Lecture Notes for Medical Students
Edition: 1st ed. Material type: Book Publisher: UK : Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 610 Lyons 1st 2011 29299 Biochemistry] (1).
Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia
Edition: 1st ed. Material type: Book Publisher: India : Jaypee Brothers, 1991
Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [ Call number: 636.0897 Muir 14009 1st 1991 CMS] (1), UVAS Library [ Call number: 636.0897 Muir 20512 2nd 1995 CMS] (3).
Pathophysiology of Disease : An introduction to Clinical Medicine
Edition: 4th ed. Material type: Book Publisher: USA: Mcgraw Hills;
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 616.07 McPhee 15770 4th 2003 Pathology] (1).
Illustrated Guide to Equine Diseases
Edition: 1st ed. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 636.1089 Abutarbush 23833 1st 2009 Horse] (1).
The Farmer's Veterinary Handbook
Edition: 1st indian reprint edition. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: Lucknow: Army Printing Press; 2001
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 636.089 Haberman 16363 1st 2001 CMS] (1).
Diseases of Feedlot Cattle / 2nd ed.
Edition: 2nd ed. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: USA: Lea & Febiger, 1971
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 636.2089 Jensen 10786 2nd 1971 CMS] (1).
Handbook on Tropical Diseases
Edition: 1st ed. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: UK : The British Vet Association, 1962
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 619.0913 BVA 11546 1st 1962 CMS] (1).
Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors And Treatment Of Cryptosporidium Parvum In Foals
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is an emerging waterborne zoonotic disease prevalent
throughout the world. There are different strains of cryptosporidium but most important is
C.parvum.It is intestinal protozoon belongs to coccidian family that causes damage to intestinal
epithelium that leads to villous atrophy so decrease absorption sites from intestine. It is not host
specific it can equally infect humans, calves and foals. It is cross transmissible among mammals.
In horses, cryptosporidiosis is most commonly seen in foals (most frequently 1–4 weeks of age)
and is associated with diarrhea and weight loss. Immuno-compromised foals (including foals
with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome) are particularly at risk. The present study
was conducted in different studs farms in and around Lahore keeping in view the importance of
C.parvum in foals because it is gaining attention as a most important cause of diarrhea in foals so
that effective therapeutic measures should be adopted to control infection. There are 323 samples
are collected among different stud farms and veterinary hospitals and analyzed by using fecal
floatation method and modified Ziehl-neelsen technique. Infection rate of C. parvum in foals in
this study recorded was (12.30%) from different stud farms and veterinary hospitals. Infection
rate (27%) is higher in foals of age group range between 1day to 3 months while the least
infection rate (2.46%) was observed in 9-12 months age group. Infection rate is reciprocal to age
as the age increase infection rate decrease. Infection rate is independent of sex. There is no
relationship between sex and infection rate. Diarrhea is an important risk factor related to
infection rate. In diarrheic foals infection rate is (22.5%) while in case of non-diarrheic foal’s
infection rate is (6.5%) which showed that infection rate in diarrheic foals is three time more as
Compared to non-diarrheic foals. A significantly higher infection rate was observed in those
foals having contact with other animals like rodents, ruminants and dogs. Infection rate (15%)
was observed in those foals having contact with other animals and infection rate (6.5%) observed
in foals having no contact with other animals. Purpose seems to very important in this study.
Game horses have more infection rate which was (15.45%) as compared to draught horses
(4.4%). Game horses have three times more infection as compared to draught horses because
game horses remain in close confinement and foals have more prone to infection. Management is
an important factor infection rate was more in those stud farms having poor management as
compared to those have good management. Infection rate is poorly manage farms was (20.97%)
and (5.5%) in properly manage farms. The results of the comparative efficacy of nitazoxanide,
furazolidone and garlic showed that the Nitazoxanide was the most effective of the three in
treating cryptosporidium infection under field conditions. Efficacy of Nitazoxanide in treating
C.parvum in foals was (88%) during the study followed by furazolidone which have comparative
efficacy of (77%) than garlic with the efficacy of (70%).
In conclusion from above discussion reveals that C. parvum is prevalent in stud
farms in and around Lahore. Associated risk for C. parvum in foals are age less than 6 months,
immune-deficiency, contact with other animals like ruminants and poor management. Infection
rate is more in game horses as compared to draught horses because game horses are manage in
close confinement so the chances of infection are more. Treatment of C.parvum has long course
and effective drug for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in foals is Nitaoxanide than
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2300-T] (1).
Effect Of Different Treatment Trials On The Carrier Status Of Streptococcus Equi In Horses Recently Recovered From Strangles
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Strangles is characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis causing high morbidity and low mortality in horses as well as in mules and it is an infectious problem of equine. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore, Okara and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is highly prevalent in animals recently recovered from strangles and antibiotics along with immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug became helpful in the elimination of carrier status of animals for S. equi. Samples were collected from animals recently recovered from Strangles. Samples were collected with the help of sterile cotton swabs dipped in normal saline from nasopharynx & oropharynx followed by culturing of samples on blood agar plates which were incubated anaerobically for a time period of 24-48 hours respectively and S. equi were isolated on the basis of colonies characteristics and growth pattern. Streptococcus equi was confirmed with the help of Gram staining and biochemical tests Catalase reaction, Methylene blue reduction test and Sugar fermentation test. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test were also performed to select three antibiotics showing best efficacy against S. equi. Carrier animals were subjected to treatment with the help of antibiotic along with combination of immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Carrier status was considered eliminated with disappearance of S. equi from nasopharynx. Blood samples were collected from carrier as well as from healthy animals to check out hematological parameters such as TLC (total leukocytes count), TEC (total erythrocytes count) and MHC (mean hemoglobin concentration) etc. Out of
hundred samples collected from Sargodha, Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab the prevalence of S. equi in horses and mules was 15%. Highest prevalence in equines was found at Remount Depot Mona, was recorded which is 18.3% followed by Okara 13.33%. No case was found to be positive for Strangles out of ten samples collected at UVAS, Lahore.
In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on above isolates and it was found that ceftiofur Na was found to be most effective drug followed by norfloxacine and ampicillin. In vivo treatment trials showed that Group C animals treated with ceftiofur Na, norfloxacine, and ampicillin along with Vit E & Selenium supplemented by Phenyl butazone were found to be negative for post treatment carrier status. This study had aided in diagnosis as well as in treatment of strangles and was also provided us with the understanding of hematological parameters.
Data on prevalence of S. equi in carrier animals were analyzed by Chi square test.
While comparison of different treatments trials was done by Z test.
Hematological parameters were analyzed by mean ± SED using SPSS software 16.0.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2299-T] (1).
Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro- Intestinal Helminths In Camels Of Cholistan Area Of Bahawalpur
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk, meat, infertility, low calving rates, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel.
To study the gastrointestinal helminths, 384 camels of different age, sex and breed was examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh fecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Fecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. Among the camel population, the current study indicates that in Marrecha breed the prevalence of Nematodes was Trichostrongylus 1.77%, Haemonchus 8.44%, Nematodirus 3.11% and Trichuris 7.11% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 26.66% in infested camels, while the prevalence of Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris in Barella breed was 4.40%, 1.88%, 2.51%, 6.91%, 2.51% and 7.54% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 25.78% in infested camels. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Berrela breed. It was 18.66% in Marrecha breed and 14.46% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 16.93%. While the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Marrecha breed than Barella breed. It was 16% in Marrecha breed and 10.69% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 13.80%. The overall prevalence of fascioliosis in camel is 30.31. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Barella breed. It was 10.22% in Marrecha breed and 8.80% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 9.63%. The sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal Nematodes in males was 39.28% which includes Camelostrongylus 8.03%, Trichostrongylus 3.57%, Strongyloides 6.25%, Haemonchus 11.60%, Nematodirus 4.46% and Trichuris 5.35% respectively while in the female it was 25.37% which includes Camelostrongylus 4.41%, Trichostrongylus 2.20%, Strongyloides 2.94%, Haemonchus 6.25%, Nematodirus 2.57% and Trichuris 6.98%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in Male was found higher as compared to Female which was 39.28% and 25.37% respectively. Sex wise prevalence of GI Trematodes in Camels was determined through collected samples. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 16.91% in Female and 15.18 % in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 19.53%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Female than Male. It was 12.13% in Female and 11.61% in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 11.98%. Sex wise prevalence of GI Cestodes in Camels was determined. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 14.34% in Female and 13.39% in Male while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the sex was 14.06%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in age group >10 yrs. was higher 30.25% as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. 20% which includes Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris 3.36%, 2.52%, 6.72%, 5.88% 4.20% and 7.56 in age group >10 yrs and 1.88%, 1.51%, 1.88%, 4.90%, 2.64% and 7.16 respectively, in age group 5-10 yrs.
The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 30% in age group 5-10 yrs and 16.99% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 18.75%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 9.33% in age group 5-10 yrs and 7.55% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 8.59%.
The prevalence of Moniezia expansa in age group >10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. It was 10.92% in age group >10 yrs and 10.18% in age group 5-10 yrs while the overall prevalence of in Moniezia expansa the camels irrespective of the age groups was 7.81%.
To study the effect of gastrointestinal helminths on various blood parameters of camels, blood samples were collected from 5 infected and 5 healthy camels. Samples were analyzed using Hematology Analyzer and results were compared.
For therapeutic trials, a total of 30 camels positive for helminths was taken and divided into three groups A-C each group comprising of 10 animals. A fourth group D was selected comprising of 10 uninfected camels. The camels of group A were treated with dry Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder at a daily oral dose of 100 gm/camel for five days, group B was treated with Albenzole granules® (Albendazole) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg bd. wt. PO once. Group C (untreated) was designated as positive control, and the camels in Group D as negative control. Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In the current study Neem leaves and Albendazole gave following results in the camels affected with Helminths. Neem leaves cured 20% of the animals on day 3rd after the drug administration while 40% and 60% of the animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Albendazole also gave good results against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 30% animals cured while 60% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 80% animals recovered.
Data regarding prevalence was measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analyzed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences), P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2298-T] (1).
Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Trypanasomiasis In Camels In Balochistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Trypanosomiasis (Surra or Rotten disease) is a disease of animals such as cattle, buffalo,
horses and camels caused by protozoan parasite of mammalian blood. In camels, the clinical
manifestations of trypanosomiasis by T. evansi can be acute or chronic. The rypanosomiasis
symptoms include fever, emaciation, anemia, weight loss, edema, lymphadenomegaly,
conjunctivitis and occasionally sudden death of animal. However, the diagnosis of disease
always remains a challenge for veterinarians and animal healthcare professionals, since the
parasitemia is often very low in a majority of infections.
Keeping in view the importance of Trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to
evaluate the present status of Trypanosomiasis in Province Balochistan of Pakistan. The two
districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi with thick populations of camels and have different climate
and geographical distribution were selected. The questionnaire was developed for survey of
Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of
community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment
facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic
losses were collected. A total of one thousands and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents
from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa
khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011.
In first experiment, a total of 1600 blood samples were randomly collected from camel
population of both districts i.e. 800 camels from each districts. Camels were sub-grouped
according to sex (male and female) and age (upto 2 years, 2-3 years and above 4 years). Blood
samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR
for confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The blood samples were also processed for hematological
studies to evaluate the effect of Trypanosomiasis on different blood parameters. The blood smear
examination showed prevalence of 11.87 percent (95 out of 800 samples) in District Musa Khail
and 17.12 percent (137 out of 800 samples) in district Jhal Magsi, indicating higher prevalence in
hot climate when compared with cold climate. However, the higher prevalence in females,
animals aged above 4 years and during summer season in both districts.
In second experiment, the prevalence of trypanosomiasis was recorded through PCR
amplification in 200 samples (100 from each Districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi). The
prevalence was found to be 25 percent in District Musa Khail and 39 percent in District Jhal
Magsi. PCR test proved to be most sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis and
confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The hematological tests including hemogram, lecucogram,
serum protein, and serum electrolyte and serum enzyme showed fluctuation from its normal
ranges. Moreover, hemogram (RBC, PCV and Hb) showed significant decrease than the normal
values while in Leucogram showed significant increase than normal values.
In third experiment chemotherapy trials on 25 camels divided in 5 groups A, B, C, D and E were
conducted. Single dose of anti-trypanosome drug (Samorin) Isometamidium chloride @ dose
0.5mg/kg deep I/M to group A. Dried leaves of Azadirachtaindica (Neem) @ 60 gm/animal, to
group B. Dried and grind fruits of CitrilisColocynthis (L) Schard @ 50gm/animal, to group C.
Group D was control diseased and Group E was control healthy group. Blood samples were
collected post-treatment at 2nd, 7th and 12th day and the changes in blood picture were analyzed.
The efficacy of drug and plant extract was tested after 72 hours of treatment. Blood samples
were collected from group A, B and C and processed for amplification of PCR. Results of
allopathic showed 100 percent efficacy while result of plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed
60 percent t efficacy by amplification of PCR. In group C plant Citrullus Collocynthis showed no
In third experiment, the direct as well as indirect economic losses due to camel Trypanosomiasis
based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the
respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses and
invisible losses include reduced fertility, meat loss, low quality of hide, loss of draught power
and traction force and change in herd. While, indirect losses include additional costs of drugs,
veterinarian fee, preventive medicine and quarantine.
The respondents were grouped according to type of communities as Nomads spend
summer in Afghanistan (uplands) and back to Pakistan (lowland) in winter. Hence, their camels
harbor Trypanosomiasis from one border to another border and present trans-boundary impact of
the disease. The present study demonstrates that the respondents above the age of 50 years were
more experienced in disease diagnosis and use of traditional veterinary practices. The settled and
transhumants communities had easy access to government hospitals and private veterinary
clinics while nomads mostly rely on the use of traditional veterinary practices. The most
common prevailing diseases of camel according to respondents were pneumonia, indigestion,
parasitic infestation, mange, lameness, Trypanosomiasis, vector fly and nervous disorders. The
most common clinical signs of camel Trypanosomiasis hyperthermia, anemia, depression,
dullness, emaciation, edema (in dependent parts of body), abortion, nervous signs, circling
movements, trembling, unusual aggressiveness and aimless running were recorded.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2400-T] (1).