Clinicopathological Features Of Anhidrosis In Equines
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: In a country like Pakistan where the horses are kept for race, show and more specifically draught purposes the disease like Anhidrosis may cause a huge economic loss to owner. Anhidrosis has been described as a physiologic phenomenon that results as consequence of prolonged stimulation of the sweat glands by epinephrine secreted as a response to conditions of hot and humid climate. The sweat glands accommodate to the high epinephrine content of the blood, thus becoming insensitive to it.
From June to August the horses were examined clinically until 15 anhidrotic horses obtained on the basis of clinical signs (marked tachypnea, increased rectal temperature, and limited or absent sweating in response to appropriate stimuli. Dry, flaky skin, alopecia, generalized fatigue, anorexia and decreased water consumption, residual areas of sweating may be noted in the throat latch and mane, under the saddle or halter, and in axillary or groin area) for the estimation of TSH and for treatment trials.
This study describes that there is 12.7% prevelance of Anhidrosis in horses irrespective of age, sex and breed in Lahore and Pattoki regions of Punjab Pakistan. Further it was observed that more Anhidrosis cases were in July and August as there is increased temperature as well as moist enviorment
The normal range of Tsh in horses is from 0.2 to 0.9 ng/ml. The horses under study for anhidrosis all have the Tsh concentration in range so there is no significance difference in normal and diseased horses.
The group comprising of 5 member given Thyroxin tablets 50 mg daily for 3 days and v orally with 0.9% normal saline 2000ml i/v daily recovered completely. Hence this study gave a treatment trial for Anhidrotic horse to recover with less adverse effect.
The use of germinating CicerArietinum (Kala chana) and VernoniaanthelminticaWilld (Kali Zeeri) in anhidrosis may be taken as a supportive therapy to treatment.
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Effects And Remedial Measures Of Aflatoxin B1 On Bovine Calves In Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Aflatoxins B1 are most toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi in/on foods and feeds, probably best known and most intensively researched aflatoxins globally. AFB1 have been associated with several diseases, e.g. aflatoxicosis in livestock, pets including humans throughout the world. Occurrence of AFB1 is influenced by certain environmental factors like geographic location, agro-economic practices and susceptibility of feed commodities to fungal invasion during pre-harvest, storage, and processing periods. AFB1 has grabbed greater attention than any other mycotoxins due to their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As the absolute safety will be never achieved, most of the world struggled to limit aflatoxin exposure by imposing regulations on feed commodities.
So, in this study, we had collected 67 concentrated samples, thirty six samples from Gujranwala and thirty one from Kasur to examine the occurrence of aflatoxin B1. The aims of this study were to investigate the aflatoxin B1 in calf feed, effect of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 on productive performance of calves and determine the comparative efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin binders and liver tonics against AFB1 in bovine calves. Feed samples were obtained from different livestock farms and cattle feed mills, toxin levels in each feed sample were determined by HPLC. AFB1 level was higher at feed mills (40.33±2.21 ppb and 49.0±1.95 ppb) than farms (34.96±2.65 ppb and 44.95±2.41 ppb) both in Gujranwala and Kasur respectively. Fungus was isolated and grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar on the basis of microscopic characters and species within genus characterized by colony characters/macroscopic characters, mostly Aspergillus species was present in the feed samples which produce mycotoxins. The second most prevalent species were the Fusarium. Mucor and the Pencillium were respectively third and fourth in number. Our results have shown that Alternaria was not present in Gujranwala and Rhizopus was absent in the feed samples collected from the Kasur. Out of mycotoxin contaminated concentrate feed samples, the highest frequency of Aspergillus (43.3%) was observed, followed by Fusaram (38.8%), Mucor (8.9%), Penicillium(5.9%), Rhizopus (1.5%) and Alternaria species (1.5%).
Our results also indicated that growth of Aspergillus spp. can be minimized by controlling the different factors like pH, temperature, light and humidity, which are essential for the proper growth and development. The antifungal activity of methanolic extract of clove, neem and garlic was also determined in which maximum MIC showed by garlic.
Thirty six bovine calves of 6 to 12 months of age were kept in UVAS, Pattoki campus (Ravi Campus) .in four different replicates having 9 animals each. Different concentrations, i.e. 0.6 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was administered along with concentrated feed and check out productive performance along with physiological profile. The most pathological concentration of aflatoxin B1 in experiment number 3 was given to the two groups of bovine calves along with two different commercially available mycotoxin binders i.e. Yeast based and second one was clay based HSCAS mycotoxin binder at recommended doses. Efficacy of mycotoxin binders on feed samples was analyzed by using HPLC and also evaluates the productive performance of the animals.Efficacy of two liver tonics i.e.silymarin and choline chloride was observed on CBC, LFT and RFT of bovine calves.
Present study has clearly displayed the adverse effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney in bovine calf. Results indicated that HSCAS mycotoxin adsorbent was able to fully detoxify aflatoxin B1. Silymarin had great impact on the liver to cope the adverse effects of the AFB1 as compared to the choline chloride, which was proved with the help of CBC, LFT and RFT.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2630-T] (1).