water is enough for the treatment and cure of the bacteriological infection and this also tells that the way of medication through continuous drinking water is the method of choice for getting maximum results. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0889,T] (1).

21. Effect Of Detomidine As A Preanaesthetic Medication With Ketamine Induced Anaesthesia In Canines (Dogs)

by Muhammad Tanveer Khaliq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammd Ovais Omer | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the effect of detomidinc as a preanaesthetic medication with ketamine induced anaesthesia in canines. The study was conducted over eight dogs which were divided into two groups i.e. group A and group B, comprising four animals each which were medicated in a cross over fashion. Animals of group A were given Ketamine alone @ of 15 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly while animals of group B were given Detomidine @ 4Ojig/kg intramuscularly as preanaesthetic medication followed by ketam inc hydrochloride. After a washout period of two weeks, animals of group A were given detomidine as a preanaesthetic medication followed by ketarninc hydrochloride at the same dose rate as given previously. While animals of group B were given ketarnine alone. Different parameters such as, induction, recumbency, recovery peridd, temperature, pulse, respiration and reflexes were observed for the evaluation of anaesthesia. Liver toxicity was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT) enzymes. The results of present study indicated that induction, recumbency and recovery were rapid, prolonged, smooth and uncomplicated respectively with detomidine premedication followed by ketarninc as compared to the ketamine given alone. Hyperthermia and respiratory depression was observed in both cases, where as tachycardia and bradycardia were noticed in the two treatments respectively. Liver enzymes gave non significant values with the use of ketamine hydrochloride with detomidine hydrochloride and ketamine (alone) in both cases .From this study it is concluded that detomidine premedication gives significant results and is recommended along with ketamine hydrochloride in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0891,T] (1).

22. Studies On Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids) Toxicity In Broilers

by Asif Farooq Awan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This project was designed for the evaluation of different effects of toxic dosage levels of NSAIDs (piroxicam, ketoprofen, phenyl-butazone and dipyron) in broiler chickens. For this project two hundred and twenty five healthy broiler chickens were purchased from the market and were reared upto 28 days. Then one hundred and twenty five were divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E having twenty five birds in each group. On day 29th four groups A, B, C and D were medicated with piroxicam, ketoprofen, phenyl-butazone and dipyron twice a day at dose rate of 1, 5, 50 and 50 mg/kg body weight respectively intra-muscularly for four days. Birds from group E were kept as control. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. A physical examination was performed daily. Signs of toxicity and mortality rate in each group was recorded. Blood samples from wing vein (3 ml) was drawn on day 29 before medication and on days 33, 37, 41 after medication from same birds for determination of serum values of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Uric Acid, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Creatinine. Postmortem examinationwas performecd after all samples taken. In second experiment other 100 birds were divided into five groups K, L, M, N and O comprising of 20 birds in each group. Each bird of group K was injected I/M piroxicam 2 mg/kg twice a day. Each bird of group L was injected I/M ketoprofen 10 mg/kg twice a day. Each bird of group M was injected I/M phenyl buazone 100 mg/kg twice a day. Each bird of group N was injected I/M metamizole 100 mg/kg body weight for twice a day upto four days and group 0 was kept as control group. Postmortem examination was performed after medication. Based on the necropsy findings and biochemical analysis it was found that piroxicam was safest drug (NSAIDs) in the avian species. Keeping in view the environmental problem of decline in population and its possible link with Diclodenic sodium,(vultures arises) it is recommended that piroxicam which has good pharmacological effects in human medicines may be used instead of diclofenac sodium in veterinary practice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0892,T] (1).

23. Studies On Gentamicin Toxicity In Broiler Chickens

by Muhammad Shah Rukh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of gentamicin sulphate at different dosage levels in broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted in two phases. During phase I one hundred broiler chicks were divided into A,B, C and D groups having twenty five birds in each and were injected gantamicin sulphate in the form of gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 5mg/kg, lOmg/ kg, 20mg /kg in groups A,B and C twice daily for four days respectively while group D kept as control. During phase II twenty five chicks were divided into groups E,F,G,H and I having five birds in each. Birds in groups E and F were injected gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 40mg/kg and 80 mg/kg while gantamicin sulphate injected in the form of Aagent 10% at the rate of 40 mg / kg and 80 mg/kg to groups G and H twice daily for four days respectively and the birds of I group were kept as control. Blood samples (3m1) were collected from all medicated and un-medicated groups before and after medication on different days and serum was separated for the measurement of different biochemical parameters. Post-mortem examination of all birds were performed at the end of experiment. Post-mortem examination revealed no abnormality in any bird during phase I (normal organs) while during phase II abnormalities such as congestion, inflammation of the kidney and necrosis, discoloured livers were recorded except control group. Six birds died during experiment in phase 11(2/10 at 40mg/kg and 4/10 at 80mg/kg dose). The mortality rates at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg were 20 and 40% respectively. An increase in Aspartate amino Transferase was observed in medicated birds during phase I while a significant increase in Aspartate amino Transferase, Alanine amino Transferase, uric acid and creatinine were recorded in medicated birds during phase II. From this study it is concluded that broiler birds tolerated gentamicin upto 20mg/kg while acute toxic effects at the dose of 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg of gentamicin were recorded in broiler chicks. No sign of visceral gout were recorded in any bird. There was no difference in the toxicity of two different preparations of gentaniicin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0893,T] (1).

24. Bioavailability Of Amoxicilin Trihydrate In Broiler Chickens Administered Through Drinking Water

by Amir Bakhsh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Bioavailability of two oral commercial formulations of amoxicillin trihydrate i.e. oracin-50 (Mediexcel, Pharmaceuticals (Pvt.) Limited Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica, µµchickens. The birds were divided into two groups A and B and than six replicates of each group were made. The birds were reared upto 30 days. Group A was medicated by Oracin-50 and group B was medicated by Bioxil-20. The medication was continued for three consecutive days and blood samples were collected before and after medication as per schedule. The plasma level of amoxicillin were determined by microbiological assays. The concentrations versus time data were plotted on logrithmic paper and various bio-availability parameters were determined. Peak concentrations of both oral preparations appeared with in two hours. However Oracin-50 peak concentration revealed 5.26±1.605µg/ml which was not significantly higher than 4.71±0.142ig/ml as depicted by Bioxil-20. Mean ±SEM of the area under curve (AUC) for Oracin-50 was 296.783±6.331µg. hr/ml and 259.26±4.866 µg.hr/ml for Bioxil-20 statistical analyses revealed no significant different minimum concentration of Oracin-50 revealed 2.550±O.0763µg/ml while 2.450±O.07637µg/ml as depicted by the bioxil-20. Both the preparations took the same time (2 hour) to attain the peak level of the plasma concentration. The present study also revealed that amoxicillin is not much stable in water. Oracin-50 decreased 34% and Bioxil-20 decreased 35% in 72 hours There was no significant difference (P<O.05) in the stability of both groups. The comparative study of the two Pharmaceutical preparations Oracin-50 (Mediexcel Pharmaceutical Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica Pharmaceutical Pakistan) revealed that there was no significant difference (P<O.05) between the means of two groups. The statistical evaluation revealed bio-equaleancy between two drugs. Amoxicillin is broad spectrum antibiotic, its bioavailability is better than other antibiotic. Its MIC is also very low (O.25igIml) but its half 1fe is short. So its repeated doses should be given. As it is somewhat unstable, in case of drinking water. The medicated water should be changed get the maximum efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0894,T] (1).

25. Preparation And Evaluation Of Rabbit Anti-Buffalo Immunoglobulin Antibody Peroxidase Conjugate

by Muhammad Babar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most sensitive rapid and reliable techniques for diagnosis of infectious diseases. For execution of ELISA, antibody-peroxidase conjugate is the fundamental reagent. Turnip peroxidase was purified from turnips, that includes homogenization, inactivation of catalase, ammonium sulphate precipitation and size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-25-80. The purified peroxidase had Rz value of 1.7, total protein 0.9 mg/ml and total enzyme activity 36152 units/liter. The buffalo serum Ig-G was fractionated using 40 percent final concentration of ammonium sulphate followed by anion exchange chromatography. The salt fractionated serum globulins (10 ml) was depleted of its Ig-G in less than 25 minutes on DEAE cellulose packed column followed by suitable elution. The Ig-G solution (1.0 gm/dl) was mixed in four times volume of oil base (Liquid paraffin and emulsifiers). Rabbits were primed and boosted (0.25ml/: subcut) with buffalo Ig-G antigen with 21 days interval. The immune serum was harvested on 21 days post-boosting. The serum contained 2048 agar gel precipitation AGP units and 10,000 ELISA units. Rabbit anti buffalo Ig-G was purified with salt precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. The peroxidase was linked with the rabbit anti-buffalo Ig-G using the sodium metaperiodate. The conjugate was titrated against buffalo Ig-G and working dilution for execution of ELISA was 1: 2000. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0926,T] (1).

26. Biological Health Markers Of Pregnant Crossbred Cows

by Shaista Abbas | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Pregnancy is a period characterized by an increase in metabolic demand owing to changes in female physiology and the requirements for growing fetus. The changes that take place in various body systems during pregnancy result in an increased oxygen demand and changes in energy substrate utilization by dam, especially in the feto- placental unit. Pregnancy, though a physiological state, is a stressful condition that favors the oxidative stress and results in an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems of the body leading to potential damage. Metabolic demands associated with late gestation, parturition, and initiation of lactation has been supposed to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (RGS). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the dynamics of different biological health and metabolic markers in crossbred cows at different stages of pregnancy and non-pregnant stage. The study was carried out on 40 (age range between 4 and 11 years) clinically healthy crossbred cows (Sahiwal + Holstein-Friesian). The animals were divided into four groups; first trimester, second trimester and third trimester of pregnancy, and non-pregnant, with 10 cows in each group. The results revealed that serum total oxidants, ceruloplasmin oxidase and tri- iodothyronine_ concentrations were higher (P<0.05) during third trimester of pregnancy compared to non-pregnant crossbred cows. Serum arylesterase concentration was lower (P<0.05) during second and third trimesters of pregnancy compared to non-pregnant stage. The concentration of serum total homocysteine was higher (P<0.05) during third trimester compared to first and second trimesters of pregnancy. The concentrations of serum total antioxidants, paraoxonase, total thyroxine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were not different during pregnancy and non-pregnant stage in crossbred cows. In conclusion, the biological health markers specially total oxidant status, aryl esterase, ceruloplasmin oxidase, total homocysteine and tri-iodothyronine of pregnant crossbred cows can provide useful information about the progression of pregnancy and can also be used as management tool for the improvement of the health status during pregnancy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1087,T] (1).

27. Comparision Of Mineral Profile In Lactating And Non-Lactating Nilli-Ravi Buffalo

by Mohammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Saghir Ahmed Jafri | Dr. Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Rashid | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Nih Ravi is the well established breed of buffalo in Punjab. There are about 140 million buffaloes in the World out of which the largest buffalo population is in India, China and Pakistan. It is a multipurpose animal and fulfils milk and meat demand of mankind. In Pakistan it contributes about 74% of total milk yield. The annual rate of increase in buffalo population is 2.5% and increase in milk production is 3.5% in India and Pakistan. To fulfil the increasing demand of milk and meat, there is an immense need to improve the health status and production potentials of dairy animals. This can he achieved only if we are abreast with physiological norms, the disturbance of which lowers productivity. There are numerous problems of health, reproduction and milk production of Nih Ravi buffalo. Despite this very little information is available on blood chemistry of buffalo belonging to different agro-clirnatic conditions. There are various factors which play important role in their rate of production and minerals are one of those factors. Imbalances of minerals, produces deterimental effect on the performance of livestock e.g. Mineral imbalances lead to syndromes manifested in form of retarded growth, low production, late maturity, wasting disease, non infectious abortion, infertility, silent heat, retained placenta, dystokia and prolapse of vagina and uterus. To cope with the situation more research is required on the subject to locate the extent of mineral imbalances. The conclusive results will produce direct or indirect effect on the production and reproductive performance of livestock. The study is therefore planned to find out the serum mineral profile of lactating and non lactating buffaloes from different areas of Punjab and the effect of stage and number of lactation on mineral profile and to find the correlation of serum mineral profile with prolapse of vagina and uterus. To determine the mineral profile in lactating and non lactating Nih Ravi buffaloes 200 blood samples were collected from Okara, Jhelum and Lahore/Sheikhupura. The serum was separated from blood by centrifugation. Serum was analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron on spectrophotometer. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and the differences in means were tested by using (L.S.D. test) least significant diference test. The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on overall basis were subjected to statistical analysis and found non significant differences. However serum magnesium levels were found to be significant in lactating and non lactating buffaloes. The means values of serum minerals in buffaloes of various districts were subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and significant differences were found between districts (P <0.05) for sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron, while non significant differences were found for calcium and chloride (P>0.05). The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on the basis of lactation number were subjected to analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and found non significant differences for serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron, while serum phosphorus showed singificant differences on the basis of lactation numbers and stage of lactations. The differences in the mean values of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium and phosphorus were found to be significant. While calcium and iron showed non significant differences within distircts. The serum sodium showed deficiency in Lahore/Sheikhupura district while serum potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron values were found in normal range in all districts. However serum phosphorus level were slightly higher in buffaloes of all the districts. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1131,T] (1).

28. Effect Of Pregnant Mare'S Serum On Supervovulation In Rabbits

by Robina Mumtaz | Dr. Abrar Hussain Gilani | Dr. M.A | Dr. Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1981Dissertation note: An investigation was conducts on 42 rabbit does to study the effect of different dose levels of of Pregnant mere's Serum (PMS) on superovulation in rabbits. These animals were divided into seven groups, each group comprising of six animals. The first three groups were given PMS intramuscularly at the rate of 25, 50 end 75 lU per kg. body weight for three consecutive days. The fourth, fifth and sixth group received PMS at the ease rate but through subcutaneous route, and the dose administered subcutaneously was divided into two equal halves which were given t 8.00 A.M and 7.00 P.M. on the same day. The seventh group served as control end was injected only normal saline for three consecutive days. On the morning of the fourth day, each doe wee meted and was administered HCG at the rate of 50 IU per kg body weight. The does were slaughtered 24 hours after HCG administration. The ovaries were examined for corpora haemorrhagica, corpora lutea, graafian follicles and immature follicles. Oviducts and uterus was flushed with normal saline. The eggs so recovered were counted. The maximum number of ova were recovered with 50 IU of PMS whether giver intramuscularly (12.0 + 2.30) or subcutaneously (18.16 + 1.47). The number of corpora haemorrhagica followed the same trend as that of egg recovery. The maximum count of corpora haemorrhagica was 35.67+4.64 when PMS was given subcutaneously which was approximately twice the number obtained intramuscularly. The number of corpora lutea and immature follicles were not significantly higher than that observed in control group. Maximum number (23.16 + 4.49) of greafian follicles was obtained with 50 IUof when administrated intramuscularly. The count of graafian follicles was follicles was almost the same with 50 and 75 IU of PMS when given subcutneous1y. The effect of various doses of PMS upon ova recovery, corpora haemorrhagica and graafian follicles was found to be statistically significant whereas the differences of corpora lutea and immature follicles was statistically non-significant. A doss level of 50 IU of PMS administered subcutaneously may be recommended for supervulation in rabbit does. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1142,T] (1).

29. Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Mannanoligosaccharide On Reglamation Of Gastrointestinal Physiology In Dogs

by Khalid Abdul Majeed | Dr. Habib ur Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Nisar | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide in small bowel resection. Intestinal resection is conducted in various pathological conditions, which is necessary in alleviation of the anomaly but produces ill effects related to the physiological functioning of the resected part. Various post-operative treatments have been suggested in this regard. Prebiotics can serve as an important dietary and clinical nutritive substance with potential to stabilize aftermath. Dogs with jejunal resection were used as an experimental animal and were divided into three groups in this study. Groups were Control (con), MOS-lower dose (MOS-LD) fed 2g MOS and MOS-higher dose (MOS-HD) fed 4g MOS in addition to 400g standard diet daily. Dogs were assessed for glucose, cholesterol, white blood cell counts on day 0, 1 5, 30, 45 of MOS supplementation. Ammonia, microbiological analysis for E.coli, total aerobes and ('lostridium per/ringens were done on fecal samples collected between day 24 and 28 of MOS supplementation. Fecal scoring system was used to study alleviation of diarrhea in two periods with each of 5 days. Period 1 was from day 18 to day 22 and period 2 was from day 41 to day 45 of MOS supplementation. Repeated measures and one way ANOVA was used for analysis of data. Positive effects of MOS were evident on relieving diarrhea and increasing blood lymphocytes. Total aerobes and clostridium count decreased significantly. This study paved way for further studies in the assessment of potency of MOS and other Prebiotics in gastrointestinal surgeries and their inclusion in management of short bowel and the therapeutic arsenal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1154,T] (1).

30. Dietry Modulation Of Intestinal Physiology In Coccidiosis Induced Broiler

by Ihtesham -UL- Haq | Habib -UR-Rehman | Nisar Ahmed | Prof.Dr.Ejaz Ahmed | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is a ubiquitous disease of almost universal importance in poultry production. The disease may strike any type of poultry in any type of facility and causes large economic losses. The immune responses of the body against coccidiosis are complex because Eimeria species exhibit a complex life cycle, which includes stages inside and outside the birds and the inside-stage, comprises extracellular and intracellular stages. The major component in coccidiosis control in the poultry industry since the I 940s has been the use of anticoccidial compounds. These compounds, when used in carefully designed prophylactic treatment programs are efficient in disease control. However, the inevitable development of drug resistance to chemical types of anticoccidials by avian coccidia, the increased pressure from consumers and governments to phase out the use of chemical anticoccidials in the diet of food animals has resulted in the need of a reexamination of another type of coccidial control. Among others, mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) has shown promising in suppressing pathogens of the intestinal mucosa of chickens. In present study one twenty broiler chicks was obtained from hatchery and divided in to four groups. Antibiotic free diet supplemented with prebiotic was fed to each group. The infected group was inoculated orally with Eimeria. The overall body weight gain, lesion scoring, relative weights of gut organ and bacterial growth of clostridium perfringens and E. coli was investigated. The overall beneficial effect of the prebiotic on these parameters was screened. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1168,T] (1).

31. Response Of Cryopreserved Nili-Ravi Buffalo Bull Semen To Alpha Lipoic Acid Inclusion In Semen Extender

by Ali Gohar | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: In Pakistan buffalo is the main milk producing animal. Proven buffalo bulls are small in number and at the same time semen volume and sperm concentration is also low as compared to cattle. The major problem from the reproductive point of view seems to be low fertility (33%) particularly when being inseminated with frozen semen. The most probable causes are mechanical and chemical damages to the spermatozoa during cryopreservation processes particularly motion characteristics and morphological changes (e.g., plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity) which cause a consequent reduction in the sufficient number of viable sperm cells at the site of fertilization. All these parameters are prone to oxidative changes which occur during the cryopreservation of semen. A minimum loss of spermatozoa during semen processing can be the only option for optimal use of the few elite buffalo bulls. Addition of any suitable antioxidant like ALA to the semen extender might be helpful in reducing these causes and will ultimately improve reproductive efficiency of buffalo bulls used in AI. In this study, semen from healthy Nili Ravi buffalo bulls (n=5) was collected by artificial vagina and subjected to the different inclusion levels of ALA @ 0.50mM, 1.00mM, 2.00mM, 3.00.0mM, and 4.00mM. One group (control) received zero inclusion level of ALA. Semen was evaluated, diluted, cooled, filled in 0.5ml straws, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 hours and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After storage and transportation to the Physiology Laboratory of UVAS, semen was thawed and evaluated for percentage motility of spermatozoa, plasma membrane integrity (HOST assay), acrosomal integrity (NAR) and vitality (Live/Dead). Five straws from each ALA treatment group were thawed individually in water bath at 37°C for 30 seconds and evaluated for quality parameters. The data collected was presented as cells ± SE and treatment groups were compared using one way analysis of variance. The group differences were compared by using the Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results of this study revealed that addition of 0.50mM ALA in semen extender may be useful from the cryopreservation point of view. In conclusion addition of 0.50mM ALA in semen extender improved post-thawed semen quality in terms of spermatozoa motility and plasma membrane integrity, which indicates that the importance of an antioxidant in semen extender can not be neglected. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1240,T] (1).

32. Evaluation Of Diet Ary Mannan Oligosa Ccharide Suplementation On Growth Performance Intestinal Microbial Ecologr and Immune Status of Rock Pigeon (Columba Livia Domestic)

by Aamir Riaz Khan | Dr.Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof.Dr.Habib-ur-Rehman | Prof.dr.Kamran | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) had been successfully used in poultry industry for decades but recent advancements in life sciences have proven that the issues like drug resistance and drug residues can only be negated if the industry would be able to replace AGPs with some non-pharmaceutical preparations; prebiotics, for example. The positive aspects of MOS, a prebiotic, according to many researchers are multi-fold in poultry. It is thought to promote the growth of beneficial microflora of the gut, helps the development of such a gut environment which is deleterious for pathogenic forms, and enhances the production, fertility and immune response. The effect of MOS supplementation has been studied in many species but a little work is done in pigeon. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of MOS supplementation when given in different concentrations, 0.1 %, 0.2 % and 0.5 % of the feed. The birds were randomly divided into four groups, each of 10, and were kept for 35 days. One of the groups was kept as control, i.e., on corn based basal diet; while others were supplemented with different concentrations of MOS as described earlier. During the trial, the birds were immunized against New Castle's disease antigen (La Sota strain), sheep RBCs and DNCB (2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene). The data collected during the trial and later, after the slaughter of the birds, was used to study the parameters including FCR, organ weight, intestinal length, microbiological parameters (CFUs of Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus) and immune response against the aforementioned antigens in three MOS supplemented (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%) and control groups. The results revealed that the gizzard weights in 0.1% and 0.2% dietary MOS supplemented groups were significantly higher when compared with 0.5% dietary MOS supplemented and control groups. The small intestinal weights were also observed to be significantly increased in 0.2% dietary MOS supplemented group as compared with the others. The lengths of small and large intestines were higher in all the dietary MOS supplemented groups compared with the control group. However, no effect of MOS supplementation was observed in terms of body weight, feed conversion ratio, liver, heart, pancreas and large intestinal weights. Secondly, there was no significant increase in the number of microbes under observation (Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus) in any of the MOS supplemented groups when compared to the control. Similarly, the MOS supplementation did not favor the immune response against New Castle's disease antigen in any of the dietary MOS supplemented groups compared to the control. Moreover, the birds in all groups, did not respond to sheep RBCs, therefore, no antibodies were detected. The cell mediated response against DNCB was also observed to be the same in dietary MOS supplemented and control groups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1247,T] (1).

33. Alleviation Of Cyclic Heat Stress In Broilers By Dietary Supplementation Of Mannan-Oligosaccharides And Lactobacillus-based Probiotic

by Muhammad Umar Sohail | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Hibib ur Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The antiviral activity of plants Silybum marianum (seeds), Chenopodium album (whole plant) and Nigella sativa (seeds) were evaluated against Peste des petitis ruminants virus (PPRV) and Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) in this study. Methanolic extraction of these plants was done by using Soxhlet apparatus and extracts were dried by using rotary evaporator. Six dilutions of each extracts 100, SO, 2S, 12.S, 6.2S, 3.12~g/ml were made in distilled water. Vero cells were infected by PPRV and BHK-21 by FMDV respectively. The herbal extracts assays of antiviral and cytotoxic were carried out in cell culture plates. Each well of 96 well cell culture plate were seeded with 104cell/ml of cell suspension. Cell counting was performed by hemocytometeric method. Positive and negative controls for antiviral and cytotoxic assay were also used, incubated the 96 well cell culture plates at 37°C for 4 days. After this incubation, MTT [3-(4,S-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,S-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay were used for the determination of their quantification. Endpoint of this assay was considered in terms of cell survival percentage. Results were compared for qualitative variables using Chi-square technique and quantitative variables by linear regression analysis. 1 OO~g/ml and SOIlg/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 87.9% and 86% respectively in PPRV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for Vero cells. IOuug/ml and SO~g/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 88.5% and 87.2% respectively in FMDV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for BHK-21 cells. Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50!J. glml and 25!J. glml showed prominent cell s urvival of 85% and 84% respectively in PPRV and only one concentrations l Ouug/ml were found cytotoxic.Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50uglml and 25!J.glml showed prominent cell survival of 79% and 77% respectively in FMDV and only one concentrations IOuug/ml were found cytotoxic. Only IOuug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.glml shown prominent antiviral activity 91% and 85% respectively in PPRV. In FMDV l Otlug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.g/ml shown prominent antiviral activity 93% and 91 % respectively. The results of present study are helpful in the treatment of Peste des petitis ruminants and Foot and Mouth Disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1360,T] (1).

34. Serum Biochemical Metabolites, Electrolytes And Minerals Profiling In Heat Stressed Donkeys (Equus Asinus)

by Naz Fatima | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background In developing countries, equines are used as a companion animal, for transportation, carrying goods, pulling carts and to ride. Heat stress (HS) is the major problem of tropical and subtropical region that adversely affects the performance of livestock by altering the physiological indices. Objective The current study is designed to report the dynamics of different physiological indices including serum electrolytes, minerals, biochemical metabolites, hepatic enzymes and thyroid hormones in heat stressed (HSd) donkeys (Equus asinus). Materials and Methods A total of 20 donkeys were involved (10 healthy and 10 clinically diagnosed as HSd), irrespective of their gender and age, in the current study. The health of the donkeys was evaluated by observing vital signs including body temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate and hematocrit. Blood was collected from each animal during summer season in August and serum was harvested by centrifugation, of clotted blood, at 4,000 rpm for 20 minutes. Serum samples were stored at -20°C for analysis. Serum electrolytes and minerals were determined using flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively, after wet digestion of serum. Serum biochemical metabolites and hepatic enzymes were evaluated using commercial kits, spectrophotometrically. Serum thyroid hormones concentrations were determined using commercial ELISA kits. Normal distribution of the data was confirmed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Data was analyzed using Independent Student's t-test by employing Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Data was presented as means ± SE. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results Results revealed significantly higher heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature and hematocrit in heat stressed donkeys. Results revealed that serum sodium and potassium concentrations were significantly lower and serum calcium, magnesium and iron concentrations were significantly higher in heat stressed donkeys. However, there was no significant difference in Na/K ratio and serum chloride in HSd donkeys. Results revealed significantly higher serum total proteins, albumin, globulins concentrations, A/G ratio, LDL-cholesterol levels, T3, T4, AST, ALT, and ALP activity and homocysteine concentrations in heat stressed donkeys. However, serum HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly lower. No significant difference in concentrations of serum glucose and cholesterol was observed. Conclusion Heat stress decreases electrolytes concentration and increases homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol levels that may account for increased risk of cardiovascular manifestations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1437,T] (1).

35. Response Of Cryopreserved Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull Semen To Gallic Acid Inclusion In Semen Extender

by Muhammad Tariq | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The major population of buffalo in the world (more than 75%) is located in Asia and 14% in Pakistan, where buffaloes play an important role in rural livestock production providing milk, meat and work draft force. Genetically the ratio of proven buffalo bulls is lesser than cattle bulls, and additionally the volume of semen and spermatozoa concentration is also lower than cattle semen. The success of inseminating buffalos with cryopreserved semen is also low, which account for major cause of fertility problems. During cryopreservation, the spermatozoa faces osmochemical, mechanical and thermal stresses, which are predominant at dilution, cooling, equilibration, freezing and thawing stages which lead to damage spermatozoa functional and morphological characteristics. Beside these exogenous stresses, oxidative stress damages the spermatozoa endogenously. Keeping in mind all these problems, the reduction of these stresses through inclusion of antioxidants in semen may improve its quality and ultimately the fertility of buffalo bulls. This may be obtained from antioxidant addition to extender at the time of cryopreservation. Gallic acid possess good antioxidative properties, the use of this polyphenolic compound may reduce oxidation in buffalo bull semen. In the current study, semen from four (n=4) healthy Nili Ravi buffalo bulls was collected by artificial vagina and GA was added to the semen @ 1 µM, 15 µM, 30 µM, 45 µM, 60 µM, and 100 µM and a total of six groups were prepared. One group was kept control and no GA was added to that group. The routine quality evaluation of semen for motility and concentration was made, extender was added, then semen cooled to 4°C filled in 0.5mL straws for 4 hours and frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C. The semen was then transported to the Physiology Laboratory of UVAS for further evaluations. The parameters evaluated were percentage motility, plasma membrane integrity (HOST assay), acrosomal integrity (NAR), viability (Live/Dead), DNA integrity (Acridine orange assay) and oxidative stress (TBARS assay). Five straws from each GA group were thawed individually in water bath at 37°C for 30 seconds and evaluated for quality parameters. The data collected was presented as cells ± SE and treatment groups were compared using one way analysis of variance. The group differences were compared by using the Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results revealed that GA improved (P<0.05) the spermatozoa viability and plasma membrane integrity. In conclusion, the addition of 15 µM GA to semen extender improved marginally the buffalo bull spermatozoa motility, viability and membrane integrity but still not sufficient to reach the statistical significance, while it has no protective effects on other parameters like Acrosomal integrity, DNA status and oxidative stress. However further studies are needed to assess the role of GA in different concentrations and other animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1456,T] (1).

36. Serum Biochemical Metabolites, Electrolytes And Minerals Profile Durings Different Lactations In one-Humped Lactating Camels (Camelus Dromedarius)

by Anum Khushal | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background Lactation is characterized by change in metabolic demands of body that induces stress in lactating animals. During lactation the body reserves of nutrients, electrolytes and minerals are lost in milk leading to depletion of reserves. Therefore, lactating animals may suffer from deficiency of nutrients, electrolytes and minerals. Objective The objective of the study was to report whether lactations alter the serum biochemical metabolites, electrolytes and minerals profile of one-humped lactating camels or not. Materials and Methods The study involved 25 healthy, one-humped lactating camels (Camelus dromidarious) selected randomly from the desert area of Bhakkar (Punjab, Pakistan). Camels were divided into five groups (each having five camels) on the basis of lactations. The study involved camels in first, second, third, fourth and fifth lactations. Ten milliliter blood was drawn from jugular vein using sterilized needles and plane syringes. Blood samples were allowed to clot at room temperature and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 15 minutes. Serum was collected and stored at -20ºC till analysis. Serum biochemical metabolites and hepatic enzymes were evaluated spectrophotometrically using commercial kits and serum thyroid hormones were determined using commercial ELISA kits. Serum electrolytes and minerals were determined using flame photometery and atomic absorption spectrophotometery, respectively, after wet digestion of serum. Data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance by SPSS and significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Serum concentration of glucose, total proteins, albumin and globulins, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, and thyroid enzymes did not differ among all the five lactation stages. Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher during second lactation compared with the first, third, forth and fifth lactations. Serum aspartate aminotransferase concentration was significantly higher during first lactation compared with the fourth lactation. Serum alanine aminotransferase concentration was significantly higher during fifth lactation compared with the first lactation. Serum concentration of minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and selenium did not differ during any lactation. Similarly, serum electrolytes including sodium and potassium also did not differ between subsequent lactations. Conclusion Lactations have not much pronounced effects on the serum biochemical metabolites, electrolytes and minerals profile of one-humped lactating camels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1508,T] (1).

37. Evaluation Of Different Extenders For The Cryopreservation Of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Buffalo is playing an important role in our country's economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Genetic potential of low producing animals can be improved by using artificial insemination technology. Unfortunately, less number of elite bulls are available and low fertility rate of buffalo by using cryopreserved semen has been obtained. Semen is exposed to osmotic and oxidative stresses during processing, cryopreservation and thawing before insemination. Fertilizing ability is lost due to spermatozoa damage and it ultimately results in poor conception rates in buffalo. In order to protect spermatozoa from these stresses and improve fertility in buffalo, five osmotic pressure based concentrations of three extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE) were prepared by varying the quantity of the solutes to obtain an osmotic pressure of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295 mOsm/kg. Osmotic pressure was measured by an osmometer. In the first experiment, equal volume of semen obtained from four Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was pooled and used to study the effects of osmotic pressure on post thawed semen characteristics. For this purpose, three basic media: citrate fructose media, tris citric acid fructose media and lactose media were prepared and divided each media in to five equal parts to maintain osmotic pressures of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg. These basis media were stored in a biomedical freezer, which were later used in preparing three semen extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE). During each collection, fifteen extenders (each of three extenders having five osmotic pressures i.e. 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg) were used to extend the semen. After freezing, semen characteristics like sperm motility rate, viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were noted. Post thaw sperm motility rate in (%) CEYE was significant (P<0.05) at 295mOsm/kg compared to 255, 265 and 275mOsm/kg. However, sperm motility rate of different osmotic pressures of TEYE and LEYE was non-significant (P>0.05). Sperm viability rate (%) was non-significant (P>0.05) in all three extenders. Sperm acrosomal integrity rate was non-significant in CEYE and LEYE. However, it was significant (P<0.05) at 265, 275 and 295mOsm/kg in TEYE. Sperm PMI rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were non-significant (P>0.05) in CEYE, TEYE and LEYE. On the basis of the individual and overall comparison of different semen characteristics of three extenders and their osmotic pressures, LEYE with 295mOs.kg was considered to be continued in the next experiment to upgrade the extender by adding taurine (TA) at 0.0, 30, 50 and 70 mM and trehalose (TR) at 0.0, 20, 40, 60 mM concentration. Semen collection, processing, freezing etc were done as per experiment-1 and same post thaw tests were carried out. Post thaw sperm motility rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TA-20mM and all concentration of TR. Sperm viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, PMI rate, MTT reduction rate and lipid peroxidation at different concentrations of TA and TR were recorded non-significant (P>0.05). However, sperm DNA integrity rate was significant (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TR-0.0mM. On the basis of comparison of different semen characteristics under various concentrations of taurine or trehalose, supplemented in semen extenders. Concentration of TR-70mM was considered to be continued in the next experiment to test fertility of the optimized extender. Semen straws of LEYE supplemented with TR-70mM were used to inseminate the 50 buffaloes in heat (Supplemented group), while, traditionally used tris based buffalo bull semen extender was used (control group) to compared pregnancy rate (PR) of this experiment. Pregnancy rate in control and supplemented group was 38 and 54% respectively, which was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1538,T] (1).

38. Determination Of Various Physiological Indices In Dogs Induced By Antipiroplasm Drug

by Tanzila Bashir | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1644,T] (1).

39. Response Of Dietary Yeast Supplementation In Chronic Heat Stressed Broilers On Growth Performance and Organs Development

by Islam Zeb Khan | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousuf | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1676,T] (1).

40. Response Of Dietary Yeast Supplementation In Chronic Heat Stressed Broilers On Serum, Liver And Meat Macro- and Mircro-Minerals

by Tasneem Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Sehrish.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1680,T] (1).

41. Effect Of Lipoic Axid Inclusion In Semen Extender On The Cryopreservation Of Sahiwal Cattle Semen

by Sheeraz Ghani | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1725,T] (1).

42. Seasonal Variations In The Testicular And Seminal Characteristics Of Cholistani Bulls

by Umer Farooq | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Prof. Dr. Habib Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: All the indigenous cattle of Pakistan belong to Zebu (one-humped) cattle (Bos indicus). There are 15 recognized indigenous breeds of cattle which constitute 43% of the total cattle population in the country. Hefty work has been documented on many aspects of Sahiwal and Red Sindhi breeds of cattle in their respective local climates which have rightly gained them an international fame as being the vital tropical milk breeds of Pakistan. However, scanty work has so far been reported on reproductive indices of other indigenous cattle breeds of Pakistan such as Dajal, Cholistani etc under their local climatic conditions, and their potential still remains unearthed. Hence, it is the dire need of time to comprehend the urgency of protection and propagation of the indigenous cattle breeds of Pakistan at every front. Following the global lead, an effort has been made through the present study to highlight a formerly neglected indigenous cattle breed of Pakistan- Cholistani- being reared by the nomadic herders of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan. The study was executed with a specific objective to assess baseline data, seasonal variations and correlations between various non invasive, readily measurable reproductive [age, body weight (BW) and orchidometric parameters viz. scrotal circumference (SC), scrotal skin fold thickness (SSFT), average testicular length (Avg L), average testicular width (Avg W) and paired testicular volume (PTV)], seminal (fresh semen and seminal plasma) and haematobiochemical attributes of Cholistani AI bulls (n=06). Keeping in view the prevailing climatic conditions of the study area, 4 seasons of 2 months duration each were defined as i) stress free autumn (October-November), ii) stressful winter (December-January), stressful dry summer (May-June) and iv) stressful wet summer (July-August). The overall mean values (± SEM) for age, BW, SC, SSFT and PTV in the present study were 92.83±2.63months, 527.55±4.5kg, 35.39±0.28cm, 1.03±0.02cm and 851.84±16.34cm3, respectively. The BW was recorded to be significantly lower (P<0.05) during the stress free autumn (507.08±8.26kg), however no significant difference was found in the remaining stressful seasons of winter, dry and wet summer. The SSFT was significantly higher (P<0.05) in stress free autumn (1.07±0.04cm) and winter (1.13±0.05cm) being followed by that in wet summer (0.97±0.02cm) and dry summer (0.94±0.03cm). SC and PTV were found to be constant during all the study seasons with no significant variation. Significantly positive correlations (P<0.01) were noticed between various traits. The overall mean values (± SEM) for ejaculatory volume, number of ejaculates per bull, mass motility, individual sperm motility, number of dozes frozen per bull, sperm concentration, live sperm, morphologically normal sperm and those with acrosome integrity in the present study were 4.92±0.14mL, 1.89±0.02, 2.26±0.06, 63.51±1.03%, 208.26±8.42, 989.73±27.4million/mL, 86.74±0.55%, 86.34±0.51% and 86.64±0.48%, respectively. In general, all the seminal attributes revealed significantly (P<0.05) better results in stressful seasons as compared to stress free season, with the exception of number of ejaculates per bull which was not affected significantly by seasons. In terms of semen production, a total of 39778 doses of 0.5 mL straws were frozen during the study period. Significantly higher number of doses per bull (P<0.05) was frozen during dry (245.37±17.84) and wet summer (250.37±17.75) as compared to autumn (191.4±14.22) and winter (143.92±11.25); the difference between the latter two seasons was also significant, while it was non significant between the former two seasons Regarding the subjective analysis of spermatozoa, higher (P<0.05) mean values were recorded for all three parameters (live, morphologiclly normal and acrosome intact sperm) during stressful winter and dry summer as compared to wet summer and autumn, the difference between the former two seasons was, however, non significant. Moreover, mean values for these attributes were significantly higher during wet summer as compared to autumn. Amongst the physical attributes of semen, only mass motility revealed a significantly positive (P<0.01) correlation with individual sperm motility (r 0.619). However, regarding the subjective analyses, live sperm had a positive correlation with normal (r 0.848) and with acrosome integral sperm (r 0.790). In seminal plasma chemistry, the overall mean values (± SEM) for Na+, K+, cholesterol and glucose recorded in the present study were 236.41±4.2, 142.95±3.81, 152.02±3.17 and 127.22±3.65 mg%, respectively. Amongst these, Na+ was significantly higher (P<0.05) during dry summer (270.35±8.89mg%) whereas K+ was higher in dry summer (169.1±5.54mg%) and winter (154.80±6.29mg%). Cholesterol and glucose were found to be significantly elevated (P<0.05) during dry summer season being 173.7±4.24 and 147.95±7.74mg%, respectively. Na+ had a significantly positive (P<0.05) correlation with glucose (r 0.232). Similarly, positive (P<0.01) correlations were seen for K+ with Na+ (r 0.341) and cholesterol (r 0.390). The overall mean values (± SEM) for Hb, TEC, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC recorded for the Cholistani AI bulls in the present study were 12.24±0.15mg/dL, 6.28±0.82×106/µL, 37.3±0.4%, 59.77±0.61fL, 19.58±0.2pg and 32.89±0.33g/dL, respectively. Regarding the white blood cell values, the overall means (± SEM) for TLC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were 7.58±0.17×103/µL, 40.45±1.05%, 53.2±0.85%, 4.05±0.47% and 2.3±0.26%, respectively. DLC, in the present study, revealed that the lymphocytes were the predominant leukocytes followed by neutrophils. No significant effect (P<0.05) of season was noticed on any of the red blood cell values studied. However, TLC amongst the white blood cell values was found to be significantly higher in dry summer (8.16±0.28×103/µL). The overall mean values (± SEM) for blood serum NA+, K+, cholesterol and glucose recorded for the present study were 130.73±0.91, 7.37±0.11, 82.8±1.52 and 75.22±2.04mg%, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations between mass and individual sperm motility, morphologically normal and live sperm and sperm acrosome integrity and live sperm (P<0.01). Among biochemical attributes of seminal plasma, Na+ and K+, cholesterol and K+ and glucose and Na+ were correlated (P<0.01). Only seminal plasma cholesterol was positively correlated with ejaculatory volume (P<0.01). An overall mean value of 5.81±0.32ng/mL was recorded in the present study for testosterone being non significantly effected by seasons. All its correlations with all attributes studied were found to be non significant. In conclusion, various physical and biochemical attributes of Cholistani bull semen were better in stressful seasons as compared to stress free season. The acceptable quality of semen of Cholistani bulls recorded during wet/dry summer in the present study is an indicative of the fact that this breed has an innate ability of being well adapted to the harsh, hot desert climate. Furthermore, the present study revealed that the Cholistani breeding bulls have an amazing tendency to maintain most of their haematobiochemical parameters at a near constant level without showing much variation during stress free or stressful times. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1739,T] (1).

43. Response Of Cryopreserved Cholistani Bull Semen To Butylated Hydroxytoluene Inclusion In Semen

by Abaid-ur-Rehman Cheema | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Dawar | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1745,T] (1).

44. Response Of The Dietary Yeast Supplementation In Chronic Heat Stressed Broilers On Serum Biochemical

by Usama Ahmed | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Sehrish.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1750,T] (1).

45. Temporal Analysis Of Crude Spectacled Cobra Venom On Various Haematiological And Serolocical

by Zainab Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Quaid Zaman | Dr. Khalid Abdul Majeed | Dr. Zia Ullah | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: The snake venom has both neurotoxic and haemotoxic effects. The Pakistani spectacled black cobra venom is considered to be mainly neurotoxin and there is a need to evaluate its haemotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the acute bio-physiological effects of LD50 dose of crude venom of cobraat different time intervals after I/M envenomation in mice. The crude venom was obtained from the black cobra, Naja Naja karachensis found in the region of Mian Chanuu, Punjab and the venom was lyophilized. Twenty adult male mice, approximately 20g weight, were housed in cages for one week at the animal shed of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture after general anesthesia at time 0 from the five overnight-nonfed mice injected i/m with normal saline. Remaining mice (15 in number) were injected i/m with LD50 dose (1.2mg/kg) of cobra venom. Blood samples were collected from five animals at each time intervals of 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of envenomation. The hematological and biochemical parameters studied were complete blood count, estimation of plasma glucose, plasma total protein, plasma albumin, alanine aminotranferase and urea by commercially available enzymatic kits. There was a significant increase in red blood cells count and its indices (haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) and platelets at 1, 1.5 and 2 hours after envenomation in albino mice compared to 0 hr.A significant decrease in the count of white blood cells was observedafter 1 hour of injection compared to 0 hr, however it was increased significantly after 2 hours of envenomation compared to 0 hour. The lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes percentageswere not changed after envenomation in mice.Plasma glucose showed a significant decrease at 1 hour of I/M injection compared to 0 hr that increased in subsequent time intervals compared to 0 hr in albino mice. The concentration of urea was significantly increased at 1, 1.5 and 2hours of envenomation in comparison with the concentration at 0 hour. The concentration of plasma total proteins showed a significant increase at 2hours of time interval as compared to 0, 1 and 1.5hours after envenomation in mice. The plasma albumin concentration at 1.5 and 2hours of time interval showed a significant increase as compared to that at 0 and 1 hour. The concentration of ALT also increased at any time interval. Therefore it is concluded that the crude spectacled cobra venom is both neurotoxin and hemotoxic in nature. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1775,T] (1).

46. Effect On Hematological Indices And Serum Mineral Profiles Of Beetal Goats In District Swat At Different Altitudes

by Faisal Anwar | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Mr. Muhammad Imran Khan | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Livestock is the major source of income of rural population. Approximately 70% of the people in rural areas depend directly or indirectly on livestock for their house hold income and nutrition. Livestock efficiency mainly depends on their health and well-being. Blood is one of the reliable medium from which we can evaluate the health condition of an animal. Livestock in Pakistan is reared in various altitudes. Information on various physiological indices in goats related to altitude is scarce for Pakistan. The present has been conducted at three different altitudes, two altitude groups from district Swat and one group at Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A total of 60 blood samples were collected from three different altitudinal groups and then the hematological parameters was determined through hematological analyzer and serum concentration of Calcium and Potassium by flame photometer, Phosphorus by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, Chlorine by silver Nitrate titration method and Iron by Drabkin method. The White blood cell count (WBC) found 10.47±0.34 × 103/µL at altitude 1177 feet, 8.33±0.13 × 103/µL at altitude 2863 feet and 11.52±0.52 × 103/µL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The lymphocytes count (LYMP) found 28.90±0.46 percent at altitude 1177 feet, 28.55±0.60 percent at altitude 2863 feet and 31.15±0.99 percent at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The granulocytes (GRAN) count found 65.10±0.85 percent at altitude 1177 feet, 65.89±1.41 percent at altitude 2863 feet and 67.23±1.87 percent at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The red blood cell count (RBC) found 10.98±0.22 million/µL at altitude 1177 feet, 11.65±0.15 million/µL at altitude 2863 feet and 14.62±0.26 million/µL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The hemoglobin count (Hb) found 5.17±0.19 g/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 7.23±0.10 g/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 10.96±0.59 g/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Hematocrit count (HCT) found 29.14±0.39 percent at altitude 1177 feet, 28.94±0.42 percent at altitude 2863 feet and 30.69±0.48 percent at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) found 28.83±0.43femtoliter at altitude 1177 feet, 31.06±0.37 femtoliter at altitude 2863 feet and 35.94±0.39 femtoliter at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) found 5.27±0.12 picogram at altitude 1177 feet, 5.73±0.10 picogram at altitude 2863 feet and 6.78±0.09 picogram at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) found 29.82±0.49 g/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 32.10±0.57 g/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 34.32±0.39 g/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The platelets (PLT) count found 270.9±3.81 103/µL at altitude 1177 feet, 294.95±3.61 103/µL at altitude 2863 feet and 283.50±5.28 103/µL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Calcium (Ca) level found in serum was 8.79±0.23 mg/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 9.44±0.16 mg/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 9.80±0.16 mg/dL at altitude 4200 from sea level. The Chloride (Cl) level found in serum was 102.91±0.39 m?q/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 104.08±0.42 m?q/dL at altitude 2863 and 105.50±0.57 m?q/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Phosphorus (P) level found in serum was 3.98±0.02 mg/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 5.52±0.08 mg/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 6.34±0.08 mg/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Potassium (K) level found in serum was 3.98±0.04 m?q/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 4.61±0.06 m?q/dL at altitude 2863 feet and 4.93±0.04 m?q/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. The Iron (Fe) level was found 87.12±0.97 µg/dL at altitude 1177 feet, 97.44±0.67 µg /dL at altitude 2863 feet and 106.35±0.87 µg/dL at altitude 4200 feet from sea level. A significant difference was found between different altitudes in WBC count, LYMP percent, RBC count, Hg level, HCT percent, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, Ca level, Cl level, P level, K level, Fe level and no significant difference was observed in GRAN percent. This study generated a better understanding that hematology and serum mineral profile has been affected as an increase occurs in the altitudes and it reflects that increase in RBCs, Hematocrit and hemoglobin level at different altitudes also the serum mineral level goes high as there is an increase in the altitudes shows the adaptation of animal to the environmental condition and this study will be helpful in disease investigation and management of animals at different altitudes and different stress conditions. Further studies are been required to evaluate the effect of altitude, feed intake, nutrition, environmental stress and climatic condition on the hematology and serum mineral profile of different breeds of small ruminants and large ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1777,T] (1).

47. Effect Of Anti-Stressor Supplement On Varous Physiological Markers Of Broiler Chicks Under Chronic Heat Stress

by Madeeha Wajid | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbain | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur- Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1801,T] (1).

48. Effect Of Different Physiological Stages On Heamatological And Biochemiscal Parameters Of Nili-Ravi Buffalo And Sahiwal Cattle

by M. Zohaib Aslam | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Mr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: 6.1 Background The proper disease diagnosis in large ruminants is required for overcoming the economy loss due to livestock poor management. Blood biochemical and hematological parameters are one of an important medium to assess the physiological and pathological condition of animals. Any physiological and pathological change can be evaluated only if the normal values are available for comparison. Factors such as age, breed, geographical location, diet, sex, diurnal variation, physical activity, pregnancy and environment are known to influence the serum biochemistry and haematology of large ruminants. Our hypothesis was to evaluate the effect of different physiological stages (pre-pubertal and pubertal) on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cattle. 6.2 Materials and Methods Sixty blood samples (30 Cattle and 30 Buffalo) were collected from Ravi Campus Pattoki, UVAS and divided on the basis of different physiological stages, pre-pubertal (10-12) and pubertal (22-24 months) into two groups. The collected samples used to estimate complete blood counts by hematological analyzer. The biochemical parameters include cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, AST and ALT by commercially available kits (Biogene and crescent). 6.3 Statistical Analysis Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 17 used. Further T Test was used to compare the hematological and blood biochemical between two age groups. Differences was considered significant at P<0.05 (Steel et al.1997). 6.4 Results The hematological parameters RBCs, Hb and PCV were showed a significant difference at Pre-pubertal and pubertal stage of both buffalo and cattle. Whereas the WBCs count, lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, MCV and MCH were not found significantly different at pre-pubertal and pubertal stages of buffalo and cattle. The serum level of glucose recorded highest and urea level lowest at pubertal stage in both buffalo and cattle. The cholesterol and triglyceride were found significantly (p<0.05) lowest, while liver enzyme AST and ALT were found significantly highest with the aging of animal in both species. No significant changes were observed in total protein level at pre-pubertal and pubertal stage in buffalo and cattle. 6.5 Conclusions The WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV were found significantly different between pre-pubertal and pubertal stages in both species. The values of theses parameters recorded highest at pubertal stage, while granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, MCV and MCH were found non-significantly different. Different physiological stages had a significant effect on glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, Urea, ALT and AST in both species. The results of this study indicated that different physiological stages must be taken as very important factor in determining the blood parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1806,T] (1).

49. Assessment Of Optimal Level Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene For Short Term Storage Of Broiler Breeder Semen

by Sikander Abbas | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Ali Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Short term Preservation of broiler breeder semen is an unnatural method in which spermatozoa faces oxidative stress, osmotic and thermal shocks. This affects preserved semen quality resulting in low conception rates. In order to overcome oxidative stress, Butylated Hydroxytoluene was used as antioxidant in poultry semen during short term preservation at 4ºC for 48 hours. Keeping in view the significance of BHT as a potent antioxidant, the present study was conducted to determine the significance of BHT inclusion in preserved Hubbard broiler breeder semen for reduction of oxidative stress. In the current study, semen from six (n=6) healthy broiler breeder was collected by abdominal massage and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was added to the semen @ 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM. One group was kept control and no BHT was added to that group. The routine quality evaluation of semen for motility and concentration was made, extender was added and then semen was stored at 4°C for 48 hours. The parameters evaluated were percentage motility, plasma membrane integrity (HOST), viability (Live/Dead) and DNA integrity (Acridine orange assay). Seven samples were taken from each concentration of BHT and thawed individually in water bath at 37°C for 30 seconds and evaluated for quality parameters. In conclusion, the addition of 1 mM BHT to semen extender improved marginally the broiler breeder spermatozoa motility, viability, plasma membrane integroty and DNA integrirty at different period of time. In controled group the quality of semen after preservation was poor due to oxidative stress which will effect the fertility rate. The Butylated Hydroxytoluene has antioxidant properties, so inclusion of BHT in preserved Hubbard broiler breeder semen was tested in our research. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1808,T] (1).

50. Effect Of Age And Gender On Hematological And Biochemical Parameters Of Beetal Goat And Lohi Sheep

by Sidra Shafique | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof. Dr. Khalid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Small ruminants are one of the domestic animals of the inhabitants of Pakistan. In semi-arid and arid areas goat and sheep provides the main means of survival and security. So the proper health management of animals is must require for their survival. Hematlogical and biochemical tests are widely used for the diagnosis of serious animal diseases which can lead to economics losses in animals like reduced fur, wool and milk production. A large number of factors such as sex, age, gender, breed, illness, stress, seasonal variation and nutrition can affect the pattern of these clinical values. Our hypothesis was to evaluate the effect of age and gender on hematological and biochemical indices of Beetal goat and Lohi sheep in Ravi campus Pattoki UVAS. One hundred and twenty blood samples (60 Goats and 60 sheep) were taken and divided on the basis of their age and gender (0-3 months, 9-12months and 18-20 months). Complete blood counts were performed by hematology analyzer (Abacus junior vet. Serial # 130076, Diatron GmbH wein, Austria) at W.T.O, UVAS. The biochemical parameter included albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea AST and ALT were determined by commercially available kits (Biogene® and Crescent®). The arithmetic means (± SE) of hematological and biochemical parameters in different groups were calculated. The arithmetic means (± SE) of hematological and biochemical parameters in different groups were calculated. The collected data were subjected to two way analysis of variance through statistical package SPSS version 13 to evaluate mean differences in hematological and blood biochemical parameters of different age groups. Difference among the means of groups with p<0.05 was considered as significant through LSD test (Steel et al.1997). In this study age and gender had a remarkable influence on the pattern of hematological and biochemical values of both sheep and goat. The RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, WBCs and lymphocytes counts found significantly (p<0.05) higher in animal of age 18 to 20 months as compared to other groups in both species, While MCHC, monocytes and granulocytes found non-significantly (p>0.05) different. Male showed statistically (p<0.05) higher RBCs, Hb, PCV and MCV values as compared to female. The glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, AST, ALT, Total protein, albumin and globulin were found significantly (p<0.05) different by the aging of animal. Gender had no significant (p>0.05) influences on biochemical parameters of both sheep and goat. Conclusion Based on these findings age and gender had significant influence on hematological and biochemical parameters. In general veterinary practices, body weights are usually considered for therapeutic and nutritional strategies. Often too young animals are treated with more caution. In conclusion it can be mentioned that not only body weight but also age of the animals should be considered for devising therapeutic and nutritional strategy in livestock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1814,T] (1).



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