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1. Comparison Of Intravenous And Inhalation Anesthesia For Performing Minor And Major Surgeries In Sheep And Goat

by Muhammad Imran Ibraheem (2006-VA-108) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Hafsa Zainab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Anesthesia can be achieved with injection or inhalation of substances that produce reversible state of unconsciousness. For scientific quality, anesthetic technique must be reliable and safe and the effects, of anesthetic compounds on animals must be well documented. If animals undergo survival surgery, they need to recover quickly and not suffer unnecessarily disturbance in biological parameters. This is of importance for both animal welfare and scientific quality. Awareness among animal lovers and increase in value of animals, the impedance has increased to many folds on surgeons to select ideal anesthetics for ideal outcomes during major surgical interventions. The anesthetic agents should be standardized for minimal recovery time in animals, so that the animals have to bear minimum cardiovascular, hepatic and renal distress due to different anesthetic drugs used. The present study was carried out on twelve sheep and goats. The selection criteria was surgical cases presented for minor and major surgeries at Indoor Surgery Clinic, UVAS, Lahore. All surgical cases were subjected into two treatment groups, viz. group A and B comprising six surgical cases in each group. In group (A) animals were given Xylazine @2.2mg/kg (Xylaz; Farvet, Holland) as a preanesthetic followed by Ketamine @2-4mg/kg (Ketarol; Global pharma, Pakistan) as anesthetic and maintenance whereas group (B) animals were given xylazine @2.2mg/kg as preanesthetic and afterwards induction and maintenance were performed with Isoflurane (4%) (Forane; Abbott, Pakistan) inhalation anesthesia with oxygen flow rate of (3 L/min) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………SUMMARY 63 The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylazine, ketamine and isoflurane gas anesthesia on different biological systems of body. Comparison among different drugs was evaluated during minor and major surgeries in sheep and goat. The parameters used to evaluate the efficacy of these anesthetic drugs exposed that isoflurane has less outcome on cardiovascular, liver and renal system. In adding together it has an edge over other injectable anesthetic drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on other physiological parameters of animals. Clinical trials have proved that isoflurane a narrative anesthetic agent is a drug of choice in minor as well as major surgical procedures without any injurious effects. Conclusion: The mean value of specific all parameters TPR, LFT and RFT and CBC shows that Injectable xylazine and ketamine was not safe. Isoflurane anesthesia was the safest anesthetic agent in geriatric or weak animals for longer procedure. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2273-T] (1).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Injectable And Inhalation Anesthesia In Pigeons

by Matiur Rehman (2013-VA-858) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. M. Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: General anesthesia is frequently used throughout the word in birds and experimental animals for different purposes. There are two techniques were used for general anesthesia, one is injectable and other is inhalational. Different drugs used for injectable anesthesia are ketamine, medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine etc. Drugs used for inhalational anesthesia include isoflurane, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide, halothane etc. The present study was conducted to compared the different injectable and inhalational anesthetics for their effect on temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, induction time, anesthesia time, recovery duration and oxygen saturation in birds of different groups. For this purposes 15 pigeons were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups A, B and C. Each group contained 5 pigeons. Group A was treated with ketamine, group B with xylazine and group C with isoflurane. After administration of these drugs with respect to their group then we noted the temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate for every 15 min interval, and also noted the induction time, anesthesia time, and recovery duration for each group. Oxygen saturation was checked only in group C. The result of our trial was that, the ketamine treated pigeons of group A showed hypothermia, bradycardia and respiratory depression. The induction and recovery was fast but rough while the duration of anesthesia was long. The xylazine treated pigeons of group B also showed hypothermia, bradycardia and respiratory depression but their induction and recovery time was long and smooth. The muscles relaxation was present and there was low quality anesthesia, about all reflexes were present. Summary 37 The birds of group C which were treated with isoflurane did not show any significant change in temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate (TPR) and oxygen saturation. The induction and recovery both were fast and smooth. The duration of anesthesia was desirable, how long duration we need it gave the anesthesia of choice. The present study proved that isoflurane was the best anesthetic for the painful and long surgeries. The muscles relaxation was good. It has no side effects. The effect of isoflurane on TPR was negligible. The induction and recovery both are rapid and smooth. By using isoflurane all reflexes were absent. The data of injectable and inhalational anesthesia was analysed by ANOVA ONE, least significant difference (LSD) in all groups and pair t test in group C with the help of SPSS version 20. Isoflurane can be used as safe and durable anesthetic in pet birds as well as in animals. It has low cost as compared to other inhalant anesthetics like sevoflurane etc. It facilitate both owner and veterinarian in long run surgeries or other painful procedures. The results of this study helped the surgeons to choose the effective anesthetics both injectable or inhalational for performing safe surgery or other painful procedures to avoid adverse effects of anesthetics in different clinically birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2395-T] (1).

3. A Clinico-Biochemical Study On Different Pre-Anesthetic Drugs With Propofol For Neutering In Dogs

by Saba Siddique | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Prof. Dr.M.Arif Khan | Dr. Raheela Akhtar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present research project was designed to study the effect of three routinely used pre anaesthetic (alpha-2 adrenergic agonists) drugs xylazine (xylaz; 20 mg/ml, farvet, Holland) and medetomidine (doiter, 1 mg/ml ; Orion pharma, finland), diazepam(Valium 0.25 mg/kg) and propofol (pofol, 10 mg/ml ;Dongkook pharma, korea) anaesthesia in male dogs and castration surgery was performed using pre scrotal approach. The effect of these sedative and anaesthetic agents was studied at physical (temperature, pulse, and respiration), sedative (palpebral effect), analgesic (tail pinch, toe pinch reflex), liver function (ALT, AST, and ALP), renal functions (serum creatinine, BUN) and haematological (RBC, WBC, Hb) parameters. A total number of twelve (12) dogs (mix breed) clinical cases were selected. These dogs were subjected into three groups (A, B , C) each comprising four (4) dogs. Different drugs combination was administered in each group of dogs. Three different drug combinations are; Group A .Xylazine-Propofol Group B. Diazepam-Propofol Group C. Medetomidine-Propofol Blood samples were taken at four different intervals like 0 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes and after 24 hours in EDTA coated vacutainer for studying haematological parameters and in lithium heparin vacutainer for evaluating biochemical parameters. Results revealed that both sedative and anaesthetic agents produce slight non-significant changes in liver enzymes but in case of renal function test, medetomidine-propofol produce significant Summary 42 changes in serum creatinine and xylazine-propofol, and diazepam-propofol produce significant changes in the values of blood urea nitrogen. Coming towards haematology, white blood cells increase significantly in diazepam-propofol receiving group. The results of the present research study were mostly similar with the findings of other scientists. The results of present project were analysed by ANOVA followed by Turkey honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Conclusion The result of present project will prove fruitful for veterinary practioners for selectin anaesthesia protocol for patients suffering from hepatitis or other liver, renal and haematological problems and would be productive to solve the problems of anaesthetists who are actively engaged in canine practice all over the world. On the basis of findings of this study it is concluded that medetomidine-propofol combination gives better results. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2689-T] (1).

4. Comparative Efficacy Of Xylocaine Hcl And Bupivacaine Hcl For Ophthalmic Anesthesia In Horses

by Muhammad Asad Islam (2012-VA-576) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Ophthalmic procedures can be performed by many clinicians in horses using local nerve blocks by using local anaesthetics for short duration of action for completion of these procedures. These surgical procedures may involve exclusion of third eyelid, suturing of laceration around eye orbit and tumor which can be caused due to any reason with in time period of thirty minutes. Inner chamber centesis can be done easily by using the above mentioned technique in standing horse. There are numerous benefits of doing standing surgical methods and avoiding general anaesthesia in horses. As hospitalizing horse may get other infectious diseases from surroundings like colitis and laminitis and also injured it when recovering from general anaesthesia. On the other hand standing surgical procedure reduced such complication by using local anaesthetic for short duration. Bupivacaine Hcl gave an ideal local eye anaesthesia compare to xylocaine Hcl for standing surgical procedures in horses. The present study was accomplished to assess the effectiveness of two local eye anaesthetics; xylocaine Hcl and bupivacaine Hcl by two different techniques i.e. retrobulbar technique and auriculopalpebral technique in horses. A total of 12 horses from indoor clinic and S.P.C.A were used in this study. These horses were subjected to two groups’ i.e. Group A and B. Each of these groups was further subdivided into two subgroups i.e. Group AI, AII and BI, BII respectively. SUMMARY 42 Horses in group A were administered xylocaine Hcl through auriculopalpebral technique and retrobulbar technique. While horses of subgroup AI were given xylocaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique and horses in subgroup AII were injected xylocaine Hcl by retrobulbar technique. Likewise horses in subgroup BI were given bupivacaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique, while those of subgroup BII were given bupivacaine Hcl through retrobulbar technique. The efficacy of above mentioned local anaesthetics was compared on the basis of Pattern of induction, Duration of anaesthesia and Recovery Pattern. Presence or absence of reflexes was also noted i.e. Pupillary Light Reflex and Blink reflex. The data were analyzed through one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference in group’s means was determined by Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test. A probability level of (P<0.05) was considered as statistically significantly difference. The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version16. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2679-T] (1).

5. A Clinico-Biochemical Study Of Xylazine-Propofol,Meditomidine-Propofol, Diazepam-Propofol During Ovariohystrectomy Operationin Female Dogs

by Muhammad Ajmal (2006-VA-175) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr Ayesha Safdar | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Background: Awareness among the small animals practitioner as the impedance has increased many fold on veterinary surgeons to select an ideal anesthetic provoking an ideal outcome during the ovariohystrectomy surgical interventions. The anesthesia should be selected in such a way that animal can recover from anesthesia early on and the operating room time for each patient be minimized in such a way that the animal bears minimum cardiovascular, hepatic, and renal changes due to different pre-anesthetic drugs used. Hypothesis: • Medetomidine-propofol might be better among all other three. Parameters/Methodology: For this study, fifteen dogs brought to the Pet center for ovariohystrectomywere selected, the animalswere allocated into three treatment groups, viz. Groups A and Group B and Group C with 5 animals each. In group A animalsXylazineHCL was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 2.2mg/kgbody weight as pre anesthetic. After 3-5 minutes of preanesthetic injection propofol (6 mg/kg ofbody weight, IV) was injected. In group B, after surgical preparation, Medetomidine HCL in all the five dogs wasinjecting intramuscularly at the dose rate of 40 µg/kg body weight as pre anesthetics. After 3-5 minutes of pre anesthetic injection propofol (6 mg/kg of body weight, IV) was injected. The dogs of group C Diazepam was injected intramuscularly (0.25 mg/kg) as pre anesthetic. After 3-5 minutes of pre-anestheticinjectionpropofol (6 mg/kg of body weight, IV) was injected. Whilst regularly checking reflexes after short intervalsof time. After achieving of the surgical stage of anesthesia, the surgical operation was begun. Biochemical profile assessment was done for renal function tests (serum creatinine, BUN) and live function tests (ALT, AST, and Alkaline phosphates). Statistical Design: The data wasanalyzed by One Way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The proportionate data was analyzed through z-distribution test. Outcome: Considering the significance of anesthesia in surgical interventions, this project was designed tostudy the effect new anesthesia combinations on cardiovascular system, renal and hepaticfunction for an efficacious and ideal pre-anesthetic combination for futuristic surgicalinterventions in dogs, with the aim to minimize surgical complications and accentuate early recovery. LITERATURE CITED Adetunji A, Ajadi R, Adewoye C, Oyemakinde B. 2002. Vol. 57 (4) 2002 Total Intravenous Anaesthesia WithPropofol: Repeat Bolus Versus Continuous Propofol Infusion Technique InXylazine-Premedicated Dogs.Veterinary Medicine.57 4. Ambros B, Duke-Novakovski T, Pasloske KS. 2008. Comparison of theanesthetic efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of continuous rate infusions of alfaxalone-2-hydroxypropyl-β- cyclodextrinandpropofol in dogs. American journal of veterinary research. 69 (11): 1391-1398. Andaluz A, Trasserras O, Garcia F. 2005. Maternal and fetal effects of propofol anaesthesia in the pregnant ewe. The Veterinary Journal. 170 (1): 77-83. Borowicz KK, Czuczwar SJ. 2003. Effects ofetomidate, ketamine or propofol, and their combinations with conventional antiepileptic drugs on amygdala-kindled convulsions in rats. Neuropharmacology. 45 (3): 315-324. Cillo JE 1999. Propofolanesthesia for outpatient oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 87 (5): 530-538. Cockshott I, Briggs L, Douglas E, White M. 1987. PHARMACOKINETICS OF PROPOFOL IN FEMALE PATIENTS Studies Using Single Bolus Injections. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 59 (9): 1103-1110. Concannon P, Meyers-Wallen V. 1991. Current and proposed methods for contraception and termination of pregnancy in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 198 (7): 1214-1225. Davidson EB, Payton ME. 2004. Comparison of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Veterinary Surgery. 33 (1): 62-69. 22 Franks N, Lieb W. 1994. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of general anaesthesia.Nature. 367 (6464): 607-614. Gales NJ 1989. Chemical restraint and anesthesia of pinnipeds: a review. Marine MammalScience. 5 (3): 228-256. Gonzalez AD, Pechko AH, Kalafsky RE. 2003Topical compositions with a reversible photochromic ingredient. In: Google Patents. Hedenqvist P, Hellebrekers LJ. 2003. Laboratory animal analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Volume 1: Essential Principles and Practices. 413-456. Heidari SM, Loghmani P. 2014. Assessment of the effects of ketamine-fentanyl combination versus propofol-remifentanil combination for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 19 (9): 860. Jalanka HH, Roeken BO. 1990. The use of medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine combinations, and atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: a review. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.259-282. Kanda T, Hikasa Y. 2008. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of medetomidine compared withxylazine in healthy cats. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 72 (3): 278-286. Kawai S, Takagi Y, Kaneko S, Kurosawa T. 2011. Effect of three types of mixed anesthetic agents alternate to ketamine in mice. Experimental Animals. 60 (5): 481-487. Kotani Y, Shimazawa M, Yoshimura S, Iwama T, Hara H. 2008. The experimental and clinical pharmacology of propofol, an anesthetic agent with neuroprotective properties. CNS neuroscience& therapeutics. 14 (2): 95-106. 23 Lee DC. Using silver spike point needle-free electro-acupuncture for postoperative pain management. Victoria University; 2008. Maddern K, Adams VJ, Hill NA, Leece EA. 2010. Alfaxalone induction dose following administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 37 (1): 7-13. Marik PE 2004. Propofol: therapeutic indications and side-effects. Current pharmaceutical design. 10 (29): 3639-3649. Mielck F, Stephan H, Weyland A, Sonntag H. 1999. Effects of one minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration sevoflurane on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and CO2 reactivity in cardiac patients. Anesthesia& Analgesia. 89 (2): 364-369. Mohammad FK, Faris GA-M, Al-Zubeady AZ. 2012. Developmental and behavioral effects of medetomidine following in ovo injection in chicks. Neurotoxicologyand teratology. 34 (1): 214-218. Muir III WW, Wiese AJ, March PA. 2003. Effects of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine-lidocaine-ketamine drug combination on minimum alveolar concentration in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. American journal of veterinary research. 64 (9): 1155- 1160. Prassinos NN, Galatos AD, Raptopoulos D. 2005. A comparison of propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 32 (5): 289-296. RANA MS. GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN SWINE: COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF PROPOFOL, KETAMINE AND THIOPENTONE WITH XYLAZINE PREMEDICATION. 2013. 24 Rodrigues SF, de Oliveira MA, Martins JO, Sannomiya P, de CássiaTostes R, Nigro D, Carvalho MHC, Fortes ZB. 2006. Differential effects of chloral hydrate-and ketamine/xylazine-inducedanesthesia by the sc route. Life sciences. 79 (17): 1630-1637. Sams L, Braun C, Allman D, Hofmeister E. 2008. A comparison of the effects of propofol and etomidate on the induction of anesthesia and on cardiopulmonary parameters in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 35 (6): 488-494. Suarez MA, Dzikiti BT, Stegmann FG, Hartman M. 2012. Comparison ofalfaxalone and propofol administered as total intravenous anaesthesia for ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 39 (3): 236-244. Tusell J, Andaluz A, Prandi D, Costa C, Garcıa F. 2005. Effects of epidural anaesthesia– analgesia on intravenous anaesthesia with propofol. The Veterinary Journal. 169 (1): 108- 112. Uilenreef JJ, Murrell JC, McKusick BC, Hellebrekers LJ. 2008. Dexmedetomidine continuous rate infusion during isoflurane anaesthesia in canine surgical patients. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 35 (1): 1-12. Wheaton L, Benson G, Tranquilli W, Thurmon J. 1989. The oxytocic effect of xylazineon the canine uterus. Theriogenology. 31 (4): 911-915. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2771-T] (1).

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