Your search returned 22 results. Subscribe to this search

Not what you expected? Check for suggestions
1. Effects Of Short Term Anti-Stressor Feeding On Bone Characteristics And Tissues Minerals In Heat Stressedbroilers

by Vishal Sharoon (2013-VA-567) | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Muhammad Quaid Zaman | Dr. Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Broiler chicken is the fastest growing meat type nowadays. Increased broiler’s growth rate increases their body heat production. When the body becomes overheated, a condition of heat stress exist which results in decreased growth rate primarily due to reduced feed intake (Hurwitz et al. 1980). Heat stress in birds cause suffering that leads to death and to reduce this problem of heat stress, heat production needs to be reduced, which can be done by evaporative heat loss through respiratory tract. Many other techniques have been developed to alleviate heat stress like upgrading the house padding (Nilipour 2000; Yahavet al. 2004), setting upcooling systemssuch as evaporative cooling (Donald 2000), reducing bird density, providing cool drinking water, and feeding birds during the cooler times of the day like in the morning hours or when the sun sets (Lott 1991; Yahav and Hurwitz 1996). Minerals are essential for the naturalfunctioning of the body. Manganese, zinc, copper, calcium, and phosphorus are a few minerals that are important for the growth and development of bone (Watkins and Seifert 1997). Heat stress increases mineral excretion because digestibility is affected intestinal motility is increased (Smith 1987). El-Husseiny and Creger (1981) reported that heat stress decreases rates of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium and zinc preservations in broilers. Similarly, Sahin et al. (2006) found that heat stress decreases tibial ash, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in quails. It also decreases length and widths of tibia, and promotes mineralization which in turn reduces bone strength of broilers (Vakili et al. 2010). Heat stress also has negative effects on concentrations of potassium, sodium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc in serum. Their reduction is reported under heat stress conditions in broilers (Belay and Teeter 1996).Heat stress has also shown decreased iron, and chromium concentrations in serum. Heat stress also effects liver minerals and has shown reduction in the liver concentrations of iron, zinc, and chromium (Sahin et al. 2001). As it is quite expensive to keep animal buildings cool, different methods of dietary manipulation are mostly considered. During heat stress, synthesis of vitamin C, E, zinc and chromium is decreased. So poultry diet is supplemented with these minerals due to their anti-stress effects (Sahin and Kucuk 2001). Melatonin supplementation also restores the decreased concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, in serum induced by heat stress (Sahin et al. 2004). Genistein supplementation is also helpful in increasing apparent nutrientdigestibility and bone mineralization. The reduced amount of minerals is excreted out of the body whereas the mineral concentration in tibia ash increases (Sahin et al. 2006). A supplemented dietincluding chromium at 1200 ppb can lessen the detrimental effects of heat stressed broiler. Feed intake, body weight and improved feed effectivenessincreases as a result of increased chromium supplement (Sahin et al. 2002). Another dietary practice to reduce heat stress of broiler is to supplement poultry feed or drinking water with various electrolytes which will increase their water intake. Addition of Dietary fibre in feed also has beneficial effects on broilers (Lee 1994). ASI supplementation (ASI; Arg =49.47%, silicone = 8.2%, inositol = 25%) considerably enhanced bone mineralization in quails and had no effect on weight gained, feed effectiveness and feed consumed (Sahin et al. 2006).During heat stress, KCl at level of 1.5% and NaHCO3 at level of 0.5%, improvedweight gain, and significantly increased serum potassium and bicarbonate level during heat stress. The results showed that combination of KCl and NaHCO3 supplementation decreased the negative effects of heat stress (Naseem et al. 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2263-T] (1).

2. Effect Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles On Serum Mineral Profile And Bone Health Of Broilers

by Sidrah Shafique (2013-VA-845) | Dr. Muhammad Quaid Zaman | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Background: Zn is an essential mineral of biological importance and in the past processed and unprocessed forms of Zn was used with uncertain composition. Zn is very important from nutritional point of view and is often supplemented in poultry diet. Zn promotes the growth, skeletal development, mineral retention, Zn concentration in tissues, production of neutropphils and antibodies and it improves the functions of macrophages. Zn deficiency causes reduction in weight gain, skeletal malformations, poor bone mineralization and immunological dysfunctions. ZnO nanoparticles (ZONP) are mostly used due to its advantages over conventional forms. Current study is aimed to evaluate the effects of ZONP on serum minerals profile, tibial bone minerals profile and bone health in broilers. Hypothesis: ZONP may enhance bone health and serum minerals in broiler. Methodology: The study included 120 day-old broiler chicks divided into four groups, each with 6 replicates. Group A served as control group and group B, C and D served as treatment groups supplemented with 80mg/kg ZnO, 40mg/kg ZONP and 80mg/kg ZONP respectively. At the end of 35 days, two birds from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered to collect tibial bone samples and blood samples. The parameters reported were bone health i.e. bone weight, bone length, robusticity index and tibiotarsal index and minerals in serum and bones were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. Statistical analysis: The data was analyzed using one way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The group differences were compared by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: This study helped us to determine the bone health and minerals level of bones and serum in response to ZONP in broiler. The results showed no change in serum and bones level of Zn, Fe, K and Na in Zn supplemented groups compared to control group but serum and bones Ca level showed significant increase in Zn supplemented groups compared to control group. The results showed no significant difference in bone dry weight, wet weight, length, bone diameter, medullary canal diameter, robusticity index and tibiotarsal index of broilers supplemented with Zn compared to control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that Zn supplementation, either ZnO or ZONP, has no effect on bones health, bone minerals and serum minerals. However, Ca level of bones and serum was increased by Zn (either ZnO or ZONP) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2304-T] (1).

3. Effect Of Sub-Chronic Exposure Of Bisphenola On Serum Minrals And Bone Health In Rats

by Suliman (2014-VA-494) | Dr. Khalid Abdul Majeed | dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous compounds present worldwide. Endocrine hormone production, release, transport, binding, action or elimination is enhanced or interrupted by EDs and hence affect homeostasis, development, reproduction and behaviour of organisms. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most important EDs used extensively in consumer products such as beverage, food can lining, dental sealants and thermal paper and water pipes. BPA binds to estrogen receptors and enhance or interrupt the endocrine system. BPA have negative effectson bone health and serum minerals in rats. A total of 48 adult rats were divided in three main groups i.e. (16 rats in each group). Each group was sub-divided into male (8 rats) and female (8rats). Control Group: Basal rat diet was provided to control group. Group A: BPA 1mg/kg body weight daily along with basal rat diet was given to group A. BPA was dissolved in 10 % ethanol and was diluted with distilled water. Group B: BPA 0.1mg/kg body weight daily along with basal rat diet was given to Group B. BPA was dissolved in 10 % ethanol and was diluted with distilled water. Trial duration was 3 months and at the end rats were killed to obtain the bones and muscles to observe their bone characteristics (bone length, width, and medullary canal diameter) and serum minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) analysis.Data wasanalysed using two ways ANOVA through SPSS version (SPSS Inc. version 20, Chicago, Illinois) and was presented as mean± SEM. Femur bone length was found to be significantly higher in male rats treated with BPA 0.1mg/kg and 1mg/kg compared to control. The femur bone length was not affected in female rats. Rest of the parameters in bone health of tibia and femur were not affected by treatment. Bone minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn) were also not affected by the treatment irrespective of treatments.Serum calcium was significantly higher in mal rates treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control; whereas it decreased significantly in female rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control. Serum zinc concentrations also decreased significantly in female rats treated with BPA 1mg/kg compared to control. Muscle copper concentration was significantly higher in male rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control. Iron muscle concentration was significantly increased in male and female rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control. Muscle calcium concentration was significantly decreased in male rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2492-T] (1).

4. Determination Of Heavy Metals In Milk, Feed And Water Samples From Selected Districts Of Punjab

by Sadaf Afzal (2009-VA-508) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Azmatullah Khan | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Food safety is concerned mainly with the availability of safe food to every person. Quality and safety are related with one another. Food quality and hygienic issues are emerging day by day. Consumers in this era are more concerned with what they eat. Healthy and safe food is obtained by observing general hygienic conditions. Major issues emerging in food safety are related to its quality. Food borne diseases increased due to unhealthy or unsafe food. Some diseases directly affect the human health like in food poisoning it causes vomiting, diarrhea etc. Concentration of some hazardous elements increases after consumption of such food. These require a certain amount to onset the disease or may prove fetal if reported in elevated levels. Heavy metals are elements which when increased in concentration prove fetal. They accumulate as bio elements and mostly found as non-degradable elements. These elements enter to food chain via numerous ways. Food safety issues regarding heavy metals are emerging in many foods. In milk these comes through feed and water which animals consume. Feed and water contamination occurs in many ways like from waste water, from industrial effluents, from chemicals to enhance fertility of soils. In this study five heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Mn were determined in feed, milk and water samples collected from four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. In every area from 20 different Summary 55 locations 20 samples of each milk, feed and water were collected. Analyses reveal that all the selected areas are highly positive with respect to feed and water samples. Sheikhupura city was selected from Sheikhupura district and it was observed that feed samples collected from this area are highly positive with respect to above stated metals. Highest mean was observed for Mn (48.7ppm) followed by Zn (20.4ppm), Cr (3.01ppm), Cu (1.95ppm) and Pb (1.67ppm). Second highest mean is observed in Pindibhtaian city from district Hafizabad in the following sequence Mn (14.6ppm) > Zn (7.68ppm) > Cu (1.69ppm). Pb and Cr were found with same level 0.77 ppm. Barqi area from Lahore district and Pattoki city from Kasoor district were also selected. Barqi area was found high for Mn (10.3ppm) followed by Cr (1.66ppm) and Pb (0.67ppm) while Pattoki city was found high for Zn (6.85ppm) and Cu (1.65ppm). Milk samples were also collected along with feed samples and found positive with respect to subjected heavy metals. Highest mean was found for Mn (11.7ppm) in Sheikhupura city followed by Zn (7.55ppm) in Pindibhtaian city, Pb (3.48ppm) in Barqi area, Cu (0.80ppm) and Cr (0.72ppm) in Pindibhtaian city. Water samples collected shows different results as compared to milk and feed samples. In water samples highest mean were observed for Mn (0.18 ppm) followed by Pb (0.05ppm) and Cr (0.04ppm) in Pindibhtaian city, Cu (0.01ppm) in Barqi area, Zn (0.00ppm) in all selected areas. All of the selected areas were found significantly different as p value is less than 0.00. Also the samples collected in these areas were significantly different from one another as the same trend was not observed among feed, milk and water samples. The results reveal that high concentration of metals in feed also results in increase concentration in milk. High levels in feed reveal that soil used for irrigation purpose has high Summary 56 level of these elements. Very less contamination found in water samples as water sources are from ground pumps. Future Perspective  There is a strong need to conduct awareness trainings regarding the potential sources for heavy metals contamination. Systems should be mobilized on industrial level to lower the waste water by water treatments methods. Measures must be taken to train the farmers regarding the use of fertilizers and possible hazardous effects of them if used in excess amount.  Dairy is one of the most flourishing industries of Pakistan. People prefer to consume raw milk but now they also develop the habit to consume processed milk products. Healthy farming is very essential in the development of this industry. Farmers should place their animals at such areas where chances of industrial contamination are less. They should also aware about the adulteration or adulterants and their disaster effects on human health.  All these measures when taken properly will put the possible risks to minimum level and their effects on human health will be minimized. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2632-T] (1).

5. Biochar Application As A Strategy In Water Treatment Of River Ravi: A Comparative Study

by Safa Abid Chughtai | Dr. Saif Ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Fareeha Arooj | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pakistan is a resourceful but a water starved country. With a population of almost 20 crore there is an extreme pressure on the resources specially the meager water resources of the country. The inaccessibility to clean water and the unavailability of cheap methods of water treatment has created an utmost need to develop a new cost effective method for waste water treatment. The actual aim of this research was to treat water of River Ravi using a relatively new Biochar method and compare it with a conventional precipitation method in removal of heavy metals. For this purpose, a total of 48 samples were collected from 4 different points for three consecutive weeks. 8 samples were treated with Biochar method and 8 with precipitation method per week. Heavy metals which were analyzed were Zn, Mg, Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn and Pb. Samples were pre and post analyzed and the results were compared. There was a clear difference as Heavy metals were completely removed by the Biochar method and its efficiency was 100% while precipitation method managed to remove only 50- 80% 0f the heavy metals. There were some drawbacks associated with both the techniques as well. The Biochar method caused a slight change in water’s pH and its colour. On the other hand precipitation technique was a failure in removing metals completely specially those which can form complexes in water like Pb, Ni, Fe etc. Biochar method was also found to be a cheap technique as compared to the precipitation technique as there were no costly chemicals and apparatus required and was prepared from mere waste which was intended to be disposed off. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2702-T] (1).

6. Heavy Metals Assesment In Tomato, Lady-Finger And Mint From The Surrounding Areas Of Hudiara Drain, Lahore.

by Syed Hamza Zaidi (2010-VA-376) | Dr. Azmat Ullah Khan | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Heavy metal is defined as metallic element usually toxic in nature with high density and atomic weight. As they are toxic in nature they accumulate in different parts of the vegetables and lead to several health complications in humans. Some of these metals are of nutritionally important for human health in minute quantities and referred as trace elements. Lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium are among the major toxicants in vegetables which may cause chronic diseases in the kidney and liver of humans and causes disruption of numerous biochemical processes leading to cardiovascular, nervous, kidney and bone diseases. Leafy vegetables like mint has more chances of infestation in suburbs due to waste water irrigation as compared to intact skin vegetables especially grown away from suburbs. Waste water contains sufficient amount toxic heavy metals which cause clinical problems.In Pakistan farmers are openly using the sewage water for cultivation. Food safety is serious issue these days in Pakistan as many foodborne diseases occur due to consumption of vegetables growing in sewage water. Cultivation of crops by contaminated water is of bigger concern regarding food safety issue. Use of polluted water in fields for long terms without any treatment is liable to cause diseases. Total 36 samples of vegetables, 4 samples of water and 8 soil composite samples were collected from four different places surrounding Hudiara drain in Lahore for one month. Sampling was done for 3 months (May, June and July).Soil samples were taken from two different depths (0-6 inches and 6-12 inches with the help of soil auger. For three months, total of 144 samples were analyzed for desired study. The heavy metals Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr in tomato, lady finger and mint (from various places around Hudiara drain Lahore) were determined in washed, dried and digested vegetable samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The data was brought to presentable from by applying Two-way ANOVA through SPSS Version 16.0. Mean and S.D was also calculated for every ANOVA to discuss in detail. Results exhibited significant values in water, soil and vegetable samples. Lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium showed significant values in some samples of water, soil and vegetables. Lead was found above permissible limit in tomatoes and lady finger. The data showed that there is continuous bio-accumulation of heavy metals from waste-water to soil, which is causing uptake of heavy metals from soil to plant. Continuous cultivation with affected water will make the land unfit for irrigation and vegetables for consumption. Proper treatment is required of water which is being used for cultivation in surroundings of Hudiara drain in Lahore. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2715-T] (1).

7. Effects Of Mannanoligosaccharides Feeding On Selected Mineral Profile In Post-Weaned Goat Kids

by Tasneem Kausar (2014-VA-556) | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof. Dr. Habib ur Rehman | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Minerals play a pivotal role in kids’ growth and development. Minerals deficiency in young age has lifelong consequences. It is necessary to maintain adequate level of minerals in kids body to match their requirements. This can be achieved either by supplementing diet with minerals or by enhancing their absorption. Mannan-oligosaccharides supplementation can enhance minerals concentration in liver, muscles, blood and kidney by enhancing their absorption in gastrointestinal tract. Ten healthy goat kids were selected for study purpose to evaluate effects of prebiotics supplementation on minerals profile of serum, liver, muscles and kidneys. These kids were divided into 2 groups. One group (control group) was on normal basal diet other the experimental group was fed with diet supplemented with 1 g mannan-oligosaccharides. The kids were slaughtered on day 75 and sampling was done. Clear non hemolysed sera were separated for serum mineral analysis. Samples from liver muscles and kidneys cut into small pieces and dried. Wet digestion of samples done and upto 50 ml of solution of each sample was made for spectrophotometry. Calcium levels are analyzed by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to evaluate levels of copper, zinc and iron. Results obtained are statistically analyzed by applying students-t test and presented as mean ± SE and considered significant at P < 0.05. The results of the study, to evaluate the relationship between mannan-oligosaccharides supplementation and minerals absorption, were not significant. MOS has not any significant effects on minerals profile in goat kids. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2711-T] (1).

8. Comparitive Study Of Biogas Production From Wastewater Sludge Of Tehsil Municiple Administration (Tma) Ravi Town Drains In Lahore

by Hira Khalid (2014-VA-229) | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Global expansion in energy demand has convinced energetic search for alternative energy sources. Biogas is an energy-rich combination of mainly methane and carbon dioxide and can be used for active purposes. It is a cheap way to meet energy crises. It is an odorless, colorless and flammable gas with an energy content of 37.3 MJ/m3. It is produced by process of anaerobic digestion comprising of three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenesis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Out of the 14 drains in Lahore, sludge samples were collected from Samanabad, outfall and Gulshan-e-Ravi drains. These samples were analyzed for Electrical conductivity (HI 8633 EC meter), pH (HI 2210 pH meter), BOD5 (HI 9146 DO meter), Total carbon content, Nitrogen (Kjeldhal’s method), Phosphorus (V-110 spectrophotometer), Potassium (Multichannel Flame photometer-AFP 100) and Heavy metals (including Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni by Polarized Zeeman Z-8230 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). pH went from 6.37 to 7.66 (from slightly acidic to basic in nature) inside the biogas digesters while temperature inside the biogas digesters ranged from 26.1°C-32.2°C. Electrical conductivity of sludge samples varied from 1.38 mS/cm to 2.23 mS/cm and TDS ranged from 883.2 mg/l to 1427.2 mg/l. Carbon content of wastewater sludge ranged from 1.3983 g to 2.3677 g while total Kjeldhal’s nitrogen varied from 40.6 mg/l to 59.2 mg/l. Nutrients like Phosphorus varied from 15750 ppm to 17250 ppm and Potassium ranged from 602.5 ppm to 9775.5 ppm in sludge samples. Concentration of heavy metals i.e. Lead (Pb) in sludge samples varied from 2.58 ppm to 2.94 ppm, Copper (Cu) went from 0.05 ppm to 0.79 ppm, Zinc went from 5.13 ppm to 5.28 ppm, Nickel (Ni) ranged from 0.11 ppm to 0.35 ppm while Chromium (Cr) was not detected in samples. Summary 43 Variation in water concentration in the digesters of drain A made a difference of 900.800 ppm in CH4 concentration, 0.016 % vol of CO2, 0.020 in pH and 1.090 °C in temperature. While variation in water concentration in the digesters of drain B made a difference of 483.499 ppm in CH4 concentration, 0.331 % vol of CO2, 0.019 in pH and 0.110 °C in temperature. And in that of the digesters of drain C made a difference of 238.295 ppm in CH4 concentration, 0.187 % vol of CO2, 0.015 in pH and 0.490 °C in temperature. Highest methane potential was found in Drain A, followed by drain B and C. Absence of H2S shows that the biogas produced anaerobically from the municipal wastewater sludge can be an environmentally friendly source of energy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2756-T] (1).

9. Microbial And Physicochemical Analysis Of Drinking Water Quality Of Government Installed Water Filtration Plants Of Lahore In Comparison With Tap Water

by Syed Mubeen-ur-Rehman (2014-VA-945) | Ms. Isbah Hammed | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Water is an important constituent for survival after oxygen. Internationally, hazardous drinking water passing through poor hygiene kills almost 1.6 million children below the age of five annually. Various physical parameters that represent the quality of drinking water should be in safe limit. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) have adverse effects on humans. Drinking water should not contain any pathogenic organism or any bacteria indicating bacterial contamination. Presence of coliforms in water is considered as bacterial contamination. In this study three filtration plants were selected randomly from each town three samples of tap water and filtered water were taken after 15 days respectively. Overall 162 samples were collected for the study. Parameters that were used to determine the physical characteristics of water were Color, total Hardness as CACO3, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and pH. Chemical characteristics included detection of Arsenic, Calcium, Chloride, Chromium, Copper. Toxic inorganics included Lead, Manganese, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc were analyzed. Microbiological quality of water was examined in terms of Escherichia coli (must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample) and total coliforms (Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample). The results observed are as follows: pH of tap water ranged from 5.56 to 8.49 in tap water while that of filtered water ranged from 7.46 to 8.37, TDS in tap water varied from 52 mg/L to 1025.3 mg/L while that in filtered water was 217.91 mg/L to 1098.6 mg/L, chlorides in tap water ranged from 47.5 meq/L to 592.8 meq/L while that in filtered water were from 41.5 meq/L to 520.6 meq/L, Hardness of tap water samples varied from 20.1 mg/L to 260 mg/L while that of filtered water samples were from 40.4 mg/L to 290.9 mg/L, calcium (Ca) in tap water ranged from 17.8 mg/L to 48.3 mg/L while that in filtered water was Summary 41 14.7 mg/L to 51 mg/L, Manganese (Mn) in tap water ranged from 0.01 mg/L to 0.19 mg/L while in filtered water it ranged from 0.01 mg/L to 0.13 mg/L, Zinc (Zn) in tap water samples varied from 0.01 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L while in filtered water samples it went from 0.01 mg/L to 0.09 mg/L, Arsenic (As) ranged from 0 to 0.05 mg/L in tap water while in filtered water it went from 0 to 0.023 mg/L, Lead (Pb) in tap water ranged from 0 to 0.06 mg/L while in filtered water it ranged from 0 to 0.01 mg/L, Chromium (Cr) in tap water varied from 0 to 0.6 mg/L while in filtered water it went from 0 to 0.2 mg/L while Copper (Cu), Selenium (Se) and Nickel (Ni) were not detected in tap water samples as well as in filtered water samples. 3.7% coliforms were present in filtered water samples while tap water had 7.4% of total coliforms. 22.2 % E. coli were present in filtered water samples while 40.7% E. coli were present in tap water samples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2759-T] (1).

10. Efects Of Feeding Mannanoligosaccharides On Serum Minerals Profile In Beetal Goats

by Zil-E-Huma (2014-VA-11) | Dr. Muhammad Shabaz Yousaf | Prof .Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The need of minerals is increased during gestation and lactation to support fetal growth and milk production respectively and prebiotics are considered to increase mineral absorption during gestation. Mannan-oligosaccharide supplementation can enhance minerals absorption during pregnancy. The study was conducted in the experimental shed of University Of Veterinary and Animal Science, Pattoki for a period of 60 days. Total of 24 pregnant goats were taken and kept under normal temperature. The pregnant goats will be divided into 3 groups. Group-I containing 8 pregnant goats served as control group and throughout the experiment basal feed was given to this group. Group-II and III served as experimental groups each containing 8 pregnant goats. In Group-II and III eight pregnant goats were given 5g and 10g manan-oligosaccharide with basal feed, respectively. Sampling was done after one week of MOS supplementation and before 2 weeks of parturition. The research data was evaluated by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). This study helped to evaluate importance of prebiotics (MOS) in mineral absorption during gestation. The results of minerals concentration in pregnant goats with basal diet revealed that without supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides no significant effect on serum minerals was observed.In our study mannan-oligosaccharides supplementation significantly modulated calcium and iron serum levels rest of the minerals including copper and zinc did not showed any significant modulations in their concentrations under the effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation. The supplementation of MOS at 5g and 10g increased serum calcium concentration (P < 0.05) while the status of the group, before birth and after birth did not showed significant effect (P > 0.05) on serum calcium concentration. The supplementation of MOS at 5g and 10g increased serum iron concentration (P < 0.05) while the status of the group, before birth and after birth also showed significant effect (P < 0.05) on serum iron concentration. Zinc and copper concentration were not modulated under the effect 5g and 10g MOS supplementation (P > 0.05). The serum concentration of zinc and copper were not influenced by group status of before and after parturition (P > 0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2774-T] (1).

11. Evaluation Of Metro Bus And Lahore Transport Company (Ltc) In Relation To Air Pollution, A Case Study Of Lahore

by Hafiz Sana Yousaf (2014-VA-218) | Ms.Saman Saad | Dr. Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif | Dr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Evaluation Of Metro Bus And Lahore Transport Company (Ltc) In Relation To Air Pollution, A Case Study Of Lahore Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2754-T] (1).

12. Comparison Of Different Surfactants On The Quality Of Ozone Bleached Fabric

by Kainat Jamshed (2011-VA-755) | Dr. Fariha Arooj | Dr. Saif Ur Rehman Kashif | Mr. Haroon Jamshaid Qazi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: This study shows that the raw cotton fabric can be successfully bleached by using surfactant in a ozone bleached bath. Surfactants apparently carry out a lot of functions which increases the reaction rate of ozone. Surfactants help in decreasing bubble size which make ozone more soluble in water, thus decreases the surface tension between fabric and water. Raw fabric was successfully bleached in the presence of maximum ozone doze 10 g/hour for 40 minutes in 150 mL of distilled water. Three types of surfactants (anionic, cationic and nonionic) were analyzed at the constant initial pH 5. Acidic environment improves the result by increasing the whiteness, absorbency and strength of the fabric. The best result was observed at 0.01mL of surfactant concentration due to low micelle concentration in the aqueous medium. In comparison with cationic and nonionic surfactants anionic shows the best outcome in terms of whiteness (64.53%), strength (96.84lb) and absorbency (1.07 sec). Treated effluent analyzed in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand, Turbidity, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Suspended Solids, clearly indicated that ozone treatment along with surfactants was an efficient technique with respect to the conventional agents being utilized for bleaching. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2913-T] (1).

13. Leachate Characterization Of Lakhodair Landfill And Coagulation/Flocculation Treatment

by Madeeha Saleem (2015-VA-08) | Ms. Isbah Hameed | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Decomposition of solid waste in landfill site produces highly polluted leachate. In most of the landfill worldwide collection, handling, treatment and disposal are major issues associated with landfill operation. Open, untreated disposal of the landfill leachate poses serious threat to the receiving environment and public health. It also leaches and reaches groundwater polluting the aquifer. Since it is contains huge variety of pollutant or contaminant such as (organic matter, suspended and dissolved solids, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants etc.), it required adequate treatment before disposal leachate treatment with municipal wastewater is neither required nor can produce efficient and economical results. Coagulation has be found to effectively reduce contaminant loading from leachate, alone and in combination with other method, as applied on leachate taken from different landfill in different studies. This study targeted characterizing the leachate from Lakhodair landfill site on the basis of the selected parameters (pH, EC, Turbidity, TDS, TSS, Hardness, BOD5, COD, Cl-1, Na, K, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe). Leachate samples were collected from Lakhodair landfill site in plastic bottles, brought to laboratory, preserved and analyze for the above mentioned parameters. Lakhodair landfill site was inaugurated 18 April 2016. Since the leachate was young and the solid waste at Lakhodair landfill site had not undergone acidogenic phase of decomposition, the leachate was slightly alkaline (pH = 8.43) and quite high in organic loading (in term of COD and BOD5), Sodium, Potassium, and few heavy metals like Ni and Cr. High concentrations of some contaminants not studies in the literature (TDS, TSS, EC, Hardness, Turbidity, Chlorides). Other tested heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe) were found in low concentration due to low solubility at alkaline pH. Leachate samples were subjected to coagulation/flocculation with 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, SUMMARY 53 1.4, 1.6 g/L of Alum, Ferric chloride and their mixer, and tested for same parameters after treatment. Treatment comprise 5 min rapid mixing, 30 min slow mixing and settling time of one hour. Heavymetals (Zn, Pb, Fe. Ni, Cr, Cu and Mn) have been detected in leachate through Hitachi Z-8230 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Minerals (Na and K) have been detected by using flame photometer.pH, EC and Turbidity were measured by their respective meters. TSS and TDS were determined by gravimetric method. Titration was used for COD, Hardness and Chlorides. BOD readings were measured by BOD5 Incubator (SAYO MIR-153). Expect for TDS, Hardness, K and Cr the three coagulants responding different to all the tested pollutants, mixed coagulant perform the best giving as high as around 90-100 % removal for many of them. Post-treatment concentrations of all the parameters except TDS were significantly related to the coagulant dose. Since Ferric chloride and mixed coagulants had chlorides in them, they resulted in high post-treatment chloride concentration with increase in their doses while Alum its reduction. Alum and the mixed coagulant cause in increase in TDS while Ferric chloride cause an increase in TSS in the leachate at higher doses. Leachate TSS was maintaining constant at around 800 mg/L at all doses. The coagulant doses show positive correlation with Hardness and EC and negative correlation with pH, Turbidity, BOD5, COD, Na, K, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Mn. % removal from as low as 1.1 – 19.06 for BOD5 to as high as 32.59 – 92.7 % for Nickel was achieved as a result of coagulation. Comparison was made with standards for reuse of leachate in landscape irrigation (as prescribed by JS, 2002 in Annexure IV) and open disposal into inland water or sewage treatment plants (as prescribe in PEQS and given in (Annexure V). Stringent FEPA standard has also be included only for Pb. Comparison with standard shown that coagulation is good pre-treatment option as it has help lowering contaminant load from leachate and meeting PEQS standards for disposal into sewage treatment plant as set in PEQS, but it not sufficient to treat leachate to reuse for landfill irrigation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2912-T] (1).

14. Effects Of Various Additives On The Quality Of Ozone Bleached Fabric And It’s Effluent

by Aisha Nazir (2015-VA-10) | Dr. Fariha Arooj | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Bleaching was performed conventionally with Chlorine and its compounds. These bleaching agent yielded high bleaching efficiency at room temperature and with lower consumptions of chemicals but consumed huge amounts of water and resulted immense quantities of water containing numerous hazardous compounds. Hydrogen peroxide replaced these agents but its chemistry restricted its use it requires high temperature and pH control despite which it cause tendering effect. Ozone has now been recognized as an excellent bleaching agent with high efficiency for and sorts of fabrics as well as paper pulp. It consumes lesser water, energy and additional chemicals and saves cost of bleaching. This study examined improvement in ozone bleaching efficiency with the addition of isopropanol and sodium boro hydride and the quality of effluent generated in comparison with hydro peroxide bleached effluent. Absorbency and whiteness and burst strength were the bleaching efficiency parameter and EC, turbidity, TDSand COD were the effluent quality parameters, considered in this study. AATCC standard methods and APHA standard methods were used in the analysis. Absorbency was measured with the stop watch, whiteness was measured withDatacolor SF 600+, burst strength was measured with machine Version, CRT ball burst test. Machine type: Titan- Universal strength Tester by James. H. Heal & Co. Ltd (Standard ASTM D3787) and TDS was measured gravimetrically, COD was measured by titration, EC was measured with EC meter(HI 8633 meter) and turbidity was measured with turbidity was measured with turbidity meter (HI 93703 MICROPROCESSOR TURBIDITY METER).Description and inferential statistical analyses were applied using SPSS 20 and MINITAB-17.Results show that the different additives and their concentrations in the bleached water bath strongly influence the test SUMMARY 50 parameters except for absorbency.Methanol has been found as the best additive for all the parameter (bleaching efficiency) on the basis of the average performance of the additives. Increase in its dose causes increase in whiteness(65.02 WCIE compared to 50.56 WCIE with blank) and the burst strength (95.5 lbf compared to 87lbf with blank) as well as improvement in absorbency (12sec compared to 50sec with blank) since it increases ozone stability and selectivity assisting it in bleaching. Oxalic acid, due to its acidic nature, has caused decrease in whiteness(40.92 WCIE compared to 50.56 WCIE with blank)and strength (78.24lbf comparedto 87lbf with blank) due to ozone hydrolysis. Isopropanol has shown a trend similar to methanol since it is also an alcohol and acts as scavenger for OH radical. Sodiumborohydride has also shown a similar trend. It help ozone access fabric micro-pores and remove impruties, it has resulted increase in fabric strength (89.39lbf compared to 87lbf with blank)and whiteness(59.54 WCIE compared to 50.56 WCIE with blank)with higher dose. All the additives have shown increase in pollutant concentration in the effluent with increase in their concentration in the bleach water bath since they have assisted ozone in performing its bleaching function. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2911-T] (1).

15. Development Of Enriched Compost From Waste Generated At University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences (UVAS) And To Evaluate Its Efficiency On Tomato Plants

by Muhammad Zahid Iqbal (2014-VA-912) | Ms. Isbah Hameed | Dr. Saif Ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Solid waste management is basic concern of all most all countries on the Earth because it has direct contact with human life. So its management is major concern in developed as well as developing countries. In solid waste management, we characterize solid waste in two types. One is organic and other is inorganic waste. Inorganic waste is disposed off in landfill but organic waste can be utilized in very beneficial way. We can use this waste to form compost (Organic Fertilizer). In this research, we utilized organic waste to convert it into organic fertilizer like compost. We established three types of setup for composting by using different percentages of urea as type 1 with 5% urea, type 2 with 10% urea and type 3 with 0% urea separately. We checked major physical parameters for composting procedure like Temperature, Moisture content, pH, Cabon content and nitrogen concentration in percentage. This procedure take 10 to 12 weeks for complete formation of compost. But setup with 5% urea was better than others. This setup take 8 weeks for conversion of organic waste into compost. In setup 1, with 5% urea achieve highest temperature very fast. Other also achieve good temperature but not as 5%. After formation of compost, we also measure following parameters for good quality of compost. Organic matter was checked and it values between 40-60%. It shows great value of organic matter in compost. This value is very beneficial for soil having low organic matter. We also checked this parameter for soil, but it have low organic content rather than compost. Summary 51 Other parameter checked was heavy metals in compost and soil. Heavy metals were present in great concentration in soil rather than compost. Because heavy metals were somehow utilized in breaking down of organic matter. Carbon content was also observed in soil and compost. After these parameters, tomato plants were grown on compost, soil and mixture of both things with different percentages sprayed with rock phosphate in solution form. And observed for 3 weeks. In analysis of plants, we checked root, shoot and leave length and numbers of leaves grown. Compost have greater effect on plants growth because it have basic nutrient for growth of plants. Phosphate also have effect on growth because it strong the stem and leaves of plant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2908-T] (1).

16. Phytoremediation Of Landfill Leachate Water Contaminants By Floating Bed Technique

by Zohaib Abbas (2014-VA-540) | Dr. Fariha Arooj | Dr. Saif Ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Waseem Shahzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Under present study the effectiveness of the two aquatic plants water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were tested for the removal of five heavy metals Zinc, Copper, Lead, Iron and nickel by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Biological Oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand and pH of landfill leachate before and after treatment were also investigated. The reduction in the pH after the treatment with both these plants was > 1 percent, average reduction of BOD and COD by P. stratiotesE. crassipes was 35% to 45%. Results revealed revealed E. crassipes as the more proficient candidate for the removal of chosen heavy metals followed by P. stratiotes. Pistia stratiotes was able to accumulate highest concentration for Zinc and Cu with the removal efficiency of 79% and 78% respectively, meanwhile Eichhornia crassipes verified as best accumulator as it shows highest efficiency for the selected heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Fe i.e 89%, 88%, 86%, 85% and 84% respectively. Translocation factor was also calculated from root to shoot concentration. TF calculation revealed higher accumulation of heavy metals in roots then shoots of the tested plants. Significant correlation exists between the accumulation of heavy metals by the plants and the metal concentration in final leachate wastewater. Both these plants accumulate heavy metals inside their body without showing any reduction in growth and showing tolerance to all the chosen metals. Thus the results obtained from the study suggest that aquatic plant can be better candidate for phytoremediation technology due to the cost effectiveness. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2907-T] (1).

17. Contribution Of Used Syringes Towards The Spread Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Drug Addicts

by Muhammad Younas Iqbal (2014-VA-220) | Ms. Saman Sana | Dr. Hussain Farooq | Dr. Saif Ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: HCV infection is becoming, day by day, a serious health issue in our planet and in this contect about 1.3 billions population of it, is suffering from this illness. The purpose of this research was to describe the HCV prevalence in intravenous drug users belonging to different environments and backgrounds. There is a large proportion of IDUs who belong to poor and illetrate families. Most of the times, we see them as ignored and isolated group, unaware and non-serious about their health status. The number of intravenous drug users was one hundered cases selected from two hospitals and three different areas of Lahore including Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore, Punjab Institute of Mental Health, Data Darbar, Minar-e-Pakistan and Railway station Lahore. All the cases were evaluated for anti-HCV antibodies. Out of 100 subjects 42 (42%) showed anti-HCV positive results and 58 (58%) showed anti-HCV negative results, proving the IDUs more susceptible for acquiring HCV infection and reinfection by other serotypes of HCV and other disease as well. IDUs are the highest risk group for developing the HCV infection as concluded by the study and their massive awareness, focus on HCV treatment and also to check the other blood borne diseases are major suggestions advised by the research. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2906-T] (1).

18. Comparison Of Heavy Metals Concentration In Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) Eggsfrom Poultry Farms And Backyard Raised Hens In Relation To Their Feed Intake

by M.Shuaib Kabeer | Dr. Isbah Hameed | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Poultry eggs are most nutritious and important food stuff for human beings. It is easily digestible diet and the cheapest source of protein. It provides the most suitable nutrients and vitamin for the proper growth and maintenance of body tissues. Also, egg performs various functions while added in other several food products. Now a day Global Environment is being contaminated with different pollutants like Heavy metals, Dioxins, Poisonous gases etc. These pollutants also enter the food cycle and damage the food stuff. Poultry eggs might contain the elevated level of heavy metals, which generate from the various sources by natural and by man-made. Poultry is exposed by these metals by two main sources inhalation and feed (water and food) intake. When these contaminated eggs consumed by human beings they accumulate in their body and cause serious health effect. So, the purpose of this study was about to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se, Mn) from poultry eggs. Samples of poultry eggs and their feed were collected from three different poultry farms and, also from three backyard raised hens, Lahore. Egg and feed Samples were digested by di-acid digestion method, 1 gram sample was taken in Kjeldha’s digestion tube and 7mL of HNO3 was added and after 30 min 3ml of HCLO4 was added. This solution was heated at 150 °C for 30 minutes on digestion block and then at 250 °C until wine green or water clear color end point.Then digested sample were analyzed under Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). After analyses result shows that lead, selenium and chromium concentration were higher than their permissible limits in both poultry farms and backyard raised hen eggs. And other metals manganese, nickel, zinc and copper were within permissible limits in both poultry farms and backyards.After comparison of egg sample from poultry farms and backyard raised hens, result shows that the metal concentration in egg samples collected from poultry farms were higher than the egg samples collected from backyards. Also, results showed that the higher amount of copper concentration in eggs contributed from higher intake of contaminated feed and water. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2905-T] (1).

19. A Study Of Chicken Gut To Determine The Colonization Of Bacillus Licheniformis And Changes In The Histological Features

by Arooj Tahir (2015-VA-812) | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The most important and commonly used source of animal protein in the whole world these days is poultry meat. With the increase in the world population the demand of poultry meat is also increasing. Universally, for the treatment of infected chicken and for growth promotion, antibiotic growth promoters are used. But the extensive and long term use of AGPs for growth promotion and infection treatments has resulted in the survival of resistant bacterial strains that poses a very drastic threat to both animal and human health. Because of these radical results, some of the countries have restricted the use of AGP in poultry and are moved on towards the use of probitics as growth promoters. The most commonly used strain for probiotics is from genus Bacillus as they have the tendency to survive even in the harsh and industrial conditions. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilusare are the ones that are involved in the spoilage of food and certain medical conditions. In this study, we considered the effects of probiotics as an alternative of AGP in poultry. Bacillus spp. can be used as probiotics, as they can efficiently colonize in the small intestine and improve the growth enhancement in broilers. A selective strain of bacteria Bacillus licheniformis was used as a probiotic for the broiler chicken. After 42 days, 15 birds from three different groups were collected, 5 from each group, and slaughtered to collect cecum samples and intestinal tissue samples. The samples were processed for DNA extraction, PCR and histological methods to determine the probiotics colonization and growth differences between the normal ones and the treated ones. There was a considerable increase in the height of the villi in the treated ones as compared to the control ones which showed that the use probiotic helped increase the surface area of the intestine for increased absorption. The extracted DNA from the cecum sample was used for PCR amplification and sequencing, the results confirmed the presence of Summary 64 Bacillus licheniformis. The results showed that the probiotic was efficiently colonized in chicken gut and it improved the gut health and also helped chicken in gaining weight. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2893-T] (1).

20. Determination Of Heavy Metals In Local And Imported Brands Of Honey

by Rohma Razzaq (2011-VA-751) | Ms. Saman Sana | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Honey is the sweet fluid produced by the honey bees obtained from the nectar of the flowers. Honey is useful in treatment of many wounds and treatment of other diseases like coughs. Honey contains different elements at varying concentrations. Among these elements several holds high nutritional value however certain fall under the category of toxic heavy metals. Although heavy metals like zinc and iron, have nutritional contents but excessive consumption can lead to health problems. Heavy metals have contaminated the soil, vegetables and plants of Pakistan. As heavy metals bio accumulates in the food chain, it has also contaminated the honey. In the present study, Heavy metals viz., Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co), Mercury (Hg) and Iron (Fe) were determined in samples of imported and local brands and non-branded honey from different markets of Lahore. The concentration of heavy metals in three sets of honey was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fifteen different samples of brands (coded R1–R15) of local, Imported & loose honey, the most normally consumed ones in Lahore, were collected from marketplaces in October 2016. For each brand, samples with close manufacture dates were obtained. The statistical significance in the heavy metals comparison in honey was done by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test. All Honey samples studied for comparison have indicated the presence of the trace elements and they were high in range. The results found no significant difference P > 0.05 in Fe, Cr, Hg Concentration (mg/kg) in all study honey samples. A significant difference found in P < 0.05 in Ni and Co concentration (mg/kg) in all Honey Study Samples comparison. Only significant difference found in P < 0.05 in Pb Local Brands vs Imported Brands concentration (mg/kg) in honey samples. In case of Zn No significant different found in P > 0.05 in Local SUMMARY 55 Brands vs Imported Brands but found significant difference P < 0.05 Local Brands vs Non- Branded Imported Brands vs Non- Branded contaminated by metals are released into the environment through their use in industrial processes and vehicles exhausted air pollution exposures at source in from of honey comb formation during poor processing. Metals concentration in various places depends on many variables, leading to their different concentrations in honey. The results of the study showed that contamination levels are high in non-branded honey as compared to Imported and local brands’ honey samples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2929-T] (1).

21. Evaluation Of Heavy Metals In Local And Imported Butter

by Ghazala Begum (2011-VA-09) | Ms. Isbah Hameed | Dr. Saif ur Rehman Kashif | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Dairy products are considered the main parts of our daily breakfast. Butter is actually the milk fat. Butter contains traces of lactulose. Butter is the essential part of our daily breakfast. Butter plays key role in nutrition of human body. Buttercontains fat, vitamins, proteins, calcium, water that is very necessary for the developments of human health. To avoid diseases butter is essential to maintain the human’s health.Butter contains 30% water and 70% fat. Agriculture and industries are playing the role in the degradation of environment. The road way pollution enhances contamination of soil. Weathering and smelting are the main source of heavy metals in the soil. The contaminated soil grows plants through which toxic metals transfer to the plan and hence becomes the part of food chain. Milk is the main source of the transferring of the metals in the processed products. Other process manufacturing process also enhances the toxic metals in the end products. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the heavy metals in butter that are to be safe for human consumption. Two groups of butter as imported and local selected. The samples were collected from different super markets in Lahore. The selected butters are as Emborg butter UK, Kerrygold butter Ierland, Lurpk butter Denmark, Assel butter UAE, Brllr sunflower Turkey, Nwar butter Dubai, Meadowlea butter Australia, Mumtaz butter Dubai, Nurpur Butter Sargodha, Adams white butter Sahiwaal, Dairy milk butter Lahore, Sufi milk butter Lahore, Creamy butter Faisalabad,Punjab dairy butter Lahore, Homemade butter. Digestion of the samples was done by diacid method. 1g sample and add 10 ml of diacid mixture in a kjeldhals flask. After that diacid mixture was heated at 150 C for 1 hour and then at 250 C till the completion of digesion. The end point was vine green and clear water (John 1984 Method). Then make the final volume up to 25ml. Then heavy metals analysis was done by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Polarized Zeeman Z-8230 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer) after calibrating the instrument for each metal by feeding respective standards. .The heavy metals are as follows. Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu and Fe. Result shows the some of the butters follows the standard values. Some of the butter exceeds the limits given by WHO. Only high concentration of lead (Pb) 0.36ppm in Embourg butter, 0.56 ppm in Adams exceeds the permissible values.High concentration of Chromium(Cr) 0.22 ppm in Assel butter and 1.53 ppm in Adams butter. High concentration of Copper 23.25 ppm in Mumtaz butter and 12.74 ppm in Sufi milk butter. Remaining metals Nickel, Ferric, Zinc and chromium follows the permissible values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2927-T] (1).

22. Estimation Of Electric Power Generators Emissions And Its Effects On Vegetation In Different Areas Of Lahore, Pakistan

by MUhammad Umair Hayat (2015-VA-12) | Ms. Saman Sana | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Combustion of fuels (natural gas, petrol) emits exhaust gases or flue gases. When combustion of these fuels occurs, different gases will enter into the air. Generator exhaust contains unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur and lead. Primary pollutants emit directly from sources (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, VOCs, hydrogen sulfide, halogens, nitrogen and sulfur compounds) Secondary pollutants produced by chemical reaction of primary pollutants. Generator emission attributed 50-60% of degradation of air quality in Pakistan. Heavy electric power generators (5kVA) are the major contributors to air pollution. LANCOM III flue gas analyzer was used for the detection of generators exhaust gases e.g. CO, sulfur dioxide SO2, oxides of nitrogen NO (NO and NO2), hydrocarbons HC, hydrogen sulfide H2S and oxygen O2. The following two sites ShahAlam road and Mall road were taken for analysis of generators emitted gases. Plants were digested by using di-acids method. Heavy metals (Zinc and Lead) were detected by using Hitachi Z-8230 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The zinc concentration in vegetation at Mall road is most significant as compared to the other values so it is concluded that the generators are contributing a lot towards metal pollution. While in case of Lead, Shah Alam road is the most affected area because of heavy traffic density. In case of electric power generator exhaust gases; NO is the most reported value while HC(Hydro Carbons) is the least reported value. One-way ANOVA test for analysis of Variance was used for level of power generators emitted gases on quality of air. Pollution from generator exhaust may have impacts on environment. It may cause serious air pollution. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2933-T] (1).

Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.