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1. Epidemiological Studies And Chemotherapy Of Postparturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Ijaz Ul Haq (2008-VA-83) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The district Gujranwala lies at northern part of the Punjab in Pakistan. It is situated between two main cities, in North is Gujrat and in South, there are Sheikhupura and Lahore. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and mainly earns their livelihood through agriculture. The source of irrigation is perennial and non-perennial canals supplemented by tube wells. This area is heavily populated with buffaloes rather than cattle. Buffalo is playing a foremost role in the national economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Out of total milk produced in the country, buffalo contributes about 68 %. Due to high fat contents of buffalo milk, it is the ideal species in Pakistan (Bilal et al. 2006). Buffaloes suffer from many fatal diseases throughout the year causing irretrievable economic losses in the GDP. Among these fatal diseases, Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a frightening problem for the economy of Pakistan and as well as for the whole world. Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a periodic condition seen worldwide that most frequently affects high-yielding dairy animals at the onset of lactation. It is characterized by development of per acute intravascular hemolysis and anemia with potentially lethal results. Beef and non-lactating cattle are hardly ever affected. The exact cause is unidentified, but phosphorus reduction or hypophosphatemia is known to be a major predisposing factor. Decrease in the Phosphorus level of RBCs is known to raise osmotic tenderness of the RBCs, probably predisposing to intravascular hemolysis. A parallel condition reported in New Zealand was linked with copper depletion, potentially building RBCs were more prone to oxidative trauma. Other potential causes were hemolytic or oxidative plant toxins (Michael A. Moses and Aiello 2014). In buffalo rearing countries mainly in India, Pakistan and Egypt, Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a major problem as described by (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Acute hypo phosphataemia was linked with high producing buffaloes and characterized by intravascular hemolysis (Kurundkar et al. 1981). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a disease of high yielding buffaloes in district Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Faisalabad where soil was deficient in mineral contents. The disease was distinguished by icteric and inflexible constipation in pregnant animal (Hussain et al. 1991). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was mainly disease of buffaloes and found in almost all the districts of Pakistan (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). In buffaloes, Postparturient haemoglobinuria occurred mostly after 3rd week of parturition during 3rd to 5th lactation having a period of 5 to 6 days of illness (Nagpal et al. 1968). The occurrence of hypophosphatemia was highest in buffaloes in progressive pregnancy or in 3rd to 6th lactation (Gautam et al. 1972). Multiparous females were mostly affected by Hypo phosphataemia and a range of etiological factors were reported to be related with the disease in unusual parts of the world (Singari et al. 1991). Dietary phosphorus shortage and rations containing cruciferous plants were supposed causes of rigorous hypo phosphataemia and had been associated with hemolytic anemia in cows and buffaloes (Heuer and Bode 1998). Mucous membranes turned pale or might become icteric with the development of anemia and breathing became rapid and shallow with tachycardia (Spears 2003). During third to sixth lactation of adult dairy buffaloes, this disease was more frequently seen, showing weakness and recumbency (Macwilliams et al. 1982). The occurrence of the disease in the total cattle population was very stumpy with a case fatality rate ranging from 10% to 50% (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). Sporadically, farms with a predominantly elevated incidence might be encountered but typically only one or two cases were clinically evident at one time (Freudenberg 1955). In Australia, about 70% cases were reported within 30 days of calving (Mulijns and Ramsay 1959). Bulls, ante partum cows, heifers less than two years old and beef cows were rarely affected. A disease called as "red water" in Ontario, was allied with numerous predisposing factors which integrated recent parturition, intense milk production, dietetic phosphorus absence, utilization of turnips, rape, kale, green alfalfa and sugar beet pulp (Macwilliams et al. 1982). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was one of the foremost and economically important diseases of dairy animals in Pakistan, India and elsewhere in the world (Macwilliams et al. 1982; Chugh et al. 1996; Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical signs, urinalysis and hematological reports of the examined animals (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). In a survey conducted during 1996 in Punjab (Pakistan), mortality rate due to Postparturient haemoglobinuria in buffaloes and cattle was 5% which translated into estimated annual losses of Rs. 490.2 and 153.1 million, respectively (Farooq et al. 2007). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2210-T] (1).

2. Sero-Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Sheep In Hazara Region

by Syed Touseef Hussain Shah (2013-VA-601) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Waseem Yaqoob.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The present study was conducted in two Districtsof Hazara Regioni.e. Abbottabad and Battagram District, with the collaboration of National Zoonosis Surveillance and Research Unit, Animal Sciences Institute (ASI), National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total of 300 venous blood samples of 5 ml each were collect¬ed from sheep of different areas of two Districts i.e. Abbottabad and Battagram, with 150 samples from each District. Then serums were dispatched to the National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), for the diagnosis of Brucella melitensis by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). The prevalence of the Brucella in sheep was determined as described by (Thrusfield 2013. The prevalence of brucellosis in Hazara Region by RBPT and I-ELISA was recorded as 4.67 % and 4.33 % respectively. From 150 samples of each district, 14 (9.33 %) and 13 (8.67 %) of samples were tested positive by RBPT and I-ELISA respectively in District Abbottabad whereas, no (0 %) samples were tested positive by RBPT and I-ELISA in District Battagram. Furthermore, on Tehsil wise sero-prevalence, only 2 (2.67 %) samples out of 75 were tested positive for brucellosis in sheep by both RBPT and I-ELISA in Tehsil Havelian, while in Tehsil Abbottabad 12 (16 %) and 11 (14.67 %) samples out of 75 were tested positive for brucellosis in sheep by RBPT and I-ELISA from district Abbottabad whereas, no positive samples were detected in Tehsil Battagram and Tehsil Allai by both RBPT and I-ELISA from district Battagram. Statistically there was a significant (>0.05) difference between the prevalence of brucellosis in sheep and area of Hazara Region. The demographic variables (age, sex and breed) were analyzed using Chi-square test on SPSS version 17.0 and statistically there was no significant (>0.05) difference between the prevalence of brucellosis in sheep and demographic variables i.e. age, sex and breed. The present study has shown that brucellosis is prevalent in sheep in the Hazara region. Female animals are more sensitive than their male counterparts. Sheep of breeding age are more vulnerable than the very young ones and Balkhi breed is more prone to the disease as compared to the Kaghani and Ramghani breeds. The Sensitivity and Specificity of the diagnostic test (RBPT) was determined as described by (Thrusfield 2013). The calculated sensitivity of Rose Bengal Plate Test was 100 % and its specificity was 99.6s5 %. The results of this study will be published to communicate the interesting findings and to increase the knowledge of veterinary and public health management. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of control measures, raising public knowledge on prevention methods, a complete surveillance system for the brucellosis in Hazara Region. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2394-T] (1).

3. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Nicotiana Tabacum Against Haemonchus Placei In Cattle

by Ali Haider (2008-VA-179) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The gastro- intestinal tract (GIT) of animals contains variety of parasites primarily helminthes, which are responsible for sub clinical and clinical parasitism.Major economic losses in the livestock industry are caused by adverse effect on the health status of animals by these parasites. The effect of these parasitic infections include decreased milk production, edible offals and meat refusal, decrease of hides, late maturity and death mostly in calves and more production cost because of drugs usage. Plants are being used as anthelmintic as the allopathic drugs today which offer alternate to the use of synthetic chemicals. Aqueous and methanol extracts of Nicotiana tabacum leaves are effective against Haemonchus placei in cattle. A total number of one hundred (n=100) samples of cattle round worm Haemonchus placei directly brought from slaughter houses were included in this study and for the efficacy of In vitro aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum leaves the abomasal contents were preserved in normal saline containing jars. In-vitro aqueous extracts were prepared in stock solution and the different dilutions of these extracts were used to calculate the anthelmintic efficacy in three different Petri dishes having various concentrations of Nicotiana tabacum leaves aqueous extracts in the form of percentages besides the positive and negative controls receiving single dose of Levamisole and no treatment respectively. Adult cattle were used for In-vivo trails which were conducted in dairy farms present in Lahore. Animals were conformed for the presence of gastro-intestinal parasites by qualitative and quantitative methods of faecal analysis. Total n=24 were included in the study trials and for treatment trails n=24 cow positive for endo-parasitic infections especially for H. placei weredivided in to Six groups. Four groups were given the single treatment of aqueous extract and methanol extract 1 gm/kg and 3 gm/kg respectively while fifth group received single dose of Levamisole HCl and the sixth group was negative control and received no treatment. Faecal samples from each animal were collected in the morning, starting from day 0 pre-treatment and at days 5 and 10 post-treatment and were evaluated for the presence of worm eggs by salt flotation technique. The eggs were counted by the McMaster method (Zajac et al. 2012). The EPG standard for groups treated with crude aqueous extract was 500-600 eggs per gram and the groups treated with crude methanol extract contained 700-800 EPG. The positive control contained 900-1000 EPG. The negative control contained EPG >1000. The comparative efficacy data were analyzed by Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using SPSS 20.0. A probability level ˂0.05 was considered statistically significant. During the In-vitro study the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum at the concentrations of 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml were same against adult Haemonchus placei parasites which was 100 % during In-vitro study. All the wormsexposed to levamisole 0.55 mg/ml, a standard anthelmintic agent were found dead after three hours of incubation at 37 ºC whereas, none of the worms were found dead in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) which acted as the negative control. These findings indicatedthe anthelmintic activity of extracts of N. tabacum. During the In-vivo study all the treatment groups showed a significant reduction (P< 0.05) in EPG at day 5 and 10 post-treatment. The maximum reduction showed by Crude Aqueous extract (CAE) at 3 gm/kg dose at day 5 and 10 post treatment were 48.88 % and 51.11 % respectively. The maximum reduction showed by Crude Methanolic extracts at the dose rate of 3 gm/kg body weight were 75.8 % and 79.03 % respectively at 5 and 10 days post treatment. The positive control treated with Levamisole HCl showed the maximum reduction of 98.68 % in eggs per gram (EPG). The data organized from this study were helpful to know the anthelmintic efficacy of Nicotiana tabacum leaves aqueous and methanol extracts against gastro intestinal nematode H. placei in cattle and the treatment trials provided the most reliable and cost effective treatment for round worms infestation in cattle. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2406-T] (1).

4. Comparative Efficacy Of Allopathic And Herbal Drugs Against Nematodes In Equines

by Muhammad Irfan (2008-VA-297) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parasitic problem has been a major mounting problem of equids which severely creates the hindrance in performance in equine which leads to weakness, emaciation, colic, diarrhea, anemia, thriftiness, loss of energy and ultimately death. Looking at the importance of equine and its utilization by poor farmers there is need to cure the malady. GIT Nematodes are prevalent in Equines in district Jhang. Novel combination of Abamactin + Praziquantel was very efficacious to subside parasitic load in Equines. GIT Nematodes have some effects on blood parameters (TEC, HB, and PCV). A total 200 (100 horses and 100 donkeys) from different areas of district Jhang were included in the study. For this, fresh fecal sample were carefully collected into a sealed container from each horse and donkey and were transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Each samples were examined for nematodes eggs and for larvae by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method and fecal culture technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. To study the effect of Gastrointestinal nematodes on various blood parameters of equine, blood samples were collected from selected animals and were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) by using Hematology Analyzer. For therapeutic trails, a total of 12 horses and 12 donkeys positive for nematodes were taken and divided into groups A, B and C comprising of 8 animals each. Group C was comprised of 8 animals as Positive control and fourth group D was comprised of 8 animals as negative control. Group A was treated with abamactin + praziquantel (EQUITAK) orally @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day and group B was treated with herbal ingredients Summary 49 (EVERZAN) @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day. Efficacy was determined on the basis of reduction of eggs in feces at day 0, 7th and 21th day (post-treatment). Data was recorded in a questionnaire regarding age, sex, breed, nutritional status and disease condition. The present study was designed to check the comparative efficacy of two different drugs such as Equitak (Allopathic) and Everzan (herbal) against gastrointestinal nematodes and its effects on blood parameters in both horses and donkeys. According to therapeutic trial, Equitak presented very good response against GIT nematodes by fast decreasing EPG in both experimental animals and showed its efficacy more than 80% but Everzan showed poor response against nematodes in both experimental animals and its efficacy less than 30%. By administering Equitak in both experimental animals gave good results regarding blood parameters such as total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and Hemoglobin (Hb) and its values had been continuously increasing in 7th and 21st day since administration. But in contrast to Equitak, Everzan showed poor response regarding blood parameters and values did not increased at 7th and 21st days. It has been proved that Equitak has its very strong effect against strongylus spp than other parasites that come under the category of roundworms. So Equitak proved more effective against nematodes in Equines than Everzan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2418-T] (1).

5. Molecular Epidemiology, Biochemical and Antibiogram Studies of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis in Chilistani Cows in District Bahawalpur

by Abdul Qayyum (2012-VA-570) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Riaz Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis submitted without CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2500-T] (1).

6. Clinico-Theraputic Trial Of Grain Overload In Cattle

by Muhammad Mughees (20015-VA-436) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmed | Dr. Arfan Ahmed .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Ruminants are adapted to digest and metabolize predominantly forage diets; however, growth rates and milk production are increased substantially when ruminants consume high grain diets. One consequence of feeding excessive amounts of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates in conjunction with inadequate fiber to ruminants is subacute ruminal acidosis, which is characterized by periods of low ruminal pH that resolve without treatment and is rarely diagnosed. Dairy cows, feedlot cattle, and feedlot sheep are at risk of developing this condition. The present study was performed in district Kasur in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Patoki campus and adjacent areas. Clinical examination of 35 cattle of any breed, age and sex with the history of grain overload/carbohydrate engorgement and showing the sign of Distended rumen, Subnormal temperature, Diarrhea, Depression, Dehydration, Inactivity, Weakness and Anorexia. A total number of 30 animals suffering from lactic acidosis were observed. The ruminal fluid and blood of the affected animals were collected pre-treatment as well as post-treatment to determine their pH values and serum lactate. After processing the diseased animals, treatment trials were run. A total number of 35 animals were included in this study. They were divided into four groups as A, B, C, and control group. Group A, B and C had 10 diseased animal in each while control group had 5 healthy animals for the reference values. Sodium bi carbonate was given as a treatment to Group A animals at a dose rate of 1g/kg of body weight orally once, Magnesium hydroxide was given as a treatment to Group B animals at a dose rate of 500/450kg of body weight orally once and a combination of Ginger and Ajwain was as a treatment to Group C animals at a dose rate of 100g + 100g orally once. No treatment was given to control group of 5 healthy animals. Ruminal fluid samples and blood samples of all animals were collected for pH and serum lactate values. Grain engorgement is the managmental disease of cattle in district Kasur.A survey was conducted for a period of 6 months. Convenient sampling was adopted. 5ml of whole blood was collected into test tube from jugular vein using 16 gauge needle and was allowed to clot at room temperature for 1hr to obtain serum. Serum pH was measured by using vide range of pH indicator paper and pH meter. The ruminal fluid was collected through stomach tube. Ruminal fluid pH wasmeasured by using pH indicator paper and pH meter. A detail predesigned questionnaire was developed for data collection according to inclusion criteria i.e. age, breed, sex, history, severity of signs, management system and vaccination etc. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA technique. After this study we are able to know and reduce the major causes & risk factors associated with grain engorgement in large Ruminants.We are able to adopt the different protocols for diagnosis and treatment of grain engorgement. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2812-T] (1).

7. A Study Of Risk Factors And Chemotherapy Of Patent Stongyloides Westeri Infection In Foals In Lahore

by Saima Batool (2015-VA-837) | Dr. Jawaria Ali khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Arfan Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Data is available on prevalenc of strongyloideswesteri in foals which cause diarrhea and its allopathic treatment is also available but there is no data available on herbal treatment of s. westeri and best protocol of allopathic drugs. So the purpose of the study is to study the incidence of S. westeri in foals. The risk factors associated with S. westeri and to develop the best treatment protocol for S. Westeri. The hypothesis of this study is; Identification of risk factors that was associated with S. westeri and efficacy of Allopathic verse herbal drugs was determined against S. westeri. Fecal samples were collected from foals. Gloves were lubricated with lubricating material before the sampling. Sample will be collected directly from rectum of the foals. The fecal material was collected in the properly labeled plastic jar. The samples were processed and examined in the Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Direct smear examination was carried out for the of S. westerieggs under microscope. For quantitative analysis, Mac Master Technique was used. The positive foals were divided into three groups A, B and C to check the efficacy of drugs on S. westeri. These groups were going through to chemotherapeutic trials with different groups of medicines including herbal and allopathic. Herbal medicine was Ginger (zingiberofficinale) and allopathic were oxibendazoleand ivermectin. Milk samples were also collected from newly parturated mares then evaluation and biometery of larvae was also done just to study the risk factors that transfer larvae from dam to foal through colostrum. Comparison and Identification of eggs and larvae in milk along with treatment effect were analyzed by Chi Square method using the SPSS software 22 version. The data obtained from this study revealed that:  The main source of S. westeri infection was milk of dams. The larva of S. westeri passed through the dam’s milk to foals.  The prevalence of S. westeri was strongly associated with the risk factor such age, colostrum intake, species, breed, dite, environment, water supply and deworming treatments.  Vaccination had no effect on prevalence of S. westeri.  Allopathic drugs are more efficient against S. westeri infection in foals as compared the herbal drugs.  The efficacy of Ivermectin was more as compared to Oxibendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2817-T] (1).

8. A Study Of Risk Factors And Chemotherapy Of Patent Stongyloides Westeri Infection In Foals In Lahore

by Saima Batool (2015-VA-837) | Dr. Jawaria Ali khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Arfan Ahmed.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Data is available on prevalenc of strongyloideswesteri in foals which cause diarrhea and its allopathic treatment is also available but there is no data available on herbal treatment of s. westeri and best protocol of allopathic drugs. So the purpose of the study is to study the incidence of S. westeri in foals. The risk factors associated with S. westeri and to develop the best treatment protocol for S. Westeri. The hypothesis of this study is; Identification of risk factors that was associated with S. westeri and efficacy of Allopathic verse herbal drugs was determined against S. westeri. Fecal samples were collected from foals. Gloves were lubricated with lubricating material before the sampling. Sample will be collected directly from rectum of the foals. The fecal material was collected in the properly labeled plastic jar. The samples were processed and examined in the Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Direct smear examination was carried out for the of S. westerieggs under microscope. For quantitative analysis, Mac Master Technique was used. The positive foals were divided into three groups A, B and C to check the efficacy of drugs on S. westeri. These groups were going through to chemotherapeutic trials with different groups of medicines including herbal and allopathic. Herbal medicine was Ginger (zingiberofficinale) and allopathic were oxibendazoleand ivermectin. Milk samples were also collected from newly parturated mares then evaluation and biometery of larvae was also done just to study the risk factors that transfer larvae from dam to foal through colostrum. Comparison and Identification of eggs and larvae in milk along with treatment effect were analyzed by Chi Square method using the SPSS software 22 version. The data obtained from this study revealed that:  The main source of S. westeri infection was milk of dams. The larva of S. westeri passed through the dam’s milk to foals.  The prevalence of S. westeri was strongly associated with the risk factor such age, colostrum intake, species, breed, dite, environment, water supply and deworming treatments.  Vaccination had no effect on prevalence of S. westeri.  Allopathic drugs are more efficient against S. westeri infection in foals as compared the herbal drugs.  The efficacy of Ivermectin was more as compared to Oxibendazole Availability: No items available

9. Determination Of Multiple Anthelmintic Resistance Against Haemonchus Contortus In Sheep In Azad Jammu And Kashmir

by Shoaib Husnain (2015-VA-1337) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Asim Shamim | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Oneeb.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Parasitic problem is a key restriction of ruminant production which leads to reduce production and causes huge financial loss to small ruminant industry by inhibited growth, low production and amplified vulnerability of animals to other infections. The production losses are due to lowered feed intake and reduced efficiency. These economic losses may be due to chronic and subclinical infections in small ruminants. Sheep of different breeds of both sexes from different age groups were included in this study. Fresh fecal samples were collected randomly from sheep and were stored at4°C before microscopic examination. The Eggs per Gram (EPG) was calculated through modified McMaster technique (Coles, 1992). Samples were scanned for the presence of Haemonchus infection and the EPG was done before the administration of anthelmintic. Infected animals having EPG more than 500 were included in the groups for therapeutic trial. 10 animals were added in each group and each group was given different anthelmintics i.e. Albendazole, Oxfendazole, levamisole and ivermectin. A second sampling was done at 7th day post treatment and 3rd sampling was done at 14th day after drug administration to calculate post-treatment EPG to find out the FECR efficiency of the drugs used. The anthelmintics were administered to each group at recommended dose rate as mentioned in table 3.1.Pre-treatment EPG was related to the Post-treatment EPG and the % effectiveness of each anthelmintic was determined by using the efficacy formula. An in vitro egg hatch test was performed by using different preparation of anthelmintic prepared by serial dilutions. Eggs were incubated with these preparations and the percent hatching was determined and the data obtained was analyzed by probit analysis and the LC50 was calculated. The LC50 calculated for albendazole was 0.89ug/ml and that of oxfendazole was 1.09ug/ml which is much higher from the discriminating dose that is 0.1ug/ml which indicated the presence of resistance against these anthelmintics. Low dosing and aggressive use of anthelmintics may have cause the resistance against these anthelmintics. Other factors may include mixed farming and the movement of animals from one place to another which is responsible of dispersal of resistant strains. The present study suggests an alarming situation of anthelmintic resistance in Azad Jammu and Kashmir against common available anthelmintics that is albendazole and oxfendazole. A proper technical knowledge, awareness and alertness is necessary to overcome this problem in order to improve the small ruminants production especially sheep to up raise the livelihood of small livestock farmer. It is the demand of the day to introduce new control strategies by introducing modern anthelmintics and a proper worm control schedule according to the recommendations to avoid such problems in future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2819-T] (1).



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