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1. Effect Of Additional Pructose On The Longevity Of Buffalo & Sahiwal Bull Semen

by Shafique, M | Not Available | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1970Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of additional fructose on the longevity of buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen. Two buffalo-bulls and two Sahiwal-bulls of 3 to 9 year of age were selected for the collection of semen. These bulls were stationed at the Artificial Insemination Section of College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore, under identical environmental conditions. A total of 16 samples of semen were collected for the four bulls. BY physical and microscopical examination, samples with four or above mass motility were selected for experiment. Heated homogenized whole-buffalo-milk was used as an extender.Fructose was added in different fractions to the milk (extender) prior to semen extension. Ten percent glycerol alongwith 0.5 mg. of Streptomycin and 500 units of Penicillin per ml. of the extender were also added to each sample. During the study, data were collected in 1:20, 1:30 fructose per 100 ml. of the extender to evaluate the effect of fructose on the longevity of semen. The data were analysed by analysis of variance, and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was also applied to determine the effect of fructose. The Studies revealed that:- 1. The semen samples with additional fructose were significantly of higher quality than that of the samples without fructose. 2. With an increase in the fructose level alongwith extension rate, there was an increase in the longevity of the spermatozoa. 3. Sahiwal bull semen could be preserved over a longer period as compared to that of buffalo bull. 4. On motility basis, 1:40 extension with 2000 mg. of additional fructose per 100 ml. of the extender could safely be used for five and six days in case of buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen respectively. Fructose treated semen is further recommended for field trials with a view to determine actual fertility percentage. 5. The fructose had a significant effect on the longevity of semen both the buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0002,T] (1).

2. A Study On The Performance Of Broilers Under The Oral Administration Of Stilbestrol

by Shahid Bashir | Jawad Ahmed Qureshi | Ehtisham Pervaiz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1982Dissertation note: One hundred day old broiler chicks were reared upto the age of three weeks in similar conditions. Ninety birds of uniforms shape and size were selected randomly at the end of the third week of age. They were divided into three groups A, B and C with three replicates of each Group A and B were administered 10 mg and 20 mg of stilbestrol powder per pound of feed respectively. Group C remained as control. The treatment continued from 4th to 7th week of age and then was stopped till 8th week of age. From 4th week, weekly feed consumption and weight gain was recorded. At the end of 8th week following data was collected in comparison. 1. Feed conversion ratio; 2. Dressing percentage; 3. Analysis of meat for protein, fat, mineral (Ash) and moisture 4. Mortality percentage. As a whole highest feed consumption was observed in group B (20 mg stilbestrol per pound of feed). Highest weight gain was also observed in group B while the feed conversion ratio of the same groups was the present as compared to the group a (10mg of stilbestrol per pound of feed). Difference in dressing percentage was no significant in all the groups. In the analysis of meat from all the groups i.e. A, B & C, the protein and mineral percentages were without any significant difference Meat from the group B (20 mg stilbestrol per pound of feed) was significantly low in moisture percentage than group A (10 mg stilbestrol per pound of feed) and C (control). The fat percentage in the meat showed highly significant differences among all the three groups i.e. A (9.83%), B (10.96%) and C (8.5%). Meat of the group A and B had higher fat percentage due to the treatment with stilbestrol. Mortality was high in control group (13.3%) as compared to group A (3.3%) and B (3.3%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0006,T] (1).

3. Performance Of Broilers, Kept On Different Stock Densities And Depths Of Letter

by Zafar Iqbal | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Muhammed | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were used in the study. All the birds were brooded uniformally on the floor for the first two weeks. They were then divided randomly into four treatments on the basis of floor space and litter depth, having floor spaces of 750 or 500 sq. cm. /bird and litter depths of 8 or 16 cm. The parameters studied were body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and mortality from 3 to 8 weeks of age. Hemoglobin concentration and differential leukocyte count were also investigated at 21st. 35th and 49th day of the experiment. Dressing percentage and chemical analysis of carcasses of birds were performed at the end of experiment. No significant difference was observed in body weight feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage among the treatments. Mortality and breast blisters were negligible hemoglobin concentration was also non significant among the treatments. A significant difference was observed in Heterophil/Lymphocyte ratio and in number of lymphocytes at 35th day. Heterophil/Lymphocyte ratio was increased while number of lymphocytes decreased by increasing the stock density. Chemical analysis of carcasses of birds also showed non-significant differences among different treatments between the values of protein, fat, ash and moisture. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0017,T] (1).

4. Study On The Effect Of Various Levels Of Dietary Protein In Quail

by Saleem Khan, M | Ch.Muhammed Saleem | Muhameed ASlam Bhatti | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: The experiment was conducted on 270 one day old Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) to study the effect of various levels of dietary protein on the performance of quail chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into five experimental groups, comprising 54 chicks. Each group was further sub-divided into 3 replicates of 18 chicks each. The data collected was statiscally analysed using analysis of variance. Five experimental rations A, B, C, D and E containing 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 percent protein were prepared respectively. The rations were isocaloric, each containing about me 2800 Kcal/kg. The allotted rations and fresh water were provided to the respective groups ad lib for a period of eight weeks. Brooder temperature was maintained at 95o F during first week of the study. It was lowered at the rate of 5oF every week till it reached 70oF, thereafter it was kept constant. The rest of the managemental and environmental conditions were identical. The results of the study revealed non-significant difference in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion in all the five groups of experimental chicks. Best feed conversion ratio was observed in chicks fed on ration B and C containing 26 and 28% protein respectively. Chicks fed on ration A, D and E revealed poor feed conversion ratio. Maximum mortality (7.4%) was observed in chicks fed on ration B containing 26% protein. The results indicated that birds fed on 26% protein gave the highest dressing percentage (70.2) while chicks fed on 24% protein gave the minimum dressing percentage (65.1). Best feathering was observed in group B fed on ration containing 26% protein and poorest feathering was in the chicks fed on ration a containing 24% protein. Results of the experiment indicated that chicks fed on 26% protein ration gave the best performance and were quite economical. Conclusion At the end of study, it was found that Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) can be reared economically on a ration containing 26% protein under local environmental conditions with best weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feather development, dressing percentage and lowest mortality percentage. It is, therefore, recommended that the quail should be reared by using 26% protein in ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0019,T] (1).

5. Performance Of Broilers Sexes Separately Versus Combined In Cages

by Irfan Zahid, M | Jaweed Ahmed Qureshi | Ehtisham Pervaiz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1982Dissertation note: The aim of the experiment was to study the performance of broilers sexes separately versus combined in cages. Ninty, day-old chicks (Pilch) were reared for the experiment. The chicks were first divided into three groups of thirty each (30 males, 30 females and 30 mixed). Each group was further divided into three replicates of ten chicks. A commercial ration was fed to the birds and was reared in batteries. The environmental conditions were similar for all groups. Daily feed consumption record was maintained and the birds were weighed at the end of 6th, 7th and 8th week. At the end of 8th week gained an average live weight of 2332.00, 2315.5 and 2339.5 grams, females 1892.0, 1927.5 and 1956.0 grams and mixed 2152.0, 2097.0 and 2111.0 grams, per bird, with a feed conversion ratio of 2.228, 2.198 and 2.248 for males, 2.214, 2.228 and 2.207 for females and 2.215, 2.205 and 2.231 for mixed, respectively. The data collected was statistically analysed which indicated a non-significant difference in weight gain amongst the replicates of the same groups and a highly significant difference in the weight gain of different groups. A non significant difference was also observed between the average weight gains of sexed and combined broilers. A non significant difference of feed conversion ratio was observed among the replicates and groups. Suggestion As the separation of sexes has no significant effect on weight gain and feed efficiency hence to save the extra cost of sexing, the practice of rearing the broilers sexes separate cannot be recommended. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0020,T] (1).

6. Effect Of Intermittent Light On Physical Abnormalities & Performance In Broiler

by Shehzad Majeed | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Muhammed | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Poultry industry has to play a considerable role in the livestock subsector in regard with the provision of meat in Pakistan. As the broiler industry is increasing day by day, the factors hindering the growth rate are also being taken into account by the farmers as well as the scientists. Besides different diseases, poor management is one of the main problems which jeopardizes the poultry production. Numerous studies conducted in various countries showed that among the other managemental problems the different light regimes to which the brioler are exposed during rearing had a significant effects on the weight gained, feed consumption and FCR. The birds exposed to the intermittent light system also showed better response in connection with physical abnormalities. The present study was conducted to observed the effect of intermittent light regimes on the development of physical abnormalities and performance of the chicks viz, feed consumption, weight gain, FCR and dressing percentage as compared with continuous light system. In this study, three groups of 60 chicks each were subjected to light treatment from the start of 3rd week to the end of 6th week in following way: Group A : Continuous light (control) 24 hours Group B : 1 hr. light : 2 hr darkness Group C : 1 hr. light : 3 hr drakness The feed consumption, weight gained and FCR of each group were calculated at the end of 6th week age group and analysed by one way analysis of variance techniques. Least significant difference test was applied to compare the treatment means of the groups. Beside above dressing percentage, weight of giblets, physical abnormalities and mortality in each group was also recorded. This study concluded that the performance of broiler chicks under intermittent system of light was significantly better as compared to continuous light system. The average weight gained during treatment period in group A, B and c were 1410, 1460, and 1510 gm respectively. Similarly the FCR of group A, B and C was 1.90, 1.80 and 1.74 respectively. It is evident from the results that overall performance of birds under group C viz. 1L:3D was significantly better than either continuous light or 1L:2D system. This better performance by the group given 1L:3D light treatment may be due to a longer resting period during which the birds mainly remained inactive. The energy thus saved was converted in to growth. As the difference in feed consumption of the groups provided 1L:2D and that provided 1L:3D was non significant therefore the FCR of group given lL:3D treatment was better. The average feed consumption by the chicks in group A, B and C are 2.371, 2.329 and 2.344 Kg respectively. The feed consumption by the chicks under intermittent light system was less than continuous light but not significant. The dressing percentage and carcass quality of the birds subject to light treatment were also comparatively better than continuous light programme. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0308,T] (1).

7. Effect Of Additional Fructose On The Longevity Of Buffalo & Sahiwal Bull Semen

by Rafique, M | Sultan Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1970Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0478,T] (1).

8. Effect Of Egg Weight On Hatchability In Commercial Strains Of Poultry (Broilers)

by Javed Ghani, M | Mr. Mohammad Tahir | Dr. Mohmmad | Mr. Tassawar Hussain Shah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1983Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0754,T] (1).

9. Relationship Between Luve Body Weight And Body Measurements In Beetal Goats.

by Muhammed Iqbal | Khalid javaid | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Small Ruminants Training and Research Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus Pattoki. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between live body weight and body measurements in Beetal goats. The goats were arranged in five age groups, A= 0-6 months, B 7-12 months, C = 13-18 months, D= 19-24 months & E> above 24 months. Group A, B and E were further divide into sub group (Male and Female), where as group C and D comprised of females only. Body weights of goats were taken using plate form weighing scale & measurements of body length, height at wither, heart girth, rump and forehead with the help of measuring tape graduated with inches. Data consisted of on 902 observations on goats of different age groups. The mean body weight (kg) of Beetal goat in five age groups ( 0-6, 7-12, 13-18, 19-24 and above 24 months of age) was observed as 7.19±4.197, 6.57±3.54 (female), 7.58±4.54 (male), 21.01±5.07, 22.0±4.13 (female), 11.73±3.39 (male), 27.16±3.94, 38.14±5.78, 49.59±9.85, 45.94±6.81 (female) and 62.38±8.21 kg (male), respectively. The body length (inches), of Beetal goat recorded in these age groups was found to be 15.81±2.68, 15.68±2.48 (female), 16.16±2.80 (male), 23.95±2.60 (overall), 24.5±2.03 (female), 18.90±1.87 (male), 26.60±1.35, 29.68±1.34, 3 1.58±0.73 inches, 30.86±1.11 (females) and 34.13±1.73 (male). The mean height at withers (inches) in Beetal goat in five age groups was noted to be 17.50±2.60, 17.18±2.40 (female), 17.72±2.72 (male), 25.76±2.72, 26.34±2.04 (female), 20.24±2.07 (male), 28.34±1.32, 31.02±1.43, 32.42±0.82, 31.52±1.11 (females) and 35.60±1.61 (male) inches respectively. The mean heart girth (inches) in Beetal goat in these age groups was recorded to be 16.36±2.70, 16.02±2.44 (female), 16.58±2.86 (male), 24.25±2.66, 24.78±2.02 (female), 16.36±1.82 (male), 26.93±1.41, 30.32±1.63, 32.73±.87, 31.93±1.71 (females) and 35.60±1.28 (male) respectively. The mean rump (inches) for all five age groups was 2.70±0.92 inches, 2.67±0.51 (female), 2.70±0.53 (male), 4.74±0.63, 4.80±0.45 (female), 3.43±0.41 (male), 5.27±1.47, 5.80±0.40, 6.36±0.24; 6.18±0.47 (females) and 7.04±0.60, (male) respectively, while the mean forehead (inches) for all five ages group was 2.10±0.26, 2.11±0.28 (female), 2.10±0.26 (male), 2.97±0.30, 3.07±0.26 (female), 2.50±0.35 (male), 3.18±1.26, 3.43±0.20, 3.66±0.3 8, 3.46±0.13 inches (females) and 4.33±0.33 (male) respectively. The correlation between body weight and body length, height at withers, heart girth, rump and forehead for group A were 0.969, 0.962, 0.964, 0.856 and 0.878 respectively, for female was 0.965, 0.645, 0.971, 0.830 and 0.918 respectively, while for male were 0.972, 0.967, 0.962, 0.877 and 0.882, respectively. For group B the correlation between body weight and body length, height at withers, heart girth, rump and forehead were 0.928, 0.869, 0.911, 0.828 and 0.653 respectively. Correlations for females were 0.888, 0.781, 0.857, 0.725 and 0.653 respectively, while for males were 0.857, 0.897, 0.887, 0.63 1 and 0.642, respectively. The correlations for group C were 0.805, 0.766, 0.767, 0.088 and 0.229 respectively. For group D 0.782, 0.575, 0.749, 0.94 and 0. 435, respectively. The correlation for group E were 0.844, 0.753, 0.86, 0.70 and 0.61, respectively, for females were 0.612, 0.318, 0.723, 0.394 and 0.062 while for male were 0.842, 0.744, 0.879, 0.788 and -0.007 respectively. It was found during the study that body weight was highly correlated with body measurements in Beetal goats of all age's group. The body length, height at withers and heart girth were observed to be significantly correlated with body weight. During present investigation males were heavier and longer than females in all age groups. Similarly the heart girths as well as height at withers were also bigger in males than those of the females. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1023,T] (1).

10. Performance Of Sahiwal Calves Kept Under Different Feeding Management Practices

by Zeeshan Iqbal | Dr.Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr.Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The purpose of the research trial was to study the different levels of concentrate ration on the growth performance of Sahiwal calves during nine months to one year of age. For this purpose. 45 calves were selected on the basis of the body weight and the body condition. These calves were randomly divided and assigned to three different treatment groups (A, B and C) having three replicates per treatment with 5 calves in each replicate. Group A was fed ad/lb Them green fodder (control),while group B 'as fed ad lihilum green fodder and concentrate feed 0.5 % of body weight (on DM basis). Group C was fed ad Jib/rum green fodder and concentrate feed @ 1 .0 % of body weight (on DM basis). During the experimental period, following parameters were recorded to see the performance in Sahiwal calves i.e.. daily feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency. fortnightly body measurements, body mass index and serum chemistry. All managernental and husbandry practices for the three groups were same. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis and the difference among treatment means were compared through Least Significant Difference test. The results indicated that calves in group C fed ad libitum green fodder and concentrate feed l. 1 % of body weight showed healthier standard than calves fed only green fodder (control). 1 lowever. 0.5 0/0 of the concentrate feeding had positive effect on the physiological indicator. Thus, Sahiwal calves fed on concentrate diet showed better response in the early growth. The overall mean daily dry matter intake (DM1) of Sahiwal calves in group A, B and C was 1.99. 2.44 and 2.89 kg, respectively. Mean daily intake of green fodder was 18.92, 15.91 and 13.02 kg per calf in group A. B and C. respectively. There was significant difference (P<0.05) in the green fodder intake between treatments. The total weight gain of Sahiwal calves during the experimental period in group A, B and C was 21.00, 33.00 and 45.60 kg, respectively. There was a significant difference in the weight gain between treatments. The mean daily gain of the calves in group A. B and C was 0.23 ± 0.11, 0.36 ± 0.24 and 0.50 ± 0.28 kg. respectively. The feed efficiency of each experimental group was calculated considering the amount of weight gain divided by feed consumed on dry matter basis. The feed efficiency per kg of gain in weight was 0.11., 0.14 and 0.16 for calves of group A, B and C, respectively. Poor feed efficiency value (0.11) was observed in group A (control). The calves fed on green fodder and concentrate diet @ 0.5 % and 1 % of body weight on dry matter basis were more efficient than that were offered green fodder (control) only. The total increase in body height was 1.04. 1.73 and 1.96 inches in A. B and C group. respectively. Statistically significant (P<0.01) difference were observed between groups A and B and C. The increase in heart girth was 3.87. 4.32 and 5.01 inches in group A. B and C, respectively. For heart girth a significant difference was found between the calves of group A and B, and also among A and C, but no significant difference between the calves of group B and C. The overall increase in the measurement of body length in the calves of group A, B and C were 1.61. 3.41 and 3.65 inches. respectively. There was a significant difference between the calves of group A & B and A And C but no significant difference were observed in the calves of group B and C. The Body Mass Index (BMI) of Sahiwal calves in group A. B and C was 23.52. 37.93 and 53.02, respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.Ol) in the BMI between treatments. The albumin concentration in the blood serum for calves was determined. The observed values for albumin were 2.24. 5.10 and 4.89 g/dl in group A, B and C respectively. The observed value for cholesterol in each group was 41.16. 51.41 and 66.43 mg/dI in group A. B. and C and for total protein 2.57. 9.56 and 10.62 g/dl in group A, H and C respectively. The serum chemistry analysis showed inconsistent behavior to different feeding levels, thus, a well defined pattern was not observed. The calves of group C that were fed green fodder along will the I % concentrate diet showed the best performance in term of increased dry matter intake, feed efficiency, weight gain, body measurements, body mass index and for good shinning appearance during the experiment period. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1042,T] (1).

11. Effect Of Methionine Suplimentation On The Performanceof Early Lactating Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Imran Mohsin | Prof.Dr.Muhammed Abdullah | Dr.Abu Saeed Hashmi | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Feeding management experiment was conducted at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki on thirty nine lactating Nih Ravi buffaloes divided into three groups thirteen in each kept under tie stall intensive management for a period of four weeks. All the three groups were given roughages ad libitum and concentrate according to their milk production level. The milk production was recorded daily in the morning and evening. Milk samples were collected weekly by mixing the milk produced in the morning and evening and analyzed for various milk composition parameters. The blood from jugular veins of the selected buffaloes was also collected on weekly basis and analyzed for blood bio-chemistry in the WTO quality control laboratory. Highest milk production per day (9.78+O.O9ml) was recorded in T2, followed by TI and T3. Statistically analyzed data showed highly significant (P<O.O1) differences between treatments. Statistically analyzed data showed non significant (P>O.05) differences between treatments. The milk analysis of buffaloes kept Ofl treatments TI, T2 and T3 showed milk fat contents 5.58±0.08, 5.70f0.08 and 6.031-0.08% respectively. SNF% in buffaloes was 8.55±0.16, 8.41+0.16 and 8.20±0.16 respectively. Statistically analyzed data showed significant (P<0.05) differences in fat and non significant (P>0.05) differences in SNF contents between treatments. Feed samples were collected for proximate analysis at laboratory of Animal Nutrition Department UVAS and results revealed that concentration was compared of 17.41, 18.26 and 71 % Dry matter, Crude protein, and TDN, respectively. Blood sample were analyzed for total protein, triglyceride, urea and blood glucose. The blood glucose contents value were 3.96±0.58, 4.08±0.60 and 4.72+ 0.63 mg/uI in buffaloes on treatments Ti, T2 and T3 respectively. Total protein values for each treatment were 6.37±0.54, 6.74±0.55 and 5.97±0.58 mg/dl. Triglycerides were 5.58±0.58, 4.16±0.59 and 4.33+0.62 mg/dl in buffaloes on treatment 1. 2 and 3 respectively. Mean Urea level was 1.40-f 0.024. 1.03+0.25 and 1.56+0.26 mg/dl. The following conclusions have been drawn. - Methionine supplementation increases the overall milk production in buffaloes. - Methionine supplementation has variable effect on different milk - composition parameters. It increases the milk fat percentage but has least effect on other parameters. - Methionine supplementation increases the blood glucose and has no effects on other blood parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1066,T] (1).

12. Relationship Between Live Body Weight And Body Measurement S In Kajli Sheep

by Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal | Dr.Khalid Javed | Mr.Nisar Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Khizrabad is a small town of tehsil Bhalwal district Sargodha. The objective of the study was to fing out or develop the relationship between live body weight and body measurements in Kajli sheep. The sheep were arranged in nine age groups, A 0-3, B 4-6, C 7-9, D10-12, E= 13-15, F16-18, G 19-21, H 22-24 and 1 above 24 months. Group A, B, C, and D were further divided into sub groups (Male & Female), where as the groups E, F, G, H and I comprised of Ewes only. Body weights were taken using digital weighing scale and measurements of body height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width with the help of measuring tape graduated with inches. Data on 788 female! 120 male and total of 908 observations of different age groups of sheep were collected. The mean height at wither (Inches) of Kajli sheep in nine age groups (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, 16-18, 19-21, 22-24 and above 24 months of age) was found to be 19.34 ± 1.36 (Overall), 19.33 ± 1.33 (female), 19.52 ± 1.26 (male), 20.42 ± 1.04 (Overall), 20.54 ± 1.01 (female), 20.25 ± 1.11 (male), 21.59 ± 0.90 (Overall), 21.84 ± 0.97 (female), 21.38 ± 0.78 (male), 23.55 ± 1.00 (Overall), 23.76 ± 0.84 (female), 22.58 ± 1.14 (male), 27.34 ± 1.25, 28.57 ± 0.92, 28.49 ± 1.39, 29.30 ± 1.01 and 29.57 ±1.30. The mean body length (Inches) in Kajli sheep in nine age group was noted to be 17.76 ± 1.44 (Overall), 17.76 ± 1.21 (female), 17.92 ± 1.48 (male), 20.18 ± 1.26 (Overall), 20.54 ± 1.32 (female), 19.68 ± 1.03 (male), 20.72 ± 1.22 (Overall), 20.54 ± 0.94 (female), 20.86 ± 1.40 (male), 22.23 ± 0.88 (Overall), 22.44 ± 0.72 (female), 21.30 ± 0.94 (male), 26.51 ± 1.36, 27.95 ±1.21, 27.77 ± 1.59, 28.65 ± 1.41 and 29.16 ±1.3. The mean heart girth (Inches) for all age groups was 18.64 ± 1.46 (Overall), 18.70 ± 1.46 (female), 18.69 ± 1.37 (male), 20.94 ± 1.20 (Overall), 21.21 ± 0.94 (female), 20.57 ± 1.45 (male), 21.63 ± 1.06 (Overall), 21.59 ± 0.99 (female), 21.67 ± 1.12 (male), 23.46 ± 1.82 (Overall), 23.66 ± 1.87 (female), 22.55 ± 1.28 (male), 29.33 ± 1.95, 30.61 ±1.12, 31.48 ± 1.68, 32.42 ± 1.43 and 33.33 ±1.64 respectively. The mean head length (Inches) of Kajli sheep recorded in nine age groups was 7.55 ± 0.53 (Overall), 7.48 ± 0.55 (female), 7.68 ± 0.48 (male), 7.74 ± 0.53 (Overall), 7.64 ± 0.40 (female), 2.77 ± 0.20 (male), 8.02 ± 0.48 (Overall), 7.96 ± 0.42 (female), 8.07 ± 0.53 (male), 9.36 ± 0.82 (Overall), v.47 ± 0.81 (female), 8.88 ± 0.75 (male), 11.48 ± 0.65, 12.08 ± 0.77, 12.06 ± 0.71, 12.12± 0.77 and 12.52 ± 0.54 respectively. The mean head width (Inches) for all age groups was 2.70 ± 0.19 (Overall), 2.71 ± 0.19 (female), 2.69 ± 0.18 (male), 2.76 ± 0.19 (Overall), 2.75 ± 0.19 (female), 2.77 ± 0.20 (male), 2.83 ± 0.15 (Overall), 2.80 ± 0.15 (female), 2.86 ± 0.15 (male), 2.70 ± 0.20 (Overall), 2.71 ± 0.20 (female), 2.66 ± 0.21 (male), 3.23 ± 0.17, 3.44 ± 0.21, 3.23 ± 0.29, 3.22 ± 0.16 and 3.39 ± 0.23 respectively. The mean rump length (Inches) for all age groups was 3.82 ± 0.33 (Overall), 3.89 ± 0.29 (female), 3.74 ± 0.36 (male), 3.98 ± 0.19 (Overall), 4.02 ± 0.17 (female), 3.93 ± 0.21 (male), 4.03 ± 0.24 (Overall), 4.11 ± 0.32 (female), 3.97 ± 0.11 (male), 4.58 ± 0.21 (Overall), 4.61 ± 0.14 (female), 4.40 ± 0.34 (male), 5.49 ± 0.42, 5.68 ± 0.44, 5.79 ± 0.41, 5.85 ± 0.40 and 6.00 ± 0.41 respectively. The mean rump width (Inches) for all age groups was 6.03 ± 0.51 (Overall), 6.01 ± 0.50 (female), 6.04 ± 0.53 (male), 6.69 ± 0.35 (Overall), 6.66 ± 0.25 (female), 6.75 ± 0.47 (male), 6.89 ± 0.41 (Overall), 6.74 ± 0.43 (female), 7.02 ± 0.35 (male), 7.52 ± 0.24 (Overall), 7.56 ± 0.16 (female), 7.33 ± 0.42 (male), 8.18 ± 0.53, 8.98 ± 0.80, 8.73 ± 0.63, 9.06 ± 0.72 and 9.06 ± 0.65. The mean body weight (Kg) for all age groups was observed as 8.69 ± 1.56 (Overall), 8.68 ± 1.46 (female), 8.83 ± 1.63 (male), 12.27 ±1.36 (Overall), 12.42 ± 1.19 (female), 12.05 ± 1.59 (male), 13.25 ± 0.94 (Overall), 13.30 ± 1.01 (female), 13.22 ± 0.90 (male), 16.35 ± 1.85 (Overall), 16.63 ± 1.83. (female), 15.10 ± 1.38 (male), 31.84 ± 3.12, 37.18 ± 3.10, 38.03 ± 3.46, 41.97 ± 3.42 and 44.51 ±4.30, respectively. The correlation between body weight and height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width of group A were 0.698, 0.659, 0.829, 0.435, 0.287, 0.275 and 0.388, respectively, for females were 0.623, 0.582, 0.793, 0.453, 0.234, 0.258 and 0.297, respectively, while for male were 0.746, 0.689, 0.861, 0.342, 0.238, 0.283 and 0.489, respectively. For group B the correlation between body weight and height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width were 0.737, 0.731, 0.845, 0.340, 0.250, 0.484 and 0.482, respectively. Correlation for female of group B were 0.714, 0.801, 0.760, 0.040, 0.094, 0.081 and 0.242, respectively, while for male were 0.757, 0.708, 0.910, 0.607, 0.431, 0.798 and 0.666, respectively. The correlation for group C were 0.315, 0.400, 0.300, 0.090, 0.05 1-0.180 and 0.004, respectively, for females were 0.362, 0.328, 0.354, 0.388, 0.078, 0.077 and 0.060, respectively, while for male were 0.262, 0.481, 0.263, 0.118, 0.047, 0.072 and 0.026, respectively. The correlation for group D were 0.906, 0.892, 0.778, 0.919, 0.703, 0.466 and 0.718, respectively, for females were 0.926, 0.912, 0.749, 0.908, 0.860, 0.333 and 0.768, respectively, while for male were 0.913, 0.912, 0.896, 0.956, 0.933, 0.740 and 0.835, respectively. The correlations for group E were 0.416, 0.305, 0.555, 0.361, 0.220, 0.452 and 0.448, respectively. The correlations for group F were 0.337, 0.612, 0.467, 0.493, 0.282, 0.357 and 0.690, respectively. The correlations for group G were 0.342, 0.3 18, 0.2 10, 0.397, 0.323, 0.427 and 0.199, respectively. The correlations for group H were 0.376, 0.055, 0.231, 0.126, 0.144, 0.360 and 0.187, respectively. The correlations for group I were 0.286, 0.184, 0.534, 0.117, 0.143, 0.158 and 0.270, respectively. It was found during the study that body weight was highly correlated with body measurements in Kajli sheep of all age groups. The height at wither, body length and heart girth were observed to be significantly correlated with body weight. During the present investigation males were heavier and longer than females in all age groups. Similarly the heart girth as well as height at wither were also bigger in males than those of females. Conclusion: It was concluded that body measurements had high correlation with body weight indicating that body measurements can be used for estimation of body weight in the field where scales are not usually available. These may also be used as selection criteria. However, further research is needed to investigate the relationship between the body weight and linear body measurements in other breeds of sheep, goats and other livestock breeds of the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1088,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Different Milking Practices On Production Performance Of Sahiwal Cows

by Naveed Aslam | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Abdullah | Dr.JAlees Ahmed Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Milking is one of the most important dairy practices to achieve higher production and income from the dairy animals. Study was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station Jahangirabad, District Khanewal, to investigate the effect of milking systems and methods on milk production, milk composition and udder health in Sahiwal cattle. Sixteen Sahiwal cows in the 31 and 4th lactation were randomly allocated to four treatments designated as A, B, C and D kept under twice a day manual milking, thrice a day manual, twice machine and thrice a day machine milking, respectively. Mean daily dry matter intake in cows on treatments A, B, C and D was 8.89±0.39, 9.57±0.20, 9.3 1±0.66 and 10.35±0.55 kg per day, respectively. Mean milk yield in cows on treatment A, B, C and D was 9.02±0.75, 11.44±0.73, 9.12±0.45 and 11.75±0.62 kg, respectively. Mean body weight of cows on treatment A, B, C and D was 372.43±28.96, 365.46±4.75, 366.96±25.37 and 369.61±24.48 kg, respectively. Mean protein level in milk on treatments A, B, C and D was 3.35±0.06, 3.25±0.06, 3.35±0.06 and 3.22±0.08 %, respectively. Milk protein was reduced in thrice a day milking cows. Fat percentage was comparatively higher in two times milking cows than three times milking, while machine did not make any difference as compared to hand milking. A statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was observed in fat level of the cows milked twice and thrice a day. Milking methods showed no significant difference in lactose contents between treatments. Solid not fat contents between treatments were non significant (P>0.05). Mean value for SNF contents in cows' milk on different treatments A, B, C and D was 9.00±0.40, 8.90±0.04, 9.00±0.40 and 8.90±0.04 %, respectively. The cows on treatments A, B, C and D showed total solid contents of 12.7±0.04, 12.4±0.04, 12.7±0.04, and 12.4±0.04%, respectively. Non significant (P>0.05) difference between treatments was recorded in pH of milk. Mean milking time per cow was highest (690±99.09 seconds) on treatment B, followed by A (587±43.16), D (497±28.67) and C (464±83.53). Milk quality of cows was excellent on treatments C and D, milked by machine and milk from cows on manual milking (A and B) was not better in quality than milk from machine.. Mastitis was observed on treatment A (25 %) and no case was observed in cows on other treatments. Conclusion: It was concluded that machine milking can be practiced in Sahiwal cattle without any harmful effects and maximum production of excellent quality milk can be harvested by thrice a day milking in high yielder animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1098,T] (1).

14. Evaluation Of Lactation Performance Of Beetal Goats Under Different Milking Systems

by Muhammad Mudassir Sohail | Dr.Jalees ahmed Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Anjum | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Studies were conducted to evaluate the lactation performance of Beetal goats under different milking systems at Small Ruminants Training and Research Centre, Ravi Campus, Pattoki to determine the effects of different milking frequencies and methods on milk production and composition. Twenty four (24) lactating Beetal goats of approximately same weight in first lactation were selected. Twenty four experimental does were randomly divided into four (04) equal treatments A, B, C and D according to Complete Randomized Design with factorial arrangement. Treatment-A was hand milked twice daily (06:00 AM and 06:OOPM) and considered as control treatment, treatment-B was milked thrice daily (06:00, 02:00 PM and 10:00 PM) manually, treatment-C was milked twice daily by machine and treatment-D was milked thrice using machine. All experimental goats were individually kept under same management conditions and fed on Lucerne hay based total mixed ration ad libitum, and were allowed to graze for 4 hours in the morning. Daily TMR intake was significantly different (P<0.05) between treatments. Highest daily total mixed ration intake was observed in treatment D (1.47 ± 0.01 kg), followed by treatment B, C and A (1.33 ± 0.02 kg). Daily milk production in goats was significantly different (P<0.05) between treatments. Highest daily milk production was recorded in Treatment D and B, followed by C and A (804.59±6.55 ml). On over all basis daily milk production was 928.16±16.34 ml/goat. Milk samples were analyzed for fat, solid-not-fats, density, water and proteins contents. The results of fat content showed declining trend in twice and thrice machine milking. Highest (3.95 ± 0.08 %) fat content was observed in B followed by A, C and D (3.67 ± 0.06 %). Statistically non significant differences were observed in fat content between treatments. Overall mean for solid not fat contents was 8.87±0.07 %. Highest (9.21±0.17 %) SNF contents were recorded in treatment D, followed by A, B and C (8.68±0.14 %). Statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was observed between treatments in SNF. Over all mean for density was 1.032±0.00032 g/crn3 and was highest (1.033±0.00072) in Treatment D, followed by A, C and B and differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) between treatments. Proportion of water in milk was 87.23±0.072 %. Water contents were highest (87.37±0.111 %) in Treatment C followed by B, A, and D. Differences between treatments were nonsignificant. Protein contents in milk were 3.17±0.022 % on over all bases. Highest (3 .22±0.043) protein content per lOOmi milk was observed in C, followed by B, D and A, but differences were non- significant between treatments. Lactation length was significant (P<0.05) among all the treatments. The goats in treatment D showed longest lactation length (125.83±0.7 days) followed by B and C. Shortest lactation length was observed in treatment A (111.5±1.82 days) kept on twice a day hand milking. Milk production economics was calculated as the total variable cost includes cost of TMR consumed, labor, utility cost and sale value of milk produced per goat per day. Total variable cost incurred daily was Rs. 22.26, 25.46, 22.21 and 24.87 per goat under treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. Daily gross margin per goat was highest (Rs. 2.576) on treatment C followed by D (Rs. 1.698), B (Rs. 1.00) and A (Rs. -0.741). Machine milking twice and thrice a day found more economical as compared to manual milking. On the basis of the above mentioned facts and figures it is concluded that the Beetal goat can be maintained as dairy animal under improved milking system. Milk production and composition was improved, lactation length was extended and production was more economical under thrice a day by hand or machine milking. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1105,T] (1).

15. Genetic Characterization Of Pakistani Buffalo Breeds By Mitochondrial D-Loop And Microsatellite Analyses

by Tanveer Hussain | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Irshad Hussain.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Pakistan has various dairy breeds of buffalo and cattle, but the genetic data of different buffalo breeds like Nih, Ravi, Nihi-Ravi, Kundi and Azakheli is lacking which need to be established for their genetic characterization. Blood samples of unrelated true representatives of all breeds were collected from their respective home tracts i.e Nih Ravi (LPRI Bahadarnagar, Okara, BRI Pattoki, Rakh Dera Chahi, Lahore); Nih (Pakpatan, Minchnabad, Arifwala, Hasilpur); Ravi (Kamahia, Tandlianwala); Kundi (Tandojam, Tando Muhammad Khan, Dadu) and Azakheli (Directorate of Livestock Research & Development Station Surezai, Peshawar and Matta, Swat). DNA was extracted with the use of standard protocol and amplification of the mitochondrial D-loop region was done with specific primers in Molecular Cytogenetics and Genomics Laboratory in the department of Livestock Production. Sequencing of amplified portion of mt DNA D-loop was done. Sequences were analyzed with the help of software blast2sequence. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and comparison of 52 mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of all buffalo breeds was done. Genetic distance and identity between five buffalo breeds were calculated and phylogenetic tree was constructed using BioEdit and MEGA 4.1 softwares showing the relationships between different haplotypes. Domestication events were also observed through network analysis. For further confirmation of the genetic structure of buffalo breeds 8 dye labeled microsatehhite markers (recommended by ISAG) were used and genotyping was done. Results were analyzed with the help of different softwares. Genetic diversity, Allele frequencies, observed and expected homozygosity and heterozygosity, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, F-Statistics and Gene Flow for all Loci, population's dendogram, Neis genetic identity and genetic distance/ diversity was calculated. This work provided the genetic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of buffalo population, breed identification, animal forensic and paternity cases and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1114,T] (1).

16. Feeding Management For Optimum Growth, Reproduction And First Lactation Performance In Sahiwal Heifers

by Muhammad Fiaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdulla | Prof. Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Sahiwal is well known dairy cattle breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of world for its excellent heat and tick resistance. The value of adequate nutrition and management of replacement heifers is mostly overlooked and production losses linked with slow growth rate are not entirely realized. Efficient utilization of nutrients like energy during pre pubertal and gestation periods is needful for melioration. The study included two experiments. The aim in first experiment was to investigate the effect of varying dietary energy levels on pre pubertal growth and age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. Twenty Sahiwal heifers (Age = 12 ± 2 month and avg. wt = 125 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments having five animals on each treatment. Isonitrogenous (CP=13.7%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% of NRC recommended level for small breed non bred heifers were fed to the respective groups until onset of puberty. Dry matter and protein intakes were not influenced by varying dietary energy levels during pre pubertal period. However, metabolizable energy (ME) 124% of NRC recommendation enhanced average daily gain (ADG) up to 571±15 g/d which was higher than all other dietary energy levels, whereas it was similar between ME 100% and ME 112% (442±11 and 450±05 g/d, respectively) but lower in ME 88% (397±07 g/d). The improvement in ADG of heifers fed ME 124% of NRC might be attributed to availability of excess energy nutrient for heifers to fulfill not only maintenance requirements but also to grow and develop body reserves. Provision of extra dietary energy improved efficiency of diets which might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. The 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum time period to have significantly highest ADG in Sahiwal heifers. This might be attributed to propitious physiological conditions under which heifers grow at faster rate. The optimum increase in body structures (Body length, height and heart girth) was achieved in ME 124% of NRC recommendations. The phase from 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum possessing significantly highest values of increase in body length and heart girth, whereas phase from 19 months to age at puberty was optimum to achieve significantly highest body height. The optimum increase in heart girth during first two phases (13 to 19 months of age) might be attributed to relatively faster muscle growth in body than bone growth. The digestibility percentages of nutrients (DM, CP, NDF and ADF) were not influenced by different dietary energy levels. No influence of dietary energy levels on digestibility of nutrients in the present study might be attributed to best adaptability of Sahiwal heifers to utilize diets even with low energy under local environment. Similarly, age at puberty was also not affected by dietary treatments and overall average was 833 ± 10 days. The optimum performance in terms of age at puberty at lower dietary energy level might be attributed to lesser energy requirements of Sahiwal under tropical and subtropical environment condition as elaborated by NRC (2000) that maintenance energy requirements of Bos indicus breeds including Sahiwal are about 10% lower. The similar pattern of influence was observed in serum progesterone concentration. The average of progesterone detected during a month before puberty was 0.44±0.005 ng/mL and during a month after onset of puberty was 1.48 ± 0.03 ng/mL serums. The similar rogesterone concentration among dietary treatments might be attributed to similar age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. It is concluded from results of first experiment that higher dietary energy level (ME 124% of NRC) enhanced growth parameters and feed efficiency but reproductive performance of Sahiwal heifers in terms of age at puberty was optimum even at lower dietary energy level (ME 88% of NRC recommended level) under local environment conditions of Pakistan. The aim in second experiment was to study the effect of feeding varying dietary energy levels during last trimester of pregnancy on 1st lactation performance in Sahiwal heifers. Five to six months pregnant Sahiwal heifers (n=16) were assigned four dietary treatments having four heifers on each treatment. Iso-nitrogenous (CP=14.1%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% percent of NRC recommended level for pregnant heifers were fed to the respective groups until calving. After calving, all heifers were fed a similar diet having CP (16.2%) and ME (1.72 Mcal/kg). Dry matter and CP intakes were similar across the dietary treatments. Pre calving ADG was not different among heifers fed ME 112 and ME 124% (486 ± 13 and 497 ± 05 g/d, respectively) but higher than other diets, whereas it was also higher (444 ± 07 g/d) in ME 100% than 397 ± 08 g/day in ME 88% of NRC recommendation. Feed efficiency was similar between ME 124 and ME 112% but higher than other diets, whereas ME 100% was also more efficient than ME 88% of NRC recommendation. The higher feed efficiency in higher dietary energy levels might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. Better body score through higher pre calving dietary energy level might be attributed to availability of energy for animal in surplus to its requirements of maintenance and pregnancy. Higher level of energy at this stage enabled pregnant heifers to develop extra body reserves needed in early lactation period to fulfill high demand of lactogenesis. The similar birth weight of newly born calves might be attributed to the factor that needs of conceptus (growth of fetus, fetal membranes, uterus and mammary glands) are accorded high priority by the homeorhetic controls it transmits to the dam. Extra energy levels beyond NRC recommendation during prepartum period were not advantageous to increase milk yield in 1st calf heifers. The performance of 1st calf heifers in terms of milk yield was only optimum through pre calving feeding according to NRC recommendations. The lesser milk yield in diets having higher energy levels than recommended by NRC might be attributed to more availability of mammary fat pad which may limit further parenchymal tissue development and consequently decrease milk yield during subsequent lactation. However, milk fat percentage increased as pre calving dietary energy level was increased, whereas milk protein, lactose and SNF percent among animals fed different experimental diets did not differ. It is concluded from results of second experiment that the optimal performance of pregnant Sahiwal heifers was achieved through provision of pre calving extra dietary energy (ME 112%) beyond the NRC recommendation but first lactation yield was found optimum in heifers fed diet having energy level as per recommendations of NRC. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1230,T] (1).

17. Body Measurement Parameters As Afunction Of Assessing Body Weight In Lohi Sheep

by Mustafa Ahmed Hassan | Prof.Dr.Khalid Javed | Mr.NIsar Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Makhdo.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara. The objective of the study was to find out or develop the relationship between live body weight and body measurements in Lohi sheep breed. The sheep were arranged in five age groups, groups A, B, C, D, and E. The group A was comprised of 0-6 month of age; group B= 7-12, group; C= 13-18, group D= 19-24 and group E above 24 months age of animals. Group A, B and E were further divided into sub groups (Male & Female), where as the groups C and D comprised of Ewes only. Body weights were taken using weighing scale and measurements of Body weight, Height at Wither, Body Length, Heart Girth, Head Length, Head Width, Ear Length, Ear Width, Neck Length, Neck Width, Rump Length, Rump Width, Barrel Depth, Sacral pelvic Width, Teat Length, Teat Diameter, Testes Length and Testes Circumference with the help of measuring tape graduated with centimeter. Data on 1008 female / 44 male and total of 1052 observations of different age groups of sheep were collected. The mean of all body measurements (cm) and body weight (kg) of Overall Lohi sheep of age group 0-6, was found to be 46.03 ± 11.00 (cm), 45.41 ± 10.24 (cm), 43.79 ± 9.47(cm), 14.75 ± 4.32 (cm), 6.62 ± 1.20 (cm), 23.22 ± 4.73 (cm), 9.46 ± 3.08 (cm), 15.69 ± 5.45 (cm), 10.51 ± 3.56 (cm), 14.83 ± 5.41 (cm), 8.68 ± 2.63 (cm), 26.77 ± 8.15 (cm) and 7.80 ± 4.77 (Kg) respectively. The mean of all body measurements (cm) and body weight (kg) of Overall Lohi sheep of age group 7-12 was found to be 66.70 ± 4.36 (cm), 67.32 ± 4.03 (cm), 66.65 ± 4.84 (cm), 24.80 ± 3.14 (cm), 10.59 ± 1.56 (cm), 30.10 ± 2.34 (cm), 13.64 ± 1.02 (cm), 25.01 ± 2.84 (cm), 15.44 ± 1.88 (cm), 22.43 ± 1.85 (cm), 15.76 ± 1.66 (cm), 36.67 ± 2.50 (cm) and 25.29 ± 3.46 (Kg) respectively. The mean of over all body measurements (cm) and body weight (kg) of Lohi sheep of age group 13-18 was found to be 68.04±3.15 (cm), 68.68±2.73 (cm), 69.77±2.31 (cm), 26.83± 1.87 (cm), 10.86±1.02 (cm), 29.52±2.65 (cm), 14.40±0.97 (cm), 27.13±2.45 (cm), 16.83±2.31 (cm), 23.11±1.92 (cm), 15.05±0.92 (cm), 38.70±1.51 (cm) and 26.60±2.41 (Kg) respectively. The mean of over all body measurements (cm) and body weight (kg) of Lohi sheep of age group 19-24 was found to be 71.88±3.34 (cm), 70.65±3.81 (cm), 72.43±3.90 (cm), 26.87±1.92 (cm), 11.88±1.46 (cm), 30.66±2.68 (cm), 14.42±1.37 (cm), 26.03±2.47 (cm), 16.54±1.67 (cm), 23.95±1.92 (cm), 16.84±1.46 (cm), 38.96±2.43 (cm) and 30.83±3.32 (Kg) respectively. The mean of all body measurements (cm) and body weight (kg) of Overall Lohi sheep of age group above 24 months of age was found to be were 76.30± 5.37 (cm), 77.41±6.74 (cm), 81.63±7.44 (cm), 26.86±2.92 (cm), 12.14±1.60 (cm), 32.65±17.22 (cm), 14.44±1.89 (cm), 26.42±3.47 (cm), 19.28±3.37 (cm), 24.48±2.73 (cm), 19.35±2.53 (cm), 45.43±19.28 (cm) and 42.91±6.54 (Kg) respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1232,T] (1).

18. Effect Of Different Forms Of Alfalfa On The Performance Of Lohi Lambs

by Hifz-ul-Rahman | dr.Jalees ahmad Bhatti | Dr.Saima | Mr.Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Animal feed resources are still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons) and digestible protein (1.76 million tons), which is not sufficient to meet the feeding requirement of livestock in the country. Fodder crops cover 16 to 19% of the total cropped area in the country. Shortage of fodder is a major limiting factor for livestock growth. To meet the requirement of animal, there is need to properly conserve the flush season growth of Rabi fodder like Berseem and alfalfa in their different physical forms. Pelleting of hay and other feeds for ruminants is developing rapidly as a new method of preparation for livestock feed. Pelleted feeds, particularly roughages can be self-fed more efficiently and can be handled with less cost than unpelleted feed, because they are heavier per cubic foot and because they can be handled in bulk with machinery more easily than unpelleted feeds The feeding management experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of lohi lambs raised on different levels of alfalfa hay and alfalfa pellets at Small Ruminant Training and Research Center (B Block) UVAS Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Eighteen male Lohi lambs having approximately same body weight (20 ± 3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C of six lambs each. Lambs were fed on different physical forms of alfalfa on individual basis for 12 weeks. Group A having alfalfa pellets 100 %, group B alfalfa pellets and hay, 50:50 and group C were fed 100 % alfalfa hay. The data on Daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, feed analysis, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and comparative economics were recorded, analyzed and interpreted in the manuscript. The mean daily feed intake on treatment A, B and C were 1170± 31.18, 851.69± 259 and 699.39± 23.74 g, respectively.. Daily feed intak showed increasing trend as the proportion of alfalfa pellet was increased in the diets. Feed intake difference was highly significant (P< 0.01) between treatments A, B and C, respectively. The mean weight gain of lambs on weekly bases was 0.8385±.00117, 0.6847±.00398 and 0.6272±0.0014 kg in treatment A, B and C, respectively. The lambs showed an increasing trend in weekly weight gain with the increase in the proportion of alfalfa pellet in the diets. The weight gain data also showed a highly significant (P< 0.01) difference between treatments and weeks. The feed efficiency of the diets in different treatments was calculated considering the amount of feed consumed per unit of weight gain.. Mean feed consumption per kg of weight gain was of 0.0945±0.00012, 0.1060±0.00069 and 0.1196±0.0003 kg for labs on treatment A, B, and C, respectively. The diet C having 100 % alfalfa hay was found highly efficient and diet A having 100 alfalfa pellet was least efficient to convert it into one kg gain. The comparative economics calculation of feeding experiment showed that highest daily gross margin of Rs. 9.01 was recorded in lambs under treatment C followed by treatment B (Rs. 6.086) and lowest (Rs. 0.94) on treatment A. The calves showed an increasing trend in daily gross margin as the proportion of alfalfa hay was increased in the diets and decreased with the increase in the level alfalfa pellets in the diets CONCLUSION: On the basis of findings it is concluded that to increase palatability, more feed consumption, achieve better gain, minimize feed wastage and most economical feeding proportion is 100 % alfalfa pellets. It is suggested that this proportion is desirable to achieve higher growth rate. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1236,T] (1).

19. Relationship Between Live Body Weight And Body Measurements In Hissardale Sheep

by Umair Younas | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the relationship between live body weight and body measurements in Hissardale sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Jahangirabad, district Khanewal. The Hissardale sheep were divided into five age groups designated as, A=0-6 months, B= 7-12 months, C= 13-18 months, D= 19-24 months and E group contained more than 24 months age animals. The data on body weight and body measurements; body length (BL), height at withers (HAW), heart girth (HG), neck length (NL), neck width (NW), ear length (EL), ear width (EW), tail length (TL) and tail width (TW) will be taken by using measuring tape. Data on total 314 observations of different age groups of sheep were collected. The mean height at wither of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 48.85 ±2.35, 55.50 ± 1.85, 61.91 ± 1.79, 63.59 ± 1.53, 66.35 ± 3.22cm. The mean body length (cm) of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 47.45 ±2.69, 54.27 ± 1.80, 60.66 ± 1.78, 63.91 ± 2.02, 70.69 ± 3.51cm respectively. The mean heart girth of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 48.17 ±2.83, 55.64 ± 1.95, 60.83 ± 1.95, 64.94 ± 1.90, 80.67 ± 3.65cm respectively. The mean ear length of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 12.41 ± 0.93, 12.50 ± 0.59, 12.68 ± 0.63, 13.53 ± 0.72, 14.21 ± 1.71cm respectively. The mean ear width of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 6.31 ± 0.65, 6.31 ± 0.63, 6.70 ± 0.65, 6.35 ± 0.53, 7.15 ± 0.60cm respectively. The mean neck length of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 14.85 ± 1.70, 15.23 ± 0.90, 15.14 ± 0.63, 15.93 ± 0.68, 19.36 ± 1.57cm respectively. The mean neck width of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 12.22 ± 1.165, 13.90 ± 0.72, 13.68 ± 0.67, 14.42 ± 0.80, 16.30 ± 1.69cm respectively. The mean tail length of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 22.25 ± 2.59, 22.30 ± 0.97, 22.24 ± 1.85, 25.97 ± 2.67, 27.64 ± 4.22cm respectively. The mean tail width of Hissardale sheep in five age groups (A, B, C, D, and E group) was found to be 1.98 ± 0.38, 2.60 ± 0.30, 2.95 ± 0.30, 3.54 ± 0.46, 4.32 ± 0.61cm respectively. The correlation coefficients between body weight and other body measurements in age group of 0-6 month: body weight, height at wither, body length, heart girth, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, tail length and tail width were found to be 0.798, 0.696, 0.586, 0.467, -0.18, -0.039, 0.458, 0.253, 0.153 respectively. The correlation coefficients between body weight and other body measurements in age group of 7-12 months: body weight, height at wither, body length, heart girth, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, tail length and tail width were 0.855, 0.835, 0.850, 0.461, -0.137, 0.316, 0.599, 0.320, 0.443 respectively. The correlation coefficients between body weight and other body measurements in age group of 13-18 months: body weight, height at wither, body length, heart girth, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, tail length and tail width were 0.676, 0.536, 0.708, 0.455, 0.350, 0.666, 0.597, 0.397, and 0.643 respectively. The correlation coefficients between body weight and other body measurements in age group of 19-24 months: body weight, height at wither, body length, heart girth, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, tail length and tail width were 0.737, 0.828, 0.769, 0.275, 0.508, 0.600, 0.575, 0.617, and 0.537 respectively. The correlation coefficients between body weight and other body measurements in age group of above 24 months: body weight, height at wither, body length, heart girth, ear length, ear width, neck length, neck width, tail length and tail width were 0.549, 0.466, 0.425, 0.116, 0.253, 0.437, 0.463, 0.327, and 0.077 respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1245,T] (1).

20. Genetic And Phenotypig Trends In Some Performance Traits Of Kajlli Sheep

by Farman Ullah | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Kajli sheep is one of the native breeds and is found in the irrigated areas of central Punjab (Districts of Sargodha, Khushab, Gujrat, Mandi Baha-ud-Din, and Mianwali). Kajli sheep is mostly raised for mutton, wool and occasionally for milk production. Wide variation exists in various production and reproduction traits of Kajli sheep which indicates a great scope of improvement in these traits of economic importance. Any program of breed improvement is based on maximum exploitation of genetic variation. The potential of genetic improvement largely depends on genetic variation of the trait and its relationship with the other traits. Knowledge of heritability, repeatability and correlations among various traits is essential for formulating efficient breeding plan and selection strategies. Objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a purebred flock of Kajli sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station Khushab and Livestock Experimental Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Data on performance traits as Birth weight, Weaning weight, Yearling weight and Greasy fleece weight from 1994 to 2009 were collected, An effort was made to determine the effect of all environmental and non genetic factors on the performance of animals. For this purpose LSMLMW computer program was used. The genetic parameters i.e., heritability, and phenotypic and genetic correlations among various traits will be estimated. The breeding values for different traits were estimated for comparative ranking of animals. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines were drawn to assess the selection success in previous generations of Kajli sheep. These analyses were done using DFREML computer soft ware which is s pecially designed for the estimation of variance components. The information so generated will ultimately be helpful in developing future breeding plans for genetic improvement of Kajli sheep in Pakistan. The birth and weaning weight in this flock averaged 4.16±0.0Ikg and 18.70±0.08 kg whereas yearling weight was 37.52±0.06 kg. The pre weaning average daily gain was 142.34±0.83 gms. Birth weight varied significantly due to years, season, sex, type of birth and flock. Data showed non- significant interaction between sex and type of birth. Analysis of variance revealed significant effect of year of birth and season of birth on weaning weight. However, the difference due to sex is non-significant. Type of birth and age of the dam were significant. Effect of weaning age of the lambs on weaning weight was also significant, whereas, birth weight had a non significant effect (P<0.05) on weaning weight. The variation in body weight due to year, sex, and season of birth were significant (P<0.05).Whereas, effect of flock and type of birth were non- significant. Weaning age of the lambs and birth weight had a non significant (P<0.05) effect on yearling weight whereas weaning weights of the lambs had significant effects on the trait under consideration. The analysis of variance revealed that year and season of birth and birth type showed significant effect on pre weaning average daily gain while sex had non-significant effect on the trait. The regressions of weaning weight and birth weight on pre weaning average daily gain were significant (P<O.OI). The estimates of heritability for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, pre-weaning average daily weight gain, and greasy fleece weight were 0.054±0.019, 0.069±0.016, 0.015±0.020, 0.056±0.016, and 0.170±0.060 respectively. The low heritability estimates indicated the presence of less additive genetic variance and large environmental variance. Hence, improvement in the traits through selection may be limited. The estimated breeding values for Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight from -0.205 to 0.164 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.149 to 0.180 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.822 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -1.205 to 1.555 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.152 to 0.285kg in males and -0.159 to 0.224kg in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.194 to 0.212 gms in males and -0.174 to 2.00 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.247 to 0.708 kgs and -0.429 to 0.575 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for Khushab farm were, for birth weight from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.148 to 0.145 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.478 to 0.284 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -0.976 to 1.923 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.198 to 0.176 in males and -0.166 to 0.170 in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to 0.195 gms in males and -0.205 to 0.148 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.380 to 0.706 kgs and -0.267 to 0.590 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.169 to 0.164 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.694 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.151 to 0.285 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.190 to 0.212 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.146 to 0.520 kgs. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khushab farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.478 to 2.846 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was - 0.198 to 0.176 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to 0.195 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.335 to 0.706 kgs. The genetic trends for birth weight in Kajli sheep showed decreasing trend and phenotypic trend was fluctuating, whereas, the genetic and phenotypic trend for weaning weight showed fluctuating trend. For yearling weight genetic and phenotypic trend was also observed which show fluctuation, pre weaning growth rate also not statistic. The phenotypic trend for greasy fleece yield showed little increasing trend. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1345,T] (1).

21. Feeding Behavior And Performance Of Sheep And Goats Under Various Feeding Management Systems

by Nasrullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullan | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Sheep and goats have been bestowed with the capacity of surviving under a variety of environmental conditions including the coastal region, plains and high mountains. The profitable small ruminants farming depend upon feeding and management systems because the feed cost is 70% in any livestock farming. In Pakistan, mostly people grazed ruminants on summer and winter fodders for maintenance and production requirements. Commercial livestock production demands a change in feeding with a trend for more efficient utilization of scarce feed resources. The proposed study was planned in to three experiments under a factorial arrangement to evaluate the growth performance of sheep and goats. In experiment one a study was first conducted to compare the voluntary intake and digestibility of janter (coriandrum sativum), guar (cyamopsis tetragonolba), cowpea (Vigna sinesis) in sheep and goats. For this purpose, 90 female animals (sheep n=45 and goats n = 45) were selected randomly and divided equally in, 6 groups representing each species under 2×3 factorial arrangements, Groups A,B ,C represented goats while group D,E,F represented sheep. Results showed that goats spent more time on eating than sheep while ruminating time was higher in sheep than goats. Drinking time was not different (P>0.05) among the species. Goats spent more time on playing and resting than sheep fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. Dry mater CP, NDF, ADF and GE intake was higher in sheep than goats fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. DMD and CP were higher in sheep than goats fed guar. NDF and ADF digestibility was similar in both species. Average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain were similar in both the species. It is concluded that the jantar fodder in summer is most suitable fodder for sheep and goats compare to guar and Cowpea. In the second trial of the first phase study comparison of voluntary intake and digestibility maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) in sheep and goats were compared. Statistical analyses showed that eating time was higher (P?0.05) in goats than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum while, sheep spent more time on ruminating, drinking and standing than goats. Goats showed higher playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter CP, NDF and ADF intake was similar (P>0.05) in both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter digestibility was similar in sheep and goats fed maize, millet and sorghum. NDF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep fed sorghum while this was different (P?0.05) when maize and millet were fed. ADF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep. Average daily weight gain feed efficiency and cost of gain was not significant (P>0.05) among both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Results of the study showed that the non leguminous fodders during summer are equally preferred by both species. In second the phase voluntary feed intake and digestibility of berseem, (Trifolium alexandrium) lucerne, (Medicago Sativa), oats, (Avena Sativa) in female sheep and goats was studied. For this purpose, female animals (n=90) of sheep (n=45) and goats (n=45) were randomly selected and divided equally in six in a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that eating time was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep, while ruminating time was more in sheep than goats fed berseem lucerne and oats, whereas time spent on drinking was similar in both goats and sheep. Goats utilized less time in standing, higher (P<0.05) time in playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Crude protein intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne. DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem, while it was similar when fed lucerne and oats fodder. NDF, ADF and GE (M cal/d) intakes were higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne fodder however it was similar in both the species fed on oats fodder. DM digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in sheep and goats fed berseem, lucerne and oats. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. When fed Lucerne and oats there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between goats and sheep.. NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. Average daily gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain/kg was non-significant (P>0.05) between goats and sheep fed berseem, lucern and oats. Results demonstrated that during winter the most suitable fodder for sheep and goats is lucerne fodder. In the second experiment the study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under various feeding management systems in which ninety female animals were selected and divided into six equal groups with three groups of each species (sheep n=45, goats n=45) under a 2×3 factorial arrangement. These were in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive feeding management systems. Dry matter intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than goats kept under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep than goats fed intensively. NDF and ADF intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than in goats. Average daily weight gain was higher in sheep than goats on the extensive system followed by the semi-intensive system. Feed efficiency was similar in goats and sheep while the cost of gain per kg was more economical in sheep than goats. Results of study revealed that both species performed better on extensive feeding system than the other systems might be of natural grazing behavior. The third experiment of study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under the intensive management system. Sixty female animals (lambs n= 30 and kids n=30) were used. The animals were divided equally in four groups A and B representing lambs while C, D was for kids. Both species were allotted two treatments i.e. fodder ad libitum with concentrate supplement (240 grams/animal/day) and total mixed ration ad libitum under a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Results showed that DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids. Average daily weight gain was higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed total mixed ration. Feed efficiency was higher (P?0.05) in kids than in lambs fed fodder plus supplement. Dry matter and CP digestibility was higher (P?0.05) in kids than lambs fed a total mixed ration. NDF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed the TMR, it was also higher in kids than in lambs when fed fodder plus the concentrate supplement. ADF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than in kids fed the total mixed ration. The performance of lambs was better on TMR while kids showed good results on fodder plus the concentrate supplementation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1503,T] (1).

22. Genetic Evaluation Of Teddy Goats In Pakistan

by Zulfiqar Hussan Kuthu | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Baber.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Data available on 20455 kidding and performance records of 5545 Teddy goats and progeny of 406 sires maintained as separate flocks at three different locations i,e (I) Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman, District Bakkhar (1983-2008) (II) Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Khariewala District Layyah (1971-2008) and (III) Livestock Experiment Station Chak Katora, District Bahawalpur (1975-2008) Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed for documenting both genetic and environmental sources which influence growth and reproductive traits. Breeding values of sires and does were estimated and genetic and phenotypic trends for various performance traits were drawn. The data was analyzed using the GLM procedure (General Linear Models) of the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS, 2004) to study the influence of environmental sources of variation on various growth and reproductive traits. The genetic parameter estimation was done using REML procedure fitting an Individual Animal Model. Estimates of breeding values for various performance traits were also calculated by using BLUP. For these purposes WOMBAT software was used. The Least squares means for Age at first service, Age at first kidding, Weight at first service, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six months, weight at nine months, yearling weight, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six months, post-weaning daily gain at nine months and post-weaning daily gain at twelve months the least squares means were 245.65±0.73 days, 14.07±0.01 kg, 394.14±0.76 days, 18.06±0 kg, 1.24±0.004, 153.58±0.73 days, 327.53±1.12 days, 1.66±0.03 kg, 9.59±0.01 kg, 11.70±0.02 kg, 16.69±0.02 kg, 21.03±0.03 kg, 70.21±0.16 grams, 31.39±0.08 grams, 45.25±0.03 grams and 45.95±0.02 grams, respectively. The percentage of single births was 43 percent, while multiple births were 57 percent. The sex ratio was 51:49 males and females. Year, sex, flock, and type of birth were main sources of variation on all the growth traits. The influence of season of birth was significant on yearling weight; however its effect on weight at six and nine months was non-significant. A significant influence of (p<0.01) birth and weaning weight was noticed on weight at 6, 9, 12 months and on post-weaning daily gain at 6,9 and 12 months. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, birth weight and weight at service were observed on age of does at first service, while the seasonal and flock effect on the trait was non-significant. The influential environmental sources of variation on weight of does at first service were year, season and age at first service(p<0.01). A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, season, type, age and weight at service on age and weight at first kidding was noticed. The influence of year of service, flock, age and weight at service on services per conception was significant (p<0.01); however, effect of season of service on the trait was non-significant. A highly significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season of service, services per conception and weight at service were observed on service period. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season on kidding interval was noticed. The effect of flock was non-significant on the trait, however, age and weight at kidding had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the service period and kidding interval. The heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at twelve months, age at first service, weight at first service, age at first kidding, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.28±0.23, 0.23±0.32, 0.19±0.42, 0.09±0.01 and 0.12±0.01, 0.21±0.32, 0.17±0.42, 0.12±0.02, 0.15±0.01, 0.19±0.22, 0.21±0.01, 0.19±0.04, 0.20±0.04, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.05 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The repeatability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.53±0.02, 0.38±0.01, 0.02±0.05, 0.01±0.04 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between birth weight and other growth traits were; weaning weight 0.61, 0.20 and 0.19, with weight at six months 0.39, 0.24 and 0.23, with weight at nine months 0.25, 0.38 and 0.36, with yearling weight 0.29, -0.01 and -0.02 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.55, 0.31 and 0.29, respectively, while corresponding values for correlations between weaning weight and other growth traits were; with weight at six months 0.29, 0.19 and 0.17, with weight at nine months 0.23, 0.27 and 0.25, with yearling weight 0.45, 0.29 and 0.27 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.97, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at six months and other growth traits were; with weight at nine months 0.71, 0.27 and 0.25 with yearling weight 0.64, 0.21 and 0.19 and with pre-weaning daily gain were 0.31, 0.33, 0.31, respectively. The values for these correlations between weight at nine months and other traits were; with yearling weight 0.79, 0.23 and 0.21, with pre-weaning daily gain 0.25, 0.39 and 0.37, with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.72, 0.81 and 0.79, respectively, while the estimates of these three correlations between yearling weight and other traits were; with pre-weaning daily gain 0.47, 0.41 and 0.42 and with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.65, 0.10 and 0.08, while the corresponding values between pre-weaning daily gain and other traits were; with post-weaning gain at six months were 0.34, 0.15 and 0.13, with post-weaning gain at nine months 0.22, 0.13 and 0.12 and with post-weaning daily gain at twelve months were 0.54, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between age at first serviceand other traits were; with weight at first service 0.22, 0.79 and 0.76, with age at first kidding 0.76, 0.97 and 0.91 and with weight at first kidding 0.34, 0.14 and 0.11, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at first service and other traits were; with age at first kidding 0.39, 0.81 and 0.80, with weight at first kidding 0.35, 0.22 and 0.21 and with weight at first kidding 0.82, 0.18 and 0.16, respectively. Analysis of pedigree records for coefficient of inbreeding revealed that number of animals being 4465 (42.61 percent) with an average inbreeding of 2.43 percent and the highest level being 46.48 percent. The number of non-inbred animals was 6014 (57.39%). Out of the total of 406 sires used 23 were found inbred having an average inbreeding coefficient of 3.125 percent. Most frequent value for this category of animals was zero. The highest number of animals 1531 (14.61 percent) had an inbreeding percentage between 0.1 to 3.125, while only 104 animals (0.99 percent) were found with inbreeding of more than 25 percent. Most of the growth traits were statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds except yearling weight and post-weaning weight gain at twelve months, in which the means of both the traits were similar in both the groups. Among reproductive traits, age at first serviceand kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were also statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds, while weight at first service and kidding interval were similar in both the groups. The ranges for estimated breeding values for different traits were, birth weight (-0.18 to 0.08 kg), weaning weight (-0.61 to 0.40 kg), weight at six months (-0.27 to 0.11 kg), weight at nine months, (-0.07 to 0.09 kg), yearling weight (-0.12 to 0.18 kg), pre-weaning daily gain (-0.30 to 1.20 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 6 months (-0.74 to 1.27 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 9 months (-0.32 to 0.57 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 12 months (-1.08 to 1.57 grams), age at first service(-43.23 to 58.06 days), weight at first service (-0.55 to 1.07 kg), age at first kidding (-53.31 to 48.34 days), weight at first kidding (-1.19 to 3.50 kg), services per conception (-0.18 to 0.16), service period (-7.07 to 9.80 days) and kidding interval (-13.23 to 20.89 days), respectively. The genetic trend in both birth weight and weaning weight showed an increasing trend during the period of study, while the genetic trend in weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months had no significant trend and fluctuated in the vicinity of zero. It is envisaged from the present study that over the 34 years period selection remained ineffective to bring the desired changes and it will remain so if random use of breeding animals is practiced. The possible use of ineffective selection could be unavailability of efficient techniques for the evaluation of animals and incorrect performance recording etc. It is therefore, necessary to correct all these discrepancies by taking corrective measures as discussed above. The following corrective measures may be a first step towards a goal oriented breeding policy. 1. The animals kept mainly for producing meat, the single most important factor is reproductive rate, which contributes to the efficiency of production (Shelton 1978). The most striking feature of sheep and goat enterprise is the ability to breed, off-season. Teddy goat is a non-seasonal breeder as kidding was observed throughout year with 36%, 19%, 25% and 20% kiddings recorded during spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, therefore a controlled breeding programme being practiced at times (as was observed during the present study at all the three stations) should not be advocated in any form at all and the desirable trait of non-seasonality should be the main pillar of a meat goat enterprise. 2. Although a higher percentage of abortions (70%) was observed in summer months but the percentage of dead births and mortality was almost equally distributed throughout the year, which indicates that better management of the flock during extremes of weather will results in less abortions and reduced mortality. 3. The high percentage of multiple births (57%) as against single births (43%) in teddy goats found in present study has backing of several studies, which showed that although there was slow growth rate in multiple births, yet they performed better by producing more total weight of kid weaned. Therefore prolificacy becomes a very important reproductive criteria and therefore emphasis should be selection of those animals with higher percentage of multiple births. 4. Environmental effects on productive and reproductive traits were significant; therefore through better management there are ample chances of improvement in these traits. 5. Low to medium heritability was recorded in all the growth traits, which offers scope for genetic selection. 6. Selection of animals to be the parents of future flock must be based on EBVs of growth traits. 7. Reproductive performance in present study was more than satisfactory. Early maturity which has been the main characteristic of Teddy breed was better as compared to many other breeds of the tropics (Beetal, Kamori, Jamunapari and Sirohi). Teddy goats were efficient than other breeds of the region when the means of the other reproductive traits like services per conception, service period and kidding interval were taken into consideration, however, room for improvement is still there. 8. Inbreeding in present study showed some increasing trend during the last five years and the percentage of animals kept on increasing during the last decade, therefore to control inbreeding a breeding plan with introduction of new blood from time to time is of utmost importance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1582,T] (1).

23. Phenotypic And Genetic Aspects Of Some Performance Traits Of Buchi Sheep In Pakistan

by Maqsood Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1598,T] (1).

24. Effect Of Mannan Oligosaccharides On The Performance Of Neonatal Cross Bred Calves

by Muhammad Adeel Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Jalees Ahmed Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1418,T] (1).

25. Managmental Staudies Of Different Liquid Feedin Regimes For Buffalo Calves

by Ray Adil Quddus | Dr. Jalees Ahmad Bhatti | Dr. Afzal Ali | Mr. Qamar Shahid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1616,T] (1).

26. Principal Component Factor Analysis Of The Morphostructure Of Aalt Range Sheep

by Muhammad Imran Khan | Mr. Imran Mohisn | Dr. Jalees Ahmed Bhatti | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1692,T] (1).

27. Cytogenetic Analysis Related To Infertity Problems In Buffalo In Pakistan

by Muhammad Dawood | Prof. Dr. khalid Javaid | Prof. Dr. masroor Ellahi babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics which deals with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. It includes routine analysis of chromosomes using different banding techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosomes were first discovered in plant cells by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842 and in animal (salamander) cells were described by Walther Flemmin, in 1882. In 1964 IngemarGustavsson was the first who work on clinical cytogenetics in animals and found first 1/29 robertsonian translocation in cattle. Hundreds of abnormalities have been reported in past 50 years with clinical disorders. Some abnormalities include robertsonian translocation in captive Thai Gaur (Chaveerach et al. 2007), in Veitnamese cattle (Tanaka et al. 2000), pericentric inversion of chromosomes and chimeric karyotypes in cattle and buffalo, sex chromosomes reciprocal translocation including X;X translocation in Mehsana buffalo (Patel et al. 2006) and bovine freemartin syndrome. Livestock population have been extraordinarily improved in the last 40 years through cytogenetic screening (Ducos et al. 2008). This study was carried out to optimize the protocol for lymphocyte culture, harvesting and slide preparation techniques for indigenous buffalo in local conditions and to document the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities leading to infertility problems in buffalo. Lymphocyte culture was used for the cytogenetic studies of indigenous buffalo. Procedure for lymphocyte and culture was standardized in Animal Genetic Lab, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus. In blood cell culture incubation time will be 72 hours at 370C. Mitosis was induced through Phytohaemagglutinin. After incubation cells were arrested by colcimid. Slides were prepared for karyotyping and checking for the chromosomal abnormalities. In this study 30 repeat breeder and anestrus animals along with 5 normal animals were used for chromosomal analysis. Good quality metaphase spreads were cytogenetically analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities (structural and numerical). Results of this study show that there is not any sex chromosome abnormalities and autosomal abnormality foundin the group of repeat breeders and anestrus animals. All the standard procedures regarding cytogenetic culture, harvesting, slide preparation and staining were optimized in Animal Genetic Lab. Genus 3.2 Applied Imaging System software was used for karyotyping the animals. We can conclude that cytogenetic analysis can play more effective role in the betterment of livestock. Through this technique we can screen out abnormal animals at very early stage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1699,T] (1).

28. Factor Analysis Of Biometric Traits Of Dhanni Cattle

by Khuram Shahzad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Younas Gondal | Prof.Dr.khalid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1702,T] (1).

29. Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan

by Riaz Hussain Mirza | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study. The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval. Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs. A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively. A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons. Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament. Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09; udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively. Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment. Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament. Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively. Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively. Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively. The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone. The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone. Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight. Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area. Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low. Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001. About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor. All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats. Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons. Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats. All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor. Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively. Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg. Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes: " In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding. " A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament. " Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed. " Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study. " A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature. " Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped. " Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00. " Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield. " Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves. " Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves. " Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential. " Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1708,T] (1).

30. Documenting Goat Production System In Two Agro-Ecological Regions Of Punjab

by Maqsood shah muhammad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1920,T] (1).

31. Comparative Growth Performance Of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves Raised On Three Different Liquid Feeds

by Muhammad Nauman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2111,T] (1).

32. Copmparative Study Of Buffalo And Cow Milk As An Extender For The Semen Of Cattle & Buffalo Bulls.

by Ashraf Bajwa, M | Not Available | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1970Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of buffalo milk versus cow milk on the longevity of buffalo and cow bulls semens. Two buffalo and two cow bulls were used for collection of semens. These bulls were 3-9 years of age and were maintained under similar conditions at Artificial Insemination Centre, College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore. The milk used was obtained form the same cow and buffalo throughout the study. A total of 16 samples were collected from the four bulls.Physical and Microscopical examinations were conducted to evaluate the semen and samples with 4 or above mass motility were used in the experiment. Two fractions of each extender (buffalo and cow milk) were made. First was heat treated at 90 o c but not homogenized and second was heated at 82.2o c and homogenized. The glycerol in 10 and 20% ratio was added to the diluents alongwith 1000 units of penicillin and 1 mg. of streptomycin per ml. of extended semen. The dilutions were made in 1:10, 1:20 and 1:30 extensions of both buffalo and cow-bull semen in both extenders. The semen was preserved at 5oC in the refrigerator, and observations were made on each day at even hours, for 7 days. The data so collected were subjected to the analysis of variance, statistically and mean motility rates were also calculated to determine the comparative effects of cow milk and buffalo milk on the preservation of cow-bull and buffalo-bull semen. The study revealed:- 1. That the semen was preserved comparatively better in heat treated milk than homogenized milk both in buffalo and cow milk. This was due to the difference in heating temperature and durations in both treatments. 2. Each buffalo bull's and cow Bull's extended semen with 10% glycerol gave significantly higher motility than with 20% glycerol in both milk (buffalo and cow). 3. The motility percentage was preserved better with high concentrations of sperms than with lower concentrations. The dilution ratio in 1:10 indicated the better results than the other two extensions of 1:20 and 1:30. 4. The cow-bull semen was preserved better in both the extenders for the longer period of time than buffalo-bull semen. However the semen was preserved significantly better in buffalo milk than in cow milk. 5. That in fluid semen extension the use of buffalo milk is recommended in field for future and determination of its effects on conception rates is open for further research. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0001,T] (1).

33. Non-Return Versus Actual Conception Rate In Cows And Buffaloes For Predicting Fertility Of Bulls In Artifical Insemination

by Fakhar Allam, Sh | Not Available | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1970Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the non-return versus actual conception rate in buffaloes and Cows for predicting fertility rate of Bulls. For this purpose 6 Buffalo and 10 Cow Bulls (5 Red Sindhi and 5 Sahiwal) were selected from the Bulls of different breeds and species maintained at the Artificial Insemination Section, College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore. During the period from 1955 to 1970 Artifical Insemination were carried out in buffaloes and Cows with good qualities semen of these selected bulls maintained at the Centre. All the semen samples were checked for physical and microscopic examinations. Extension of semen was made in Milk Glycerol Extenders containing pencillin and streptomycin and preserved from 3 to 4 days in refrigerator at 5oC. All Inseminations were mostly carried out by Intra-cervical methods and only one ml of extended semen was used. In the present study data for first inseminations in the buffaloes and cows of selected bulls were only considered. All the non-return rate were compiled on the basis of 30, 60, 90, 120, 60-90 and 90-120 days intervals with the Ist service. The results of actual conception rate for first insemination were also considered for comparison. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance and Duncan's Multiple Range test was also applied to find out the results. The studies revealed that: The non-return percentages between species (Buffalo and cow) fpr first insemination of different intervals were found to be significant except at 90 days interval. Similarly the non-return percentages among different specie for first inseminations were found significant. The differences in non-return percentages for different breeds (Buffalo Red Sindhi and Sahiwal) for first insemination at 30,60,90,120 and 60-90 days intervals were found non significant but at 90-120 days interval were significant. Highly significant differentes in non-return percentages were observed between bulls of Sahiwal Breed. It was significant between bulls of buffalo breed, while non significant differences were found between bulls of Red Sindhi breed. The actual conception percentage for inseminations in Buffalo Bulls was lower as compared to cow bulls,but the conception rate for Sahiwal bulls was obtained higher than with Red Sindhi Bulls. Highly significant differences were obtained in conception rate on the basis of non-return as compared to actual pregnancy test. Significantly lower conception rates were recorded with natural service as compared to that obtained with artificial insemination. Based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that more reliance can be placed on the conception rates based on non-return percentages at 120 days interval or above. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0003,T] (1).

34. A Comparative Investigation Of The Nutritive Value Of Various Commercially Available Fish Meals In Broiler Feeding

by Anwar ul Haq, Ch | Not Available | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1970Dissertation note: Two experimens, one of growth and feed efficiency and the other for determination of metabolizable energy were conducted on broiler chicks. Three fish meals of 55, 45 and 40 grades prepared by M/S. Pak primco Ltd. Karachi were evaluated for their nutritive values. The control ration was supplemented with meat meal at the same level. An 8 week growth trial was conducted and broiler chicks fed on experimental rations A, B, C, and D gained average daily weight of 18.88, 18.07, 17.59 and 18.25 grams respectively. Feed efficiency for rations A, B, C and D was 3.18, 3.27, 3.36 and 3.22 respectively. When weight gain and feed efficiency data was subjected to analysis of variance, no significant difference was observed. In the second experiment of one week duration, metabolizable energy value of experimental rations was determined. Nine week old male chicks of equal weights were maintained in battery cages in groups of two. Three groups were fed on each experimental ration. Method of total collection of excreta was adopted. Uncorrected and corrected metabolizable energy values of rations A, B, C and D per gram were calculated and found to be 3.74, 3.35, 3.20 and 3.37 Calories in the former case and 3.50, 3.12 and 3.12 Calories in the latter case on statistical analysis highly significant differences were seen between rations A--B, A--C and A--D, while non significant differences were observed between B-C, B-D and C-D rations. Chicks fed on rations A, B, C and D metabolized nitrogen at the rate of 28.41, 28.48, 24.89 and 30.39 milligrams per gram of diet. Significant difference at 5 percent level was observed between rations D-C, because of high protein and low mineral contents of ration D than ration C. Following conclusions can be drawn from the present research study:- 1. All three fish meals used, possessed high nutritive value. 2. Sun curing may be a satisfactory process of drying fish meals and does not deteriorate the quality of fish meals for poultry feeding. 3. Fish meal of lowest grade gave comparable results in growth, feed efficiency and metabolizable energy values with meat meal and the latter can be completely replaced without effecting the biological value of rations. 4. Complete replacement of meat meal with fih meal of lower quality will decrease the feed cost by 15-20 percent as the latter is available at approximately half of the price of meat meal. 5. Fish meals used at 7 percent level did not give any fishy odour to the meat of broilers. 6. More research work is required to evaluate various fish meals preferably at lower levels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0007,T] (1).

35. Study On The Incidence Of Lameness In Broilers Of Different Age Groups Under Different Management Conditions In And Around Lahore

by Nooman Sh., M | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Javaid Ahmed | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: The study was aimed to find out the incidence of lameness in broilers at different age groups under different management conditions in and around Lahore. The project was devided into two parts. 1. Research Work 2. Survey Work Research Work In research two hundred broilers chicks were reared in the college. They were brooded uniformly for two weeks. Then 162 birds were selected randomly and divided into three treatments i.e. A, B and C on the basis of depth of littre i.e. 1 inch, 2 inches, and 3 inches respectively. The parameters studied were weight gain, lameness and mortality from 3 weeks to 6 weeks age. Weekly data starting from 3rd week onward revealed that the treatment C having 3 inches depth of littre gained more weight, less leg lameness and differed highly significantly (P<0.01) from B and A. Survey Work In Survey Work three data from types of farms I, II and III (Houses having length less than 50 feet, width less than 30 feet and window height less than one foot from the floor)(Houses having length in between 50-70 feet, width 30 feet and window height 1-2 feet from the floor) and (Houses having length more than 70 feet, width more than 30 feet and window height more than two feet from the floor were collected and analysed. The study was based on three different age groups i.e. 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 7 weeks. The study revealed a highly significant difference (P<0.01) in three age groups. Three weeks age group showed least leg lameness. A highly significant difference was also observed between age groups of 6 weeks and 7 weeks. This difference is because broiler start gaining weight rapidly after 5 weeks. A significant difference was also observed in all the Specification. A highly significant difference was observed between specification I and III and II and III. No Significant difference was observed between specification I and II. It was observed that as the length, width and window height from the floor increased the leg lameness also increased. There was no mortality throughout the experimental period. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0008,T] (1).

36. Effect Of Various Litter Materials With Different Stock Dessities On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Arif Mahmood | Javed Ahmed Qureshi | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Mubashar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The experiment was performed to study the effect of floor space and litter materials on the growth rate, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage and weight of giblets etc. of broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty, day od broiler chicks were used in this study. The experimental broilers were randomly divided into two groups Viz A and B, with each group containing 60 chicks. Both the groups were further divided into 3 sub groups viz AI, AII, AIII and BI, BII, BIII. Every sub group was randomly allotted 20 chicks each. The experimental chicks were provided floor space of 1.0 and 0.5 sq.foot per bird in groups A and B respectively. Saw dust, rice hulls and cut wheat straw were used as litter material for sub groups AI-BI, AII-BII and AIII-BIII respectively. The chicks were provided same feed and water ad-libitum. All other managemental conditions were same except the floor space and litter materials. During the experimental period the data for weight gain feed in take and feed conversion ratio was recorded on weekly basis. Then the data was subjected to analysis of variance using randomized complete black design. All the parameters showed non significant difference among the treatments. However visual observations of the litter in different groups for fitness and maintenance showed, that rice hulls were superior litter as compared to saw dust and cut wheat straw due to less cake formation. As the results of present study indicates that floor spaces of 0.5 sq.ft/bird and 1 sq.ft/bird do not have any significant effect on weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage, so it is concluded that broilers can be reared at the floor space of 0.5 sq.ft/bird without any harmfull effect, in moderate climate. In hot climate sufficient ventilation should be provided to the birds when stock density is increased. Similarly different litter materials i.e. saw dust, rice hulls and cut wheat straw also showed non significant difference for weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage etc. Although cut wheat straw did not prove to be a good litter material for use in broiler houses. However rice hulls and saw dust are approved as good litters for rearing the broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0009,T] (1).

37. Comparative Study Of Desi Fowl (Fural Fowl) And Payoumi(Egyptian Fowl) Under Controlled Managemental Conditions

by Safdar Anjum, M | Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: The study conducted at the College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore was aimed to compare the Desi fowl (Rural breed) and Fayoumi (Egyptain breed) for the selection of breed best suited for meat production. The basis of the selection were body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, production cost, slaughter analysis and chemical composition of the carcass. 120 eggs of the Desi breed were collected from the deep rural areas of Punjab and the same number of eggs of Fayoumi breed was obtained from Government Poultry Farm Lahore. These Eggs were hatched in the Animal Husbandry section, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. Sixty birds each of Desi and Fayoumi breed were divided into three replicates and reared under controlled managemental conditions upto 16 weeks of age. Broiler starter ration was fed ad.libitum during the first 8 weeks of age and broiler finisher ration during the last 8 weeks of age.At the 8th, 12th, and 16th week of age 3 birds from each group were taken randomly and slaughtered. The slaughter analysis and chemical composition of the meat was studied (Richard, 1984). The data wa subjected to two way analysis of variance and 2*2*3 factorial. There was no significant difference in body weight upto 10 weeks of age but Desi breed gained significantly more body weight from 11th to 16th week of age. Feed consumption and feed efficiency of Desi breed was highly significantly better as compared to Fayoumi birds. Mortality was found to be more in Desi birds and production cost was more in Fayoumi. Non significant differences were found between the breeds in Dressing percentage, Giblet, Liver, Gizzard, and Heart weight. Breast meat percentage, Shank and Keel lengths were also non significant between the breeds. However there were highly significant between the breeds during 8th. , 12th, and 16th week of age. Bone meat ratio was highly significantly more in Fayoumi breed. Breast width was more in Desi and the difference between the breeds was significant. Correlations of breast meat,shank and keel length with body weight were found higher in Desi breed. Chemical analysis indicated non significant differences between the breeds in moisture and crude protein contents; although apparently moisture percentage was higher in Fayoumi and protein were notices more in Desi Breed. Lipid percentage was higher in Fayoumi fowl at 8th week of age whereas it increased at the 12th and 16th week of age in local fowl and significant difference between the breeds was observed. The Percentage of ash was significantly more in Fayoumi breed. On the whole the results of the study indicate better overall performance by Desi birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0010,T] (1).

38. Study On The Effect Of Various Floor Spaces On The Performance Of Broilers Kept In Cages

by Arshad Hussain, S | Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Mubasher.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1983Dissertation note: The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of various floor spaces on the performance of broilers kept in cages. One hundred and twenty day old (Indian River of Hybred Pakistan Ltd) chicks were reared for the experimental units of 36 birds each and were kept on 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 sq. foot floor space per bird. They were fed on a commercial ration. The other conditions like temperature, humidity, light and ventilation were similar for all the groups. The broilers at the end of 8th week, gained an average live weight of 2.023,2.054 and 2.063 kg with a feed conversion ratio of 2.45, 2.43 and 2.41 at densities of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 sq. foot per bird respectively. No significant difference was observed on the three different floor spaces of 0.50,0.75 and 1.0 square foot per bird on cages for feed efficiency. The mean dressing percentage recorded were 64.3, 65.9 and 66.9 at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 sq.foot of floor space respectively at the end of experiment. The differences in dressing percentage were also statistically non significant. It is worth mentioning that no mortality was observed during whole of the experimental period. Suggestions At the end of experiment it was found that broilers can be reared in cages at a density of 0.5 sq. foot efficiently and economically up to the age of 8 weeks without any detrimental effect on the growth rate and feed conversion ratio. It is therefore recommended that the broilers should be kept at 0.5 sq. foot per bird in cages. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0011,T] (1).

39. Study On The Effect Of Various Floor Spaces On Feed Efficiency, Weight Gain And Dressing Percentage Of Broilers Kept On Litter System

by Zain-ul-Abidin | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Muhammed | Muhammed Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1981Dissertation note: An experiment was designed to study the effect of population density on the weight gain, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and carcass chemical composition of the broilers at 8 weeks of age. One hundred day-old (Hubbard) chicks were reared in the floor pens with wood litter for 2 weeks, after 2 weeks 90 chicks were selected and were randomly divided into 3 groups of 30 chicks each. Each group was further sub divided into three replicates of 10 chicks of groups were placed at densities of either 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 square foot per bird up to 8 weeks of age. Other conditions were the same for all the groups. Data was recorded in respect of body weight gain, feed efficiency. The average gain in body weight per bird at 8 weeks of age was 1827, 1878 and 1894 gm on 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 square goot space per bird, respectively. The feed efficiency values were found to be 2.19, 2.21 and 2.21 for the birds kept on 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 square foot floor space per bird, respectively. Differences in weight gain and feed efficiency were no significant. At the end of the study, 3 birds from each groups were randomly taken, slaughtered, dressing percentage calculated, the meat was analysed for approximate analysis of other extract, protein and ash percentage. However the difference due to the effect of various floor spaces were found no significant except in other extract percentage, which was more in birds kept at 0.50 square foot floor space per bird due to restricted movements. The results of present experiment showed that there was no determental effect due to different floor spaces on the performance of broiler, however, the birds kept at 0.50 showed soiled plumage and about 10 percent showed breast blisters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0012,T] (1).

40. The Influence Of Egg Weight On Hatchability Chick Weight And Its Subsequent Performance Upto Six Weeks

by Farooq, M | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Mian Nisar | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: This study was conducted at the poultry department, college of Veterinary Sciences Lahore, to examine the effect of egg weight on fertility, hatchability, chick weight and their subsequent performance up to six weeks of age. Eggs of Hubbard Broiler breeders were used in this study. The eggs were classified in four weight groups, viz; A, B, C and D with the weight range of 48-51 gms, 52-55gms, 56-59gms and 60-63gms respectively. One hundred and fifty eggs of each group were selected randomly and incubated in the hatchery. Fertility and hatchability were recorded on the 18th and 21st days of incubation respectively. Sixty chicks from each egg weight class were picked up randomly. The chicks were weighed and wing banded individually and was transferred to the thermostatically controlled electric brooder. The chicks within each egg weight group were further divided into four sub-groups with 15 chicks in each sub-group. The records of weekly weight gain, total weight and feed consumption were maintained and feed efficiency was also measured. No culling was practiced during the conduct of the experiment. Mortality, whenever occurred was recorded. The results of the present study showed a higher percentage of fertility in the group D than in groups A, B and C whereas the fertility in the group B and C was identical. The hatchability of eggs was higher in group B, followed by group C, A and D. The chicks hatched from various egg weight groups differed significantly from each other in respect of their weights. Chicks of group D had the highest weight followed by group C, B and A respectively. Statistically highly significant differences were observed in the subsequent growth up to 6th week of age. The feed consumption and feed efficiency of group D was apparently higher than the other three groups, but statistically there was no significant difference. Mortality was higher in group A than in the groups B, C, and D. The number of dead chicks being 4, 3, 1 and 1 respectively. It is concluded from the present study that chicks hatched from larger and medium eggs were heavier at day old, gained considerably more weight up to 6th week of age and shoed a lower percentage of mortality as compared to chicks hatched from smaller eggs. However the chicks from smaller eggs consumed the same quantity of feed as consumed by chicks from larger and medium eggs so it is not economical to select small eggs for hatching in commercial broiler production. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0013,T] (1).

41. Studies On The Performance, Chemical Composition And Quality Of The Carcass In Relation To Sex And Age Of Different Broiler Strains

by Nadeem Ahmad | Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Ehtisham | Mian Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Poultry industry I Pakistan, has been commercialized shoeing an annual increase of 15 percent for the last ten years (Pak. Economic Analysis Network Project 1988). The poultry farming is the quickest, efficient economical and comparatively cheapest source of good quality protein. Although a considerable work has been done on various aspect of their rearing in our local environmental and managemental conditions, yet some areas remained unexplored. One of these areas was the study on comparative productive performance, qualitites and chemical composition of carcass of various commercial broiler strains, in relation to sex and age. In the present study, four different strains and sexes of Ross, Lohmann, Indian River and Hubbard were evaluated and compared for productive performance and carcass characteristics at different age periods. A total of 240 one day old, Sex separated chicks with equal number (60) of each strain were reared for a period of 8 weeks, under indentical managemental conditions. Among male birds Hubbard gained highly significantly (P<0.01) more weight than that of other strains, while non-significant difference (P<0.05) was found between Ross and Lohamann and showed significantly better weight gain than the Indian river strain. Females birds of Hubbard strain had also gained significantly (P<0.05) more weight than that of other strains, while non significant difference was found among the females of rest of the three strains. The results on weekly feed convertion ratio were found to be non significant (P<0.05) due to strain and significant due to age of the birds . While among sexes it was found that male birds of each strain showed better F.C.R compared with that of female chicken. The dressing percentage increased significantly with age, male birds of the strain showed better dressing percentage compared with the female birds of the respective strains though statistically the diference was found to be non-significant (P<0.05).The birds of Hubbard strain showed significantly better dressing percentage than that of the other strains. A significant difference was also observed between Lohmann and Indian River strain while the difference between Ross and Indian River was statistically non-significant as was the difference between Ross and Lohmann strain (P<0.05). The values for weight of Giblet of Ross, Lohmann and Indian River Strain were non-significantly different (P<0.05) from each other but were significantly poor than that of Hubbard strain. A non-significant difference in shank length was observed among various strains (P<0.05). Non-significant difference in length of kell bone was found among birds of Ross, Lohmann and Indian River Strain while birds of both sexes of Hubbard strain had significantly (P<0.05) greater length of kell boe. Moreover it was observed that female birds of all the strain had greater length of keal bone compared with male birds of their respective strains. Female birds of all the strain had significantly greater bone, meat ratio compared with the male birds of their respective strains. Birds of Ross. Lohmann and Indian River Strain Had significantly lesser meat bone ratio than that of Hubbard strain (P,0.05). Difference in meat bone ratio between Lohmann and Ross strain was found to be statistically significant, but non-significant between Lohmann and Indian River strains (P<0.05). The effect of strain, age and sex on the composition of carcass revealed that moisture percentage was not significantly affected by strain and sex. However it decreased with increase in age. Crude protein contents generally increased with age in both sexes of all the four strains. Protein percentage was found to be similar between both the sexes of all strains. Fat contents increased with age In all the four strains. Female broilers of all strain had significantly greater fat contents than the male broilers (P<0.05). Between the male and female broilers Hubbard strain had significantly more fat percentage, followed by Indian River, Ross and Lohmann. There was no effect on the ash contants of carcase due to sex and strain, though it decreased with increase in age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0015,T] (1).

42. Study On Performance Of Broilers Under Different Intensities (Wattages) Of Light And Illuminated Feeders

by Afzal Sajid, M | Ch. Muhammed Saleem | Dr. Nisar | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: The study was aimed to find out the effect of different light intensities (wattages) on weight gain, feed consumption feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, mortality and abnormalities in broiler chicks. 120, one day old chicks were selected and divided randomly in four groups of 30 chicks each. The following light treatments were provided to the chicks of the Groups A,B,C and D. (A) 40 watt bulb at night and natural day light (B) 25 watt bulb at night and natural day light (C) 15 watt bulb at night and natural day light (D) Spot-lighted feeders with 5 watt bulb at night and natural day light. Each chick was given 0.8 sq. ft. floor space. Feeding and watering were provided ad.lib. under indentical managemental conditions. Weekly data starting from 4th week onwards revealed that at 4th week of age there wa non-significant difference in weight gain, feed consumption and feed convertion ratio among the four treatment groups. Significant differences in weight gai and feed conversion ratio and non-significant differences in feed consumption were noticed among the groups at 8th week of age. The results indicate that birds of Group A due to more activities under high wattage gained least weight i.e. 1.6937 Kg and sonsumed more feed i.e. 4.8017 Kg and showed poorest feed conversion ratio i.eo 2.84 as compared to the birds of rest of three groups, i.e. B, C and D. The birds of Group B gained less weight i.e. 1.7343 Kg, consumed more feed i.e. 4.7983 Kg and showed poorer feed conversion ratio i.e. 2.77 than the birds of Group C and D. The birds of Group C gained less weight, i.e. 1.8293 Kg consumed more feed i.e. 4.6733 Kg and showed poor feed conversion ratio i.e. 2.55 when compared with the birds of Group D but showed better performance tha the birds of Group A and B. The birds of Group D gained significantly more weight (P<0.05) i.e. 1.8567 Kg, at low feed intake i.e. 4.6510 Kg and showed significantly better feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) i.e. 2.50 as compared to the birds of Group A and B, as the light intensity (wattage) available to the birds of Group D was very low, hence there was less activity due to less movement, as compared to Group A,B and C. Therefore, the birds of Group D converted more available energy into weight gain and showed best performance as compared to other three groups i.e. A, B and C. Dressing percentage recorded after 8th week of age was 61.85% 62.24% 62.86% and 63.11% for Group A, B, C and D respectively. A non-significant difference was observed among all the groups. There was no mortality throughout the experimental period and apparently no considerable abnormality was observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0016,T] (1).

43. Study On The Effect Of Artificial Insemination On Fertiligy And Hatchability Of Eggs In Poultry

by Nisar Ahmad | Mubbasher Ahmed Shah | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Sagir Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1983Dissertation note: The main objective of this research was to examine the possibility of using skimmed milk and whole milk as diluents of fowl semen under the local environment. The research was carried out on 56 weeks old hens at the poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. The birds were trap nested in individual cages and cages were arranged in three tiers. The birds were exposed to 16L: 8D. Feed and water were available at all times. Study was executed in two phases. In the first series of trials, skimmed milk was used in five different dilutions comprising 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20 and 1:25 undiluted semen (Treatment A) served as control group. The experiment was repeated four times to remove any experimental error and to minimize variability between the trials. The hatchability of eggs was maximum in the control group, and it was observed to be statistically significant (P<0.01) than all other competitive treatments. The skimmed milk dilutions gave poor hatchability although hatchability increased with the reduction in the dilution ratio. The second phase of trials consisted of two trials and each trial had three treatments, i.e. undiluted semen (A), skimmed milk dilution 1:2 (B) and whole milk dilution 1:2 (C), treatment B was included in the trials to make the skimmed milk studies comprehensive and to compare it with the whole milk as diluents of chicken semen. The hatchability of eggs in treatment A and C was substantially higher than the skimmed milk group (Treatment B). The number of infertile eggs in the skimmed milk group was very high and it was significantly (P<0.01) more than all other treatments. This higher infertility could e ascribed to old age of the birds and high temperature (above 40oC) of summer season. This might, therefore, be concluded that the whole milk proved satisfactory diluents of fowl semen while pure skimmed milk gave poor hatchability. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0018,T] (1).

44. Effect Of Egg Weight On Chick Weight And On Subsequent Performance Of Japanese Quails

by Shaukat Ali | Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: The present project was planned to study the effect of egg weight on chick weight at day old and its subsequent performance in Japanese quails. Three hundred and sixty quail eggs were purchased from a local breeding farm and divided into 3 equal groups i.e., A, B and C according to their weights i.e. , small (8.5-9.5 gm), medium (9.6-10.5 gm) and large (10.6-11.5 gm) respectively. The eggs were incubated and hatched. Sixty chicks from each group were randomly divided into 3 replicates of 20 chicks each and were reared under the identical management and environmental conditions. A commercial quail's ration was provided ad libtium. Fresh and clean water was given all the times. The experimental chicks were weighed individually at one day-old and on weekly basis upto the age of 6 weeks. Weekly feed consumption was also recorded for each group. At 6 weeks of age two birds from each replicate were picked up randomly and slaughtered to observe the dressing percentage of visceral organs and biochemical values of blood. The average weight gain observed per quail upto 6 weeks of age on the basis of egg weight in groups A, B and C was 119.70, 130.70 and 147.30 gms and the average feed consumption per quail was 472.83, 481.89 and 463.88 gms respectively. The feed efficiency values were 3.95, 3.68 and 3.14 respectively. The mortality percentage was 5.00, 3.33 and 0 percent. The average dressing percentage was 60.64, 67.88 and 64.23 respectively. The average weight of liver was apparently more in quails hatched from group B as compared to quails hatched from group A and C. The quails hatched from group B exhibited apparently maximum weight of heart as compared to quails hatched from group A and C. However, the average weight of gizzard was maximum in quails hatched from group C as compared to quails hatched from group A and B. Statistical analysis of the data revealed non-significant effect of egg weight on feed consumption, dressing percentage, giblet weight (liver, heart and gizzard), protein, lipids and cholesterol of serum, packed cell volume, total leucocytic count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin and erythrocytes. However, the effect of egg size was highly significant at (P 0.1) in case of body weight gain, feed efficiency and blood sugar level of experimental quails. The monetary return per quail was Rs. 2.00. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0021,T] (1).

45. The Effect Of Different Dietary Protein Levels And Stock Density On The Performance Of Japanese Quail

by Ishaq, M | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0064,T] (1).

46. Influence Of Intermittent Periods Of Light Of Feed Conversion Ratio And Rater Of Growth In Broiler.

by Shafqat Mahmood | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Asif Rabbani | Ch. Muhammed Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0123,T] (1).

47. A Study On The Effects Of Intermittent Light On The Performance Of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)

by Israr-ul-Haq, Chohan | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Javed Ahmed | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The study was aimed to find out the effect of different photo-periods on the body weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and Bone; meat ratio of J. quails. Light plays a vital role in the management of quails. The adequate light for quails should be sufficient enough to enable the birds to move about, facilitating to see, eat and drink without any extra exercise. One of the main factors, which needs further exploration is to fix up the hours of light necessary for better growth and economical production. The present study was thus under taken to determine the appropriate and economical light dark cycle for best performance of Japanese quails, under local climatic conditions. The photo-periods provided in this experiment were 24 hours continuous light, 1 hour continuous light followed by 1 hour continuous darkness alternately, 1 hour continuous light followed by 2 hours continuous darkness and 1 hour continuous light followed by 3 hours continuous darkness to groups Li, L2, L3 and L4 respectively. 192 one day old J. quails were reared upto 6 weeks of age. Groups were further sub-divided into 3 replicates (La, Lb. La) of 16 quails each. The quails of all groups reared in battery brooders, where quails were provided floor space at the rate of 25. SQ. inches per bird, throughout the experiment. Automatic programme timers with 25 watt bulbs were used; where controlled light was required. Feeding, watering. environmental and managemental conditions were made identical for all the birds. The birds reared under one hour continuous light, followed by 2 hours darkness. Grained more body wiehgt than that of birds of other three groups There were highly significant difference (P<0.01) in body weights of various groups of quails from 3rd to 5th weeks of age. On applying DMR test, it revealed that the highest body weight was in group L3 followed by Li, L2 and L4 groups respectively. The results on feed consumption by various - groups were also found to be highly significant (P<0.01) Maximum feed was consumed by the birds kept under L3 group, followed by Li, L2 and L4 groups respectively. The observations on weekly feed conversion ratio and mortality % were found to be non-significant. The dressing percentage increased significantly with age. Li group showed better dressing percentage compared with those of other 3 groups. There were highly significant difference (P<0.01) in the dressing percentage among various groups. DMR test revealed that Li group had better dressing percentage, followed by L2, L3 and L4 groups respectively. The values for bone; meat ratio were found to he highly significant (P<0.01). The best bone; meat ratio were of group Li followed by L2, L3 and L4 groups respectively. However DMR test revealed that there were non- significant difference observed in bone, meat ratio of groups L3 and L4. Thus, the fore said study claimed that better productive growth of Japanese quails were under one hour light followed by two hours continuous darkness. There were also comparatively better results of 24 hours continuous light as compared to be L2 and L4 groups in our study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0227,T] (1).

48. Incidence Of Gastro Intestinal Nematode Parasites Of Sheep Slaughtered In Municial Corporation Abattoir Lahore

by Muzarab Shah | Sheikh Altaf Hussain | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1973Dissertation note: 1. 500 sheep guts ware examined during autumn, winter ad spring, The animals were brought from Lahore Silalkot, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Lyallpur, Multan, Bahawalpur Peshawrr, Murree ad Kaghan districts, The parasites recorded ware Trichuris Ovis Haemonchus countortus, Oespharostomum venulosum, Oestphagostomum columbianum, Ostertagia circumcincta, Skrajabinems ovis, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrius and Chabertia ovina . 2, The changes in worm burden of different parasites varied according to changes in the weather, the overall percentage infection showed a gradual decrease from October, 1969 to February, 1970 sad a rise in March and April, 1970, 3. Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostronglys vitrinus, and Chabertia ovina were recovered from only those sheep which were slaughtered 4uring spring and the number of parasites was low, 4, The average percentage infection of Trichostrongyulus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus was 0,2% a4 0,4% respectively. 5. 38.4% cases of Trichuris ovis were recorded, 6. No male of Skrjubinema ovis could be found in any of the samples that were examined. 7. Of the total guts examined, 375 (75%) were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0271,T] (1).

49. Performance Of Broilers, Under Different Systems Of Brooding And Rearing Associated With Transfer

by Aslam Athar, M | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Javaid Ahmed | Muhammed Nawaz Asghar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1986Dissertation note: They study was conducted on Hubbard :hicks at the Poultry Experiment Station, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. The main objective of this study was to find ways and means of efficient broiler raising by using different managemental systems like floor rearing, cage rearing, transferring chicks from floor to cages and from cages to floor at different stages of rearing. Six experimental treatments were investigated, involving 144 broiler chicks. Initially 72 chicks (treatment A) were reared in cages and 72 chicks (treatment B) on floor upto 14' days of age. On 15th day 24 birds were transferred from group A to floor (treatment C) and a similar number was shifted from group B to cages (treatment 0). on 29th day, 24 birds were again shifted to floor (treatment E) from group A. In the same way 24 birds were transferred to cages from group B(Treatment F). The experiment continued upto 8 weeks of age. Responses measured were body weight, feed intake, FCR, Performance Index, Dressing Percentage, Breast Blisters, Mortality and Abnormalities. The body weights at the end of 8th week were 1908,1976, 1869, 2043, 1896 and 2057g; The average feed intake was 4428, 4394, 4460, 4423, 4450 and 4521 g; the FOR was 2.318, 2.230, 2.387, 2.167, 2.350 and 2.199; The performance index was 82.312,88.810, 78.299, 94.4/4l,80.804 and 93.658; and dressing percentage was 68.89, 67.14, 67.78, 69.39, 67.75 and 68.33 for the treatment A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. The results showed that the overall performance of caged broilers in treatments A, D, and F was comparatively better than the treatments of floor (B, C and E). The birds that were transferred to cages (treatment D&F) gave feed conversion ratio which was significantly. (P>0.01) better than all the other groups. The caged birds gained more weight, consumed less feed, gave better FCR and produced more meat per sq. m. than the competitive groups on the floor. Among the birds reared on floor, the chicks of treatment B showed consistently better growth throughout the experiment. The figures for breast blisters and abnormalities were very similar in all treatments. The good performance of caged birds could be attributed to the better utilization of feed due to very limited movements of birds in cages. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0275,T] (1).

50. A Study On The Normal Blood Picture Of Buffaloes In Lahore

by Ata ur Rehman Rizvi, Syed | Muhammed Irfan | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1973Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0277,T] (1).



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