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1. Handbook of Poultry Practice

by Prajapati,Giriraj.

Edition: IstedMaterial type: book Book Publisher: New Delhi: Random Publications, 2014Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.5 Prajapati 30059 1st 2014 30059 Poultry] (2).

2. A Study On The Effects Of Different Photperiods On The Performance Of Coturnix Coturnix Japonica (Japanese Quails)

by Khalid Mahmood | Ch Muhammad Saleem | Dr Muhammad Aslam Bhatti | Dr Saghir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: The study was aimed to find out the effect of different photoperiods on body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, age at first egg laid, mortality and dressing percentage of Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix Japonica) . The photoperiods provided were natural day light, 6 hours light and 18 hours darkness, 10 hours light and 14 hours darkness and 14 hours light and 10 hours darkness to groups A, B, C and D respectively. One hundred and eighty, one day old quail chicks were divided into four groups comprising 45 birds each. These groups were further sub-divided into three replicates of 15 birds each. They were provided 25 sq. inches floor space per bird and fed ad-libiturn on a ration containing 26% protein throughout the study period of 70 days. Feeding, watering, environmental and manage mental conditions were made identical for all the birds. The average live weight of the quails recorded at the end of the 10th week was 161.25 gms., 134.52 gms., 165.59 gms., and 186.33 gms., with feed consumption of 870, 699, 882, and 1031 gms., for the groups A, B, C and D respectively. A highly significant difference was observed for weight gain among all the groups except groups A and C. For feed consumption a highly significant difference (P/0.0l) was observed in groups B and D while the difference in groups A and D was significant (PL0.05) and no significant difference was noticed in groups A and C, because of almost equal hours of light. The feed conversion ratio was 5.68, 5.53, 5.60 and 5.79 for groups A, B, C and D respectively, and no significant difference was observed among all the groups. The age in days at which the first egg laid was 55, 69, 58 and 51 in groups A, B, C and D respectively. The mortality percentage was 16.00, 33.55, 13.33 and 11.00 and the mean dressing percentages recorded at the end of experiment were 62.5, 63.0, 62.7 and 64.0 for groups A, B, C and D respectively. No significant difference was observed for dressing percentage in all the groups. CONCLUSION From the results of the present study it was concluded that Japanese quails can be reared economically and efficiently under natural day light throughout the year in Punjab for table purpose. It is advisable to market the broiler quails at 6 weeks of age as keeping them longer is uneconomical. However, if the quails are to be kept for breeding purpose, at least 14 hours continuous light per day should be given in order to attain early sexual maturity and onset of egg production. It is suggested that the study should be extended upto two successive generations to assess the productive potential of Japanese quails in detail under local environmental conditions of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0784,T] (1).

3. Effect Of Different Dietary Energy & Perfomance Of Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Azam Chaudhri | Dr Nisar Ahmad | Dr Muhammad Yaqoob Malik | Mr Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: A research project was undertaken to study the effect of different dietary energy and protein ratios on the performance of broiler chicks. The performance of chicks were studied under the headings of weight gain, feed efficiency, feed consumption, dressing percentage and economics. Four starter rations containing calorie protein ratios of 167, 149, 136 and 123 and four finisher rations containing calorie protein ratios of 199, 178, 159 and 145 were tried on one hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks of both sexes for a period of 50 days. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 22 days the finisher rations were fed. The results showed that the starter rations containing calorie protein ratios of 136 and finisher ration containing calorie protein ratio of 159 were best in promoting weight gain, feed utilization and were economical as compared to other calories protein ratios. Different calorie protein ratios did not influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks. It was concluded that careful combinations of energy and protein in poultry feed formulations Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0886,T] (1).

4. Effect Of Light Restriction On Performance Of Baroilers Fed Conventional And Non Conventional and Non Conventional Growth Promoters

by Shafique-ur-Rahman | Dr. Athar Mahmood | Prof.Dr | Dr. Farina Malik Khattak.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: This study was performed to investigate the effects of light restriction and non conventional growth promoters on growth performance of broilers. For this purpose one hundred and eighty broiler chicks were grown in an open sided house for a period 42 days. Chicks were randomly distributed into four groups (A, B, C and D) each containing five replicates with nine birds each. Groups A and B were reared under continuous light, groups C and D received restricted light of 20 hrs light and 4 hrs dark.. Groups A and C were fed with diet containing conventional growth promoter. Zinc bacitracin at dose rate of 0.5 grams per kilogram of feed was used as a conventional growth promoter. Groups B and D received non conventional growth promoters. Botanical growth promoter 1 (B.G.P 1) was used as non conventional growth promoter dose rate was 1 gram per kilogram of feed. Body weight gain and feed intake was recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment mortality, microbial count and economics of the project was calculated. Data revealed that birds in all groups had non significant (P>0.05) weight gain, feed intake and FCR when compared with each other. Microbial count was higher in groups fed with conventional growth promoters than non conventional growth promoters. Mortality in control group A was highest (8.8%) as compared to group B, C and D which was 4.4. 6.6 and 0% respectively. Rectal temperatures of all treated groups were similar (37oC) to those of control birds. This study clearly indicated that non conventional growth promoter can be used in place of conventional growth promoters and restricted lighting reduces mortality and electricity cost. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0956,T] (1).

5. Comparative Growth Performance Of Different Broilers Strains

by Syed Ansar Hussain Shah Naqvi | Dr.Farina Malik | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram | Prof.Dr.Talat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: This present study was performed to investigate the comparative growth performance of different broiler strains. The experimental birds from four different strains viz Arbor acre (AA), Hubbard (RB), Hybro (FlY), and Starbro (ST) were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups each having 14 birds to evaluate the best performing strain under the local environmental condition. All the chicks in each replicate were weighed and placed in individual litter floor pens with the provision of separate feeding and drinking equipment. Ad. Libitum feed and water was offered to the birds in each replicate with the provision of 24hours light. Commercial broiler starter feed was provided from 0-4 weeks and finisher from 5-6 weeks of age. Room temperature and humidity percentage was recorded daily. Body weight, feed intake were recorded weekly. FCR was also calculated on weekly basis. And mortality was recorded as and when occurred. At the end of the experiment two birds' one male and one female from each replicate were randomly selected to study slaughter parameters such as live weight, dressed weight and different organs weight (shank length, head weight, liver weight, gizzard weight, heart weight, intestine weight, intestine length, ceacal weight). The daily temperature range was 24 C to 40 C and the humidity percentage was from 20 to 90 % throughout the experimental period. The overall data showed no significant difference (P<0.05) in weight gain, feed consumption and FCR values of four different broiler strains. However, consistently higher weight gain and feed consumption was observed in birds of strains AA. Where as comparable FCR values were observed in birds of strains AA, RB and HY. However birds in strains SB showed lowest (P>0.05) weight gain and highest FCR. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in live weight of male and female birds. Highest (P<0.05) live weight and dressed weight was observed in birds of SB strain. The highest dressing percentage was observed in birds of AA and HY strains. The significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in head weight of female birds from different broiler strains, the head weight of the birds from HB was significantly (P< 0.05) higher compared to lower weight of AA. The significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in shank length of female of the group AA birds. There was no significance difference (P> 0.05) in the liver weight, gizzard weight, intestinal weight, intestinal length, and ceacal weight of birds from different broiler strains. The trial indicated that all the broiler strains such as Arbor acre (AA), Hubbard (RB), Hybro (HY), and Starbro (SB) can be reared profitably and uniformly under our local environmental temperature. It is also evident from the data that each strain has its own peculiar characteristics. AA, I-lB. and MY showed better growth performance, whereas maximum mortality was observed in the birds of SB thus indicating poor resistance to the diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1000,T] (1).

6. Comparative Hatching Traits Of Different Broiler Strains

by Muhammad Usman Khan | Dr.Farinea Malik Khattak | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram | Prof.Dr.Talat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Poultry industry of Pakistan contributes a large segment to the national economy with an investment of more than 70 billions of rupees and has become the second largest industry after textile in Pakistan. The present project is designed to study the comparative hatching traits of different broiler strains. There are many commercial poultry companies that rear parent stocks consisting of different broiler parent strains of Hubbard, Hybro, Starbro, Arbor Acres. This sector is presently showing an annual growth rate of about 10-15 percent per annum and playing a vital role in narrowing down the gap between supply and requirement of animal protein foods. The present project is designed to study the comparative hatching traits of different broiler strains Hubbard, Hybro, Starbro, Arbor Acres. A total of 600 eggs comprising 150 each of the 4 broiler breeder strains viz. Hubbard, Hybro, Starbro and Arbor acres were purchased from local companies maintaining parent breeder flocks. These eggs were divided into three replicates having 50 eggs of each. All the eggs were examined on the basis of their size, shape and shell texture for the selection of settable eggs in each replicate. All eggs were weighed and coded and 3 eggs from each replicate were taken for measuring the egg quality characteristics before setting in the setter part of the incubator for the first 18 days. On day 19 all eggs were transferred to the hatcher room. Prior to shift eggs to the hatcher, all eggs were candled to check the fertility. Chicks were collected after 21 days from hatcher. The parameter such as, egg Weight, shell weight, shell thickness, albumen Weight, albumen height, yolk colour, yolk height, yolk diameter, yolk weight, yolk index, meat spot, blood spot, hatchability percentage, chick weight, infertility percentage, dead in germ percentage, dead in shell percentage were studied. The result of present study showed that, the mean egg weight indicated significant differences among different broiler strains. The maximum mean egg weight was recorded in Hubbard strain (68.5 gm ± 4.7).The mean shell weight showed significant difference among different broiler strains. The mean shell thickness showed non-significant difference among different broiler strains. The mean yolk colour, yolk diameter, yolk weight showed significant difference (p<O.O5) among four different broiler strains. The mean yolk height and yolk index showed non-significant difference (P>0.05) among different strains. The mean albumen weight and albumin height indicated significant difference (P<0.05) among four different broiler strains. The meat spot percentage showed that the significantly increased (P<0.05) number of meat spots were observed in eggs obtained from Hubbard strain (1.33 ±4.6) compared to all of other strains. The blood spot percentage significantly (P<0.05) higher number were recorded in starbro strain (1.98 ± 0.56) as compared to all other strains. The hatchability percentage of Hubbard strain (71.63 ± 5.71) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to Arbor Acre strain (39.71± 4.91) and Hybro strain (33.57+ 6.22) and the hatchability percentage of Hubbard strain (71.63 ± 5.71) and Starbro strain (68.30± 7.21) were with in same ranges. The mean chick weight indicated significant difference (P<0.05) among different broiler strains. The significantly highest (P<0.05) chick weight was recorded in Hubbard strain (45.17±4.6) as compared to all other strains. The infertility percentage of Hybro strain (1.77±0.20) and Arbor Acre strain (3 9.33±5.42) were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to infertility percentage of Hubbard strain (14.66±6.67) and Starbro strain (24.50 ±4.26).The dead in shell and dead in germ percentage showed significant difference (P<0.05) among four different broiler strains Based on the finding of this study it may be concluded that the egg quality characteristics like egg weight, shell weight, yolk colour, yolk weight, yolk diameter, albumin weight, albumin height, meat and blood spot percentage have significant differences among different broiler strains. The shell thickness, yolk index, yolk height non-significant difference among four different broiler strains. The Hubbard strain had maximum egg weight, yolk weight, yolk height, albumen height, in comparison to all other three strains. The results with regard to Hatchability traits like chick weight, hatchability percentage, infertility percentage, dead in germ percentage, dead in shell percentage have significant difference among different broiler strains. The Hubbard strain had maximum hatchability percentage and chick weight in comparison to all other three strains. On the basis of this study it may concluded that Hubbard strain have better results as compared to Arbor Acre, Hybro, Starbro strains. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1001,T] (1).

7. Effect Of Vitamin E And Selenium Supplementation On The Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response in Broilers

by Syed Kaleem -Ul- Hassan | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics and immune response in broilers. For this purpose, 400 commercial day old broiler chicks of Hubbard strain were purchased from a reputed local hatchery. They were maintained in experimental poultry house, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore during the month of July & August. The chicks were randomly divided into 4 equal experimental groups viz. without supplementation, selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented, each comprising 100 chicks. The chicks in each group were further randomly sub-divided into 10 replicates of 10 chicks each. All the experimental chicks were initially weighed and individually tagged for identification and kept in 40 pens (10 birds/pen) on littered floor under optimal managemental conditions. The experimental birds were protected against Newcastle Disease through prophylactic vaccination at the age of 4 days (Intraocular route) and then at 21 days (drinking water). Prophylactic vaccination against Infectious Bursal Disease was also performed at 14 and 28 days through drinking water. The birds were given selenium (3mg/kg feed), vitamin E (200 mg/kg feed) and vitamin E+selenium (lcc/10L drinking water) in selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented groups, respectively, and those in without supplementation were maintained as non-supplemented group. Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded weekly to calculate the Feed Conversion Ratio. At the end of experiment mortality, carcass characteristics, anti-NDV titre were recorded and economics of the project was calculated. The results of this study indicated significant (P<0.05) differences in feed intake and feed conversion ratio due to supplementation with selenium and vitamin E, however, a non-significant effect on body weight gain of broilers was observed due to supplementation. The feed intake in group without supplementation was significantly (P<0.05) different from all other groups, however, non-significant difference was observed in feed intake of groups selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented. FCR in group without supplementation was significantly poor than those of other groups, however, non-significant difference in FCR of groups selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented was observed. Results obtained from the study showed significant (P<0.05) differences on carcass characteristics i.e. liver weight and bursa weight, however, non-significant difference in dressing percentage, shank length, keel length, gizzard weight, heart weight, spleen weight and bursa of fabricious diameter due to supplementation of selenium and vitamin E was observed. Statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was found in liver weight of broilers between without supplemented and supplemented groups. The liver weight in group selenium supplemented was significantly greater from group without supplementation, however, non-significant difference was observed in liver weight of groups without supplementation, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented. The bursa weight of the birds in group vitamin E+selenium supplemented was significantly lower from all groups, however, non-significant differences were observed among the birds in groups without supplementation, selenium supplemented and vitamin E supplemented. The results in respect of antibody titres against New castle disease virus vaccine showed that the groups supplemented either with selenium and vitamin E alone or in combination through feed or drinking water gave higher anti-NDV titre than un-supplemented group. The values obtained were 5.30, 6.77, 7.06 and 7.80 for without supplementation, selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium (D), respectively. The economics of production of broilers in different experimental groups indicated that average cost of production remained RS 91.86, 88.21,86.84 and 87.61 in groups without supplementation (A), selenium supplemented (B), vitamin E supplemented (C) and vitamin E+selenium supplemented (D), respectively, showing a higher cost of production in groups B, C and D by RS 3.65, 5.02 and 4.25, respectively in comparison to the control group on account of additional cost of supplementation with selenium, vitamin E and vitamin E+selenium, respectively. The average return came out to be RS 102.042, 104.304, 104.034 and 103.20 in groups A, B, C and D, respectively, and this variation was due to difference in cost of feed intake and weight gain of broilers in different groups. The average profit per bird in groups A, B, C and D was found to be RS 10.182, 16.094, 17.195 and RS 15.586, respectively, indicating a higher margin of profit in groups B, C and D by RS 5.912, 7.013 and 5.404, respectively, in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this study it may be stated that dietary supplementation of selenium (3 mg/kg feed) in broilers may improve feed conversion efficiency. The dietary supplementation with vitamin E (200 mg/kg feed) may increase anti-NDV titres and may enhance economic returns in broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1002,T] (1).

8. A Study On Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Of Chicken Growth Hormone Gene In White Cornish ,Lyall Pur Silver Black ,Aseel and Desi Chicken of Pakistan

by Mr.Imran Zahoor | Dr.Muhamad Akram | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Molecular Cytogenetics and Genomic Lab, Department of Livestock Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and School of Biological Sciences, Punjab University, Lahore. For this Purpose twelve chickens, three each of four different breeds (White Cornish, Lyall pur Silver Black, Aseel, Desi,) were selected. LSB birds were collected from Agriculture University, Faisalabad. Where as birds of Desi and Aseel chickens were taken from Mianwali. White Comish birds were obtained from Big Bird Poultry breeders, Lahore. The pituitary gland of all the twelve birds of the above mentioned four breeds were taken out to extract the mRNA that was then converted into eDNA by using RT-PCR. Then that cDNA was amplified through PCR reaction. After amplification, the PCR products were loaded on agarose gel. Then these PCR products were cloned into vector in three steps. Firstly purified Gg GH mRNA was ligated into linearized pET22b. Then it was transformed into E. coli DH5CL with pTZ57R/GgGHG. Positive clones containing recombinant plasmid (pTZ57R/GgGHG) were screened by "Blue-White screening". Cells from a single colony for each of the W1 -W4 were resuspended separately in 50µl of sterile distilled water. This mixture was then used as template for PCR and the Gg GHG coding sequence cloned in plasmid DNA was then amplified and product was run on gel to study the result. These cloned products were used for the sequencing of growth hormone gene. Further results were obtained by using the consensus sequences of growth hormone of four breeds of chicken in ClustalW2 and Bioedit software and it was found that three SNPs were detected in Aseel, and one in each of Desi and LSB while comparing with White Comish. Out of three, first, second and third SNP were detected in Aseel at location of 261, 435 and 551 position of nucleotide in the exon portion of growth hormone gene, and C is replaced with G at location 261 and C is replaced with T at position 435 whereas at position 551, T is replaced by A. At these locations codon changes from CTC to CTG and TTC to TTC and TTC to TAC respectively. Only one SNP was detected in Desi and LSB at location 513 where A is replaced with G in both the breeds and codon change from AAA to AAG. To determine the relationship among all these breed (White Cornish, Aseel, Desi and LSB) a phylogenetic analysis was done. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the presence and absence of restriction site and/or genotypic frequencies in the cGH motif of growth hormone gene. The phylogenetic consensus tree was constructed using the boostrapped data and neighbour-joining method. The Nei's genetic distance (Da) values of Aseel was 0. 00970, while comparing the genetic distances of White Comish with Aseel, it is found that there was a difference of 0 . 00320 and LSB has similar genetic distances and having no genetic difference among themselves. As LSB was evolved by crossing four different breeds Desi and White Leg Horn for female line and White Cornish and New Hampshire for male line so LSB is placed in-between Desi and White Comish as it has the 25% blood of Desi and 25% blood of White Cornish. Where as Aseel is different that's why it is placed far distant from three other breeds but as Aseel and Desi and LSB also are breeds of Asian origin and they were originated from red jungle fowl that's why Aseel, Desi and LSB (a cross of Desi with other three breeds; mentioned above) are placed more close to each other than White Cornish that is the breed of English class. In the present study, the Amino Acid compositions of the growth hormone of four different breeds of chicken were also studied and it was found that there although there were three mutations in Aseel but out of these three, two showed silent mutation and only one mutation was active. This active mutation cause change in the amino acid composition of the chicken growth hormone of these four breeds of poultry and in this study Phenylalanine is changed into Tyrosine at the location of 184t11 amino acid out of 191 amino acids (full length chicken growth hormone). But one mutation that was found in each of Desi and LSB in their comparison with White Comish were silent as the new sequences does not cause any change in amino acid sequence of growth hormone gene of Desi and LSB. CONCLUSION: In the present study, three SNPs were detected in the Exon region of the mRNA and one amino acid Phenylalanine is changed to Tyrosine, this amino acid change is in the conserved domain so it can be used as a marker for the further breeding program. RECOMMENDATIONS Present study laid the foundation of molecular techniques in the poultry but still 1. There is need of comprehensive study in which atleast 25 bird should be used in each strain. 2. Along with DNA study, there is need to study the phenotypic characters by rearing these strain upto three generations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1003,T] (1).

9. Relative Biological Availability Of Feed Grade Dicalcium Phosphate & Monocalcium Phosphate And Their Effects on Productive Performance of Broilers

by Muhammad Asim Shahzad | Dr.Farine Malik Khattak | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof.Dr.Talat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The live weights of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) gave non significant (p<O.05) results but numerically group D and E gave higher values, like wise, dressed weight were higher in group D and E. The dressing % of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) were also non significant (P>O.05). The liver weights of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) at 35 days of age were non significant (P<O.05). However within these groups, birds fed on control diet & DCP imported (group A & D) showed higher liver weights. Similarly there was n0 significant difference (p>O.05) in the heart and gizzard weights of different experimental groups. The result obtained in the course of this study highlighted an invaluable lesson. Regardless of the potential availability of the phosphorus in a feed phosphate, dietary factors and bird condition may result in a dramatically lower effective utilization of the phosphorus. It became evident that the availability of phosphorus was not an inherent property, characteristic of the material being assayed alone, but an experimentally determined value which reflects the absorption and utilization of the phosphorus ingested under the condition of the test. (Steven George Payne, 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1018,T] (1).

10. Bioavailability Of Minerals In Different Vegetable Protein Sources Commonly Used In Broiler Ration

by Zaib Mahel | Dr.Farina Malik | Prof.Dr.Muhammad AKram | Prof.Dr.Talat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The study was designed to investigate the relative bioavailability of minerals in different vegetable protein sources commonly used in broiler ration. The study was conducted in the Poultry Experimental Shed, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. For this purpose 200 day old broiler chicks were purchased and were randomly distributed into five equal treatment groups A, B, C, D & E containing soyabean based control diet, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, canola meal and guar meal respectively. Each treatment had 4 replicates having 10 chicks each. Birds were placed on floor for first 10 days then were shifted to cages on day with in same treatment and replicate groups and were fed on experimental feed. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded weekly and FCR and weight gain was also calculated accordingly. The experiment was terminated at day 21, all birds were weighed and feed consumption was recorded to calculate weight gain and FCR. Two birds per replicate were randomly selected and 5m1 blood was taken from wing vein prior to slaughtering. After slaughter, organ weights, left tibia bone were taken. Blood samples, left tibia bone ash, and excreta samples were collected for analysis of macro (Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na) and microminerals (Mn, Cu, and Fe) analysis. Data when statistically analyzed showed that there was a significant differences (P<0.05) between body weights, Birds fed canola and guar meal showed the highest (P<0.05) body weight compared to control birds. Feed consumption & FCR values showed a non significant difference (P<O.05). Organ weight revealed non significant difference in liver & heart weights (P<O.05), however significantly (P<O.05) highest weights were observed for birds fed diet containing guar meal. Amount of available Ca in plasma was significantly higher (P<O.05) when guar meal was fed as compared to P arid Mg which showed non significant (P<O.05) differences between treatments and the amount of available minerals Ca, P, Mg, K, and Fe in bone ash were also non significant (P<O.05) among birds fed control, rapeseed, sunflower, canola, and guar meal. The amount of available macrominerals (Ca, P, and Mg) in feed showed a significant difference (P<O.05) when birds were fed sunflower meal, control and guar meal. However, Na, and K levels of feed were non significant (P<O.05). The amount of available macrominerals (Ca, K and Na) in excreta significantly showed (P<O.05) difference when sunflower and guar meal were fed while P and Mg showed non significant (P>O.05) difference among all treatment groups, whereas microminerals like Cu, Mn and Fe showed a significant difference (P<O.05) when birds were fed a soya based control diet. The overall bioavailability of macro minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K and Na) and microminerals (Cu and Fe) showed significant (P<O.05) among treatments groups. However Mn showed non significant (P<O.05) difference with highest bioavailability of guar meal. The results showed that among protein source supplements, soybean, sunflower, canola and guar meal showed higher digestibility and minerals content as compared to rapeseed meal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1102,T] (1).

11. Post Peak Productive Performance Of Local & Imported Quail Parent Stocks Reared Under Different Lighting Regimes

by Muhammad Karim Khan | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof.Dr.Khalid | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to explore the photoperiodic effect of intermittent lighting on various economic traits as well as egg quality traits initiating from post peak egg production in quails. This study was conducted at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, Ferozpur Road Lahore with both local and imported quails maintained under different continuous and intermittent lighting regimes. The experimental quails were subjected to 05 different lighting regimes viz., A (16L: 8D), B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D), C (8L: 7D: IL: 8D), D (8L :7.5D: 0.5L: 8D) and E (8L: 16D) from 23 -34 weeks of age. The group E (8L: 16D) served as a negative control and group A (16L: 8D) was a positive control, while, the three intermittent lighting regimes used as experimental treatments were named as B, C and D. From 15th to 221I1 week the quails were maintained on a long day lighting schedule of (16L: 8D) in order to create uniformity among birds. The effect of these above mentioned lighting schedules on early productive performance of this flock of quails was examined in another study. In this trial the same act of treatments was used to investigate its lighting effect on post peak production (from 23 to 34 weeks). The experiment was conducted on 240 adult quails (23 weeks old) under factorial arrangements of 5 lighting regimes x 4 purebred strains x 3 replicates having 4 quails (1 male: 3 female) each. The experimental quails were maintained in a 5 tier quail battery (each tier had 6 decks). The study was conducted under the same manage mental conditions. The weekly data on body weight, egg production, FCR (for egg production and egg weight), egg quality traits (egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, haugh unit and yolk index were recorded. The data thus collected were statistically analysed using analysis of variance technique and comparison of means was made using DMR test. The results of the present study show that mean body weight under light regimes A, B, C, D and E was recorded as 268.81 (+5.09), 280.70 (+12.3), 267.96 (+2.99), 274.10 (+12.3) and 271.20 (+10.3)gm, respectively. A significant (p<0.Ol) effect of light treatments on body weight was observed. The highest body weight (280.70+12.3gm) was recorded under treatment B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D)which was found to be significantly better than recorded under other treatments, however, A and C and D and E differed non- significantly from each other. Breed differences in body weight were observed to be significant (p<0.Ol). Significantly (p<O.O5) higher body weight was observed in strain M. Body weight between M and K and S and Z strains varied non-significantly. Light and breed interaction was found to be significant (p<O.Ol). The results on feed intake followed almost a similar pattern indicating significant (p<O.Ol) effect of light treatments, breeds and light into breed interaction. However, feed intake under light treatment A (16L: 8D) was more, which varied non-significantly with light treatment D (8L: 7'/2D: '/2L: 8D). The highest feed consumption (p<O.O5) in strain M, which also ranked best in body weight. A non-significant difference in feed intake of M and Z and S and K strains was observed. The mean egg production of quails under lighting regimes A (16L: 8D), B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D), C (8L: 7D: 1L: 8D), D (8L: 7V2D: V2L: 8D) and E (8L: 16D) during the experimental period was recorded as 79.49, 74.65, 75.99, 76.33, 75.64 percent, respectively. The effect of lighting treatment was found to be significant (p<O.O5) on mean egg production. The birds in positive control group produced significantly (p<O.O5) more eggs when compared with birds on experimental treatments. The results indicated that light treatments of quails during growing period significantly (p<O.Ol) influenced the feed conversion ratio (feed/dozen egg) of quails during post peak production with significant (p<O.Ol) breed and light into breed interaction. FCR of quails of negative control group E (8L: 16D) was significantly (p<O.O5) better than all other light treatments. The strain Z exhibited better (p<O.O5) FCR than the strains M and S, however a non-significant difference between Z and K strains was recorded. A similar trend for FCR (feed/kg eggs) was observed except that Z strain exhibited better FCR than other three strains. The results showed non-significant close bred strain as well as light into breed effect. Breeds differed significantly (p<O.O5) in egg weight and K strain had greater egg weight than the other strains. The results in respect of yolk index and yolk height showed a similar trend. The yolk index in K strain was found to be better (p<O.Ol) than other strains except M strain. The yolk height was observed to be significantly better (p<O.O5) in strain M when compared with S and K strains, however, a non-significant effect between close bred strain M and K was observed. The results showed that quails subjected to different lighting regimes during the experimental period significantly (p<O.Ol) influenced egg shell thickness. The birds on experimental regime B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D) produced significantly (p<O.O5) thicker shells than other competitive treatments. Breed and light into breed effect was also found to be significant (p<O.O5). Strain Z had the greatest shell thickness than all other strains. The results of the study in respect of other egg quality traits such as Haugh unit, egg shell weight, yolk diameter and albumen height showed non-significant effect ofdifferent lighting regimes applied during experimental period. The effect of breed and light into breed interaction was found to be non-significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1109,T] (1).

12. The Influence Of Floor Space On Growth Egg Production And Hatchability Of Coturnix Japonica

by Dr. Bashir Ahmad Khawaja | Dr. Mohammad Saleem Chaudhary | Dr. Asaf | Dr. Mohammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of various floor spaces on growth rate, egg production and hatchability of quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica) in cac7es. One hundred and eighty, one day old quail chicks were purchased from a local commercial hatchery and were divided into four equal groups of 45 chicks i.e. A, B, C, and D. These groups were further sub divided into 3-replicates of 15 chicks each providing floor spaces of 144, 165, 186 and 206 sqcm/bird respectively. The chicks were fed ad-libitum on a commercial ration. The other managemental and environmental conditions iiere similar for all the groups. Experimental chicks were weighed individually at one day old and on weekly basis upto the age of 8-weeks. The average wt. gain observed/quail upto 8-weeks of age for groups 4, B, C and D was 120, 135, 144 and 150 gins respectively. Average feed consumption/quail was found to be 433, 478, 496 and 515 gms respectively. The feed conversion ratio (F. C.R.) was 3.60, 3.54, 344 and 3.43 in groups 4, B, C and D respectively. The total number of eggs produced by the birds of respective groups were 9, 10, 10.5 and 12 eggs/hen in 14 days of laying period. Total number of chicks hatched on 17th day of .incubation in groups A, B, C and D wet-e 120, 130, 138 and 144 respectively. The mortality percentage was 8.88, 4.44, 2..22 and 0.00 in groups A, B, C and D respectively. The average dressing percentage for birds in groups A, B, C and P was 67.45, 67.47, 67.97 and 69.42 respectively. Average heart wt. was apparently more in the birds of group C than those of 4, 8, and P. Similarly group P birds exhibited apparently maximum wt. of liver than the other three groups. The average wt. of gizzard was maximum in group P than rest of the groups. Statistical analysis of the data revealed highly significant effect of floor space on wt. gain, feed consumption, F.C.R., egg production and hatchability. However floor space effect on dressing percentage and giblet weight (liver, heart and gizzard) was statistically non significant. The monetary return per 100 gm of live body wt. was Rs. 1.43, 1.84, 2.07 and 2.18 in the birds of groups A, B, C and I) respectively. Finally it was found that quails can be reared in cages at a density of 206 sq.cm/bird efficiently and economically without any detrimental effect on growth rate, F.C.R., feed consumption, egg production and hatchability in quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1120,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Different Light Colours And Patterns On The Performance Of Broilers

by Athar Mahmud | Dr. Ehtisham Pervez | Dr. Javed | Dr. M. Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: Although poultry industry is dynamic for having tremendous potential to produce quality protein from meat and eggs which has a significant impact on the economy of our country. Yet it is not a stable business because a slight variation in environment upsets its profit margins. Different lighting schedules play a prominent role for rearing the broiler birds. In recent years efforts have been made to develop more efficient lighting schedules so as to save the electricity expenditure and to produce cheaper broiler meat. An experiment therefore, was designed to work out an ideal lighting pattern. In this experiment two hundred and twenty day old chicks were reared together for the first fifteen days, then one hundred and eighty chicks were randomly selected and subjected to different lighting patterns and clours of red, green and normal lights. They were divided in to groups i.e. A,a B,b and C,c exposed to continuous and intermittent pattern of red, green and normal light. The maximum weight gain was obtained by group subjected to green continuous lght and the lowest by group exposed to normal intermittent light. Likewise the maximum amount of feed was consumed by the group provided normal continuous light and minimum by the group exposed to red intermittent light. So far as the FCR is concerned, it was comparatively better in green continuous light group and poorest in normal intermittent light group. Another purpose of this experiment was to observe whether coloured and intermittent pattern of lights have better effects than that of the normal ones. The chicks subjected to green continuous light gave better body weight and FCR as compared to all other treatments. The results of the experiment suggest that we can save both electricity and feed by rearing broilers under continuous green lighting pattern. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1134,T] (1).

14. Evaluation Of Post Peak Production Of Commercial Layers And Fed On Extruded Hatchery Waste Meal

by Rafiullah | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Poultry feed ingredients are very expensive and raises poultry input cost with an inverse impact at final outcome. To decrease the feed cost and to increase farming output, utilization of non conventional feed resources such as hatchery waste meal (HWM) may be used in layer feed and seems a good economic properties. For this purpose the present study was designed to exploit post peak production of commercial layers supplemented with dietary extruded hatchery waste meal and this trail was carried out at poultry experimental farm University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Two experiments were conducted at the poultry experimental farm. In the first experiment raw hatchery was collected from a local hatchery and was dried at oven in 60°C till constant weight was achieved. The dried sample was then cooked by extrusion processes. In the second experiment the dietary inclusion of extruded hatchery waste meal (EHWM) was determined on performance of layer birds. For this purpose two hundred and fifty (250) White Leg horn layers in start of 2nd stage of production (35 weeks old) was procured and divided in to five groups (A, B, C, D and E) in such a way that there were fifty birds in each group. Each group was then further sub divided in to five replicates of ten birds. Group A served as a control. The experimental layers were being kept in cages with the standard norms of husbandry. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. Four different supplementary levels of extruded hatchery waste meal of groups B, C, D, and E respectively, i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% were incorporated in layers diet. The parameters studied daily egg production and egg weight, while shell weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, albumen height, yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk color, and Haugh units were studied on fortnight basis. At the end of the experiment the feasibility of each ration was also calculated. The data thus collected were statistically analyses using analysis of variance technique and comparison of means was made using DMR test. In the present study the high mean egg production was recorded in treatment 4 (53.2±1.15) in which 6% extruded EHWM was used while the lowest mean egg production was recorded in treatment 2 (49.9±1.82) in which 2% of extruded HWM was used. The result of the present study show non-significant (p>0.05) effect of extruded hatchery waste meal on egg production. Highest value of average egg weight (60.4±0.48) was observed in control group while lowest value (59.2±0.53) was observed by using 8% EHWM. Statistical analysis showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect among treatments. Highest value of mean egg shell weight (7.3±0.17) was observed by using 4% extruded HWM. Lowest value of mean egg shell weight (7.2±0.06) was observed by using 8% HWM. The high value recorded for shell thickness was that of treatment 4 (0.33±0.008) by using 6% dietary EHWM, while lowest value was recorded in treatment 5 (0.31±0.002) using 8% dietary EHWM. The result of mean shell weight and shell thickness also showed non-significant differences (p>0.05) among different treatments. The results of albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh units showed non-significant (p>0.05) effect of feeding different dietary levels of EHWM to commercial layers. However the highest values recorded for albumen weight and albumen height were (37.5±0.61) and (8.53 0.134) respectively in control group which was without of dietary EHWM. The highest value observed for Haugh units was (91.8±0.57) that of treatment 3 by using 4% EHWM. However albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh unit showed statistically non significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM fed on experimental commercial layers. The values for yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color were observed in order of merit for treatment, 2 (2% EHWM) (16.0±0.17), treatment 3 (4% EHWM) (38.8±0.11), and treatment 5 (8% EHWM) (5.5±0.15) respectively. Statistically the yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM on layers performance. The economic feasibility of each ration was calculated at the end of the experiment. The feed cost per kg and the cost of 1 kg eggs were decreased gradually as dietary supplementary level of HW was increased from 2 to 8% in the diet of commercial layers. The most economical ration was that of treatment 5 in which 8%EHWM was used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1202,T] (1).

15. Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Four Different Varieties Of Native Aseel

by Muhmmad Iqbal | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: In Pakistan rural poultry has been playing an important role in the production of eggs and poultry meat. During the year, 2010, the contribution of rural poultry in overall production of eggs and poultry meat in the country has been about 32.15 and 15.38 percent, respectively. However, conservation and genetic improvement of native poultry breeds has been the major problem hindering the development of rural poultry. Aseel is a native rural poultry breed which possesses very good meat production character, however very little research work has been conducted to study its growth and carcass traits. Keeping this in view, the present study was planned to evaluate comparative growth and carcass traits of different varieties of native Aseel. For this purpose 96, day-old Aseel chicks, 24 each of 4 different varieties viz Peshawari, Mianwali, Mushki and Lakha were maintained under standard managemental conditions for a period of 15 weeks according to Completely Randomized Design. The data on weekly body weight gain and feed intake were collected and feed conversion efficiency was worked out. At 12 and 15 weeks of age, carcass characteristics such as dressing percentage, shank length and width, breast length and width, intestinal length and weight and giblet weight were studied The average feed intake (g) of four varieties of Aseel varied significantly (p>0.05) from 1 to 15 weeks of age. The average body weight (g) of four varieties of Aseel was significantly differed at 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 14th and 15 weeks of age. However, non-significant effect was observed at day-old chick and also at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 8th, 9th, 11th and 12th weeks of age. The average of weekly body weight gain (g) of four varieties of Aseel significantly differed at 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th and 10th weeks of age. However, non-significant effect was observed at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The average of FCR of four varieties of Aseel was varied significantly (p<0.05) at 1st, 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th and 11th weeks of age, however, non-significant effect was observed in 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The average mean of times weekly body weight gain of four varieties of Aseel significantly varied (p<0.05) at 3rd, 4th, 8th, 9th and 10th weeks of age. Non-significant effects was however observed at 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The weekly average mean intake of protein, calories, calcium, phosphorus and fiber in four varieties of Aseel significantly differed (p<0.05) throughout the experimental period from 1-15 weeks of age. The results of this study in respect of carcass characteristics indicate that Aseel males had higher live body weight, weight with viscera, dressed weight, shank length, shank width, than Aseel females at 12 and 15 weeks of age. However non-significant differences were observed among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age in these parameters. The results indicated that males had higher, gizzard weight (with contents), gizzard weight (without contents), breast width, and breast length, than Aseel females at 12 weeks of age. However, non-significant differences were observed between sexes at 15 weeks of age and also among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age in the above mentioned parameters. Aseel males also exhibited higher intestinal and proventriculus weights than those of Aseel females at 12 weeks of age, however, non-significant differences were observed between sexes at 15 weeks of age in both these parameters. Significant difference in proventriculus and blood weight was observed among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 weeks of age, whereas, non-significant difference was recorded in proventriculus and blood weight at 15 weeks of age. The results indicated non-significant differences between the sexes at both 12 and 15 weeks of age. Aseel males had higher intestinal length and lungs weight, than that of Aseel females at 15 weeks of age, however, non-significant difference in these parameters was observed between the sexes at 12 weeks of age and also among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age. Non-significant differences were noted in liver, heart, abdominal fat and spleen weight among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 and 15 weeks of age. Similarly, non-significant difference was observed between the sexes in respect of liver weight and also non-significant difference was recorded in intestinal weight between the four varieties at 12 weeks of age. Whereas, significant differences were observed in these parameters among four varieties of Aseel at 15 weeks of age. Significant difference was observed in abdominal fat percentage among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 weeks of age, however, non-significant differences was found among the four varieties at 15 weeks of age. The sexes differed non-significantly in abdominal fat percentage and also non-significant difference was observed in testes and ovary weight among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 and 15 weeks of age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1332,T] (1).

16. Productive Performance Of Four Close-Bred Flocks Of Japanese Quails With Different Body Weights And Its Effect on Subsequent Progeny Growth

by Ahmed Sultan | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In Pakistan, the low live and dressed market weights in Japanese quails has been one of the significant problems badly influencing future development in quail production. No serious attempts have yet been made in the country to improve body weight and meat yield in local quails. The present study of one year duration was therefore, planned at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate productive performance, egg quality, hatching performance, slaughter characteristics and blood biochemical profile in four close-bred flocks of Japanese quails with different body weights and examine its effect on the subsequent progeny growth. For this purpose, a total of 432 (108 males and 324 females) adult quails were randomly picked up from 4 close-bred flocks maintained at ART Centre and then were divided into 108 experimental units/ replicates (comprising 1 male and 3 females each). These experimental units were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups, having 4 close-bred flocks (imported, local 1, local 2, and local 3) x 3 female body size (heavy, medium and small) with randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial arrangements having 9 replicates in each treatment. The experimental quails were maintained under standard management conditions in individual compartments in multi-deck cages equipped with separate nipple drinkers and were fed ad-libitum with a quail breeder ration prepared according to NRC standards. The weekly data on productive performance (body weight, egg production and feed intake) were recorded. Feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg and g feed/g egg mass) was worked out. Egg quality characteristics (egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, haugh unit, yolk index, and blood and meat spots) and hatching traits (dead germ percent, dead in shell percent, infertile egg percent, hatchability percent and mal-positions) were recorded. At the termination of the experiment, two breeder quails from each experimental unit (one male and one female each) were randomly picked up and were slaughtered to record the slaughtering traits (live and dressed weight, dressing percentage, weight of giblets and other visceral organs). Proximate composition (crude protein, ether extract, dry matter and ash contents) of thigh and breast meat was determined. Blood samples from each group were analyzed for blood serum glucose, total protein, albumin, cholesterol and urea. Blood macro mineral profile for plasma calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) was determined. The eggs from each replicate were collected and separately incubated on fortnightly basis to study 3 weeks progeny growth performance (average weight of day-old quail chicks, weekly body weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (feed/g gain) and mortality rate). At the end of 3rd week, 2 quails (one male and one female each) from each experimental unit were picked up randomly and were slaughtered to record slaughtering traits (slaughter and dressed weight, dressing percentage, weight of giblets and visceral organs). Economics of quail production up to 3 weeks was worked out. The data thus collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique with randomized complete block design (RCBD) under factorial arrangement for further interpretation using general linear model (GLM) procedures (SAS, 9.1 version). The comparison of means was made using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test. 6.1. Parent breeder flock In the present study of 31 weeks duration, imported flock of Japanese quails gained significantly higher body weight than local flocks. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in their mean body weight. The interaction between flocks and body size was also observed to be significant (p<0.05). The heavy weight quails had maximum body weight followed by that of medium and small size quails. The difference in mean egg production percentage, egg number and feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg) were not significant, whereas, egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 4 close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. Mean feed conversion ratio (g feed/g egg mass) in imported and local-3 flocks of Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different from other local flocks. The body weight categories had significant (p<0.05) effect on egg production percentage, egg number, feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg) and egg weight, however, their effect was not significant on egg mass. The interaction between flocks and body size showed a similar trend. The mortality remained nil in the experimental breeder quails during this study. The significant (p<0.05) differences were noted in egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, yolk index, dead germ, infertile egg and hatchability percent, whereas, haugh unit value was not significantly different in all the close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The dead in shell percent in different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in all the parental groups except in H male x H female, M male x H female, S male x M female and S male x S female. With respect to body size categories, differences for egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, yolk index, haugh unit value, dead germ, infertile egg and hatchability percent were significant (p<0.05). The interaction between flocks and body size was significant in respect of all the above egg quality and hatching traits. Blood and meat spots were found nil and no mal-positions were noted. The minimum dead germ percent was recorded in local-2 and local-3 flocks in S male x H female, however, the highest hatchability percent was recorded in M male x S female parent of local-3 flock. The significant (p<0.05) effect of parental body weight on dead in shell percent was recorded in H male x M female (in imported, local-1 and local-2 flocks), H male x S female (in imported and local-1 flocks), M male x M female (imported and local-1 flocks), M male x S female (imported and local-1 flocks), S male x H female (imported and local-1 flocks). The dressed weight (g) in imported and local flocks of Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different in female quails, whereas, dressing percentage in imported and local flocks of male Japanese quails was not significantly different. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference for dressed weight and dressing percentage in both the sexes. The imported flock of male Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different from all the other local flocks in relative weight of gizzard (with and without contents) .Imported and all the local flocks of Japanese quails were not significantly different in their relative weight of liver in both the sexes. The relative weight of heart and mean weight of intestine in local-3 flock of male Japanese quails were significantly (p<0.05) different, whereas, female birds were not significantly different in this respect from all the local and imported flocks. With respect to body size categories, relative weight of heart, liver, gizzard and intestines in both the sexes were not significantly different. The interaction between flocks and body size was not significant for liver weight, whereas, it was significant (p<0.05) for heart, gizzard and intestinal weight only in male quails. The intestinal length and testes weight in male and mature ovarian follicle number and reproductive tract weight in female quails were not significantly different in imported and local flocks. With respect to body size categories, differences in mean length of intestine and mean weight of testes were not significant in male quails. The similar non-significant difference in reproductive tract weight and number of mature ovarian follicles was recorded in female quails. The interaction between flocks and body size for intestinal length, reproductive tract and testes weight was not significant, whereas, it was significant (p<0.05) for reproductive tract length. The crude protein and ether extract percent in breast meat of male and female Japanese quails were not significant. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in percent crude protein in female quails, whereas, similar trend for ether extract was observed only in male quails. The dry matter percent in breast meat of Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different only in male quails. With respect to body size categories, mean dry matter percent was not significantly different in both the sexes. The interaction between flocks and body size was not significant for crude protein and ether extract, whereas, it was significant (p<0.05) for dry matter percent in both the sexes of quails. Ash percent in breast meat was not significantly different in male quails, whereas, it was significantly (p<0.05) different in female quails. The ash percent in breast meat and ash and crude protein percent in thigh meat in male and female quails were significantly different among imported and local flocks With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in ash percent in breast meat in female, whereas, difference was noted in ash and crude protein percent in thigh meat in both the sexes of quails was not significant. The interaction between flocks and body size was also non-significant for these components in thigh meat. The difference in dry matter percent in thigh meat of local -1 male flock was significant (p<0.05) from local-2 and local-3 flocks, whereas, female quails were not significantly different in this respect. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in mean dry matter percent in male quails. Ether extract percent in thigh meat was significantly different between male and female quails. With respect to initial body size categories, ether extract percent was not significantly different in both the sexes. The interaction between flocks and body size was significant (p<0.05) in both sexes of quails for dry matter and ether extract percent. The mean serum glucose level in male and female quails was not significantly different among imported and local flocks. With respect to body size categories, a non-significant difference was noted in serum glucose levels. The interaction between flocks and body sizes was also not significant. The total serum protein level was significantly different in both the sexes of imported and local flocks, whereas, serum cholesterol and serum albumin levels were significantly different only in female quails of imported and local flocks. Serum urea concentration was significantly (p<0.05) different only in male quails of imported and local flocks. However, with respect to body size categories, serum protein, cholesterol, albumin and urea levels were not significantly different in both the sexes of quails. The interaction between flocks and body size was significant for serum protein and urea in both the sexes of quails. However, this interaction in respect of serum cholesterol was significant only in male quails, whereas, it was significant for serum albumin only in females. The difference in mean plasma calcium and sodium levels in male and female quails of imported and local flocks of Japanese quails was not significant. With respect to body size categories, mean plasma calcium level in both the sexes of quails was not significantly different, however, plasma sodium concentration was significantly (p<0.05) different only in female quails. The interaction between flocks and body size for plasma calcium levels was significant (p<0.05) in both the sexes of quails, whereas, for plasma sodium it was significant (p<0.05) only in female quails. The mean plasma phosphorus and potassium levels in imported and local flocks of Japanese quails were significantly (p<0.05) different only in female quails, whereas, plasma magnesium was significantly (p<0.05) different only in male quails. However, with respect to body size categories, plasma phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were significantly (p<0.05) different in female quails only. The interaction between flocks and body size was significant for potassium and phosphorus in female quails only, whereas, it was also significant for plasma magnesium levels in both the sexes of quails 6.2. Progeny flock In the present study different parental body weight categories significantly (p<0.05) affected day-old, 1st, 2nd and 3rd week progeny body weight in Japanese quails. The heavy male parents had apparently more pronounced effect on day-old and 1st week progeny body weight, however, the results were not significant in all close-bred flocks. The results indicated significant (p<0.05) effect of male parent body weight on 1st week progeny body weight in Japanese quails. The progeny day-old and 1st week progeny body weights in different close-bred flocks were not significantly different from each other. The interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks was not significant for day-old body weight. The cumulative body weight gain in quail progenies from different close-bred flocks were significantly (p<0.05) different in all the parental groups. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). Effect of different parental body size on 1st, 2nd, 3rd week and cumulative progeny body weight gain was significant (p<0.05). The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) for progeny cumulative weight gain. In the present study, 1st, 2nd, 3rd week and cumulative progeny feed intake and feed conversion ratio-FCR (feed/g gain) were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by parental body size of Japanese quails. The interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) for weekly and cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio-FCR (feed/g gain) in the progeny. A significant (p<0.05) effect of different parental groups on 1st, 2nd, 3rd and cumulative progeny mortality rate (%) was recorded with significant (p<0.05) interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks. Different parental body size significantly (p<0.05) influenced progeny slaughter weight, dressed weight and dressing percentage at 3rd week in 4 close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The slaughter weight (g) in different close-bred flocks in male progeny quails from all the parental groups differed significantly (p<0.05) except in M male x M female and S male x H female, M male x S female and S male x M female parents. The slaughter weight (g) in different close-bred flocks in female progeny in all the parental groups was significantly (P<0.05) different except in H male x H female, M male x H female and M male x S female. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) in both the sexes. The dressing percentage between different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in female progeny group. The dressing percentage between different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in the male progeny group, whereas, M male x H female, M male x M female, S male x M female and S male x S female were not significantly different. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). The relative weights (g/100g BW) of liver, heart and gizzard in the progeny was found to be significantly (p<0.05) influenced by parental body size in different close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The liver weight in female progeny of different close-bred flocks in all the parental groups differed significantly (p<0.05) except from H male x S female, M male x S female and S male x M female parent groups. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) for different organ weights. The heart weight in female progeny in different close-bred flocks in all the parent groups was significantly (p<0.05) different. The relative weight of gizzard in different close-bred male and female progenies of quails were significantly (p<0.05) different from all the parental groups. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). The intestinal length in the progeny was influenced (p<0.05) by different parental groups in close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The intestinal length in female quails in different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in all the parental groups except from H male x M female, H male x S female parent groups. The interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). A higher profit margin was recorded in progeny quails hatched from heavy imported parent flock. ? 6.3. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions have been formulated. i. Parent breeder flock a. Effect of close-bred flocks i. Imported flock of quails had significantly (p<0.05) better egg production percentage, egg weight, yolk index, feed conversion ratio-FCR (g feed/g egg mass), shell weight and dressing yield. Feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg) and egg mass were significantly (p<0.05) better in local-1 and local-3 flocks, respectively. Egg shell thickness and haugh unit were better in local-2 flock. ii. Final live body weight was higher in female than male quails and it was also better in local-1 male quails than in other close-bred flocks. iii. Reproductive tract weight and length and mature ovarian follicle numbers were higher in imported flock. Significant variation was recorded in relative weight of giblets, testes and intestines and intestinal length among different close-bred flocks. iv. The imported male flock had significantly (p<0.05) higher crude protein, dry matter and ash contents in breast and thigh meat. v. The mean serum glucose and cholesterol concentrations in local-1 male flock and mean serum albumin and urea levels in local-3 male flock were higher; however, total serum protein was also higher in male imported flock than in other local flocks. vi. Plasma phosphorus and potassium concentrations were not significantly different in male parents, whereas, plasma magnesium concentration was not significantly different in female parents. Plasma calcium was significantly (p<0.05) different in both the sexes. b. Effect of body size i. Egg production percentage, feed conversion ratio (FCR), fertility and hatchability percent, reproductive tract weight and length, mature ovarian follicle number and gizzard weight were better in small parents in comparison to medium and heavy parents, whereas, better egg weight and egg quality traits were recorded in heavy quail parents. Dressed weight and dressing percentage were higher in heavy female parents than in medium and small quails. ii. Crude protein and ether extract contents in breast and thigh meat were higher in heavy female parents, whereas, ash content was higher in thigh meat of heavy female parents. iii. The higher concentrations of serum glucose, total protein, albumin and cholesterol in heavy male quails were detected, whereas, serum urea was higher in medium female parents. iv. Plasma macro minerals profile for all the parameters studied was not significantly different in male parents, whereas, plasma calcium (Ca) was not significantly different in both the sexes. 6.3.2. Progeny flock a. Effect of close-bred flocks i. The day-old and subsequent weekly body weights/weight gain and feed intake were higher in imported than in local flocks. The lower feed intake and better feed conversion ratio-FCR (feed/g gain) and higher mortality rate were recorded in local-3 as compared to other flocks. ii. Dressed weight and dressing percentage were higher in male progeny of imported flock. The liver, heart and gizzard weights were higher in local-2 and local 3 male flocks, whereas, higher weight of intestine was recorded in local-1 male flock. Significant variation in carcass traits between different close-bred flocks was observed. iii. The highest final return per bird of Rs. 5.64 was observed in local-1 flock followed by imported, local-3 and local-2 flocks (Rs. 5.41, 5.15 and 5.14, respectively). b. Effect of parent body size i. The progeny secured from heavy male parent had higher hatch weight, body weight, weight gain, feed intake, dressed weight and dressing percentage than those hatched from medium and small male parents, showing more pronounced effect of male parent on progeny growth and on almost all the other parameters. ii. The liver and gizzard weight and intestinal length were higher in quail progenies secured from small parents than from heavy and medium parents. iii. The highest final return per quail (Rs. 5.92) was recorded in medium weight parent followed by heavy and small parents (Rs. 5.25 and 4.90, respectively). ? SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Research The findings of the present study may be helpful in setting up production standards in local quails to be further used as base line data by the research workers and quail breeders for formulating viable future strategy of quail breeding at national level. Extension For the future national quail breeding programs, use of heavy male parents for crossing with medium or small female parents may be considered for better progeny meat yield and higher egg production in the female quail parents. Considerable variations in body weight and other carcass characters in our local quail flocks recorded during the course of this study indicate possibility of further improving their genetic potential. Further research work is needed for improving genetic potential of our local quail stocks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1524,T] (1).

17. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Biochemistry And Immune Response Of Broilers Under Two Rearing Systems Withinthree Different Housing Zones

by Khalid Bilal | Mr. Shahid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1647,T] (1).

18. Efficacy Of Composted Poultry Litter/Dead Birds In Broiler Quail Rations

by Shoukat Ali | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1650,T] (1).

19. Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Four Close-Bred Stocks Of Japanese Quail Reared Under Different Dietary Levels of Lysine

by Abdul Samad Haidary | Mr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1677,T] (1).

20. Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Lutein Sources On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Its Bio-Availability in Eggs of Commercial Layers Categorized in THree Body Weights

by Ahmad Ali Sajjad | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The term Designer egg has gained popularity all over the world. Egg which gives some health benefits with the provision of basic nutrients is called designer egg. Lutein a xanthophyll pigment is good for the prevention of age related macular degeneration (AMD).Egg is considered good vehicle for lutein transport as bio-availability of lutein is high through egg. The present study was aimed to produce lutein enriched eggs (designer eggs). Different sources of lutein were used and their effect on production performance and egg quality characteristics was measured. A total number of 432 Hy-line layers categorized into 3 body sizes (Heavy, Medium, Light) were offered 4 different supplementations of lutein (0, free, esterified, free + esterified) replicated 6 times having 6 layers each. Parameters regarding production performance, egg geometry and egg quality were observed.Data were analyzed according to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique through Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using factorial arrangement. Means were compared through Duncan Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955) with the help of SAS 9.3. Results of the present study showed significantly higher Haugh unit score (87.17±0.39) in light birds during 3rd week whereas, within lutein sources significantly higher Haugh unit score was observed in layers fed with control diets (85.52±0.48). Significantly (p<0.05) higher yolk pH was observed in layers fed with esterified source of lutein whereas significantly higher (8.26±0.06) albumen pH was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein however, different body sizes could not show their effect on yolk and albumen pH. Significantly higher (62.97±0.22) albumen % was observed during 1st week of study in birds fed with esterified source of lutein whereas body weight categories did not affect the albumen% whereas, yolk % was affected by different body sizes and lutein sources during 1st week of study. Significantly higher mean value (27.48±0.27) of yolk % was recorded in birds fed with combination of free and esters of lutein whereas higher value of yolk % (27.20±0.23) was observed in medium birds. Shell percentage significantly (p<0.05) affected by different body sizes (10.96±0.13) and lutein sources (11.14±0.18) during 1st week of study whereas shell thickness was significantly (p<0.05) affected by lutein sources (0.35±0.004) during 1st week of study. Means of different sources of lutein had significant (p<0.05) effect on yolk color and the highest mean value (11.63±0.15) was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein. Yolk index was significantly (0.36±0.005) affected by different lutein sources however, body sizes did not affect yolk index. As far as egg geometry was concerned egg surface area and egg volume were found to be significantly highest for heavy birds whereas non-significant differences for egg volume and shape index were observed. However, different lutein sources had no effect on egg geometry parameters. Significantly highest egg weight (62.74±0.23) was observed in heavy layers followed by medium (61.56±0.17) and light (60.63±0.17). However, different body weights (narrow ranges) and lutein sources had non-significant effect on production (%), FCR per dozen, egg mass and FCR per kg egg mass. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1747,T] (1).

21. Effect Of Different Levels Of Defatted Algae Supplement Of The Growth Performance, Blood And Tissue

by Ahsan Mustafa | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In Pakistan poultry sector is playing a vital role in bridging the gap between supply and requirement of animal protein food for its ever increasing human population. The contribution of poultry sector in agriculture and livestock is about 6.4 and 11.5 percent, respectively (Anonymous, 2012). Poultry meat contributes about 25.8 percent of the total meat produced in the country. This sector has been growing at an annual rate of 8 to 10 percent, producing 131.4 million eggs and 0.834 million metric tons of poultry meat (Anonymous, 2012). However, despite this tremendous growth rate, this sector is facing many challenges which may badly influence its future pace of development. The most important of these is escalating cost of poultry feed which is considered to be the major cost item involving more than 60 to 70 percent share of production cost (Khan et al., 2010). Many of the traditional protein sources used in poultry diet formulations such as soybean, fish, sunflower meal and groundnut meal are becoming extremely expensive. Rapid growth of human, livestock and poultry population has increased the demand for food and feed which has necessitated that alternative feed resource should be identified and evaluated. Therefore, the search for alternative protein sources has become urgent, and in this context, algae are worthy of consideration. The possibility of using fat-extracted algae (a by-product from bio-fuels production) as a source of protein and other nutrients in poultry feeds appears to be of great significance. The use of algae as a source of nutrients can benefit poultry and bio-fuel industry. Diatoms are a major group of unicellular algae, and are one of the most common types of phytoplankton. They differ from other algae in the presence of substantial amounts of silicon in their cell membranes. The diatom, Nanofrustulum is currently under investigation as a potential source of oil for bio-fuel production. However, effect of dietary inclusion of defatted algae supplements by replacing soybean meal and corn on the performance of broilers has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study was therefore under taken at Poultry Research Farm, Department of Animal Science, University of Cornell, USA, to investigate effect of defatted algae Nanofrustulum meal on the growth performance, blood biochemical composition and gross pathology of tissues in broilers. For this purpose, two levels of defatted algae Nanofrustulume 7.5 and 10 percent were used. Four different, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental rations were prepared. The diet A was prepared without inclusion of algae (control), whereas in diets B and C the same algae at the rate of 7.5 percent were incorporated to replace soybean meal and soybean meal + corn, respectively. In diet D, algae at the rate of 10 percent replaced soybean meal and corn. Eighty, commercial (Ross), day-old, broiler chicks, 40 each of both sexes, were randomly divided into to 4 treatment groups (A, B, C and D) with two replicates each of 5 male and female birds per treatment. They were initially weighed and wing banded individually for identification and then maintained in thermostatically controlled battery cages. The birds were provided 22 hours light: 2 hours darkness schedule. All the experimental birds were fed a balanced broiler starter ration and water ad libitum until 21 days of age. All the experimental rations were supplemented with additional quantity of potentially limiting amino acids, lysine and methionine. The amount of corn oil in all the rations was adjusted to maintain metabolizable energy contents at 3000 and 3200 Kcal/Kg for the chick starter and grower rations, respectively. The amino acid contents of starter and grower diets were kept higher than NRC (1994) standards. On day 22nd, the birds were transferred to growing cages maintained at room temperature and similarly fed grower diets ad libitum until 42 days of age. The data on feed intake, body weight gain were collected. Feed conversion efficiency were calculated. On day 42nd of the experiment, the experimental birds were fasted for 3 hours and blood samples were collected from the wing vein from randomly selected, 2 birds each of both the sexes per replicate for determination of blood biochemical composition following standard laboratory procedures. Gross pathology of tissues obtained from slaughtered birds was also performed. The study was conducted according to Randomized Complete Block. Design (RCBD). The data thus recorded was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance Technique (Steel et al., 1997). The means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Test (Duncan, 1955). The results of this study showed significant (p?0.01) difference in average feed intake among treatments and between sexes of broilers. In male broilers, the significantly highest feed intake was observed in birds fed diet C followed by those fed diets D, A and B, whereas in female broilers the highest feed intake was recorded by the birds fed diet A and then followed by those fed diets B, C and D. The results further showed non-significant differences in feed intake of male broilers between treatment groups C & A and C & D, whereas significant difference was recorded between group B and C. Significantly lowest feed intake was recorded in female broilers fed diet D which was also significantly different from treatment groups A and B. The results also showed that with increase in inclusion levels of algae in female broilers depression in feed intake increased. The results in respect of average weight gain showed that male and female broilers fed the control diet attained the highest weight gain, followed by those fed diets C, D and B, respectively in male broilers and fed diets C, B and D in female broilers, respectively. The male broilers attained significantly (p<0.01) better weight gain than female broilers. The weight gain in broilers fed the control diet was not significantly (p?0.05) different from those fed diet C. The overall results of the study showed depression in weight gain of birds fed diets containing different levels of algae in comparison to those fed control diet. In the present study, the feed conversion ratio was significantly (p< 0.05) influenced by the diets, however it was not significantly different between sexes. In male broilers the poorest FCR was observed in group D followed by in groups B, C and A. The best FCR in male broilers was recorded in group A which was significantly better than that of treatment groups A and D, however non- significant difference between FCR of groups A and C was recorded. In female broilers, the best FCR was observed in birds fed diet C followed by those fed diets A, D and B, however, non- significant difference in FCR among diets was recorded. Non- significant (P > 0.05) differences in plasma alkaline phosphatase (AKP), alanine transferase (ALT), serum cholesterol, tri glycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels among diets and between sexes were detected. Significant (P > 0.05) differences in serum uric acid among diets and between sexes were detected. Female broilers had significantly higher uric acid levels than male broilers. In male broilers fed diet A, plasma uric acid value was observed to be significantly higher than those fed diet D but it was not significantly (P>0.05) different from those fed diets B and C. In female broilers fed diet A, plasma uric acid concentration was significantly higher than those fed diets C and D, however the differences were observed to be non-significant. Significant (P?0.05) difference was observed between uric acid values both in male and female broilers fed diets B and D, however, female broilers fed diet C differed non- significantly (P?0.05) from those fed diet D. On overall basis, there was significant (P?0.05) reduction in uric acid concentration by addition of 7.5 percent algae in the diets. No gross pathological lesions were seen on internal and outer surfaces of gizzard and proventriculus and these were normal in size, however, the internal membrane of gizzard was darker yellow color in birds fed diets containing algae. No lesions were noticed on liver, spleen and intestines and liver and spleen were normal in size. Liver was also of normal color. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1761,T] (1).

22. Effect Of Different Management Strategies On Growth Performance, Biochemical Profile And Immune

by Shahid Mehmood | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1768,T] (1).

23. Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Lutein Sources On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Its Bio-Availability in Eggs of Commercial Layers Categorized in Three Body Weighta

by Ahmad Ali Sajjad | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1813,T] (1).

24. Pre And Post-Moult Productive And Reproductive Performance Egg Geometry Quality And Meat Composition Of Four Varieties of Native Aseel Chicken

by Zulfiqar ahmad | Dr. Abdul waheeed sahota | Prof Dr mohammad akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1854,T] (1).

25. Effect Of Different Rearing Systems And Mannan Oligosaccharide (Mos) Supplemented-Diet On Carcass Cut-Up

by Faisal hussnain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr. Imran zahoor | Dr. Muhammad hayat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1883,T] (1).

26. Effect Of Selection For Higher Four Week Body Weight In Four Closebred Stocks And Three Age Groups Of Japanese Quail

by Sohail ahmad | Mr. Jibran hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1908,T] (1).

27. Effect Of Cage-Exchange-Floor On Growth Performance And Blood Biochemical Profile In Sexed Broilers Supplemented Different Levels of Mannan Oligosaccharide (MOS)

by Muhammad Talha Altaf | Dr.Shahid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1909,T] (1).

28. Haemato-Biochemical Profile And Immune Response In 3 Batches Of 4 Closebred Quail Parent Flocks Selected for Higher 4-Week Body Weight in 4th Generation

by Abd ur rehman | Prof. Dr. Athar mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1913,T] (1).

29. Hatching Performance Of Different Broiler Breeder Strains At Four Production Phases With Three Different Egg Weights

by Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr.Abdul waheed sahota | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1940,T] (1).

30. Identification Of Snp Markers For Egg Productionand Egg Quality Traits In Aseel And Naked Neck Chickens

by Muhammad usman | Dr..Atia Basheer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1962,T] (1).

31. Response To Selection For Three Week Body Weight In Japanese Quail For Three Generations

by Jibran hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr. Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Khalid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1980,T] (1).

32. Evaluation Of Genetic Diversity Within And Between Quail Breeds In Pakistan

by Armughan Ahmad | Dr. Imran Zahoor | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2173,T] (1).

33. Effect of Selenium-Supplemented Diets on Production Performance, Hatching, Egg Geometry And Quality Traits in Four Varieties of Indigenous Aseel

by Muhammad Tahir Khan (2006-VA-031) | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram | Dr. Imran Zahoor | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD Corrupted. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2218-T] (1).

34. Modern Livestock & Poultry Production

by Flanders, Frank | Gillespie, James R.

Edition: 9th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Cengage Learning; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636 Flanders 30800 9th 2015 L.Production] (1).

35. Diseases of Poultry / 5th ed

by H.E. Biester | L. H. Schwarte.

Edition: 5th edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Iowa State University Press; 1965Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.50896 Biester 6614 5th 1965 Poultry] (1).

36. Productive And Reproductive Performance Of The Parents And The Growth Performance Of Subsequent Progeny As Influenced By Molting In Japanese Quails

by Muhammad Imtiaz Azam (2013-VA-566) | Dr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Japanese quail is a member of order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie Japonica. Scientific name of Japanese quail is Coturnix coturnix japonica (Mizutani, 2003). Japanese quail attained significance as agriculture specie due to its unique flavor of eggs and meat hence got importance as a food animal (Kayang et al. 2004). Egg production is important in south East Asia whereas meat is an important product in Europe (Baumgartner, 1994: Minvielle, 1998). Female quail starts laying at the age of 6 weeks and constantly produces eggs for at least one year. Quail is efficient converter of feed, with each egg a female deposits an edible package of 8 percent of her own body weight as compared to 3 percent in case of chicken (Martin et al. 1998). Molting in avian species is the periodic shedding and replacement of feathers as well as rejuvenation of the reproductive system (Berry, 2003). Molting has been conducted through different techniques including photoperiod reduction, feed restriction, hormone administration, feeding dietary salt of zinc, aluminium and/or iodine (Khan et al. 2011). Molting has been associated with sudden change in physiological biochemistry which requires restoration before coming into production (Khan et al. 2011). The most important advantage of molting is the rejuvenation of reproductive system which increases tissue efficiency, development of reproductive system, loss of fat on female reproductive system, hence better post-molt performance (Park et al. 2004). Attia et al. (1994) explored that bird’s egg shell quality, albumen quality, and hatchability are influenced by molting method. Molting is followed by ovary and oviduct histophysiological changes (De-cuypere and Verheyen 1986); affecting egg characteristics, hatchability and chick quality. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 2 Induced molting is an effective management tool, enabling to meet egg production with demand and even providing greater economic benefit as it reduces bird cost per dozen of eggs because it lengthens the productive life of the hen (Carey and Brake 1987).Induced molting is used in the poultry industry to increase the reproductive lifespan of birds leading to new productive cycles (Laurentiz et al. 2005). In the induced molting methods, 25-30% of body mass reduction from initial weight is ideally required to achieve a maximum post-molt performance (Brake, 1993). Induced molting has been reported to improve egg production and other performance parameters (Akram, 1998; Usman et al. 2013). As to body weight loss (BWL), research studies point out that BWL levels between 25 and 30% promotes better post-molting production in a second laying cycle (Hussein, 1996). Reduction in ovary weight depends upon the duration of fasting or body weight loss levels (Berry, 2003); 15% body weight loss results in heavier eggs as compared to 20-25% (Buhr and Cunningham 1994). Post-molt reproductive improvement is related to the regression and to the regeneration of the cells of reproductive system (Brake and Thaxton 1979). Egg quality and hatchability decrease with the age of the breeder and are reported to be improved in terms of Haugh Units and overall hatchability after molting (Lapaˆo et al. 1999). Induced molting not only helps in improving production performance and egg shell quality but also increases profit by optimizing the use of replacement pullets on commercial layer farms (Bell, 2003). The combination of feed withdrawal and light reduction was most widely used to induce molting in the US egg industry in the past. Most producers used some form of feed withdrawal for periods of 5 to 14 days in breeder birds (Bell and Kuney 2004). It is further reported that induced molting improves the post-molt performance of the laying hens compared to the pre-molt performance, this improvement includes egg size, shell quality, internal INTRODUCTION 3 egg quality, and the rate of egg production. Egg size increases significantly after a molt with a higher percentage of higher grade eggs (Zeelen, 1975). Hatchability is influenced by molting method (Attia et al. 1994). Several researchers studied a relationship among hen age and hatchability (King’ori, 2011). Induced molting through feed withdrawal and photoperiod reduction is an effective method to improve egg production, egg quality, fertility and hatchability of broiler breeders (Moustafa et al. 2010). The effect of molting in chicken and turkey is very well studied and some basic facts have been well established but its significance in quail production is still having a question mark. Reason being the availability of little information on this aspect of quail production. It is also being felt that in Pakistan, especially at Avian Research and Training Center selection for higher body weight is being practiced since last 5-6 years and with the passage of time final body weight (4 week) of quail is almost doubled. These genetically improved quails need to be subjected to maximum experimentation in order to study their potential and standardize their management requirements. Present study is also an effort in the same direction with the main objective to explore the effect of molting on productive and reproductive performance as well as subsequent progeny growth performance in Japanese quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2249-T] (1).

37. Growth Performance, Body Measurements And Slaughter Characteristics As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters In Japanese Quail

by Imran Ullah (2013-VA-598) | Dr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr. Atia Basheer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Coturnix japonica is the zoological name of Japanese quail, which belongs to order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie japonica (Beletsky, 2006). It is highly disease resistant with a very short maturity age as well as market life (4-5weeks). Female quail starts laying almost at 7-8 weeks of age, hence getting popular (Ashok and Prabakaran 2012). Generally the chicks are removed from hatcher only when most of chicks have hatched within the period of hatch window which is almost 36 to 48 hours (Careghi et al. 2005). Many factors affect delay in hatching, the most important being the parent flock age, handling of eggs, time of egg preservation and internal incubation conditions (Decuypere et al. 2001). Little space in the hatcher for hatched chicks, opening of hatcher over many time and late collection of chick can lead to dehydrated and low quality chicks (Bamelis et al. 2005). To reduce above stated risks a concept named “Patio system” was introduced in Netherland, proposed by Kuijpers brothers to improve hatchability and growth performance of chicks. In this system pre incubated eggs (hatching phase) and after hatching chicks (brooding phase) are placed combined in hatchery (http://www.vencomatic.com). Patio system improves body weight, quality of chicks and reduces chick mortality in broilers (Van de Ven et al. 2009). A synergistic effect on growth performance and various economic traits can be attained by using patio system and various feed additives such as probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics etc. The term probiotic is derived from two Latin words “pro” and “bios”. Probiotics are prepared from different species of microorganisms (Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces) considered as intestinal beneficial microflora (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Probiotics are used to make the products through the use of which, many species of animals improve their intestinal miro-flora (Leeson and Summers 1997). Improved beneficial bacteria CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 2 of intestine suppress harmful bacteria like E. coli and produce beneficial enzymes and substances that have antibiotic like effects (Montes and Pugh 1993). Probiotics work by two ways. 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Enhancing immune system. In competitive exclusion, bacterias in gastrointestinal tract produce such type of substances that stunt the growth of harmful bacterias and compete for their predilection site (intestinal epithelium) while second mode of action is, to stimulate their immune system as the young one born is sterile, hence, their gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and beneficial bacterias in GIT are not able to produce antibodies against harmful bacterias that aggregate in chick GIT. By using probiotics that attach intestinal mucosa and create barriers for harmful bacteria and enhance immune system (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Different probiotics (Bacillus subtili) have different modes of action (competitive inhibition) that utilize oxygen in GIT of birds and convert them in different useful enzymes (subtilin and catalase) by which friendly bacterias (Lactobacilli) colonize in birds GIT and block predilection site of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Lactobacilli bacteria produce lactic acid that kill many harmful bacteria like, Salmonella and E.coli (Hosoi et al. 2000). Probiotics are also found to enhance activity of immunoglobulins, macrophages, lymphocytes and interferon (Yang et al. 2009). Birds fed on probiotic mixed diet showed higher body weight and increased carcass percentage (Kabir et al. 2004a) but feed intake, proventiculus, gizzard and liver weight were found to be non-significant among different treatments (Dizaji et al. 2012). Similarly in another study, higher body weight and weight gain were observed in ostrich birds fed on probiotic enriched diet (Karimi-Kivi et al. 2015). Using antibiotics as feed additives can also improve health status of birds. The first antibiotic “chlortetracycline” when used in animal feed during early 1940s increased body weight was observed (Dibner and Richards 2005). For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used in INTRODUCTION 3 poultry feed as a supplement to improve bird’s growth performance, feed conversion ratio and carcass meat yield (Denli et al. 2003). Antibiotics being used in poultry industry are also used therapeutically in human medicines (Edens, 2003). However, recent progress in poultry industry and consumer concerns have risen the questions on use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to their side effects (Wray and Davies 2000). The European Union (EU) banned some antibiotics as growth promoters because of many bacterial strains showing resistant against them (Edens, 2003) In Pakistan high production cost and market price of quail meat discourage both the producer and consumer. The use of patio system may help reduction in production cost, hence, help in gaining the trust and preference of both quail farmers and consumers. Present study was conducted with the main objectives to study the advantages of patio system in Japanese quail and also provide basic information regarding future use of this technique in quails. It was further tried to understand the utility of different growth promoters in quail production with special emphasis on antibiotics and probiotics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2251-T] (1).

38. Effect Of Different Vaccine Routes On Growth Performance, Organs Weight, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response In Broilers

by Habiba Taj (2008-VA-478) | Prof.Dr. Athar Mahmud | Dr. Shahid Mehmood | Dr. Atia Bashir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The purpose of study was to compare four different vaccination routes. The study was conducted at environment controlled broiler house, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus-Pattoki. In this experiment 264 commercial day old chicks were purchased from hatchery.On arrival, 24 day-old chicks were sent to laboratory for determining the maternal antibody level and remaining 240 birds were divided randomly in to four treatments (Drinking water, Eye drop, Spray,Spray +Drinking water) groups. Each group was replicated 6 times with 10 birds each. Before vaccination 03 birds were picked up randomly from each replicate and 3 ml blood was collected from the main brachial vein to determine NDV and IBV maternal antibody titers of the chickens. At the end of the trial, 03 birds were picked up randomly, slaughtered to determine the weight of immune organs and carcass characteristics. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed through Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques at 0.05 significane level. The means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1.Results of present study showed non-significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) infeed intake, body weights, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, point spread, performance index andproduction number. Significant differences (P ≤0.05) were observed in mortality and livability percentage. The birds vaccinated thorugh the eye drop showed higher livability than spray with drinking water.Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed inBursa and thymusweights with respect to four routes of vaccination. The birds vaccinated through eye drop method had the higher bursa and thymusweight as compared to those vaccinated through drinking water, eye drop and spray with drinking water. There were non-significant (P ≥ 0.05) in spleen weight.Maternal antibody level against Infectious Bronchitis and Newcastledisease was 3421and 6.9 respectively. Decline in maternal antibody titer was recorded onthe 7th and 15th day of the experiment.Vaccination at 17th day boosted the immune response.Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in an immune response against the Infectious Bronchitis and Newcastle Disease. The birds vaccinated through eye drop route showed higher immune response than other routes of vaccination.Non-significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) were observed in dressing percentage, breast yield percentage, gizzard percentage, heart percentage, keel length, shank length, intestinal length and intestinal weight. Significant differences (P ≤0.05) were observed in thigh percentage. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study it may be stated that 1. Vaccination routes had no effect on growth performance. 2. Eye drop vaccinataion developed better immunity and also had higher weight of immune organs, while, spray remained poorest. Suggestion and Recommendations: For future it is recommended as eye drop method of vaccination is the best route of vaccination for higher immune response and higher immune organs weight and others routes of vaccinations has lower immune response and imuune organs weight. Continuous detailed and comprehensive research investigations are needed on different vaccination routes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2271-T] (1).

39. Productive And Reproductive Performance In Japanese Quail As Affected By Interventions In The Age At Photo Stimulation

by Syed Ali Raza Haider (2002-|VA-115) | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Light play an important role in controlling the age at sexual maturity in birds. Among various managemental aspects, light management is the basic one. Attaining sexual maturity at an appropriate age and weight is the key to reproductive success and the present study was an effort in the same direction. To develop specific practice for quail production and to optimize the best age for photo-stimulation present experiment was conducted. In total 225 females and 75 males of 5 week old were studied. A completely randomized design with three treatment of 5 replicates with 15 female and 5 male each, was applied. Treatment consisted 3 different ages of photo-stimulation (30, 35 and 40 days). Production performance (body weight, feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio and livability), egg characteristics (egg weight, shell thickness, yolk index and Haugh unit) and hatching traits (infertile, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shell percent and hatchling body weight) were evaluated. This has been observed in the study that photo-stimulating the birds at 40 days of age influenced positively egg production % with longest consistent peak, number of eggs, FCR / dozen eggs and FCR/Kg egg mass. Birds stimulated at 40 days of age showed better hatchability and very low dead in germ percentage. It was concluded that photo-stimulation at 40 days of age not only significantly improves productive, reproductive and egg quality traits but also gives the consistency in all respects of these traits. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2328-T] (1).

40. Effect Of Different Dietary Lysine Levels And Feed Restriction Regimes On Growth Performance And Slaughtering Characteristics In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Maintained During Hot Season

by Yassar Abbas (2008-VA-753) | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arkam | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: High prices, global shortage of feed ingredients and less supply of animal protein against great demand as consequence of ever increasing human population needs to enhance protein supply. One way of enhancing protein supply is to expand poultry production along with increasing production of other micro livestock such as Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) having low maintenance cost, short generation intervals, early sexual maturity and better resistance to diseases and its meat being rich in high quality protein having high biological value with low caloric content. Profit can be optimized by minimizing feed cost that accounts for 60-70 % of the total production cost and any improvements in the performance of birds by manipulation of feeding strategies inevitably have a profound effect on profitability. Any effort to improve commercial poultry production and enhance its efficiency needs to emphasize on better utilization of existing resources. Among different feeding management schemes and strategies phase feeding may be employed with the logic seems to feed birds for shorter periods of time to exactly meet but not exceed the amino acids requirements hence improvement in carcass characteristics and reduction of dietary cost. Commercial availability of very vital limiting amino acids (lysine) has set a new tendency of formulation of poultry feeds having low protein level with addition of amino acids. Lysine, being utmost essential amino acid is used as a reference for other essential amino acids. Feed restriction program may be another managemental tool that may elicit compensatory growth, improved feed efficiency, carcass quality and birds are not exposed to sub optimal level of nutrients but the efficiency of utilization of these nutrients may be improved. On the other hand breed, strain, management and sex differences for carcass traits have also been reported. Very little research focus on the subject has necessitated conducting the ABSTRACT vii present study undertaken in Japanese quails on the similar pattern as adopted in broiler industry to make quail production more cost-effective and commercially viable at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. A series of experiments at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan was run to assess the effect of different management interventions on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical profile in Japanese quail. The first experiment was aimed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency involving 1440 day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks. Three dietary lysine levels (1.3, 1.4-1.2 & 1.5-1.3-1.1 %) in 3 different phases were allocated to four different close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) of Japanese quails to assess their comparative growth performance by replicating each treatment for three times. The experimental day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 40 chicks each. Quails under 1st treatment were fed a diet with 1.3 percent lysine throughout the grow-out period of 28 days, while, those under 2nd treatment were allotted diet with 1.4 percent lysine up to14 days of age and then subsequently reduced to 1.2 percent lysine up to 28 days. The 3rd treatment was split into 03 different phases. The first phase was up to 9th, 2nd up to 19th and 3rd up to 28th day by allotting diet containing 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1 % lysine, respectively. Weekly data on growth performance were recorded and analyzed through ANOVA technique in CRD under factorial arrangement and the comparison of means was worked out using DMR test by the help of SAS 9.1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins. viii In the 2nd experiment same experimental design and phase feeding was practiced to observe organ development. Sexing with in treatment was done at the age of three weeks and quails were maintained separately for one week. At 4 week of age, 3 birds/ replicate from either sex were slaughtered through Halal Muslim method for studying carcass characteristics. Two birds per replicate from either sex were used for serum analysis of glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumen and total protein using standard procedures. The analysis showed three phase dietary lysine regimen than other dietary lysine regimens improved (P≤0.05) slaughter characteristics i.e. post slaughter weight (g), dressing percentage with and without giblets, breast yield (g), thigh yield (g), giblet weight (g), liver weight (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm), weight of visceral organs including intestinal weight (g) and intestinal length (cm). However, heart weight (g), gizzard (empty) weight (g), serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumin and total protein were not significantly affected by dietary lysine regimen. While, different close bred stocks did not show any significant differences. Third experiment was executed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) subjected to different feed restriction regimes at ART Centre, UVAS, Lahore. For this purpose a total of 3200 quail chicks from four different close-bred stocks were allocated to four different feed restriction regimes comprising four close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local -2 and Local-3) at the age of 10 days. The experimental quails in group 1 were fed ad-libitum (20.30% CP, 1.3% Lysine, as recommended by NRC) throughout the experimental period to serve as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were provided with 1 hour feed- 3-hour off, 2-hour feed- 2hour off and 3-hour feed-1hour off feeding regimes, respectively. The analysis of data showed that the maximum feed intake was observed in ad-libitum fed group whereas the highest body weight gain was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hour ix fed quails. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group. Different close-bred stocks could not express any significant difference in growth parameters. In the 4th experiment same dietary plan of time restriction as in 3rd experiment was adopted to observe organ development. At the termination of the experiment (at the age of 38 days), 6 birds (3 male and 3 female) from each replicate were randomly picked up and slaughtered (by Halal method) to study different slaughter parameters. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) carcass weight, mean dressing % with and without giblet, mean thigh weight was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hours fed quails while significantly lower mean dressing %, liver weight, gizzard weight, giblet weight, breast weight and mean intestinal length and weight in one hour fed quail. Blood profile showed significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails. Heart weights (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm) were not affected significantly among different treatments and close-bred stocks. Conclusion Based upon the findings of the present study it may be stated that 1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins. 2. Significant improvement in carcass characteristics was recorded in three phase dietary lysine regimen. 3. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group in Japanese quails when subjected to different feed restriction regimens. x 4. Three hour fed quails showed superior carcass characteristics at par with ad-libitum fed groups especially in terms of carcass weight, dressing percentage and thigh weight. 5. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level were recorded in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails. Suggestions and Recommendations Four lysine dietary regimens having 1 week each may successfully be employed in Japanese quails in order to get maximum profit. It may further be recommended that Japanese quails may be subjected to feed restriction of 1-hour after 2nd week. The present series of experimentation is a step towards optimizing the nutritional and managemental strategies in Japanese quails, however, a lot more is still needed to be worked out in this direction. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2340-T] (1).

41. Evaluation of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Economic Appraisal of 3 Broiler Strains Under 4 Brooding Sources And Varying Feeding Regimens In Termianal Phase

by Muhammad Shabir Shaheen (2013-VA-778) | Dr. Shahid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Mr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with corrupt cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2351-T] (1).

42. Scientific Poultry Production : A Unique Encyclopaedia

by Sreenivasaiah, P.V.

Edition: 3rdMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: International Book Distributing Co, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.5 Sreenivasaiah 50606 3rd 2006 Poultry] (6), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.5 Sreenivasaiah 20900 3rd 2006 Poultry] (1).

43. Arthropods in livestock and poultry production /

by Lancaster, J.L | Meisch, M.V.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: UK] : Ellis Horwood Ltd , Publisher, 1986Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.5 Lancaster 15035 1st 1986 Poultry] (2).

44. Modern Livestock and Poultry Production /

by Gillespie, James R.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Thomson Delmar Learning, 1995Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636 Gillespie 16338 5th 1997 L.Production] (1).

45. Handbook of Poultry

by Dr. Manoj Kumar Rai.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Oxford Book Company; 2012Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.5 Manoj 31093 1st 2012 Poultry] (1).

46. Effect Of Different Bedding Materials On The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response Of Three Different Broiler Strains

by Muhammad Irfan (2013-VA-966) | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Dr. Shahid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Broiler birds spent most of their life in close association with bedding material. Managing poultry house bedding material is an important husbandry practice. The type of bedding material can affect the performance of the broilers to a certain extent in terms of growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response. In Pakistan, selection of bedding material is dependent upon season and availability with little knowledge of interaction with particular broiler strain. Although, it is well documented that different strains have the tendency to perform differently in similar environmental conditions still performance of particular cross on a given bedding material is not studied. Poultry industry is constantly interested in evaluating the performance of the commercially available broiler strains. The concept of using different bedding materials for three different commercial broiler strains was evaluated at the Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 360 day old commercial broiler chicks from three different strains (Ross 308, Cobb 500 and Arbor acres) 120 from each strain were purchased from the local market. All the day old chicks having uniform body weight were randomly distributed into 36 replicates having 10 chicks each and were fed the same quality of feed. Birds from each strain were reared on each bedding material in three replicates to evaluate the ultimate growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response influenced by four different bedding materials for the period of 5 weeks. Three birds were randomly picked up from each treatment group at the end of trial and 5 ml blood was collected in marked test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird during slaughtering to obtain serum samples. The data were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique using PROC GLM in SAS 9.1. Means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test. The findings of the present study exhibited that Cobb 500 reared on corn cob pulp showed significantly (P<0.05) better final weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio,European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), Point Spread (PS) and Livability. Regarding carcass characteristics better dressing proportion, breast yield, leg quarter yield, giblet weight and other body measurements were observed in Cobb 500 followed by Ross 308 and Arbor acres strain reared on other bedding materials used in this experiment. Corn cob pulp showed maximum potential with the best moisture absorbing capacity and favored the growth of birds followed by rice husk, wheat straw and wood shavings. Wood shaving proved to be a poor choice as it hinders the growth performance and was hard to manage due to wet, scaly and cake formation that promoted pathogenic growth leading to FPD. Moreover, corn cob pulp was better suited to promote dry condition because of fine particles size allowing more surface area for moisture evaporation and keeping it dry for longer duration. Therefore, birds kept on corn cob pulp were more comfortable as it is evident from the results that it has the potential to be used in poultry industry as alternate bedding material. Rice husk performed next to corn cob pulp while wheat straw and wood shavings did not impress by the outcome and proved to unfit for better growth and welfare of birds. In the current study, birds generated protective antibody titers against Newcastle Disease virus and no significant differences were found by using different bedding materials or broiler strains.   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the observations made from the current experiment it may be claimed that: • Corn cob pulp proved to be the most efficient as it significantly improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of 3 commercial broiler strains especially for Cobb 500. • Corn cob pulp being most comfortable promoted health and welfare of birds leading to improved immunity against pathogens and viral diseases. • FPD can be reduced to minimum by adopting corn cob pulp as bedding material due to its fine particles and highly moisture absorbing abilities. • The highest carcass yield, dressing proportion, organ weight (heart weight, abdominal fat, liver, spleen, heart, thymus, bursa) along with breast yield, neck, keel and shank length were recorded by Cobb 500 on corn cob pulp. • Cobb 500 strain was found better than rest of two strains (Ross and Arbor acres) regarding growth performance and carcass characteristics. • Being a by-product of corn processing, corn cob pulp is the cheapest and can be an economical alternate to conventional bedding materials for all strains especially for Cobb. In Pakistan rice husk and wood shavings are abundantly used bedding materials depending upon season and availability. Rice husk is by product of rice processing and highly dependent upon season, while poultry farming is a continuous business so its availability stands as a major issue. Whereas, corn cob pulp being a by-product of corn processing is usually left on fields or wasted. So it can be used as a cheap alternative with better performance but its availability around the year and on commercial scale can be an issue. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2424-T] (1).

47. Physiological, Behavioral And Immune Response In Three Commercial Broiler Strains Under Four Heating Systems

by Muhammad Jamil Alvi (2008-VA-480) | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Saima | Dr. Shahid Mehmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The performance of broilers maintained under four different brooding systems with respect to behavior of the birds, blood profile and immune response in comparison to different strain of broilers raising needs to be studied under local conditions as it has been reported to possess better prospects. Furthermore, broiler performance in four different brooding zones having different air quality needs to be investigated in view of their effect on performance of broilers. In the trial, 360 commercial (Hubbard, Ross, Cobb) day-old broiler chicks purchased from the local hatchery. Hence the present study was conducted, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus, Pattoki with the objectives to compare the effect of strains and heating sources on the behavior (Walking, Feeding, Jumping, Litter Pecking, Lying, Standing, Preening, Breathing, Fearfulness, Body stretching, Rubbing beak with body) of the birds. In the present study effect of strains and heating system on blood biochemistry and immune response were also identified. The behavior of broilers strains studied under four different heating systems. Each treatment replicated 03 subgroups. The experimental chicks randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 10 chicks each after the adaptation period of three weeks. The heating system will be split into 04 groups (A, B, C and D). The birds in group A kept over hot water pipe lines. The birds in group B will be kept in gas heater area. The birds in group C kept in diesel brooder area. The birds in group D kept under pen cake brooder area. The data were analyzed according to analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial arrangements using GLM procedures. Means separated through Duncan Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1. Results of the present study showed significant highest jumping behavior in birds reared on hot water pipes as compared to gas heater during starter SUMMARY 48 phase and grower phase. In interaction, significantly more jumping behavior was recorded on electric bulbs in Ross when compared with Ross on hot water in starter phase. Significantly highest aggression was showed in birds reared on gas heaters than birds reared on electric bulb and diesel brooder. The preening behavior significantly improved in birds reared on gas heaters in starter, grower and finisher phase. While minimum was recorded on hot water during starter, grower and finisher phase. The feather picking behavior and walking behavior significantly higher in birds reared on gas heater during starter, grower and finisher phase. The laying behavior was statistically significant in Cobb broiler chicks during finisher phase. The feeding and litter picking behavior significantly higher in Ross broiler chicks during finisher phase. The under heat source, stretching and rubbing beak with body behavior significantly improved in Hubbard broiler chicks during starter phase. The blood profile was not significantly influenced by strains and heating source. The antibody titer against ND and IBD was higher in Ross reared on water heating system as compared to other strains and heating sources while blood biochemical profile was also higher in Ross when reared at floor heating system. Conclusion:  Ross reared under hot water during brooding showed better and healthy behavior including jumping, aggression, walking, standing, drinking, lying, feeding and litter picking  Ross strains exhibited better immune response and serum chemistry at hot water brooding system. Suggestion and Recommendations:  Hot water can be used as alternative brooding source  Behavior of commercial poultry needs further investigation and research. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2428-T] (1).

48. Performance And Immune Response Of Layers Among Different Production Cycles Influenced By Body Weight Losses During Molting

by Mian Mubashar Saleem (2008-VA-475) | Dr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Dr. Arshad Javid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Molting is a natural phenomenon in birds to rejuvenate their potential and body reserves. Commercially molting is being practiced in most of the countries to extend the production cycle of the bird and gain more from a single birds. It also reduces the cost of rearing the replacement pullet and increase egg size. The success of molting depends on loss of body weight during molting. Genetic improvement is a continuous process and new strains of layers are being developed on regular basis. LSL Lite is one of the recently introduced strain in Pakistan. But, its optimum body weight loss during molting in different production cycles is need to be optimized. The present study was planned to compare the performance of birds after different body weight losses during molting in different production cycles of commercial LSL Lite strain. The study was conducted at a Commercial layer farm. A total of 216 uniform weight birds of three production cycles (1st Cycle = 16 Wk, 2nd Cycle = 80 Wk, 3rd Cycle = 108 wk) were placed in battery cages. The birds of 2nd and 3rd production cycles were first molted till reduction of 20, 25, and 30% body weight loss. The birds of 1st production cycle (Control group) were those having same body weight as those of 2nd and 3rd production cycle after molting. The birds used in 3rd production cycle were first molted at the age of 64 Wk. Each treatment was replicated three times with 8 birds each and placed according to Completely Randomized Designs. The parameters used were post-moult production performance, egg geometry, egg quality and immune profile of these birds. The data collected were subjected to ANOVA under Completely Randomized Design in factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1. Significant means (P<0.05) were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results of the present study showed that birds in 1st production cycle have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass, shape index, egg surface area, CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Huagh unit, yolk index, shell %, egg shell thickness. Whereas birds in 3rd production cycle have highest feed intake. Egg weight was highest in 2nd and 3rd production cycle. Similarly birds in low weight category have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass. Whereas birds heavy weight category had highest egg mass. Non-significant difference were observed regarding immunity in different production cycles and body weight loss categories. Similarly non-significant difference were observed regarding egg quality with respect to body weight loss categories throughout the experiment. Feed intake and egg production remained non-significant in case of interaction of production cycles and body weight loss categories. Conclusion From present studied it can be concluded that:  Different production cycles influence productive performance of the birds, especially 1st production cycle birds had higher production % FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass however the production performance of 2nd and 3rd production cycles birds is relatively comparable. Similarly 2nd and 3rd production cycle birds exhibit higher egg weight and egg mass.  Birds of low weight category (< 1400 g) of 1st production cycle and 30% body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycles had relatively higher egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass. Whereas heavy weight category of 1st production cycle and 20 % body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycle had higher egg weight and egg mass.  Egg quality and geometry was influenced by production cycles but no difference was observed by body weight loss categories in this regard.  Different production cycles and body weight loss categories did not influence immune parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2482-T] (1).

49. Supplementation Of Glycerin In Rearing Diets And Its Subsequent Effect On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Hatchability In Japanese Quails

by Abdul Ghayas (2014-VA-781) | Dr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed).

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Glycerin has gained attraction being a low cost and energy rich compound that can partially replace the major ingredients including corn and some other energy rich stuffs. It may work as an alternative energy source without any detrimental effect on production performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quails. This study evaluated subsequent effect of glycerin on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quail. A total of 200 birds were arranged according to completely randomized design into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 8 birds each (6 female + 2 Males). Treatment consisted 5 levels of glycerin i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % and control group. Birds were fed with different levels of glycerin during rearing period of six weeks and their subsequent effect on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed. Data were collected regarding productive performance for 16 weeks, however, egg quality and hatching traits were recorded during pre-peak (at 4th week), peak (at 12th week) and post peak (at 16th week) phase. No significant effect of glycerin on subsequent productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed throughout the experimental period. Regarding productive performance, initial and final body weight, feed intake, hen housed and hen day production%, egg weight, egg mass, FCR / dozen egg and / kg egg mass did not show any major significant difference in all three phases. However, glycerin had significant effect on subsequent egg weight during peak and post peak phase. In egg quality, no significant effect of glycerin were observed on subsequent egg shell thickness, shell weight and yolk index in all three phases, whereas, albumen height and Haugh Unit score during pre-peak and peak phase were effected significantly. In terms of hatching traits, hatchability, fertility, dead in shell and dead germ% did not show any significant difference in all phases. However, clear egg % showed significant difference during peak phase of production. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2477-T] (1).

50. Encyclopedia of Broiler Breed Production: Production, Feeding and Management Techniques

by Youn, Michael.

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi: Anmol Publishing; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.5 Youn 31682 Vol.1 2013 Poultry] (3).



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