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1. Ecology And Population Of Waterbirds Of A Ramsar Site Along Makran Coastal Wetlands Complex Pakistan

by Fehmeeda Bibi | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali | Dr.Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: AWetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world's land surface. Natural wetlands in Pakistan covering approximately 10% of the total land area of the country. Waterbirds depend on wetlands for a variety of activities which include feeding, breeding, nesting and moulting. This study was undertaken to identify and analyzed the ecology and population of waterbirds. Jiwani Coastal Wetlands is internationally well known wetlands and declared as Ramsar Site on 5th October, 2001. Located along Gawater Bay arround the delta of the Dasht River, a very significant area of mangrove forests extending westward to the Iranian frontier, contiguous with Iran's Gawater Bay and Hur-e-Bahu Ramsar site. From December, 2007 to December, 2008 study was conducted to observe the ecology and population of waterbirds in the study area. During one year, number of birds species recorded was 112; representing 16 orders and 38 families recorded from the 4600 hectare area of the Jiwani Coastal Wetlands. Status and seasonal occurrence of birds was also studied, total count was 15,469 that comprise 53 species as common, 10 rare, 31 scarce, 17 abundant and status of one species was unknown. According to seasonal occurrence of waterbirds at Jiwani Coastal Wetlands, 79 species were exclusively as visitor and 33 were resident. Out of 79 visitor species, 54 species were winter visitor, 11 summer visitor, 10 were irregular year round visitor, and three species were vagrant. Maximum number of species recorded from order Chadriiformes were 34 while in Passeriformes were 30; number of species belongs to order Phoenicopteriformes, Falconiformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Upupiformes recorded equal in numbers; one species in each order Relative abundance, Census Index and Shannon Weiner Diversity Index were found for recorded bird data and compared with previous studies. Relatively abundant species were Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (0.1577), Common Teal Anas crecca (0.0645), Herring Gull Larus cachinnans (0.06 15), Eurasian Oyster Catcher Haematopus ostralegus (0.0606) and Shoveler Anas clypeata (0.0511) respectively while in previous study Dalmatian Pelican Felicanus crispus (14.037), Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus rubber (14.014), Herring Gull Larus cachinnans (11.487) Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus (3.046), Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis (0.24) respectively. Density of birds also recorded in this study which was 3.36 per bird per hectare; in comparison to previous study this value was 5.43 per birds per hectare that was slightly higher. Shannon Weiner Diversity Index value of the 112 species of waterbirds was 0.253 while in previous it was 0.236 that is slightly lowers. Population of birds was significantly higher in the present study total birds population was 15,469 and in previous study it was 8,862. Yet the number of species was 125 in past and 112 in present study. Identified threats for decline in number of species were exploitation of natural habitat, fishing, cultivation, illegal hunting, deforestation, urbanization and due to global warming. Hence there is a strong need to restore, conserve and preserve these existing wetlands to maintain and improve the distribution, diversity, and abundance of populations and habitats of breeding, migratory, and nonbreeding waterbirds throught the lands and waters of the Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1059,T] (1).

2. Habitat Abundance Morphology And General Biology Of Indian Flying Fox ( Pteropus Giganteus ) At Dir Malakand

by Muhammed Salim | Dr.Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan | Dr.Azhar Maqbool | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: This study was carried out from June, 2008 to December, 2008 to study the habitat, abundance, morphology and general biology of Indian flying fox (Pteropus gigc,nteus) at Dir, Malakand, Mardan and Charsadda districts of N. W. F. P - Pakistan. Five different roosts viz. (a) Dargai bridge, situated on main road from Peshawar to Swat, tehsil Dargai and district Malakand, (b) Ghaffar khan village, situated on main road from Shakoor to Mandani, tehsil Tangi in Charsadda district, (c) Chail Kandov Baba, situated on main road from Dargai to Katlang tehsil Takht Bhai in Mardan district, (d) Chakdara bridge, situated on river Swat at the junction of Chakdara and Swat road tehsil C'hakdara and Dir district, and (e) Fishing hut, situated on river Swat near Chakdara bridge tehsil Chakdara in Dir district were sampled for the study of habitat, abundance and morphology and general biology of the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus). Field data was also collected to know the habitat, abundance and general biology of these bats in the study area. The carcasses of the bats were collected from the ground underneath the above mentioned five roosts. Out of five roost only two i.e. Ghaffar Khan Village and Chail Kandov Baba where the habitat was composed of loamy soil and vegetated with maximum number of Eucalyptus glob ulus and some grasses. Before being weighed the external body measurements of some specimens were recorded. The skulls of these specimens were also prepared for recording different parameters of the skull. The proportion CL/HBL, FL/HBL, TL/HBL and CaL/HBL were almost similar in the two types of skulls whereas the proportion ELIHBL, EB/HBL, TWC/HBL, 21I metaJHBL, 3 metaJHBL, 41h metaJHBL, metaJHBL, FAL/HBL and meta/HBL, FAL/HBL and WS/HBL was somewhat greater in the case with skull without ridge. Only the proportion BW/HBL was greater in the case of the skull having ridge than those without ridge. Since all the specimens wer putrefied, it was not possible to autopsy them so the reproductive data of any of these specimens could not be obtained. However some general observations of the live bats were recorded. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1064,T] (1).

3. The Ecology And Biology Of The Indian Flying Fox(Pteropus Giganteus)

by Tayiba Latif Gulzar | Dr.Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali | Prof. Dr.Masroor.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Exploratory visits to Jinnah during March 2008 and subsequent visits in each successive month provided new information of the ecology and biology of the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus). There were 45 trees belonging to 22 species that were used as roosts by bats. The population of the indian flying fox varied from 884 - 2267 individuals. Among 45 roost, there were thirteen viz, Albizia procera, Aegle marmelos, Celtis australis, Cinnamomum, camphora, Dalbergia sissoo, DIospyros peregrina, Ficus elastica, Kigelia pinnata, Pinus roxburghii, Pterospermurn acerifölium, Putranjiva roxburghii, Terminalia bellerica and Taxodium mucronatum that harboured less than 100 bats. Ceiba pentandra and Pistachia chinensis were the staple food item in bat guano and bolus during winter and autumn, respectively. The seeds of Ficus spp. were highly preferred and seven species viz; Ficus benjamina, F bengalensis, F. carica, F glomerta, F. mysorensis, F. religosa and F. retusa were identified that were consumed by bats throughout the year in their respective fruiting season. the seeds of Diospyros kaki and D. peregrina also showed 100 % consumption rate and were preferred by bats during winter and autumn, respectively (present study). Bat guano forms the basis of food web consisting of bacteria, fungi, protozoans, nematods and arthropods. Ten fungal genera were identified from bolus and eight fungal genera from guano the randomly collected samples of the Indian flying fox in different seasons at Jinnah Garden. Alternaria, Aspergillus Candida, Chrysosporium Fusarium Penicillium and Saccharomyces were observed in the bolus of the bat. The fungal genera observed in guano included Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Cryptococcus Exophiala Histoplasma Scopulariopsis and Trichophyton. Six bacterial genera were identified from bolus and ten from the guano seasonal sampling at Jinnah Garden. These included Acaligens, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Bartonella, Coryenbacteria, Klebsella, Listeria, Nitrsomonas, Nocardia, Salmonella and Stretomycetes. The fresh guano of fruit bats is dark in colour and forms a flat, laminated mass. It generally contains more than 60% organic matter. Mineral composition of bolus and guano of Indian flying fox at Jinnah Garden were analyzed in four seasonal samples throughout the year. The pH of fruit bat bolus near acidic to neutral ranges between 6.7 and 7.4 where as pH of fruit bat is guano is near neutral to alkaline ranges between 7.1 and 7.4. The most abundant elements in bolus and guano are nitrogen and phosphorus whereas potassium is less abundant. The total nitrogen ranges between 2.28 % and 4.10 % the nitrogen values are higher in bolus than guano (2.0 % and 3.30) and the total phosphorus ranges between 3.10 % and 5.20 % which is slightly higher than the phosphorus range of bolus (3.50 % and 5.0 %). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1070,T] (1).

4. Ecology Population And Conservativation Of Migratory Birds At Taunsa Barrage Punjab Pakistan

by Qazi Adnan Ahmad | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali | Dr.Muhammad Mahmood -ul-Hassan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: In the present survey, census data of avian diversity and threats to them recorded from March to May, 2009 at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary. The avian diversity was estimated by direct physical counts by using binocular and spotting scope. The photographs besides the coordinates of the different localities of Taunsa Banage Wildlife Sanctuary during this study were noted. Different birds were identified on the basis of birds' identification guides. Indirect observations were taken by the meetings held with the local community. After these meetings threats due to human interference with the avifauna of the selected site were found. In recent studies, total 108 species of birds were recorded, which belongs to 45 lamilies of the birds. Among them family Ardeidae remained dominant in bird populatoii while Sylviidae was the family, which had greater bird species to the site. 1hc family Oriolidae has only one bird species. Out of 108 species, 65 were resident, 7 were breeding resident, 34 were winter visitor and only 2 'ere summer. The most critical threat facing the birds is the destruction and 1iumentation of habitat. Fishing activities and illegal hunting by local people re also the major threats to the avifauna (migratory as well as resident). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1081,T] (1).

5. Inter Population Variation In The Indian Flying (Pteropus Giganteus)Of Nwfp And Punjab-Pakistan

by Faiz-ur-Rehman | Dr.Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali | Prof.Dr.Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the morphometric variations in the Indian flying fox populations inhabiting NWFP and Punjab. Intensive field efforts resulted in finding out three roosts of Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) at NWFP (one each in Peshawar, Charsadda and Mardan districts and two in Punjab (one each in Gujranwala and Kasur districts). Four specimens each, from the three bat roosts of NWFP and, three specimens each from two bat roosts of Punjab were captured and euthanized to study the inter-population variations in the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus). The results of the inter-population variations revealed that bat samples collected from Charsadda district were not significantly different from those collected from Peshawar district. They were also not different significantly from those collected from Kasur district. The Peshawar bats also showed no significant variation with respect to their cranial depth, breadth of upper incisors, maximum dentary length and mandibular tooth row with those collected from Gujranwala as well as other districts of Charsadda, Mardan and Ksur too. The bat sample collected from Charsadda district were also not significantly different from those collected from Mardan district with respect to their body weight, length of 3 metacarpal, length of l phalanyx on third metacarpal, length of 2' phalanyx on metacarpal, length 41 metacarpal, wingspan and length of femur, respectively. Whereas these specimens were not different from Gujranwala specimens in all the norphometric parameters measured. Mardan bat specimens were also not difibrent from Gujranwala bat specimens with respect to their mastoid breadth, length of the incisor of the upper jaw and mandibular tooth row, respectively. The specimens collected from Kasur district were not significantly different from Peshawar, Mardan, and Gujranwala with respect to the length of the desired parameters taken. Inter- population variations in all other comparisons were statistically similar. Combined inter-populations variations in the body weight, external body and cranial measurements of the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) captured from Punjab and NWFP. Of the 22 parameters studied, both populations were not significantly different ft)r any parameter. There were also no significant variations in the length of the Claw (C), Length oF the 5th metacarpal (5tI1 met) and the Condylobasal length (CBL). While the cranial depth (CR1)). Breadth of the incisors of upper jaw (J2J2), maximum dentary length (MDL) and mandibular tooth row length (MBTR) were also not different significantly in these specimens captired from two populations of Punjab and NWFP. A comparison of the two populations revealed that NWFP population had no significantly broader ear, longer femur, and deeper cranium, broader incisors of the upper jaw, longer dentary bone and longer mandibular tooth row with respect to Punjab. The body weight, external body and cranial measurements of the male and female Indian flying fox (Pleropus giganteus) populations captured from Punjab and NWFP were also had no 1significant variations in all the 22 parameters measured. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1099,T] (1).

6. Status Of Wild Life Close To Indian Border Area At Ravi Siphon, Pakistan

by Muhammad Asif Munir | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali | Dr. Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The proposed study was carried out at Ravi Siphon area in Sheikhupura district near Lahore, Punjab, which is an important site along the Indian Border. In this study, main emphasis was given on the population dynamics of birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles in relation to the wetland characteristics particularly different types of riverine habitats, different seasons (summer, winter), relationship between different species of animals, seasonal changes, species identification, census of biodiversity and their population assessment. In addition, natural flora of the site was also recorded. Wildlife is an excellent indicator of the overall health of an ecosystem. On this research identification of nature and severity of problems being faced by biodiversity was identified and concluded as recommendation for the welfare of our wildlife to declare the site as a protected area. Waterbirds depend on Ravi Siphon wetland for a variety of activities which include feeding, breeding, nesting and moulting. The highest number of waterbirds is often found in wetlands which have the greatest diversity of plant species and vegetation types, or where there is permanent water. In hot summer wetlands become visiting places for summer visitor birds and they provide a drought- refuge for several species of water birds. During the study there were 87 species of birds recorded. According to seasonal distribution 24 winter visitors, 54 residents, 6 summer breeder and 3 year round visitor were recorded. In the study area, some birds were seen in a large diversity and others were seen rarely. The present study about the status of bird species showed that 1 very common, 9 common, 20 fairly common, 34 uncommon, 12 rare and 11 very rare bird species were recorded. Monthly data was taken during the whole year (May 2009-April10) and 772 total birds population were found. In May 319, Jun 354, July 375, August 390, September 316, October 432, November 349, December 395, January 373. , February 389, March 401 and in April 363 bird's population were recorded. Relative abundance, Census Index and Shannon Weiner Diversity Index were also calculated for studied bird data. The most dominant bird of the area was Indian Cliff Swallow found having relative abundance 5.69. The other dominant birds were Little Green Bee-eater (3.4), Large Egret (3.96), House Sparrow (2.3), and Bank Myna (2.6). Census Index was found to be 1.64 and Shannon Weiner Diversity Index was 5.98 found. Wildlife other than birds was also recorded. Three species of amphibians, eight species of reptiles and significant species of mammals were studied. A great variety of plant trees were also found at Ravi Siphon. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1173,T] (1).

7. Ecology And Population Of Birds Of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan

by Irfan | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali | Dr. Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The proposed study was carried out at Changa Manga that is an important woodland forest in Punjab. In this study, main emphasis was given on the population dynamics of birds in relation to the woodland characteristics particularly different types of forest habitats, different seasons (summer, winter), relationship between different species of birds, seasonal changes, species identification, census of birds and their population assessment. They connect all of us, from city dwellers to rural communities, to the environment. Birds are an excellent indicator of the overall health of an ecosystem. On this research identification of nature and severity of problems being faced by birds both resident and migratory was identified and concluded as recommendation for the welfare of our avifauna at the site. In the site of study area resident birds are common and winter visitors, summer breeder birds were also recorded. In the study area 51 residents, 5 summer breeder, 21 winter visitor and 1 year round visitor species recorded. The total number of birds observed in Changa Manga Forest is 78 that show the most common birds in Changa Manga Forest are House Crow, Common Myna, Bank Myna, House Sparrow and Bee-eater etc. The data collected from Changa Manga in May (524), June (384), July (544), August (418), September (425), October (487), November (647), December (593), January (532), February (604), March (630) and April (466). The relative abundance is showed by house crow (7.8531). It is a garbage feeder so can easily be seen in areas which are the places of public interest, where people use to create or spread solid waste (wrapper, plastic bags, food material etc). Common Myna (4.4143), Bank Myna (4.3969), House sparrow (4.1641) and Blyth's Reed Warbler (3.1128), Small Sky-lark (2.3416), Common Babbler (2.6398), Blue-cheeked Bee-eater (2.0016), Small Sky Lark (2.3416), Long Tailed Grass Warbler (1.6631) and Indian Robin (1.6681) have abundance respectively. Census index (0.2422) and Shannon Wiener (5.5495) values were also calculated. The trophic levels were mention according to these; there were 263 birds' herbivores, 411 were omnivores, 391 were insectivores and 112 were carnivore's birds in the study area. Hence there is a strong need to restore, conserve and preserve these existing woodland to maintain and improve the distribution, diversity and abundance of populations and habitats of breeding, migratory and nonbreeding birds throughout the land forests of the Pakistan Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1174,T] (1).

8. Ecology And Diversity Of Head Qadirabad, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan

by Muhammad Altaf | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali | Dr. Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The proposed study was carried out at Head Qadirabad that was an important wetland of the Punjab. In this study, main emphasis was given on the ecology and diversity of waterbirds in relation to the wetland characteristics particularly different types of aquatic habitats, different seasons, relationship between different species of waterbirds, seasonal changes, species identification, census of waterbirds and their population assessment. They connect all of us, from city dwellers to rural communities, to the environment. Migratory birds were an excellent indicator of the overall health of an ecosystem. On this research identification of nature and severity of problems being faced by waterbirds both resident and migratory was identified and concluded as recommendation for the welfare of our avifauna at the site. The lower basin of the Chenab River was a prime example of the consequences and challenges posed by increasing water scarcity. The aim of this study was Development, Environment, and Security and the water birds and to clarify key concepts and criteria for sustainable water use within the Head Qadirabad, and then, using those criteria, to present patterns of water use, allocation, and management that can continue to support economic prosperity while maintaining ecological integrity. Water is a prerequisite for life, and a key ingredient in virtually all human economic activity. In regions where demands for water approach or exceed the limits of available supplies, competition intensifies among various interests turning water scarcity into a potential source of conflict. Scarcity often also results in unhealthy aquatic ecosystems because of alterations in the timing, quantity, and quality of freshwater flows needed to sustain their natural functions. This ecological degradation, in turn, spawns a variety of undesirable economic and social effects. In the study area observed 76 winter visitor species, 54 resident species, 10 summer breeder species and 9 year round visitor species (Table: 4.3 and Figure: 4.2.) House Crow was much dominant (Relative abundance was 3.6585), Little Green Bee eater (Relative abundance was 3.2520), Little Swift (Relative abundance was 2.8455), House Sparrow (Relative abundance was 2.5203), Bank Myna (Relative abundance was 2.0325), Common Myna (Relative abundance was 2.0325), Black Kite (Relative abundance was 2.0325), Cattle Egret (Relative abundance was 1.7886), Red-wattled Lapwing (Relative abundance was 1.6260) and Small Pied kingfisher (Relative abundance was 1.2195). These were all dominant in the Head Qadirabad area. This all data shown in Table: 4.9 and Figure: 4.4. In the present study observed following number of birds in whole year, in May 354, Jun 388, July 388, August 404, September 361, October 341, November 394, December 344, January 560, February 649, March 591 and in April 593 birds, as present in Table: 4.10 and Figure 4.5. The present study showed that, 149 species of birds were present in the study area. In 2009- 10 observed that Census Index was 0.437 and Shanon-Weiner Diversity Index was 9.58 as shown in Table: 4.12. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1178,T] (1).

9. Urbanization: Consequences On Increase Of Garbage Eating Birs In Lahore, Pakistan

by Muhammad tanveer | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali | Dr. Ali Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Nureen Aziz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This proposed study was analyzed the increase of garbage eating birds in Lahore. Five Important sites were selected in Lahore as whole longitudinal belt of Lahore was covered. Many birds species were recorded, and especially garbage eating or scavenger birds' population was observed and its consequences on other birds species and ecosystem was studied. Different field observation methods for birds along with field guides was adopted. In this 12 month study, month wise record of birds was depicted a picture of population of birds in Lahore. The vultures were totally extinct in Lahore and were not observed at any sites. During the study observed most of the birds were the resident, few were winter visitor and very low numbers were the summer breeders. Urbanization is a major cause of habitat loss and fragmentation. According to present study density of birds were recorded at Jinnah garden, Racecourse Park, Woodland Safari Park, Mehmood Booti and Old Ravi Bridge. Different threats to the birds were also been recorded and appropriate conservation measure towards a sustainable ecosystem was proposed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1181,T] (1).

10. Habitat, Morphology And General Biology Of Bats Of Fmaily Embellonuridae

by Sana Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Mahmood ul Hassan | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali | Prof. Dr.Masroor.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate habitat, morphology and general biology of the bats belonging to family Embellonuridae from Punjab. A total of fifteen specimens of sheath- tailed bats belonging to two species were captured from Attock and Bahawalpur districts and identified. These included eleven specimens of the naked-rumped tomb bat (Taphozous nudiventris) and four specimens of Egyptian tomb bat (T. perforates). The later species is a new record from the present study area. A roost of sheath-tailed bats was located with help of some locals in the suburbs of the Ratowal village in Attock district from where four naked-rumped tomb bats (T. nudiventris) were captured with the help of hand net. Acacia catechu, A. nilotica, A. modesta, Bauhinia variegate, Olea ferruginea, Phylianthus emblica and Quercus leucotrichophora were the main tree species present in the area while the shrubs included Carissa opaca, Calotropis procera, Dodonaea viscose, Justica adhatoda and Otostegia limbata. A ilium jaquemontii, Arundo donax, Cannabis sativa, Centaurea iberica, Eulophia dabia, Geranium oceiiatum and Hibiscus caesius, were some notable herb species in that habitat. Approximately three hundred bats were roosting on the walls and ceiling of the shrine located in the vicinity of Mojgarh from where five bats were captured. Two of these were Egyptian tomb bats (T. perforatus) while the remaining three were naked-rumped tomb bats (T. nudiventris). Six hundred and thirty five bats were counted on the walls and ceilings of various rooms of the ruined Derawar Fort of which six bats were captured. One of these was T perforatus while the remainings were T. nudiventris. The mean body weight of the eleven T. nudiventris was 48.7 g ± 11.63 (SD) while their head and body length was 87.9 mm ± 6.20 (SD). Free tail, ear and tragus were 17.3 mm ± 3.38 (SD), 13.9 mm± 2.21 (SD) and 4.1 mm ± 0.54 (SD) long, respectively. The forearm was 70.5 mm ± 0.93 (SD) long. Thumb and claw were 7.8 mm ± 0.84 (SD) and 2.5 ± 0.35 (SD) long respectively. The mean length of 3', 4th and 5th metacarpals was 62.3 mm ± 2.54 (SD), 50.6 mm ± 2.28 (SD) and 38.2 mm ± 9.78 (SD), respectively. The 1st and 2'' phalanges of 3rd metacarpal 27.3 mm ± 1.03 (SD) and 28.6 mm ± 2.40 (SD) long, respectively while the same on 4th metacarpal were 13.6 mm ± 2.63 (SD) and 8.3 mm ± 1.03 (SD) long, respectively. Their wingspan was 36.6 mm ± 3.28 (SD). Hind foot, tibia and calcar were 14.8 mm ± 1.40 (SD), 29.0 mm ± 1.10 (SD) and 5.6 mm ± 1.91 (SD) long, respectively while male had a 5.8 mm ± 1.39 (SD) long penis. A total of four specimens of the Egyptian tomb bat were collected from Bhawalpur district at Mojgarh (n = 2), Derawar fort (n= 1), and Rattowal (n= 1) from Attock district in the areas of Punjab. The mean body weight of these specimens was 37.6 g ± 15.07 (SD). Their mean head and body, free tail and ear length was 82.0 mm ± 4.40 (SD), 21.0 mm ± 2.16 (SD) and 15.0 mm ± 3.16 (SD), respectively. The mean length of tragus was 4.0 mm ± 0.00 (SD). Length of the forearm was 63.8 mm ± 1.50 (SD). Length of thumb and of claw was 8.0 mm ± 0.71 (SD) and 2.8 ± 0.29 (SD). The mean length of 3rd metacarpal , 1st phalanx on 3fd metacarpal and 2' phalanx on 3ft metacarpal were 59.6 mm ± 6.57 (SD), 25.1 mm ± 1.65 (SD) and 27.4mm ±2.43 (SD) respectively. The mean length of 4th maetacarpal and it's 1st and 2nd halanx were 47.0 mm ± 2.86 (SD), 13.4mm±1.60 (SD) and 7.8mm ± 2.25 (SD), respectively. The4 mean length of 5th metacarpal was 40.8 mm± 6.99(SD) Their wingspan was 30.9mm ±1.80 (SD). Hind foot and tiabia length was 15.5mm ± 1.29 (SD). Their calcar and penis length was 6.0mm ±1.41 (SD) and 5.9 mm± 1.93 (SD) respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1195,T] (1).

11. Enthno-Environmental Study Of Resilience To Climate Change Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary Pakistan

by Shelly Saima Yaqub | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali | Dr.Syed | Prof.Dr.Naureen Aziz qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1257,T] (1).

12. Correlative Study Of Avian Diversity With The Varying Urban Congestions Of Lahore

by Gaitee Sahar Sharif | Dr.Zulfiqar ALi | Dr.M.Mehmood-ul-Hassan | Prof.Dr.Noureen.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1266,T] (1).

13. Morphology Of Some Bat Species Of District Bajaur Agency And Adjacent Areas

by Hamid-ullah | Dr. Muhammad Mahmood-Ul-Hassan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Ali Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009-2011Dissertation note: This one year study extending from June 2010 to May 2011 was made to collect information on various bat species inhabiting Bajur Agency (FATA) and some adjacent areas (KPK). A total of 30 bats were captured and measured for body and cranial parameters during the present study. Of these twenty specimens were collected from Bajaur Agency and ten from Dir (Lower). All the potential roosting sites were thoroughly searched and their GPS locations were recorded. Bat samples were collected through mist nets and hand nets. Each captured specimen was tagged in the field indicating a specific field number, date and time of capture, exact locality, age, sex and the name of town or village of Bajaur Agency. They were preserved in 95% Alcohol before weighed, measured and autopsied. The standard morphometric, cranial and bacular measurements of each specimen were recorded and compared with that given in the literature. Twenty bats were captured from two Tehsils of district Bajaur Agency (SA1). Fourteen bats were captured from Tehsil Khar. These included Scotophillus heathii (1?) captured from Molakaly, Pipistrellus ceylonicus (1?, 1?), Pipistrellus tenuis (1?) Pipistrellus cromendra (1?), Pipistrellus javanicus (1?) and Scotophilus kuhlii (2?) captured from Tuhaidabad and Pipistrellus cromandra (1?, 5?) captured from Daray. Six bats were recorded from Teshil Salarzo. These included Pipistrellus pipistrellus (2?), Pipistrellus tenius (1?, 1?) and Pipistrellus javanicus (1?) captured from Malkana and one Rhinolopus hipposiderous (?) captured from Tattay. Ten bats were captured from Dir (Lower). These included Megaderma lyra (1?,4?) Rhinolopus ferrumequinum (1?) and Rhinolopus hipposiderous (4?). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1363,T] (1).

14. Bat Biodiversity (Vespertilioniformes: Order Chiroptera) In Some Tropical And Arid-Subtropical Regions Of Pakistan

by Arshad Javid | Dr. Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan | Dr. Muhammad Ali Nawaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from June 2009 to May 2011 in those arid subtropical and tropical regions of Pakistan which included less pronounced monsoon influenced areas of the Salt Range, the Upper Indus Plains and the sand dune areas typified by the Cholistan. Bat surveys were conducted in two protected areas i.e. the Margallah Hills National Park (SA1) and the Chinji National Park (SA2) that were located in the arid subtropical region and in another, the Lal Suhanara National Park (SA3), situated in the tropical sand dune region of the Upper Indus Plains. In addition, bat samples were also collected from Gujranwala, Lahore, Tob Tek Singh and Kasur districts (SA4). These sub-areas were selected to maximize the chances of capture of as many bat species inhabiting arid-subtropical and tropical habitats of Pakistan as possible. A total of 182 bats belonging to twelve species were recorded. These included R. blasii (Family Rhinolophidae), R. hardwickii (Family Rhinopomatidae), Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus (Family Emballonuridae), Scotoecus pallidus, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, P. javanicus, P. pipistrellus, P. tenuis and Hypsugo savii (Vespertilionidae). Rhinolphous blasii was captured only from SA1, R. hardwickii and S. pallidus from SA3 and P. tenuis from SA1. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured from SA1 and SA3, S. kuhlii and P. ceylonicus from SA1 and SA4, H. savii from SA1 and SA2 and P. javanicus from SA1 and SA2. Scotophilus heathii and P. pipistrellus were recroded throughout the study area. Maximum bat activity was recorded in spring (n = 65) that was followed by summer ( n = 61), autumn (n = 32) and winter (n = 24). Rhinolophus blasii and S. pallidus were recorded only during winter, R. hardwickii and P. tenuis during autumn, while S. kuhlii was recorded only during summer. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured during summer and autumn. Pipistrellus pipistrellus was recorded during autumn, spring and winter while S. heathii was captured throughout the year. Although the netting effort was the same, the number of bats captured from the SAs was different. A total of 72 bats were recorded from SA1, 52 from SA4, 43 from Lal SA3 and 15 from SA2. The dominance was highest for SA2 and lowest for SA1. Both Shannon and Simpson indices show that the diversity was the highest at SA1 followed by SA3, SA4 and SA2. Evenness was found to be highest at SA4 followed by SA3, SA2 and SA1. The mean head and body length of three Rhinolophus blasii was 39.33 mm ± 0.577 (SD) forearm length was 40.17 mm ± 1.155 (SD) and the tail length was 19.23 mm ± 1.940 (SD). The greatest skull length of a single R. blasii was 17.22 mm and mandible length was 11.80 mm. The baculum of a single R. blasii sample was 3.5 mm long. The mean head and body length of two Rhinopoma hardwickii 66.00 mm ± 5.657 (SD). The mean forearm length was 54.00 mm ± 0.0 (SD). The tail length was 59.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The greatest skull length was 19.68 mm ± 0.108 (SD), and the length of mandible was 11.28 mm ± 1.652. The baculum of single R. hardwickii was 1.1 mm long. The mean head and body length of twenty six Taphozous nudiventris was 86.87 mm ± 5.556 (SD) and the tail length was 27.57 mm ± 12.187 (SD). The greatest skull length was 26.16 mm ± 0.323 (SD) and the length of mandible was 17.53 mm ± 1.149 (SD). The mean total baculum length of the two specimens was 0.58 mm ± 0.017 (SD). The head and body length of four T. perforatus was measured as 84.30 mm ± 5.450 (SD) long. The forearm was 64.30 mm ± 3.457 (SD) long and the length of tail was 22.10 mm ± 2.702 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 22.24 mm and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.25 mm. The total length of a single T. perforatus was measured as 0.69 mm. The head and body length of fifty three Scotophilus heathii was 79.46 mm ± 6.941 (SD). The mean forearm length was 58.69 mm ± 2.929 (SD) and the tail length was 55.00 mm ± 7.360 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 21.39 mm ± 1.378 (SD) and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.08 mm ± 0.882 (SD). Mean total bacular length of ten S. heathii was measured 1.76 mm ± 0.150 (SD). The mean head and body length of five specimens of S. kuhlii was 72.10 mm ± 8.096 (SD). The forearm was 49.40 mm ± 3.03 (SD) long and the length of tail was 42.40 mm ± 4.04 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 18.98 mm ± 0.613 (SD) and the mandible length was 14.41 mm ± 1.173 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. kuhlii was 1.74 mm. The head and body length of two Scotoecus pallidus was 56.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The forearm was 35.50 mm ± 0.707 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 35.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 15.46 mm ± 0.449 (SD) and mandible length was measured 9.64 mm ± 2.425 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. pallidus captured from SA3 was 5.0 mm. The mean head and body length of twenty two Pipistrellus ceylonicus was 63.60 mm ± 7.486 (SD). The length of forearm was 29.92 mm ± 2.492 (SD) and tail length was 25.68 mm ± 3.442 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.76 mm ± 0.257 (SD) and the length of mandible was 9.28 mm ± 3.956 (SD), respectively. Mean total length of the bacula of four P. ceylonicus was 3.66 mm ± 1.190 (SD). Mean head and body length of the ten P. javanicus was 52.00 mm ± 2.712 (SD). The forearm was 35.13 mm ± 1.996 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 30.38 mm ± 5.236 (SD). The greatest skull length was 13.01 mm ± 4.546 (SD) and the length of mandible was 10.29 mm ± 1.679 (SD). The mean total length of the four bacula was 3.57 mm ± 0.860 (SD). The head and length of fifty two P. pipistrellus was 39.33 mm ± 2.690 (SD). The forearm was 28.23 mm ± 1.264 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 25.86 mm ± 3.396 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 11.04 mm ± 0.342 (SD) and the length of mandible was 7.87 mm ± 0.802 (SD). The mean total length of the eleven bacula of P. pistrellus was 3.19 mm ± 0.421 (SD). Only two specimens of P. tenuis were captured from SA1. The head and body length of these specimens was 35.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The forearm length was 28.00±0.707 while the length of the tail was 22.25 mm ± 3.182 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.19 mm. and the mandible length was 7.82 mm. The total bacular length was 2.79. The head and body length of the two Hypsugo savii was 55.50 mm ± 19.092 (SD). The forearm was 36.75 mm ± 3.889 (SD) long while the length of the tail was 33.50 mm ±6.364 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 11.18 mm and the length of mandible was 7.08 mm. The total bacular length of a single H. savii was 2.67 mm. The echolocation calls of bats of Pakistan have never been recorded and thus the accuracy of species identification on the basis of their calls remains a bit doubtful. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1374,T] (1).

15. The Study Of Hematological Parameters Of Indian Rock Python (Python Molorus Molorus) In Punjab, Pakistan

by Rehan ul Haq | Dr. Khalid Mahmood Anjum | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Arshad Javid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The background of the hematological studies of reptiles has assumed greater significance due to an increased trend of keeping them as pets and to identify any pathological condition in them in wild for their conservation. The objectives of study is to identify the hematological parameters of Indian Rock Python (Python molorus molorus) in Punjab, Pakistan. This is the only species of python found in Pakistan and a Near Threatened species according to IUCN Red Data Book. There is no data available on the blood chemistry of this species in Pakistan . These values will act as reference values for future studies in Pakistan. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hematology of Indian Rock Python could vary from that of Burmese Python and thier is a relatively high difference in the values of heterophyls,Basophils Eosinophils and monocytes so hypothesis proved. The parameters like red blood cells count, total leukocyte and thrombocyte counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin evaluation and differential leukocyte count were studied by collecting the 3 ml blood from the caudal vein of pythons by 23 Gauge syringe and we compare the results with published record of Burmese Python other than this captive and wild pythons hematology is also compared. Mostly standard procedures for counting these values were be followed. Results showed that the Packed cell volume for all the five samples is 3.9 ± 4 SD, Hemoglobin is 7.18 ± 0.61 SD and the Red blood cells count mean is1.23 × 106 /µl with SD of 0.32. White Blood cell count is15.46 × 103 /µl with SD of 1.97,Heterophils6.66 × 103 /µl with SD of 4.16,Lymphocytes4.98 × 103 /µl with 2.47 SD,Monocytes0.22 × 103/µl with standard deviation of 0.13,Azurophils(× 103 /µl) are 0.904+0.55, Eosinophils(× 103 /µl)0.836+0.61, Basophils(× 103 /µl)1.38+ 1.77 This present study will provide important information about hematological parameters of Indian Rock Pythons that could be a ready reference for the wildlife veterinarians, conservationists and biologists in future for the conservation and treatment of this near threatened species. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1426,T] (1).

16. Morphological Differences Among Fulvous Fruit Bat, Rousettus Leschenaulti Populations From Khyber

by Tehseen Javed | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Khalid Mahmood Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1454,T] (1).

17. Comunity Druven Sustainable Management Of Natural Resources Of Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuaty,

by Fehmeeda Bibi | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1496,T] (1).

18. The Relationship Between Production And Growth Traits Of Ring-Necked Pheasants (Phasianus Colchicus) In Captivity

by Saira Malik | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. KHalid Mahmood Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1688,T] (1).

19. Comparative Studies On Growth Survival Organoleptic Qualities Of Meat And Selective Disease Resistance Capaabilities

by Sahar Suleman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif mughal | DR.Arshad Javid | Prof,Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1928,T] (1).

20. Studies On Growth Traits And Parasitic Variations At Different Life History Stages In Peafowl (Pavo Cristatus) In Captivity

by Tasnim sadaf | DR.Arshad javid | Miss Sana ashraf | Prof.Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1935,T] (1).

21. Evaluation Of Social And Breeding Behavior Of Chinkara (Gazella Bennettii) In Wild And Captivity

by Muhammad Haris aziz | Dr. Khalid mahmood anjum | Dr. Arshad javid | Prof. Dr.Khalid javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1936,T] (1).

22. Comparative Studies On Growth Performance Parasitic Variations And Reproductive Traits In Domestic And Wild Pigeons

by Rizwana noor | Dr. Arshad javid | Miss Sana Ashraf | Prof. DR.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1937,T] (1).

23. Captive Management And Milk Composition Of Chinkara (Gazella Bennettii) Qith Prospects For Ex-Situ

by Muhammad Idnan | Dr. Arshad javid | Dr. Khalid Mehmood anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1963,T] (1).

24. Social And Feeding Behavior Of Chinkara (Gazella Bennettii) In Captivity

by Shahid ali khan | Dr. Khalid mahmood anjum | Prof. Dr. Arshad javid | Prof. Dr. Khalid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2041,T] (1).

25. Roost Characteristics Food And Feeding Habits Of The Indian Flying Fox(Pteropus Giganteus) In Lahore

by Tayiba Latif Gulraiz | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Khalid Mahmood Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2110,T] (1).

26. Study Of Helminths In Geese At Jallo Park Lahore

by Muhammad Umar Taqdees Raja | DR. Khalid Mahmood Anjum | Dr. Arshad Javaid | Prof. Dr. Aneela.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2128,T] (1).

27. The Bats Of Wheat- Rice Based Agroecosystem Of Punjab

by Muhammad Shahbaz | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Khalid Mahmood Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2150,T] (1).

28. The Diversity, Distribution And Phenetic Relationships Of Herpetiles Of District Kasur

by Waqas Ali (2008-VA-609) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Ms. Sana Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Amphibians and reptiles (herpetiles) are cold-blooded animals. Mostly lay eggs, fertilization is external in amphibians and internal in reptiles. Amphibians undergo metamorphosis to reduce competition between larval (usually aquatic) and adult (terrestrial) stage. The reptiles are found in a variety of habitats throughout the world except some isolated islands. Diversity and abundance of herpetiles is dependent on climate and geographic position of any region and is also directly linked with some avian and mammalian species. Amphibians and reptiles are important bio-indicators of climate change and the survival of both taxa is under continuous threat due to deforestation, habitat loss, fragmentation, urbanization and pollution. Data on local distribution patterns is helpful in regional conservation planning (Petrov 2004). Herpetiles are the important members of environment and have important position in pyramids. They control the population of many insects and pests, and themselves are source of food for many predators. Amphibians and many reptiles transfer nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and if they are removed from any ecosystem, the algae communities, invertebrate populations, predator dynamics, leaf litter decompositions and nutrient cycling can be affected (Baig 2006 ). Pakistan has the world’s rarest animals and plants but these are now in danger due to habitat loss, overuse and anthropogenic activities. The herpetofauna of Pakistan is represented by 219 species; 24 species of amphibians and 195 species of reptiles out of these 9 species of amphibians and 13 species of reptiles are endemic to Pakistan (Khan 2004). The herpetiles received less attention of scientific community hence these taxa remained unexplored in Pakistan. There is extreme scarcity of data on the distribution of various amphibian and reptilian species in the country (Khan 2006). The only authentic source of information till so far on herptiles in this region is the data collected and compiled by Daniel and Khan (2002, 2006). In Pakistan arid to semi-arid climatic conditions prevail that make it, an amphibian poor country however, humid riparian conditions in the Indus Valley, streams in the northern Himalayan sub-mountainous region and water channels in the western Baluchistan highland are home to some 24 amphibians, that belong to four families viz. Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae (Khan 2011). The reptilian fauna of Pakistan is represented by 195 species belonging to 23 families viz. Cheloniidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae, Testudinidae, Trionychidae, Crocodylidae, Gavialidae, Agamidae, Chameleonidae, Eublepharidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Uromastycidae, Varanidae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Hydrophiidae, Viperidae and Crotalidae (Khan 2004). In Pakistan, due to over hunting the marsh crocodile is in danger and nearly extinct. Now this species only occur in small numbers in Sindh and a few areas in Balochistan. The gharial is now few in numbers and found only between the Sukkur and Guddu barrages. In addition monitor species are heavily hunted for their skins. 72 snake species found in Pakistan and out of these, 14 marine and 12 terrestrial snake species are poisonous; most well-known are the Indian cobra, common krait, saw-scaled viper and Russel's viper. The snake venom is a complex mixture of enzymes including the pro-coagulant, non-enzyme proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, amines, lipids and metal ions. The venom exertsneuro-toxic, cytotoxic and hemotoxic effects. Genus monospecific Teratolepsis and Eristicophis is endemicto Pakistan. The Chagai Desert is of particular interest for reptiles, with six species of reptiles including five lizards and one snake are endemic to Pakistan and a further six species found only here and along the border of Iran. Important populations of marine turtles nest on Pakistan's southern beaches. The internationally threatened species of reptiles in Pakistan are Green and olive turtle, mugger, gharial, central Asian monitor, Indian python, central Asian cobra (Groombridge 1988). District Kasur is located between two rivers of the Punjab province, namely river Ravi and Sutlej. This district is bounded by India from east, Okara from south, Sheikhupura from north-west and Lahore covers its north side. District Kasur is administratively divided in to four Tehsils i.e. Kasur, Chunian, Pattoki and KotRadhaKishan. The district lies 150 to 200 m above sea level and experiences extreme hot weather during summer (April -September) to severe cold in winter (November to February). The difference between day and night temperatures is considerable. Average annual rainfall is 500 mm. Water logging and salinity has affected large area of the district making underground water brackish (Anwar 2012). Reptiles and amphibians have historically taken less concern as components of many ecosystems. Many ecosystems support high densities of herpetofaunaas compared to endothermic vertebrates because they make efficient use of energy (Pough 1980).Moreover, high densities of reptiles and amphibians presentin many ecosystems provide major role for the trophic transfer of energy and matter except one study that shows high amphibian densities affect ecosystem processes (Wyman 1998). Moreover, the high rate of herpetofauna decline increase the interest in scientific communities for documenting the abundance and status of amphibians on a global scale (Collins and Storfer 2003). Despite the high densities of herpetiles present in many ecosystems, it is difficult to sample them quantitatively because many snakes and several species of amphibians and lizards live in burrows making their capture difficult (Conant and Collins 1998). Furthermore, the cryptic nature of herpetiles, hibernation in winter, climatic factors affects the activity and the presence or abundance of amphibians and reptiles species (Zug et al 2001).As a result, many methods have been developed to sample herpetofauna such as drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps are a good way to maximize the number of individuals and number of herpetofauna species captured (Gibbons and Semlitsch, 1982; Enge 2001). On the other hand, drift fence surveys can be time-intensive and inappropriate applications can result in low capture rates of some species or high mortality of captured animals. Moreover, documenting the presence of all species occurring in a given area is difficult, if not impossible, and can be particularly time-intensive in systems with many rare species (Dodd 1991). Herpetological studies carried out in Pakistan are outdated and are mainly limited to Sind and Baluchistan provinces (Minton 1966; Mertens 1969). There is paucity of data on herpetiles of Punjab, densely populated province of the country. There is dire need to explore herpetofauna of the province in general and the district kasur is specific due to geographic location and climatic condition. Present study was therefore planned to explore herpetofauna diversity and distribution patterns of various amphibians and reptiles inhabiting district Kasur. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2215,T] (1).

29. Butterflies of India

by Singh, Arun Pratap | Butterflies--India.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India: Om Books, 2011Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 595.780954 Singh 30814 1st 2011 Wild.Life] (2).

30. Zoo and wild Animal Medicine : Current Therapy

by Fowler, Murray E.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Saunders; 1994Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Fowler 2092bb 3rd 1994 Book.Bank] (2).

31. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine / 5th ed

by Fowler, Murray E | R. Eric Miller.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Saunders, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Miller 17771 5th 2003 CMS] (1).

32. Wild Animal Medicine

by Joshi, B.P.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: India: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co Pvt.Ltd, 1991Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Joshi 13286 1st 1991 CMS] (1).

33. Laboratory Medicine : Avian and Exotic Pets

by Alan M. Fudge.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saundersl; 2000Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.68 Fudge 20558 1st 2000 CMS] (2).

34. Zoo And Wild Animal Medicine / 5th ed

by Murray E. Fowler | R. Eric Miller.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Murray 15743 5th 2003 CMS] (1).

35. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine / 5th ed

by Murray E. Fowler | R. Eric Miller.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Fowler 17772 5th 2003 CMS] (1).

36. Bird Migration

by Alerstam, Thomas | Christie, David A.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Cambridge University Press, 1997Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 591.5 Alerstam 15722 1st 1997 Wild.Life] (1).

37. Bird Flu / Health, Safety and Contingency Guidelines

by M. R. Reddy.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: SBS Publishers (IND), 2007Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.08926 Reddy 19346 1st 2007 Wild.Life] (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08926 Reddy 19347 1st 2007 Wild.Life] (1).

38. Wildlife Production Systems : Economic Utilisation of Wild Ungulates

by Hudson, Robert J | Drew, K. R | Baskin, L. M.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: UK; Cambridge University Press; 1989Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 333.9596 Hudson 13474 1st 1989 Wild.Life] (1).

39. Fundamentals of Ecology / 3rd ed

by Dash, M. C | Dash, P. S.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: McGraw Hill; 2009Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 577 Dash 24535 1st 2009 Ecology] (1).

40. Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity

by Sana Ashraf | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Khalid Mehmood Anjum | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored. Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks. The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds. Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus. Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age. Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2350-T] (1).

41. Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals

by Samuel, William M | Pybus, Margo J | Kocan, A. Alan.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Manson Publishing Ltd, 2001Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 639.964 Samuel 16513 2nd 2001 Parasitology] (3).

42. Restoration of Aquatic Systems

by Livingston, Robert J.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: CRC Press, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.9 Livingston 18997 1st 2006 Fisheries] (1).

43. Mammalogy : Adaptation, Diversity and Ecology

by Feldhamer, George A | Drickamer, Lee C | Vessey, Stephen H | Merritt, Joseph F.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: Singapore: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2007Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 599 Feldhamer 17059 2nd 2004 Wildlife] (1).

44. Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets

by Paterson, Sue.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: UK : Wiley-Blackwell, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08965 Paterson 20067 1st 2006 Parasitology] (1).

45. Practical Taxidermy

by Moyer, John W.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA : John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1979Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 579.4 Moyer 12987 2nd 1979 Wildlife] (1).

46. Leopards of Londolozi : The Complete Book Of Tiger

by Hes, Lex.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA : New Holland Publishers Ltd, 1992Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 599.74428 Hes 14817 1st 1992 Wildlife] (1).

47. Biodiversity : Assessment and Conservation

by Trivedi, Pravin Chandra.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: Agrobios India, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 333.95 Chandra 20154 1st 2006 Wildlife] (2).

48. Snakes of Medical Importance and Snakebite Treatment

by Jena, Indramani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: Ashish, 1993Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 666.6 Jena 19730 1st 1993 Wildlife] (1).

49. Animal Behavior : Its Evolutionary and Neurological Basis

by Dethier, V. G.

Edition: 2ndMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Prentice Hall; 1964Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Dethier 10134 2nd 1964 Wildlife] (1).

50. The Wildlife Techniques Manual: Research, Vol.1 / 7th ed.

by Silvy, Nova J.

Edition: 7th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: The John Hopkins University Press; 2012Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.9 Silvy 30934 7th,Vol.1 2012 Wildlife] (1).



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