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1. Introductory Biophysics : Perspectives on the Living State

by Claycomb, James.

Material type: book Book Publisher: New Delhi : Jones & Bartlet, Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 574.191 Claycomb 1sted. 2011 29747 Theriogenology] (1).

2. Atlas of Small Animal Ultrasonography

by Penninck, Dominique | Penninck, Dominique | d'Anjou, Marc-Andre.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607543 Penninck 29150 1st 2008 Therigenology] (1).

3. The Ovary / 2nd ed

by Leung, Peter C.K | Adashi, Eli Y.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: London : Academic Press, 2004Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.15 Leung 2nded 2004 29662 Theriogenology] (1).

4. Animal Reproduction

by Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi : Oxford Book Company, 2012Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.08926 Sharma 1st 2012 29206 L.Production] (1).

5. Bovine Reproduction

by Hopper, Richard M.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK : Wiley-Blackwell, 2015Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.08926 Hopper 50332 1st 2015 Theriogenology] (4), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08926 Hopper 32587 1st 2015 Theriogenology] (3). Checked out (1).

6. Equine Reproductive Procedures

by Dascanio,John | Dascanio, John | McCue, Patrick.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Malashiya: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.1082 Dascabio 30037 1st 2014 Theriogenology] (1).

7. Reproduction in Farm Animals / 7th ed

by Hafez, B | Hafez, E. S. E.

Edition: 7thMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: U.S.A. Wiley-Blackwell; 2000Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08926 Hafez 22508 7th 2000 Theriogenology] (33).

8. Libido And Mating Behaviour Of Buffalo Bulls

by Anzor, M | Manzoor Ahmed | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0038,T] (1).

9. Studiesw On The Senility Pattern In Relation To Reproductive Efficienty In Male Nili-Ravi Buffalo

by Farman Ahmad | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0039,T] (1).

10. Accuracy Of Rectal Diagnosis Of Corpus Luteum In Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Subhan Qureshi, M | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0040,T] (1).

11. Effect Of Corticosteroid On Uterine Involution And Related Changes Of Blood Picture In Postparturient Nili Ravi

by Munawar Hussain Gill | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | M.Tahir Khan | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0041,T] (1).

12. Stuies On Superovulation And Morphology Of Recovered Embryos In Nili Ravi Buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis)

by Tayyab Rahil | Chaudry Muhammed Saleem | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti | Saghir Ahhmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0042,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Different Freezing Levels On The Freezability Of Buffalo Bull Semen

by Javaid Iqbal Ch | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Ata-Ur-Rehman | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0043,T] (1).

14. Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Repeat Breeder Cows In Peshawar District (North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P)

by Ali Nazar Bangash | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Muhammed | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0044,T] (1).

15. Occurrence Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Buffalo Bull Semen

by Aleem, M | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Ata-Ur-Rehman | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0045,T] (1).

16. Comparison Of Vaginal Bacterial Flora In Teddy Goats With And Without Reproductive Disorders

by Tauseef Ali Raza | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Dr. Talat | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: A total number of 140 teddy goats were included in the study to compare the bacterial flora of vagina. Out of 140 goats, 80 had a history of normal lambing and fertility while 60 goats had a history of reproductive problems such as repeat breeding, infertility etc. A total of 120 bacteria belonging to 9 different species were isolated. 20 samples were bacteriologically sterile. The ercentage of various organisms isolated from samples was as under: - Staphylococcus aureus 29.16% (35 isolates) Corynebacterium pyogenes 27.50% (33 isolates) Streptococcus pyogenes 11.66% (14 isolates) Pseudomonas 9.66% (11 isolates) Bacillus subtilis 6.66% ( 8 isolates) Proteus vulgaris 5 % ( 6 isolates) Bacillus cereus 4.16% ( 5 isolates) Micrococcus 3.33% ( 4 isolates) Lactobacillus 3.33% ( 4 isolates) In-vitro sensitivity of isolates revealed that STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS was 82.85% sensitive to Gentamycin, 71.42% to biotics, 64% to Chloramphenicol, 54.28% to Terramycin, 28.57% to rimethoprim, 20% to Ampicillin and 8.57% to Erythromycin. CORYNEBACTERIUM PYOGENES was 84.84% sensitive to Cornbiotics , ':> 69.69% to Choromphe nicol , 12.12% to Erythromycin, 29.75% to Terramycin, 30.30% to Ampicillin, 15.51% to Gentamycin and 7.43% to Trimethoprim. STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES was 92.85% sensitive to gentamycin, 71. 43% to combiotics, and 42.85% to hloramphenicol. It was resistant to Erythromycin, Terramycin, Ampicillin and Trimethoprim. PSEUDOMONAS Spp was 72.72% sensitive to Combiotics, 45.45% to Chloramphenicol, 36.36% to Gentamycin, 27.27% to Terramycin, 18.18% to Erythromycin, Ampicillin and Trimethoprim. BACILLUS SUBTILIS was 100% sensitive to Chloramphenical, Terramycin, Ampicillin and Gentamycin and 83.3% to Combiotics. It was resistant to Erythromycin and Trimethoprim. PROTEUS VULGARIS was 100% senstitive to combiotics, Chloram- phenical, Erythromycin, Terramycin, Ampicillin, Gentamycin and Trimethoprim. BACILLUS CEREUS was 100% sensitive to all the above antibiotics/ Salfonamides tried. MICROCOCCUS was 100% sensitive to all the above antibiotics/ sulfonamides used. LACTOBACILLUS was 100% sensitive to all of the above antibiotics/ sulfonamides. The vaginal samples of goats in reproductive problem group revealed a higher bacterial count as compared to healthy group and it was concluded that higher bacterial load in the agina was responsible for the reproductive problems. No strain of Brucella or vibrio could be isolated. The animals treated intra-vaginally responded favourably. On the basis of in-vitro sensitivity test c'ombiotic is recommended for the treatment of vaginal infections. The preliminary study on the vaginal bacterial flora of the Teddy goats is the first of its kind ever attempted in Pakistan. Further studies on the lines attempted in the present investigation are suggested and in any future attempt it will be highly desirable if other micro-organisms besides bacteria are studied. Furthermore large number of animals both apparently healthy as well as those showing reproductive disorder in various egions of the country should be included in any future endeavour to bring these studies to their logical conclusions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0046,T] (1).

17. Studies On Reproductive Potentials Of Rambouillet Sheep Reared At Govt. Livestock Experiment Station, Jaba,

by Wahid Mir Khan | Naeem Ullah Khan | Asif Rabbani | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0047,T] (1).

18. Synchronization Of Oestrus Using Prostaglandin F2 Alpha And Serum Progesterone Profile During Oestrus

by Kazim Raza Chohan | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Munir Ahmed | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0048,T] (1).

19. Studies On Gross And Microscopic Structures Of Ovaries And Oviducts During Different Stags Of Estrous Cycle In Teddy Goats

by Iqbal, M | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Mansoor | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0049,T] (1).

20. Effect Of Different Equilibration Times And Extenders On The Deep Freezing Of Buffalo Bull Semen

by Rashid, A | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0050,T] (1).

21. Studies On The Pre-Pubertal Development Of The Reproductive Organs And Other Related Endocrine Glands In Male Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull Calves Of 6 Month Age

by Mansoor Ali | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Ata-Ur-Rehman | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0051,T] (1).

22. Studies On Semen Characteristics And Fertility Of Lohi Rams At Different Ages

by Babar Raza Khan | Naeem Ullah Khan | Nisar Ahmed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0052,T] (1).

23. Studies On The Population Of Primordial Follicles In Teddy Goats

by Saeed Akhtar, M | Naeem Ullah Khan | Muhammed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0053,T] (1).

24. Effect Of Different Extenders On The Extracellular Release Of Hyaluronidase And Acrosin From Buffalo Bull

by Tasneem Akhtar | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Tufail | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0054,T] (1).

25. Studies On Reproductive Efficiency Of Bhagnari Cattle, Maintained At Govt. Cattle Farm Usta Muhammad Balochistan

by Azam, M | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0088,T] (1).

26. Sero Epidemiological Survey Of Bovine Brucellosis Associated With Reproductive Disorders In Quetta District, Balochistan

by Faqir Mohammad | Naeem Ullah Khan | Muhammed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0089,T] (1).

27. Sero Prevalence Of Leptospirosis In The Exotic Dairy Cattle In And Around Quetta

by Ashfaq Hussain, Bhatti | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0090,T] (1).

28. Evaluation Of Dual Staining Procedure To Detect The Viability And True Acrosome Reaction Of Buffalo Bull Spermatozoa

by Munir Ahmad | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Tayyab Rahil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0091,T] (1).

29. Studies On Morphology Of Buffalo Bull Semen Of Different Age Groups

by Anwer Saeed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Malik | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0125,T] (1).

30. Morphological Abnormalities Of Spermatozoa In Pure Bred Friesian, Sahiwal Bulls And Friesian X Sahiwal

by Ahsan Rashad, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Ch | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr. M. Akram | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Of the 15 normal semen producing breeding bulls, five bulls from each of pure bred Sahiwal, Friesian and the cross-breds (Friesian X Sahiwal) of the same age group were selected. These bulls were maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad (Sahiwal) under similar conditions of housing, feeding and management. Two consecutive ejaculates once a week were collected. A total of 395 ejaculates were evaluated for various seminal characteristics, extended, processed and frozen during August, September and October, 1990. During these three months semen parameters like ejaculate volume, mass motility, percent motility and the doses produced per ejaculate declined with increase of ambient temperature and humidity. The second ejaculate (195) at each collection and for each bull was always taken for studying the sperm morphology. Two slides from each semen sample were prepared in 10% solution of Nigrosin stain. A total of 200 sperm cells were counted in each slide and average values for various morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa in each breed were studied. The sperm cell abnormalities were accounted for head (abnormal, detached), neck (poor attachment, abaxial attachment and fractured neck), thickened mid-piece, protoplasmic droplet (proximal, distal droplet) and tail (detached, coiled- tail-droplet-enclosed, coiled tail). The mean values of different breeds so obtained for different abnormalities during various months were analysed. The average values for head abnormalities for three breeds were 9.69 ± 1.88, 5.12 ± 060 and 1.56 ± 0.14% in Friesian, cross-bred and Sahiwal, respectively. These abnormalities were highest during August and September in Friesian bulls and lowest in Sahiwal bulls during October. The neck abnormalities were highest in cross-breds (4.44 ± 0.57%) and lowest in Sahiwal (1.67 ± 0.14%). However, the neck abnormalities were statistically similar during the months of August, September and October. Similar trend of mid-piece abnormality was observed between various breeds and months. Likewise the values of protoplasmic droplets were highest in cross breds (14.12 ± 1.19%) and lowest in Sahiwal (2.36 ± 0.30%). The tail abnormalities were the highest in cross-breds (3.47 ± 0.45%) and lowest in Sahiwal (0.87 ± 0.12%). Among various months the tail abnormalities, were statistically similar (P> 0.05). The total values of different sperm abnormalities wçre highest in cross-breds during August (30.93 ± 3.11%) and comparatively lower during September and October (28.66 ± 2.28 and 26.11 ± 2.63%), respectively. Except head abnormalities, all the other abnormalities of spermatozoa were statistically significant among breeds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0206,T] (1).

31. Macro And Micro Elements In Female Buffalo Calves Blood Serum During Various Stages Of Growth Upto Maturity

by Sher Nadir | Naeem Ullah Khan | Imtiaz Hussain | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: The study was carried out at Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadarnagar, District Okara. 320 blood serum samples in duplicate from 64 female buffalo calves were chemically analysed for Calcium, Phosphorus, Copper, Zinc and Manganese. These animals were divided into four groups and each group was further sub divided into two sub groups respectively. Eight animals were placed in each sub group. Sub groups of first group consisted of 5th and 6th, sub groups of second group 7th and 8th, sub groups of third group 9th and 10th, and sub groups of fourth group 11th and 12th quarters of their age respectively. These animals were put on same plan of nutrition for thirty days before starting the experiment. 20 ml., blood was drawn aseptically from the jugular vein. The blood was allowed to coagulate and serum was separated for analysis. Inorganic phosphorus and copper were analysed in the blood serum by the Merko test kits, Calcium by flame photometer, Zinc and Manganese by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Biometry and ovarian activity of the third and fourth groups were recorded. Non significant (P>O.05) difference was observed for calcium, phosphorus, copper and zinc in all the groups while significant (9<0.05) difference was existed for manganese in the groups. significant correlation (r = 0.72* P <0.05) was observed for phosphorus with the size of the graafian follicle while correlation ( r = 0.62, r = 0.40 r=0.58 and r= 0.57 9>0.05) for calcium, copper, zinc and manganese was negative respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0209,T] (1).

32. Physical And Biochemical Studies On Cervical Mucus During Oestrus In Normal And Repeat Breeding Buffaloes

by Faiz Karim Qureshi | Naeem Ullah Khan | F.H. Shah | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Observations have been made on the cervical mucus of buffaloes with particular reference to i) the occurance of cervical mucus and changes associated with ovarian activity 2) the significance of various tests on cervical 5ecretions, 3, its composition and 4) the longevity of spermatazoa with in the mucus. For this purpose mucus samples were collected from 40 clinically nomral buffaloes upto 6th lactations from the artificial insemination centre Multan. The mucus samples were subjected to physical examination immediately after collection. For biochemical studies, the samples were stored in stoppered bottles at - 20CC till the analysis which was completed with in 2 months of collection in the P.C.S.I.R Labortary, Lahore. The animals were followed after two months of insemination for pregnancy test by rectal palpation. Amongest 40 buffaloes that were examined for pregnancy only 22 were pregnant. 18 buffaloes grouped under repeat breeders had normal oestrus cycles, but did not settle with in two inseminations. Physical characteristic were colour, Transpancey, Ferning, Refractive Index, & pH. under biochemical examination Calcium, Plagnesium, Inorganic Phorsphorus, Sodium and Potassium contents were studied. Physical properties of cervical mucus like colour, transparency are found to be unsatisfactory tools for screening of repeat breeder animals. However higher percentage of typical ferning, lower range of refractive index are the parameters to be given due consideration while screening repeat breeders cases. Significant increase in pH of cervical mucus of repeat breeding buffaloes was observed.. There was no significant difference in the concentration of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium but significantly higher concentration of inorganic phosphorus recorded in the cervical mucus of fertile animals. It has been postulated as one of the criteria for assessment of fertility in buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0212,T] (1).

33. Studies On The Mating Behaviour And Semen Characteristics Of Teddy And Beetal Bucks

by Tariq Aleem | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Nisar Ahmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Present study was made to assess the relationship between Libido, mating behaviour and semen characteristics of two different breeds of bucks (Teddy Vs Bectal) at different stages of age. in past, no parameters have been fixed to investigate the effect of Sexual activities on the semen production and different semen characteristics of bucks Libido, mating behaviour and semen quality has been evaluated by using various tests for different physical parameters. A significant difference was observed in the Libido and mating behaviour indices with in the breeds and within the age groups i.e. 86.99 ± 1.25 Vs. 83.55 ± 3.89 (Group I Vs. II), 82.99 ± 3.17 Vs. 79.44 + 0.49 (group III Vs. IV) and 85.83 ± 0.83 Vs. 84.84 ± 3.69 (group I Vs. II) 81.79 + 2.00 Vs. 84.09 ± 1.04 (group III Vs. IV) where as a significant difference was observed in the volume of ejaculates, Percentage of live/dead spermatozoa, percentage of tail and mid piece abnormalities between the bucks of all the four groups i.e., 0.98 ml ±Vs. 1.02 ml ± 0.05 (group I Vs. II), 1.2 ml ± 0.04 Vs. 1.25 ml ± 0.09 (grouplll Vs. IV) and 5.14% + 0.37 Vs. 3.98 ± 0.29 kind 6.15 ± 0.45 Vs.4.32 ± 0.42 respectively. Where as, for mid piece abnormalities it was 7.01 ± 0.24 Vs. 1.48 ± 0.16 and 6.01% + 0.2 Vs. 1.32 ± 0.9 respectively. A highly significant difference was recorded for sperm cell concentration per ml and the percentage of total morphologically abnormal spermatozoa within the breed and within the age groups i.e., 2903.83 X io6 ± 24.35 Vs. 3829.03 X io6 ± 40.22 (group I Vs. II) and 2992.34 X 106 ± 26.83 Vs. 3776.74 X 1o6 ± 39.73 (group III Vs. IV) and 15.97 ± 0.74 Vs. 4.74 ± 0.29 (group I Vs. II), 16.98$ + 0.8 Vs. 3.95 ± 0.25 (group III Vs. IV). A non-significant difference was found in mass motility, pH, percentage of head abnormalities and percentage of presence of plasma droplet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0214,T] (1).

34. A Quantitative Investigation Of Primordial Follicles In Noncycling 3-4 Years Nili-Ravi Buffalo Heifers

by Izaz Anjum | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Manzoor | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Late puberty is the major factor in buffalo heifers leading to low reproductive efficiency resulting in economic losses. Very little information was available about the reproductive potential based on quantitative investigation of primordial follicles and their relation with the ovarian size and weight which directly affects the attainment of puberty. The present study was designed to determine the number of primordial follicles in non - cycling 3 - 4 years buffalo heifers and results were based on the specific selection of the animals after confirmation of age by dentition, general physical examination, the reproductive status after slaughter. This was achieved by the collection of 12 samples (ovaries) from six animals, two animals belonging to each age group of 3 years, 3 1/2 years and 4 years. In the heifer Al, the right ovary was more round in shape than left but somewhat softer in consistency than the left ovary. In the heifer A2, the left ovary was somewhat flattened than right ovary which was firmer in consistency than the left ovary and surface was nodular in both ovaries. In the heifer Bi the left ovary was less oval than the right one but was harder in consistency than right ovary. In the heifer B2 the left ovary was more oval in shape than right and somewhat nodular and softer in consistency than right ovary. In the heifer Cl, the left ovary was oval and right elliptical in shape having smooth surface throughout while the right ovary was harder in consistency than left one. In the heifer C2, both ovaries were almost similar in shape which were more oval almost round and right ovary was quite hard and its palpation was almost impossible. The average weights of ovaries in two non cycling buffalo heifers of Group A (3 years) were 3.30 ± 0.50 gm for the left and 3.90 ± 0.10 gm for the right ovaries (Table 3). The average weights of ovaries in two non cycling buffalo heifers of Group B (3 1/2 years) were 2.70 ± 0.30 gm for the left and 2.90 ± 0.30 gm for the right ovaries (Table 3). The average weights of ovaries in two non cycling buffalo heifers of Group C (4 years) were 2.40 ± 0.40 gm for the left and 2.70 ± 0.70 gm for the right ovaries (Table 3). The average size of the ovaries of Group A heifers (3 years) was 2.61 ± 0.53 cm x 1.64 ± 0.40 cm x 1.53 ± 0.13 cm in length, width and thickness respectively for the left ovaries and same for the right ovaries was 2.61 ± 0.35 cm x 1.88 ± 0.10 cm x 1.65 ± 0.01 cm (Table 5). The average size of the ovaries of Group B heifers (3 1/2 years) was 2.39 ± 0.13 cm x 1.58 ± 0.10 cm x 1.31 ± 0.13 cm in length, width and thickness respectively for the left ovaries and same for the right ovaries was 2.39 ± 0.05 cm x 1.55 ± 0.21 cm x 1.34 ± 0.09 cm (Table 6). The average size of the ovaries of Group C heifers (4 years) was 2.18 ± 0.08 cm x 1.41 0.16 cm x 1.35 ± 0.0cm in length, width and thickness respectively for the left ovaries and same for the right ovaries was 2.56 ± 0.50 cm x 1.48 ± 0.16 cm x 1.26 + 0.02 cm (Table 7). The mean volume i.e. length x width x thickness for the left and right ovaries of the heifers belonging to Group A was 6.39 ± 0.66 cm3 and 8.05 ± 0.71 cm3 respectively and the same for the heifers belonging to Group B was 5.03 ± 1.08 cm3 and 4.99 ± 0.90 cm3 respectively and for the heifers belonging to Group C was 4.18 ± 0.63 cm3 and 4.86 ± 1.38 cm3 respectively. The average number of primordial follicles for the left ovaries was 22108 ± 1099 and the same for the right ovaries was 22920 ± 106 in the heifers belonging to Group A (Table 25). The average number of primordial follicles for the left ovaries was 21105 ± 1304 and the same for the right ovaries was 21956 ± 1835 in the heifers belonging to Group B (Table 26). The average number of primordial follicles for the left ovaries was 1620 ± 282 and the same for the right ovaries was 1231 ± 53 in the heifers belonging to Group C (Table 27). In the ovaries of heifers belonging to Group A the mean diameter of the oocyte nuclei was 12.0 ± 1.15u, where as the same in the Group B and Group C were 11.04 ± 1.05u and 11.00 ± 0.02u respectively. The total number of growing follicles in both left and right ovaries of the heifer Al was 123 and the same number of the heifer A2 was 175 with an average of 149 ±26 in both the ovaries of heifers Al and A2 belonging to Group A (Table 28). The total number of growing follicles in both left and right ovaries of the heifer Bi was 128 and the same of the heifer B2 was 152 with an average of 140 ± 12 in both the ovaries of heifer Bi and B2 belonging to Group B (Table 28). The total number of growing follicles in both left and right ovaries of the heifer Cl was 47 and the same of the heifer C2 was 15 with an average of 31 ± 16 in both the ovaries of heifers C1 and C2 belonging to Group C (Table 28). The number of primordial follicles was counted per ovary and compared with the relative size and weight of ovary and age of the heifer a poitive corelation was found to be existed between ovarian size/weight and primordial follicle number perovary of heirfers of three age groups and hence the possible factors responsible for culling or selection of such animals were observed for the improvement of buffalo dairy herd. CONCLUSION and SUGGESTIONS It is concluded from the results of present study that the ovarian weight and size have a significant effect On the number of primordial follicles since the weight cannot be assessed through rectal palpation and when the average ovarian weight and size were analyzed statistically a +ve correlation of 0.94 was found between these two factors. Hence it is concluded that the normal ovarian weight can he compared with the normal ovarian size while performing the examination of genitalium per rectum and hence by measuring the ovarian size per recturm in heifers its reproductive potential i.e. the number of primordial follicles per ovary can be estimated which would he helpful in selecting or culling virgin buffalo heifers who have not attained puberty. While performing the specific genital examination it is suggested that the following parameters must he considered. 1) The age of heifer for selection must he upto 3 1/2 years. 2) Per rectal examination it must he confirmed that the genitalium has no any segmental aplasia. 3) The ovaries must he oval in shape with somewhat nodular surface, soft, flexible consistency. 4) The ovarian size must he 2.61 + 0.53 x 1.64 ± 0.40 x 1.52 ± 0.12 cm for the left ovaries and 2.61 ± 0.35 x 1.88 ± 0.10 x 1.65 ± 0.01 cm for the right ovaries in length, width and thickness respectively. 5) The ovaries must never have any tumour which can he differentiated from the developing functional structure i. e. follicles and corpus luteum and if the ovarian tumour are confused with functional structures then these animals may he kept under observation for 21 days to find any developmental stage of functional structure. 6) Probably the heifers approaching puberty or in some cycling stage may have 3 - 8 transverse wrinkles upon their external vaginal lips. It is anticipated that these conclusions and suggestions will serve a useful purpose in selecting or culling those buffalo heifers which have not attained puberty till 3 to 4 years of age and hence will be helpful to make necessary improvements in buffalo dairy herds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0232,T] (1).

35. Effect Of Various Extenders On Physio-Morphological Characteristics And Freezability Of Buffalo Bull Semen

by Liaqat Sarfraz | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Saghir Ahmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The most important aspect of spermatozoa preservation in frozen state is the type of extender used. The selection of suitable extender is based on evaluation of fresh, diluted and frozen semen through several parameters. In this study, buffalo bull, semen, extended in different extenders was evaluated for sperm motility percentage, progressive sperm motility (0-5) Live spermatozoa percentage and total sperm abnormalities percentage. For this purpose semen was collected from four Nili-Ravi Buffalo bulls and evaluated by using various tests for different physical parameters. Semen was extended in ratio of 1:10, using four extenders for freezing namely, Egg-yolk-Tes-Tris, Egg-yolk-citrate-taurine, Lactose-fructose yolkglycerol and Egg-yolk-Egg--yolk"Salts". Sperm concentration was 20 million per dose. One step extension of semen was done. Straw (0.5 ml) were used for packaging and freezing of semen. Freezing was carrid out by holding the straws at a level of 4 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen for seven minutes. Frozen straws were stored in liquid nitrogen less than one hour (0 hour) and for 7 days. The various parameters were observed in fresh semen, after extension, just after freezing and after storage (7 days). Thawing of frozen was done at 37°C for 13 seconds. Highly-significant difference (P<0.01) was observed in motility percent after dilution, equilibration, post-thaw sperm motility and freezing (0 hr) and storage (7 days). Average post-thaw motility was 43.10 ± 0.31, 40.35 ± 0.24, 38.53 ± 0.13 and 36.09 ± 0.20 in Ey-Test, EY-cit-tau, LFYG and EY-EY"Salts" respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference (P<0.01) in live- dead spermatozoa percentage, total morphological abnormalities due extender and freezing stages. The non-significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the progressive sperm motility grades due to stages of freezing and extender. While considering the results, the extender Ey-Test, EY-cit-tati, LFYG found superior than EY-EY-"Salts" but maintaining high motility percentage of spermatozoa alongwith the minimal alteration of other seminal attributes before and after freezing and it can be used satisfactorily for the preservation of buffalo semen at -196°C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0233,T] (1).

36. Superovulation In Jersey Cows Under Local Environment

by Qaiyum Naveed | Tayyab Raheel | Muhammid | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Reproductive capacity of a valuable animal can be increased through embryo transfer technology. Superovulation is a pre-requisite for a successful embryo transfer. In the present project an attempt has been made to study the superovulatory response of purebred Jersey cows under the climatic conditions of Pakistan. Twenty cyclic Jersey cows were divided into two equal groups; A and B, each comprising 10 animals. Each cow in Group A was injected 2500 IU PMSG on day 9 post - estrus (estrus = day 0) and was followed 48 hours later by 15 mg of PGF2 alpha. Group B served as control and cows in this group were injected with normal saline only on day 9 post estrus and 48 hours later PGF2 alpha was injected. Cows were inseminated with frozen bull semen 12 hours after the start of estrus Insemination was repeated once again at an interval of 12 hours. Embryos were recovered nonsurgically on day 7 post - insemination The mean interval from PGF2 alpha administration till the time of heat expression did not differ between the two groups and was 37.34 ± 0.41 and 37.73 ± 0.15 hours in Groups A and B, respectively. In Group A mean number of corpora lutea (5.3 ± 1.55) and palpable follicles (5.4 ± 0.93) was significantly (P <0.05) greater than those in Group B (CL 1.00 ± 0.00 and follicle 0.5 ± 0.16). No statistical difference was noted in the percentage recovery of flushing media between Groups A (76.7 ± 2.0) and B (81.0 ± 1.3). A total of 29 embryos were recovered in Group A out of 10 flushings. Most of the embryos recovered were either compact morulae or expanded blastocysts and some were degenerated. From Group 13 no embryo/ova could be recovered. The superovulatory response of the Jersey cows maintained under local climatic conditions seems to be a little less when compared with that of the cows which are maintained under exotic (temperate) environment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0234,T] (1).

37. A Study To Determine The Time Of Ovulation In Relation To Oestrus In Nili-Ravi Buffalo

by Amjad Hussain | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Kazim Raza | Muhammed Khalid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: A total of 32 Nili-Ravi cyclic buffaloes were selected for this study. Cyclicity was determined on the basis of presence of corpus luteum and was confirmed by luteal phase levels of progesterone. 10 animals were treated with PGF2-alpha to induce oestrus. The oestrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoins, physical changes and rectal palpation. The receptivity of male was taken as a time for start of oestrus. The ovulation time was determined by repeated palpation and was confirmed by blood progesterone levels. The behavioural signs noted were; acceptance of teaser bull, frequent urination, raised tail, bellowing, restlessness, acceptance of mounting by other females, licking of external genitalia of other animals and loss of appetite. The physical changes recorded were; uterine tone, swollen vulva, mucous discharge on rectal palpation, absence of wrinkles on vulvular lips, hypraemia and wetness in the vagina. There was a little difference in the behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In the PGF2-alpha treated group the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to natural groups. The length of oestrus in the natural groups was 23.5 ± 1.5 hours, whereas it was 27.2 ± 2.4 hours in the treatment group. The difference in the length of oestrus among the two groups was statistically significant. The ovulation time in he natural group was 34.6 ± 1.7 hours from the start of oestrus and 11.2 ± 0.5 hours from the end of oestrus. The ovulation time in animals treated with prostaglandin F2-alpha was 39.8 ± 2.9 and 12.6 ± 1 .2 hours in relation to the start and the end of oestrus, respectively. The difference in the ovulation time both in relation to the start and to the end of oestrus between the two groups was significant. The progesterone Values at the time of oestrus were 0. 1 ± 0.02 ng/ml and 0. 1 ± 0. 1 ng/ml in natural and treated groups respectively. And in the luteal phase (13), the progesterone values were 2.1 ± 0.2 and 2.6 ± 1.6 ng/ml in natural and treated groups respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0240,T] (1).

38. Effect Of Different Extenders On The Extracellular Release Of Got And Gpt From Buffalo Bull Spermatozoa

by Naeem Iqbal | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Naeem Ullah Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: Preservation of spermatozoa in a solubrious environment has become an essential prerequisite to achieve the objectives of Artificial Insemination. Selection of suitable extender is based on evaluation of fresh and diluted semen through several parameters. In vitro, the most reliable and preferable method for the evaluation of semen preservation technique is the analysis of seminal plasma for several enzymes related with fertility, because, the extracellular concentration of these enzymes might serve as an index of membrane trauma. Among these enzymes, Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase(GOT) and Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase(GPT) are also used for the evaluation, because, they occur abundently in the spermatozoa and reflect their integrity. Moreover, they are easy to detect and play a major role in the protein and carbohydrate metabolism of spermatozoa. Some workers have evaluated extenders on these lines but this information was lacking in our condition, particularly in buffalo (Bubalus buballs). For this purpose the semen was collected from ten buffalo bulls of Nili-Ravi breed maintained at Semen production Unit, Qadirabad. Semen was extended in three extenders namely, Lactose- egg yolk-glycerol (LEYG), Skim milk-egg yolk-glycerol (SMEYG) and Tris-egg yolk-glycerol (TEYG) and the GOT, GPT activities were measured in fresh semen, after extension, just after freezing and 30 days post-freezing. The data, thus, collected was subjected to statistical analysis. The GOT activity (mU/ml) in fresh semen was 20.26±0.72 and in extender LEYG, the activity after extension, freezing and 30 days post-freezing was 38.06±2.09, 65.90±2.'2 and 80.94±2.78 respectively. The corresponding values in SMEYG and TEYG were, 51 .80±2.06 and 44.20±1.34, 90.22±1.79 and 74.38±2.30 and 109.10±2.14 and 87.68±2.33 respectively. The GPT activity (mU/mi) in fresh semen was 7.98±0.30 and in LEYG after extension, just after freezing and 30 days' storage was 12.36±0.41, 18.52±0.62 and 22.20±0.76 respectively. These values for SMEYG and TEYG were, 13.96±0.60 and 13.28±0.56, 22.82±0.65 and 20.50±0.50 and 27.23±0.68 and 23.98±0.66 respectively. The overall GOT and GPT activities wee maximum in SMEYG (88.84 and 19.25) than in TEYG(67.42 and 16.00) and LEYG(60.68 and 14.22). In LEYG, upto freezing the release of GOT and:GPT was minimum but after 30 days' storage this situation was found in TEYG. Regarding the stages of freezing, maximum release of GOT, GPT was observed after freezing, i.e., 32.15 and 7.42 than after extansion (24.42 and 5.52) and after 30 days' storage(15.74 and 3.85 resp.). Statistical analysis revealed significant (p/U.01) differences between the extenders SMEYG to LEYG and SMEYG to TEYG, but non-significant difference between LEYG and TEYG for the release of GOT and GPT. Highly significant (p/0.01) differences were existed Iethween all the stages of freezing. The GPT and GOT ratio found in fresh semen was 1:2.53 and the average GPT, GOT ratio in SMEYG was 1:4.61, in LEYG 1:4.21 and It was 1:4.21 in TEYG extender. The GOT, GPT activities were found greater in young bulls as compared to older bulls. A significant correlation, i.e., -0.53 (p/0.05.) for GOT activity with age was found. Regarding the relationship of motility percentage of spermatozoa with GOT, GPT release, a significant correlation(-0.44, p/0.05) between GOT release and motility percentage in TEYG extender after freezing was found. This correlation for GPT release in SMEYG after 30 days' storage was -0.69(p/0.0l), in TEYG after freezing 049 (p/0.05) and in same extender,. after 30 days' storage was -0.72 (p/U.01). The average volume of both ejaculates had a significant relationship with GOT activity (r=0.55, p/0.05) and with GPT activity (r= -0.73, p/0.01) in fresh semen. The overall maximum decline in motility was found in SNEYG (53.06%)than in LEYG (45.21%) and TEYG(44.27%). Statistically, the SMEYG had a significant (p/0.0l) decline in motility as compared to TEYG and LEYG,. while the difference between two latter extenders was non-significant. In all extenders, highly significant correlations (p/0.01) were existed between initial motility and motility recorded after extension, freezing and 30 days' storage. While considering the results, the extenders LEYG and TEYG were found superior than the SMEYG, but TEYG was prefered on LEYG, due to maintaining high motility percentage of spermatozoa along with the minimal enzymes release and it can be used satisfactorily for the preservation of buffalo semen. Regarding the stages of preservation, the maximum enzymes were released after freezing than after extension and after one month storage in liquid nitrogen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0269,T] (1).

39. Studies On The Postnatal Development Of The Reproductive Organs And Other Related Endocrine Glands In Male Nili

by Nasim Ahmad | Manzoor Ahmed | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: The water buffalo is amongst the most productive of domestic animals. One of the major problems causing uneconomical productivity in buffalo has been described as its higher age of maturity. It was therefore, necessary to collect a through information from birth through puberty on the potential of anatomical and physiological development of its reproductive organs and endocrine glands. This information was particularly lacking on the male of Nili Ravi breed. Ten male Nili-Ravi calves ranging in age from 0 to 7 days were included in the Present study. They were subjected to detailed clinical examination. Biometrical examination of reproductive organs accessory sex glands and endocrine glands was conducted after slaughtering. Samples from suitable places were taken for histology purpose. Necessary photography and microphotography was done and the data collected was statistically analysed. Body weight, body temperature, respiration and pulse rate averaged 32.24 kg, 38.8° C, 27.6 and 78.2 per minute whereas heart girth, body length and scrotal circumference averaged 71.5, 75.0 and 8.38 cm. Coefficient of correlation among body weight and heart girth; scrotal circumference and total testicular weight was 0.96 (P<.0l), 0.69 (P<0.05) and 0.57(which was non-significanl. Correlations between scrotal circumference and total testicular veight was 0.65 (P<0.05). Single testis measured 2.3 x 1.2 x 1.0 x 3,0 cm (LxBxTxC) and weighed 1.39 gm. Length of epididymis was 4.8 cm with a weight of 0.88 gm/vas deferens was 31.3 cm long and length of attached penis was 21.2 cm. Length and diameter of ampulla was 4.3x2.2 whereas length, breadth and thickness of seminal vesicle. Prostate and cowpers gland averaged 2.1xl.5x0.35, 5.6xl.7x1.6 and 0.6x0.3x0.2 cm. Seminal vesicle weighed 0.48 gm. Average measurements of pitutiary and pineal gland were l.3x0.8x0.6 and 0.5x0.5x0.3 cm. Their corresponding weights were 0.42 and 0.06 gm. There was slight difference in the measurements of right and left thyroid and adrenal gland. The difference between the weight of right and left thyroid and adrenal gland were significant (P>0.05). Microscopic examination revealed that testis was composed of solid sex-cords which measured 45.04 and 47.83 microns in diameter near the periphery and near the rete. The ratio of large cells and small cell was 13:5 and of sex cords with interstitial tissue was 60:40. Epididymis exhibited moderate regional variation. Epithelial height was 14, 15 and 25 microns in head, body and tail regions. Ampullary glands were devoid of cilia and showed dilatations Only towards the lumen. The glandular epithelium of seminal vesicle was columnar with granular cytoplasm. Their height varied from 15 to 20 microns. In prostate gland two parts were clearly distinguished. Secretory units of bulbouretheral gland were small and were lined by cuboidal epithelium. Penis of new born calf possesed all the essential structures. In pituitary gland pars intermedia and median cleft was prominent and various cells of pars distails were identified. Pinealocytes were characterized as large cells situated more towards periphery. Follicles of thyroid gland were lined by columnar cells and filled with colloid material. In adrenal cortex three zones were clearly identified and cortico-medullary junction was interdigitated. The gross and histological findings of the present study were found to be little higher than those of Indian buffalo calves but were comparable or found lower when compared with cow calves of same age. It is, proposed that similar studies be conducted on Nili-Ravi calves of different age groups uptil puberty to observe the develop- mental changes. The recorded variations could then be narrowed to select sires showing early maturity for exploitation through AL. to over come the problem of delayed maturity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0274,T] (1).

40. Studies On Postpartum Buffaloes - Changes In Reproductive Organs And Onset Of Oestrus After Parturition

by Munir Ahmnad Ch | Naeem Ullah Khan | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: Thirty five (35) buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were studied for postpartum reproductive performance. Involution of the uterus and postpartum ovarian activity were monitored by repeated rectal palpations of the genitalia from day 14 postpartum until first observed oestrus. Buffaloes were checked for manifestation of oestrus for five times a day by using bulls with deviated penis. Buffaloes detected in oestrus were examined rectally and inseminated at 12 and 18 hours after the onset of oestrus. The mean time required for complete involution of uterus was 27.5 ± 1.4 days with a range from 21 to 66 days. The rate of decrease in diameter from day 14 postpartum to complete involution was slower in non-gravid horn than in gravid horn. This overall uterine involution period was not affected by the month of calving and the age of the buffaloes but lactation number effected it significantly (P<0.06). The diameter of cervix on day 14 postpartum was 88.0 mm for buffaloes calving during March and ranged from 66 to 77 mm for buffaloes calving during other months of the study period. The rate of decrease from day 14 postpartum to complete involution was lower in buffaloes which calved in January (1.00 mm/day) as compared to buffaloes of other months (range 1.1 to 1.5 mm/day). On complete involution the diameter of cervix was 47.0 mm and it ranged 34 to 37 mm in other months of study. There was no effect of age and parity on rate of cervical involution. Similarly the rate of decrease from day 14 postpartum to complete involution, of the gravid and non-gravid horns was not effected by month of calving, age and parity of buffaloes. The time required from calving to complete regression of corpus luteum was 20.6 ± 1.0 days. This period was found to be effected by the month of calving (P<0.06). The interval from calving to the formation of first palpable follicle averaged 27.4 ± 1.2 days. There was significant effect of resumption of follicular activity on formation of first corpus luteum (P<0.001) and first postpartum oestrus (P<0..001). The incidence of first corpus luteum formation without oestrus activity was 62.9 %. The palpable life span of first corpus luteum averaged 6.6 ± 0.7 days. The interval from calving to formation of first corpus luteum was 38.1 ± 1.5 days. It was significantly affected by the postpartum oestrus interval (P<0.009) The average postpartum period from calving to first observed oestrus was 124.2 ± 14.5 days and ranged from 22 to 280 days. In 22.9 % buffaloes, postpartum oestrus was observed within 30 days, whereas in 57.1 % buffaloes this period was more than 120 days. This interval was highly correlated with interval to uterine involution (P<0.06) and duration of oestrus (P<0.06) . Onset of oestrus was most frequently i.e in 34.3 % buffaloes were obsered at 22.00 hours, followed by 18.00, 02.00, 06.00 and 12.00 hours in 22.9 %, 17.1 %, 14.3 % and 11.4 % buffaloes, respectively. In contrast to onset, the termination of oestrus occurred more frequently (77.1 %) during day light hours (6 AM to 6 PM) and 6.00 PM was the time when majority of buffaloes (40 %) terminated their oestrus. The overall duration of first postpartum oestrus was 24.7 ± 1.6 hours and it ranged from 6 to 48 hours. The majority of buffaloes (65.8 %) had the duration of oestrus within 9 to 24 hours. On the basis of 60 days pregnancy diagnosis, the conception rate to breeding at first oestrus was only 14.30%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0276,T] (1).

41. Study On Various Seminal Characteristics Affected With Aging Phenomenon In Male Nili-Ravi Buffalo

by Mohsin Raza Naqvi, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Dr. Nisar | Dr. Tayyab Rahil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The main aim of the present study was to observe the reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows, imported from USA, being maintained under the sub-tropical environmental conditions of the Punjab, and then to compare it with their respective local-born progenies. The influence of environmental factors on some parameters of reproductive performance had been studied in order to estimate the level of their adoptability towards local climatic conditions. The reproductive records of the normal breeding local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows were studied during 1985-1991. The outcome of the present study in respect of the following parameters of reproductive performance are summarized as below. 1) Local-born Holstein-Friesian and local-born Jersey heifers conceived for the first time at the age of 502.93±11.71 and 496.37±6.64 days. This shows that Holstein-Friesian heifers took 7 days more for their first conception, but this difference was found to be non-significant. 2) The average age at first calving for local-born Holstein- Friesian and Jersey heifers was 787.38±13.61 and 771.48±7.88 days respectively, while their respective dams calved in USA for the first time at the age of 822.46±10.63 and 800.51±8.43 days correspondingly. The data indicate that local-born Holstein-Friesian and Jersey heifers calved for the first time 35 and 29 days earlier than their dams. 3) The average number of services required per conception for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local- born Jersey and imported Jersey were 1.76±0.100, 1.87±0.089, 1.83±0.069 and 1.88±0.072 respectively, whereas the difference among the groups was found to be non-significant. Although the number of services required per conception increased with increasing parity but the difference was non-significant. 4) The service period for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey averaged 161.48±14.45, 132.92±511, 100.99±4.63 and 107.03±2.77 days respectively. The local-born and imported Jersey cows conceived 60 and 26 days earlier after calving than their contemporary local-born and imported Holstein cows. Effect of season of calving on subsequent service period was not significant. 5) The average gestation periods of 278.65±0.78, 279.92±0.63, 279.26±0.51 and 277.49±0.36 days were found in local-born Hol- stein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows respectively. The data shows that imported Jersey cows carried their calves 1.16, 2.43 and 1.77 days less than the local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian and local-born Jersey correspondingly. Moreover in all the genetic groups except local-born Holstein-Friesian, cows carrying male calves had longer gestation length than those carrying female calves. 6) The calving interval for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey averaged 443.77±18.67, 415.66±5.09, 380.93±6.36 and 387.18±3.0 days respectively. The Jerseys showed significantly (P < 0.01) shorter calving interval than the Holsteins. The shortet calving interval in all the groups was seen after Winter calvings. Minimum calvings in each group occurred during Summer. The maximum calvings in local-born Holstein-Friesian and imported Holstein- Friesian cows were during winter; whereas in local-born Jersey and imported Jersey these were observed during Spring and winter in order of merit. 7) The 305-day milk production averaged 3643.29±121.26, 4114.40±115.96, 2194.52±57.25 and 3150.48±46.16 litres for local- born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows respectively. The results indicate that imported Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows produced -significantly more milk than their respective local-born progenies. 8) The average dry period for local-born Holstein-Friesian, imported Holstein-Friesian, local-born Jersey and imported Jersey cows was 192.71±16.14, 191.07±13.11, 157.91±9.70 and 133.30±5.77 days respectively. The dry period in the local-born Holstein- Friesian and imported Holstein-Friesian was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the local-born and imported Jersey cows. The findings of this study regarding most of reproductive traits indicate that both local-born and imported Jersey performed better than Holstein-Friesian cows under sub-tropical climatic conditions of Punjab. However local-born groups produced less 305 days milk than their imported dams. The production potential in the exotic herd can be increased by breeding the cows with semen of genetically superior sires, through intensive management and with more effective disease control programme. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0314,T] (1).

42. Induction Of Puberty In Prepubertal Buffalo Heifers By Pulsatile Administration Of Gnrh

by Kabir Hussain Tahir | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Manzoor Ahmed Basra | Tayyab Rahil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: Eighteen pre-pubertal Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis) with mean (± S.E.) age 22±0.79 months and weight 290±4.62 Kg, respectively were randomly divided into PG (progesterone + GnRH), PN (progesterone + normal saline) and C (control) groups. Heifers in PG and PN groups were pre-treated with progesterone (Crestar implants) for 10 days, then assigned randomly to: PC) received pulses of GnRH (n=6;5 pg/2 h for 72 h), PN) received normal saline (n=6) in the same manner as PG group and C) served as controls (n=6). Blood samples were collected on the days 0(first day 1st of experiment), 3, 6 and 10 of progesterone pre-treatment and on days 11, 12 and 13 (during GnRH/normal saline treatment) and then 3 samples per week for 3 weeks. In PG and PN groups, 100% (n=6) and 33.33% (n=2) heifers ovulated and exhibited oestrus. Behavioural signs of oestrus i.e. bellowing, frequent urination, position of tail, licking, appetite and isolation from herd were completely absent at oestrus, while mounting, allow mounting and acceptance of male were observed in 12.5%(n=l), 12.5% (n=1) and 87.5% (n=7) of heifers. Changes in internal genitalia like ovulation from ovary, contraction of uterus/uterine horns and relaxed or open cervix were observed in 100% of heifers. Changes in external genitalia i.e. swollen vulva and hyperaeniia of vagina were observed in 100 and 87.5% of heifers, while 62.5% and 37.5% of helfers showed free flowing and by squeezing vaginal mucous discharge. The colour of the mucous was transparent, opaque and whitish in 37.5, 25.0 and 37.5% heifers. Consistency of the mucous was thin, viscous and thick in 25, 25 and 50% of the heifers, respectively. It was observed that all (100%) buffalo heifers initiated the oestrous activity during evening hours and 75% and 25% heifers ended their oestruses during night time and day hours. The overall mean (± S.E..) length of oestrus was 22±3.63 h (range 11 to 40 h). CL was palpable in all (100%) buffalo heifers on day 12 of the oestrous cycle which ovulated. The overall non- return rates were 25% (2/8). Crestar implants (progesterone pretreatment) were not effective in heifers in maintaining the luteal-phase levels of progesterone in both PG and PN groups of buffalo heifers. Similarly, Plasma progesterone concentrations remained basal during pulsatile delivery of GnRH. In GnRH-treated heifers, the ovulation was not followed by luteal-phase in 66.66% heifers, while only 33.33% heifers exhibited luteal-phase in which plasma progesterone concentrations rose (>l.Ong/ml) on days 9, 12 and 15 of the cycle. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0316,T] (1).

43. Comparative Studies On The Therapeutic Effect Of Cloprostenol And Antibiotics On Endometritis In Buffaloes

by Latif, M | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: This study was designed to test suitable drugs on the basis of their theraputic effect which are currently in practice to treat endometritis, a problem of high significance among the reproductive disorders of the buffalo in Pakistan. One hundred and twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes suffering from 1st degree of endometritis were used in this study. Six groups were constituted, having 20 animals in each group. Twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes in group A' were injected 500 mg of cloprostenol (Estrumate) and inseminated at the following oestrous. Twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes included in group 'B' were treated with oxytetracycline for five days using intra-uterine route. On next heat the buffaloes were inseminated. Twenty buffaloes of group 'C' were treated with oxytet-racycline, opted single dose after intrarectally palpating the corpus luteum on the ovary. The buffaloes were inseminated on next heat Twenty buffaloes of group 'D' were treated with Chioramphenicol for five days using intra-uterine route. The animals were inseminated on next heat Nili- Ravi buffaloes included in group 'E' were treated with Chloramphenicol after palpating the corpus luteurn. opting single dose. The animals were inseminated on next heat. The Nili-Ravi buffaloes included in Group 'F' were used as control and inseminated without treatment. During the fertility trials the conception rate calculated after rectal-palpation for pregnancy diagnosis was 60%, 55%, 45%, 50%, 40% and 35% for groups A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. On the basis of conception rate percentage(60%) and services per conception (1.6) estrumate was declared as drug of choice1,among these tested in the present study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0320,T] (1).

44. Studies On The Gross & Microscopic Structures On Urteri And Cervices During Different Stages Of Estrous Cycle In Teddy Goat

by Mazhar Iqbal | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Nisar Ahmed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: In Pakistan goat production has developed into one of the most important and significant agricultural enterprises which not only yields sizable quality of meat and milk but also provides hides and skin both for local consumption as well as export. although Pakistan is the second largest sheep and goat producing country in the near East region, little effort has been made to establish the macro, micro anatomy and biometry of the female reproductive organs of the Teddy goats. The present study relates, macro and micro studies on the uteri and cervices of 40 (ten from each stage of estrous cycle) healthy, non-gravid female Teddy goats upto one year of age in and around Lahore. The average values recorded in this study indicated the length of greater curvature, lesse curvature, width and thickness of right uterine horn were to be 11.19 ± 0.42, 9.94 ± 0.38, 1.40 ± 0.02 and 0.24 ± 0.01 cm and those for left horn were 11.65 ± 0.46, 10.4 ± 0.37, 1.42 4± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03 cm. The mean number of caruncle and their diameter for right horn were 64.3 ± 1.94 and 0.28 ± 0.01 cm and for left horn were 66.2 ± 0.54 and 0.32 ± 0.01 cm respectively. The average length, width and wall thickness for the uterine body were 1.46 ± 0.09, 1.45 ± 0.16 and 0.24 ± 0.01 cm. The mean length and width for the cervix were 2.84 ± 0.08 and 1.42 ± 0.08 cm. The average no. of cervical rings were 4.52 ± 0.07. The left horn was found more in length than right horn. The maximum weight of uterine horn was observed during the estrus stage of the estrous cycle. The average weight for the right uterine horn, left uterine horn, uterine body and cervix were 5.25 ± 0.36, 5.42 ± 0.40, 1.54 ± 0.14 and 2.14 ± 0.21 gm respectively. The significant uterine histological feature was the presence of a simple columnar surface epithelium in the proestrus stage and pseudostratified columnar in the estrus, metestrus and diestrus stages of the estrous cycle. The surface epithelium of the cervix was found to be simple columnar during all stages of the estrous cycle. Further more no true glands were observed in the cervical wall. The lumen of cervix was seen divided by a number of longitudinal folds during all stages of the estrous cycle. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0321,T] (1).

45. Effect Of Different Egg Yolk Levels On The Quality Of Frozen Buffalo Bull Semen

by Afzal, M | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: The comparative study of various egg yolk levels in the extenders used for deep freezing of buffalo semen was conducted at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad (Sahiwal). The routinely used Lactose-Fructose-Glycerol semen extender was added with 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0% egg yolk concentration in five experimental extenders. 50 ejaculates collected from 10 buffalo bulls were frozen in Liquid Nitrogen. Each semen sample from all bulls and egg yolk levels was evaluated for post-thaw sperm motility, livability and absolute index of livability. The average values obtained from egg yolk levels and bulls for all test parameters were found statistically high (P < 0.01) at 10 percent egg yolk level as compared to all others. The order of merit for post-thaw motility, livability and the absolute index of livability at 10, 20, 15, 5 and 0% egg yolk level was 45.9%, 43.5%, 42.9%, 33.7% and 8.7% for motility, 9.8, 9.34, 9.3, 7.68 and 2.75 (Hours) for livability and 231.6, 207.95, 204.85, 123.25 and 13.85 for livability index, respectively. The comparative mean values obtained from each bull were observed non-significant for post-thaw sperm motility but were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) among bulls regarding livability and the absolute index of livability. On the basis of the results obtained in the present study it may be concluded that due to synergestic effect between glycerol and the presence of 10% concentration of egg yolk in the extender, being comparatively more economical, exhibiting better visibility and on account of high values obtained from motility, livability and absolute index of livability, an extender containing 10% egg yolk level is recommended for the preservation and deep freezing of buffalo bull semen in Liquid Nitrogen for obtaining optimal semen quality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0322,T] (1).

46. The Effect Of Different Levels Of Prostaglandin (Pgf 2 Alpha) In Extender On The Liveability Of Ram Spermatozoa

by Tariq Mahmood | rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Imtiaz Hussain khan | S.A.Jafri | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: Pooled semen from six Lohi rams was extended in semen extender (Tris, Citric Acid, Fructose, Egg Yolk, Glycerol and Antibiotics). This extender was divided into four portions, four levels of prostaglanclin i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 ug/mI were added to the A, B, C and D Portions of extender respectively. These four levels ere compared on the basis of post thawing motility percentage, liveability (hours) of spermatozoa at 37°C and absolute index of liveability. immediately after collection, the semen samples were examined for physical characteristics. Semen from each batch was filled in the plastic straws of four different colours (0.5 ml capacity), sealed with Polyvinyl Powder. Freezing was carried out in the liquid nitrogen at. -196°C for Storage. Thawing of the frozen semen straws was performed at 35°C for 30 seconds. The average values of post thawing motility percentage were 36.25 ± 10.6, 45.62 ± 11.16, 55,62 ± 11.16 and 67.5 ± 7.55 for levels A,. B, C and D respectively. The values of liveablity for the four levels were 6.37 ± 1.68, 7.75 ± 2.02, 9 ± 1.85 and 11.25 2.18. hours respectively. The absolute index of liveablity averaged 12 .25 ± 67.28, 181.31 ± 85.62, 251.27 ± 104.56 and 382.5 ± 114.83 for levels A, B, C anti D respectively. The effect of' four levels on post thawing motility percentage, 1iveability (hours) and absolute index of liveability was significant. It was concluded that semen with 150 ug/mg prostaglandin produced encouraging results in terms of post thawing motility and liveablity as compared to 0, 50 and 100ug/ml Prostaglandin. There is ample documentation that artificial insemination in sheep permits reproductive performance comparable to that obtained by natural mating. Better fertility results can be obtained by improvmenents in processing of semen for freezing, thawing temperature, time for thawing insemination technique and by adding different preparations like prostaglandins in semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0323,T] (1).

47. Studies On Uterine Involution And Ovarian Activity In Postpartum Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Given Prostaglandin F2 Alpha Analogue

by Farrukh Nazir | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Dr. Mian Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Tayyab | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0324,T] (1).

48. Study Of Enzyme Leakage At Various Egg-Yolk Levels During Freezing Process In Nili-Ravi Buffalo Semen

by Munir Ahmad Amer | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Asif Rabbani | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Present study was carried out on semen of 10 bulls over a period of 3 months maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad District Sahiwal. Semen sample$were evaluated for volume, mass motility, initial motility and sperm concentration. Accepted ejaculates having more than 60% initial motility were used for GOT, GPT and Hyaluronidase activity estimation. The Acrosin activity could not be estimated in diluents by the fact that optical density increases as a result of hydrolysis of substrate. The GOT. GPT & Hyaluronidase values recorded in fresh semen were 38.27, 7.15 & 3.6 mu/ml, respectively. After extension of semen in lactose fructose egg yolk glycerol extender with five egg yolk levels i.e. 10, 15, 20, 25 & 30%, the GOT activity with these dilutions was found 65.74, 58.06, 56.08, 54.06 & 53.98. Whereas, these values were 18.74, 11.97, 10.84, 10.25 & 9.95 units for GPT. Under the same dilutions the Hyaluronidase activity was estimated as 6.71, 5.00, 4.91, 4.90 & 4.89 mu/ml, respectively. After freezing, the GOT was found to be 65.78, 62.55, 61.40, 60.40 & 59.60 mu/ml for the same extended samples. The GPT values were 24.37. 18.03, 16.17, 16.01 & 15.93 mu/ml, and the recordes for hyalyronidase activity were 9.00, 8.00, 7.75, 7.79 & 7.78 mu/ml for 10, 15, 20, 25 & 30% egg yolk levels, respectively. In vitro the most reliable & preferable method considered for the evaluation of semen preservation technique is the analysis of seminal plasma for several enzymes related with fertility, because the extra cellular concentration of these enzymes might serve as an index of membrane trauma. In the light of results obtained in the present study and the values recorded at different egg yolk levels for the estimation of GOT, GPT and hyaluronidase enzyme activity indicated that 20-30 % level was comparatively more superior for the extension and deep freezing of buffalo semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0349,T] (1).

49. Studies On Quantity & Quality Of Semen Produced By Friesian Bulls In Subtropical Conditions

by Majid, A | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Muhammed | Rashid Ahmed Chaudry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Data of spermatological traits of 3490 ejaculates obtained during four years (1987 to 1990) from ten Friesian bulls were investigated to see the effects of age, seasons and bulls upon different seminal attributes. The age-wise overall mean values of different attributes of these bulls were: age and body weight at first ejaculation 329.7 days and 337.1 kilograms, number of ejaculates 7.41, ejaculate volume 4.08 ml, mass motility 1.14 grades, initial motility 51.43 per cent, sperm cells concentration 601.09 millions per ml, discarded ejaculates 3.17 and doses produced per ejaculate 32.66 number. Age exerted highly significant effect (P<0.01) upon number of ejaculates, ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, ejaculate discarded and doses per ejaculate. A significant effect (P<0.05) was observed on percentage motility. There was a non-significant effect on moss motility. The 4th year was proved to be the best age for semen production because mean values of three seminal characteristics namely number of ejaculates, ejaculate volume and percentage motility were maximum during this year. Minimum mean ejaculates were also discarded during the 4th year. Second year was observed as the worst year for semen production. Minimum mean values of number of ejaculates, ejaculate volume and percentage motility were observed in this year. Maximum mean ejaculates were also discarded during second year of age. Seasons exerted highly significant effect (P<0.01) upon mass motility, percentage motility, sperm concentration, discarded ejaculates and doses per ejaculate. A significant effect (P<0.05) of seasons was observed upon number of ejaculates but the effect on ejaculate volume was non-significant (P>0 05) The winter was proved to be the best semen producing season, because two seminal characteristics i.e. mass motility and pci centage motility had maximum mean values in this season Minimum mean ejaculates were also discarded in winter season The second best season was spring, in which ejaculate volume and doses per ejaculate were at their highest mean values The worst season for semen production was humid hot season. Four seminal attributes i.e. number of ejaculates, mass motility, percentage motility and sperm concentration had minimum mean values in this season. Maximum mean ejaculates were also discarded in humid hot season. The second worst season was autumn. Only mean ejaculate volume and doses per ejaculate were at their lowest margin in autumn. Highly significant effect (P<0.01) of bulls was observed upon ejaculate volume, mass motility and sperm concentration. Significant effect (P<0.05) of bulls was recorded for initial percentage motility and semen doses per ejaculate. The effect of bulls upon number of ejaculates and ejaculates discarded was found to be non-significant (P>0.05). Bull No. F 16 proved to be the best bull for semen quantity and quality withmaximum number of ejaculates and maximum ejaculate volume. F 16 was also good in percentage motility, sperm cell concentration and doses per ejaculate. Moreover minimum ejaculates were discarded of F 16 too. Bull No. 10 was the worst bull. Lowest values were observed in number of ejaculates, percentage motility and sperm concentration. F 10 was also not good in mass motility and maximum ejaculates were discarded from this bull. The principle conclusion of this study is that if appropriate steps are taken to mitigate the effects of climate and high level of management practices is maintained, there appears to be no reason why high ambient temperatures and humidities should be inimical to successful semen production with Friesian bulls in the subtropical environments Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0350,T] (1).

50. Antiseperim Antibodies: A Plausible Cause Of Repeat Breeding In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Amir Saeed, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The present study was designed with the assumption that high titres of antisperm antibodies in repeat breeders might be a contributing factor for conception failure in such animals. For this purpose, 32 buffaloes/buffalo heifers were divided into four equal groups. From the normal cyclic and repeat breeder buffaloes, 48 serum samples were collected at 0, 1, and 24 hours after insemination, respectively. Oestrus mucus was also collected from these animals. A total of 16 serum samples were collected from virgin heifers and pregnant buffaloes. The serum and mucus samples were subjected to simple agglutination test, sperm quantitative penetration test and sperm cervical mucus contact test. High antibody titres were recorded in the serum and oestrus mucus of repeat breeders. Moreover, it was observed that lesser number of spermatozoa penetrated through a definite distance in cervical mucus of repeat breeder buffaloes as compared to cervical mucus of normal cyclic animals. Similarly higher number of spermatozoa exhibited shaking movement over a period of time in cervical mucus of repeat breeders, which indicates the presence of spermagglutinins. Thus, it can be concluded that antisperm antibodies may be responsible for conception failure in repeat breeder buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0383,T] (1).



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