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1. Detection Of Influenza A Virus Contamination In Newcastle Disease Live Virus Vaccines And Their Pathological Effects On Visceral Organs

by Munir Hussain (2004-VA-64) | Mr. Muhammad Saeed Imran | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry is one of the most vibrant commercial sector which is playing a vital role to bridge the gap between supply and demand of animal protein foods to cater for its ever increasing human population 2.1 per cent annually in Pakistan (Sahota et al. 2003). Vaccination is one of the most effective way to prevent the poultry birds from the specific diseases. Disease producing microorganisms can be classified smallest to largest as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasites. All, except the viruses are sensitive to drugs when outbreaks occur. Vaccination is basically the introduction of a specific biological substance (antigen) into the bird to stimulate the antibodies formation or immunity to a particular disease. Usually the biological substance is avirulent the live disease organisms, which are capable to protect the bird against the particular disease by producing an immune response. Presence of these organisms (antigen) in the blood stimulates the body's defense mechanism to produce antibodies that neutralize the disease causing organisms when the bird is exposed to them (Kamboh et al. 2009). A danger of such type of live vaccines is that the live microbes can back mutate to a virulent form. While, dead vaccines that contain whole killed (usually by formalin or phenol) microbes are safe. They may contain little or no extraneous material and therefore tend to produce fewer adverse effects (Palombo and Semple 2001). The vaccines that contain dead organisms are safe with respect to residual virulence and are easy to store, since organisms are already dead. While live vaccines may possess residual virulence for the animal by reversion of avirulent organisms to fully virulent type or spread to nonvaccinated animals. Dead vaccines have very little risk of ‘alive’ contamination, while live vaccines always run the risk of contamination with unwanted organisms; for instance, outbreaks of reticuloendotheliosis in Introduction ______________________________________________________________________________ 2 chickens in Japan and Australia have been traced to contaminated Marek’s disease vaccine (Tizard 1995). Avian Influenza viruses typically produce Syndromes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory disease and drops in egg production to severe, systemic disease with near 100% mortality (Olsen et al. 2002). Avian influenza initially was recognized as a highly lethal, systemic disease (i.e., highly pathogenic). HPAI was known by various name including fowl plague, fowl pest etc. Avian Influenza viruses are classified in the family orthomyxoviridae, genus influenza virus A (Garten et al. 2009). Avian influenza viruses can be categorized into four clinical groups:1) highly virulent, 2) moderately virulent, 3) mildly virulent, and 4) Avirulent (Swayne and Suarez 2000). Avian Influenza further sub type based on serologic reaction of HA and NA surface glycoproteins. Fifteen sub types of HA and nine sub types of NA are recognized (Swayne and Suarez 2000). MP AI viruses in domestic poultry produce clinical sign reflect abnormalities in the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive organs (Allwright et al. 1993). To date, naturally occurring highly virulent influenza A viruses that produce acute clinical disease in chickens, turkeys and other birds of economic importance have been associated only with the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. Influenza A viruses of subtype H9 are now considered to be wide spread in poultry and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans (Fedorko et al. 2006). To date, all outbreaks of the highly pathogenic form have been caused by influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7. The disease is transmitted horizontally by direct contact through contamination. There is little or no evidence of vertical transmission (egg-borne infection). However, eggshell surfaces can be contaminated with the virus (Potima 2007). Wild and domesticated water fowl is the major natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. Representatives of Introduction ______________________________________________________________________________ 3 all of the different subtypes of avian influenza A virus have been isolated from birds, particularly from aquatic species such as ducks, geese, and gulls (Karasin et al. 2000). Wild birds such as geese, ducks and game birds; they can be carriers of even highly pathogenic strain H5N1 shedding the virus in their feces without clinical signs of disease. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine the viral contamination (Influenza A virus) in poultry vaccines manufactured locally and imported from different countries of the world in Pakistan. The findings of the study have helped us to see the Avian Influenza A virus contamination in vaccines which are used in field conditions and also help to evaluate the purity of vaccines. The RT-PCR based technology has been described for the detection of different RNA viruses such as Newcastle disease virus etc. (Payne et al. 1981) revealed contamination of vaccines with ALVs, specifically in two Marek´s vaccines, which confirms that these agents are potential contaminants of viral vaccines applied in poultry. This assay has meant a considerable advance due to a higher sensitivity and specificity upon differentiating the subgroups compared with ELISA. It is quicker test for detection of RNA viruses than the viral isolation, which requires until 10 days and it needs detection by ELISA for the identification result. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2212,T] (1).

2. Burden Of Respiratory Illness Related To Influenza Among Oupatient And Inpatients Healthcare Facility Centers District Sheikhupura

by Ayesha Mukhtar (2014-VA-1052) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected person or infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments.Globally the annual attack rate with influenza viruses ranges between 5 to10% in adults and 20- 30 % in children. The WHO estimates that 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness occur every year resulting in 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide, with most influenza deaths occurring among adults over 65 years of age. Influenza is the cause of outpatient visits and inpatient hospitalization among population of District Sheikhupura. A prospective study for duration of 3 months (September to october) was performed in Tehsil Muridke District Sheikhupra. Population of Tehsil Muridke is 4, 52,009. We selected Tehsil headquarter hospital randomly as sentinel sites .Our Target population was cases of ILI and SARI. All cases of influenza like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) who meets the inclusion & exclusion criteria was enrolled. Data was obtained by the face to face interview. A detail investigation form was filled after taking written consent form. Throat swab was collected from patient. The sample was stored at -70°C for further laboratory procedure. We will use Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of type of the influenza virus. RT-PCR allows viral template RNA to be reversed transcribed producing complementary DNA (cDNA) which can then be amplified and detected. So in our Study we used RT-PCR for influenza virus detection. Data analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence interval. Chi-square test used to measure the association of risk factors (age, sex, occupation, exposure, healthcare worker, travelling etc) and the rate of morbidity and mortality was calculated by using standard formulae. We identified ILI and SARI cases associated with outpatients and inpatients & also provided data to identify and monitor groups at high risk for influenza and will measure trends in morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2805-T] (1).

3. Cross Sectional Survey Of Avian Infleunza In Poultry Butchers Of Sentinel Live Bird Markets In Lahore District

by Gul Naz Namat (2014-VA-1120) | Dr. MamoonaChaudhary | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: 6.1 Background: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live bird markets. 6.2 Hypothesis: Avian influenza virus is prevalent in poultry butchers working in live bird markets with domestic and pet, wild, exotic birds. 6.3 Parameter/Methodology: A cross sectional survey of poultry butchers in Lahore was conducted in order to determine seroprevalence of avian influenza Disease. A target population was the poultry butchers/retailers in the District Lahore. A study population was the apparently healthy butchers in Lahore. A sample of 300 butchers was collected. Blood sample from apparently healthy butchers was collected from brachial veins as described in WHO (2010). Three ml blood was collected in the syringe and was allowed to clot to separate serum. Collected sera was stored in freezer at -70°C for further laboratory analysis. Data was gathered by simple random sampling technique. A total of 300 samples were collected. Haemagglutinationinhibition (HI) test applied to detect antibodies sensitivity. The test was followed as described by WHO (2013). 6.4 Statistical Design: The weighted proportion estimate with 95% Cl (confidence intervals) of the overall seroprevalence was computed by using R-software. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome. 6.5 Outcomes: Out of 300 blood samples of butchers of sentinel live bird markets, 171 blood samples are sero positive for H9 virus after HI Testing. The sero prevalence of H9 virus in butchers of live bird markets is found to be 57 %. The results of H5 and H7 are found to be negative. In univariable analysis, following risk factors which were significant as per criteria of selection in current study (p-value < 0.25); Education, Age, Smoking, Sticks smoke/day, Years of smoking, Having chronic disease, Birds sold/day, Keep birds at home, Access of stray dogs, Access of stray cats, Wash instruments after slaughtering, Do not clean cutting boards, Wearing of aprons.Multivariate analysis determined one factor i-e having birds other than broiler as significant factor having p-value < 0.001. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2804-T] (1).

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