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1. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Moxidectin, Ivermectin And Levamisole Against Toxocara Vitulorum In Buffalo Calves

by Rahmatullah | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: hits study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of newly introduced drug moxideclin against Toxocara vitulorun, in buffalo calves under held conditions and to compare its efficacy and treatment cost with other anthelmintics (ivermectin atid levamisole) being used. In this project total of 80 buffalo calves Positive for Toxocara i'itulorum. based on faecal examination, were selected from (he field, and divided randomly into four equal groups i.e. A, 13, C and 1) containing 20 animals in each. Calves of group 'A' were treated with moxidectin, group 'B' were treated with ivermectin. group 'C' were treated with levamisole and group '1)' were kept as untreated control. Faecal samples were collected from each calf at clay zero (premedication), day 7th, day I 5th, and day 21st postmedicalion. Ffhicacy of each drug was calculated on the basis of reduction in eggs per gram of faeces. Anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin at (lie (lose level of 200ug / kg body weight was I 00%,efficacy of ivermectin at the close level of 200ug/kg body weight was 99.55%, and the efficacy of levamisole at the close level of 7.5mg/kg body weight was 99.035%, 21 st days post medication. From this study it was concluded that moxiclectin and ivermectin has excellent effect against Toxocara i'lluloriun but they are much expensive while levamisole has also excellent efficacy against T vituloruni and (his drug is more economical for the farmers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0658,T] (1).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Yucca Schidigera Extract And Frusemide In Ascites Of Broiler Chicks, Under Field

by Sohail Ejaz | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Masood | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of Yucca schidigera extract Norponin-200) and frusemide in ascites of broiler chicks. For this purpose twenty flocks affected from ascites were selected to carry out this experiment. From each flock thirty birds were randomly selected and were divided into three groups A, B and C having ten birds in each group. Twenty-four hours light was provided to all the experimental birds. Fresh and clean water was provided to them at all the time. The birds were fed ad libitum. The chicks of group "A" were given Yucca schidigera Extract (Norponin-200) at the rate of 10ml/200L of drinking water for three days. The chicks of group "B" were given frusemide (Frusicon) at the rate of 1gm/liter of drinking water for three days while the chicks of group "C" served as control. In this study feed intake, water intake, weight gain and reduction in the ascitic fluid was recorded before and after the treatment. The treated birds were significantly better than untreated birds. In Yucca schidigera treated birds, feed intake, water intake and weight gain was significantly higher than that of frusemide treated birds while reduction in ascitic fluid was significantly higher in frusemide treated group. From this study it is concluded that use of Yucca schidigera extract in ascites of broiler chicks is a better choice than that of frusemide. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0744,T] (1).

3. Therapeutic And Prophylactic Effects Of Antimicrobial Agents Against Omphalitis In Broiler Chicks

by Qamar Arif | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Ovais Omer | Dr. Shakil.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The Project was designed to study therapeutic and prophylactic effect of antimicrobial agents against omphalitis in the broiler chicks. Three hundred and seventy five day-old chicks were divided into two groups for therapeutic and prophylactic trails containing 200 and 175 chicks respectively. Therapeutic trail group was sub-divided into live groups A, B, C, D and E containing forty chicks in each. Chicks of group "A" served as non-infected, non-treated control. Infection was induced in group 13, C, D and E on first day. After 24 hours post infection, five chicks from each group were randomly slaughtered to observe the postmortem lesions of omphalitis. Trizine, Mycomas and Vetymoxil C medication was done in groups C, 1) and E respectively from 2nd to 5th day after the confirmation of omphalitis. Prophylactic trail group was also sub-divided into five groups A, 13, C, D ail E containing 35 chicks each. Group "A" served as non-infected, non-treated control. Chicks of group C, I) and E were first given medication of Trizine, Mycomas and Vety-moxil C respectively as a prophylactic measure for first 3 days of life. Then infection of confirmed pathogen of E. coil was given to group B, C, D and E on the 4th day of life. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of Trizine, Mycomas and Vetymoxil C was compared based on feed consumption, mortality, clinical findings and postmortem lesions. The results indicated that the treatment and prophylactic use of Mycomas, Trizine and Vety-moxil C were effective against omphalitis to reduce the early chick mortality. During therapeutic trials Mycomas cure rate was better than the Vety-moxil C and Trizine. In prophylactic trails Mycomas provided better protection followed by Vety-moxil C and trizine. Therefore Mycomas may be used to reduce the early chick mortality caused by omphalitis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0792,T] (1).

4. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Melia Azedarach Linn. Oxfendazole, Febantel And Thiophanate Against Gastro-Intestinal

by Khalid Pervaiz | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Khalid Saeed | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The present project was designed with the objective to test the anthelinintic efficacy of Helia azedarach Linn. against Trichostrangylids infection in sheep. During the first phase of study anthelmintic efficacy of Melia azedarach Linn, fruit was tested at different dosage levels but anthelmintic efficacy was not observed at the dosage levels of 10mg to 1gm per kg body weight. Seeds of Melia azedarach were also tested for their antheirnintic efficacy but no anthelmintic effect was observed at the dosage levels of 10mg to 40mg per kg body weight. It was concluded in the first phase of study that Melia azedarach Linn. fruit and seed have no anthelmintic effect against G.I.T nematodes (Trichostrongylids) infection in sheep. During the second phase of this project clinical trials were conducted to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Melia azedarach Linn (fruit), Qxfendazole (systamex) Febantel (Rintal), and thiophanate (Nemafax) against the Trichostrongylids infection in sheep under field conditions. Results of second experiment confirmed the zero percent anthelmintic efficacy of Nelia azedarach Linn. (fruit) at the dosage level of 1gnj./kg body weight in sheep.Anthelmintic efficacy of Oxfendazole (4.5 mg/kg) Febantel (5mg/kg) and thiphanate (50mg/kg) was observed to be 100% 99.43% and 96.32% respectively against G.I.T. nematodes infection in sheep Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0223,T] (1).

5. Studies On The Efficacy Of Indigenous Drugs Against Fascioliasis In Buffaloes

by Shafeeq-ur-Rahman Kailani | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Muhammed | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Experiments have been carried out to study the antifasciolic effects of the powdered plant drugs including Nigella sativa (seeds), Fumaria paryiflora (aerial parts) and Caesalpinia crista(seeds) in buffaloes suffering naturally from fascioliasis. The chronological effects of these indigenous drugs on a reduction of faeeal EPG counts of the experimental arLimala on 3rd, 10th and 15th day post medication were recorded. All the drugs, in the presiribed dose levels were administered orally as a single dose treatment to the animals of specified drug and dose group. Incidence of fascioliasis from random samplings were found to be 3306±0.74 percent arid from symptomatically selected samples to be 64±3.18 percent. All the crude drugs were found to cause a chronological increase in their percentage efficacies against chronic fascioliasis, when tested on post-treatment days 3rd, 10th and 15th. Both the parameters C dosage level as well as the post treatment days ) caused significant effects on the efficacies in all the drugs, as indicated by the values of their F-ratios. All the drugs showed the upper most dosage level (L3) to be the optimum dosage level with a highly significant (P<0.005) decrease in the egg-counts on all the post treatment days checked. On the post treatment day 3rd, all the drugs caused a non-significant decrease in the egg-counts at their lowest dosage level, a significant change at their upper dosage level and a highly significant decrease at their upper most dosage level (L3). However within the prescribed dosage levels, none of the drugs could decrease the egg-counts to zero(0), on post treatment day 15th, indicating that some betterment, of course, would be possible by a slight increase in the dosage levels in all the drugs. Maximum efficacy, on the basis of percentage egg- count reductions(s), was shown by Fumaria paryiflora (Shahtera) (93.15+ 0.51), while Caesalpinia crista (Karanjwa) (89.67+1.7) and Nigella stiva (karanjwa) (88.17±0.41 percent) indicated to he on second and third position respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0224,T] (1).

6. Epidemiological Aspects And Treatment Trials On Black Quarter Disease In Dera Ismail Khan District

by Inam-ul-Haq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Manzoor | Muhammed sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: An active Surveillance in D-I-Khan indicated that black quarter is prevalent in this area 3.88% in cattle and 3.16% in buffaloes. Young cattle and buffaloes are more affected than adults. Incidences of black quarter were high in non irrigated area (7.55%) than irrigated area (1.19%). Highest incidences were observed in summer season especially in July (42.77%) as compared to other seasons of the year. Wound history was reported in 36% of affected animals. Morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates of black quarter were 3.75%, 3.14% and 91.13% respectively in this area. Economic losses due to black quarter were highest (44.53%) as compared to other common livestock diseases in the area. Treatment trials of Oxytetracycline (Terramycine L.A., Pfizer, 20 mg/Kg) and amoxicilline (Clamoxyl L.A., Beecham, 15 mg/Kg) were also conducted during this study. Severity and recovery was monitored before treatment and 6th, 12th, 24th, 48th and 72ndth hours after treatment. Most common symptoms observed were lameness, high rise of temperature, swelling, hot painful initially and cold, senseless in later stages, Crepitating sounds on pressing the swelling and death with in 12-45 hours. Treatment trails indicated that Oxytetracyline (Terramycine L.A., 20 mg/kg body weight) and Amoxicilline (clamoxyl L.A., 15mg per kg body weight) both proved 95% effective. Recoery period in Oxytetracycline treated group was in the range of 18 to 72 hours while in amoxicillin treated group it was with in the range of 18 to 54 hours. Death in untreated group occurred with in the rang of 12 to 45 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0248,T] (1).

7. Epidemiological Aspects And Treatment Trials On Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes And Cows In District Vehari

by Shahid Pervez | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Muhammed | Muhammed sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Epidomiological survey revealed that parturient haemoglobinuria was prevalent through out Vehari district. The prevalence of this problem was greater in buffaloes (3.12%) than cattle (0.5%). The disease mostly occured from 2 to 4 weeks after parturition. Incidences were high during Winter as compared to Summer season High milk producing buffaloes were more susceptible. Case fatality rate in bufffaloes was 48.25% while in cattle 38.46% Over all case fatality rate in buffaloes and cattle was 47.43%. Incidences were higher where management was poor Economic losses due to parturient haernoglobinuria were 13% based on total losses of common livestock diseases in buffaloes and cattle in District Vehari Treatment trials of Sodium acid phosphate (Merk) 2mg/kg body weight, (60gm/animal), Cal-D-Mag (Pfizer) at the rate of 300 ml per animal and 5% Saline Dextrose (MediPak) 1000 ml per animal were conducted during the study. Three groups were organized comprising 20 animals each .Recovery percentage of Sodium acid phosphate, Cal-D-Mag and Saline Dextrose were 85%,35% and 0% respectively. Severity and recovery were calculated before treatment and after every 24 hour interval of the treatment till the recovery/death of the animal Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0291,T] (1).

8. Anthelmentic Efficacy Of Nigellia Setiva Seeds (Kalwanji) Albendazole, Fenbendazole And Oxpendazole Against Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes In Goat

by Akmer Junid, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Khalid Saeed | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: The present project was designed to test the Antheimentic efficacy of Nigellia Setiva Seeds (Kalanji) at different dosage levels against nematodes in goats. During the first phase of study ant helmentic efficacy of Nigeilia Setiva Seeds (Powder) was tested at different dosage levels but anthelmentic efficacy was not observed at the dosage levels ranging from 20 mg to 5gm/kg body weight, it was concluded in the first phase of study that Nigellia Setiva Seeds has no Anthelmentic efficacy against G.I.T. nematodes in goats. During the second phase of this project clinical trials were conducted to test the anthelmentic efficacy of Nigellia Setiva Seeds (Kaiwanji), Oxfendazole (Systanex) Albendazole (Valbazene) and Fenben- dazole (Panacur) against the G.1.T. nematode infection in goat under field conditions. Result of Second experiment support the zero percent anthelmentic efficacy of NigeIlia Setiva Seeds (Powder) at the dosage level of 1 gm/kg body weight in goats. Anthelmentic efficacy of oxfendazole (4,5 mg/kg), albendazole (5mg/kg) and fenbendazole (50mg/kg) was observed to be 100%, 98.45% and 97.99% respectively against G.I.T. nematodes infection in goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0292,T] (1).

9. Drug Traisl On Escherichia Coli Isolated From Broilers

by Khaliq Shafi | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Muhammed | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Pakistan is basically an Agricultural country whose economy largely hinges upon its animal wealth. Poultry industry which Is recognized as one of the major emerging fields In the country is confronting with many a baffling malady which often leave the Industry at a growing disadvantage. Escherichla coil, one of the most abundantly Incriminated organism in avian ailments, is reckoned to be one of the major culprits that wreaks havoc on the steeply proliferating poultry industry. The present project made an effort to study the efficacy of different drugs on various prevalant strains of E. coll isolated from broilers that were submitted for postmortem at V.R.I. and C.V.S. Lahore. Twelve different antibacterial drugs which Included doxycycline, Inoxyl, oxytertracycline, ampicillin, colistin, trimethoprim, flumequlne, furazolidone, tylosin, furadantin clamoxyl and gentamicin were used to observe the sensitivity of the isolates. In-vitro gentamicin, -flumequine, inoxyl and clamoxyl emerged as drugs of choice in order of their decreasing importance in this experiment. The pathogenicity of the isolated strains was tested In Swiss white mice. After viable count, ten mice were injected intraperltonenily with the suspension of the Isolated strain at a dose rate of 0.25 ml having 3x10'8 bacteria while ten mice were kept as controls. The four best drugs were further tested for their efficiency in protecting the birds from E. coil infection. A total of 180 birds reared upto four weeks of age were divided into six groups viz. A to F, each consisting of 30 birds. Group A was kept as uninfected and untreated while to the group B infection was given but no treatment. The remaining groups I .e. C, 0, E and F after infection were treated with Inoxyl, gentamicin, clamoxyl and fiuinequine respectively. All the groups were kept under close observation and their mortality and feed efficiency was recorded. Maximum mortality was recorded in group B i.e. 54.5'l% while in the group C, 0, E and F the mortality recorded was 25%, 42.85%, 40.90% and 27.77% respectively. According to this trial Inoxyl afforded maximum protection against the Infection and proved best In relation to F.C.R. Flumequlne stood in second in the list while clamoxyl was next best drug in furnishing protection against the Infection whereas gentamicin was the least best drug in this regard. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0305,T] (1).

10. Efficacy Of Albendazole Against Fascioliosis And Its Effects On Sgot, Sgpt And Serum Bilirubin In Buffaloes

by Dilshad Hussain | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Manzoor | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: Fascioliasis causes great losses in buffaloes, if not treated. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of an anthelmintic, albendazole against the disease. The effects of the drug on serum bilirubin, SOOT and SGPT were also determined. For this purpose, 250 suspected buffaloes were selected and out of which forty positive cases having EPG above 200 were taken as infected group. The infected group was further divided into two equal groups C and D. Group C served as infected untreated control and group D was treated with albendazole. Similarly, forty healthy animals were divided into two equal groups A and B. The group A served as healthy untreated control while group B was treated with albendazole. All the animals were examined on zero day, 7th day and 14th day for the SOOT, SGPT and serum bilirubin. The ova counts per gram of faeces was performed only in infected groups on zero day, 7th day and 14th day. Albendazole (Valbazen - SK&F) was 49.2 % effective on 7th day post-medication and 84.2 % effective on 14th day post- medication. The drug had no effect on SGOT, SGPT and serum bilirubin in healthy animals which indicated that it was non toxic at its terapeutic dosage level of 10 mg/kg body weight. The drug had positive effect on SGOT,SGPT and serum bilirubin through lowering their levels in infected animals on 7th day and 14th day post-medication at dosage rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. No side effects were observed in any animals during the experiment. Hence, albendazole (Valbazen) was concluded to be the effective and safe drug against fascioliasis in buffaloes at its therapeutic dosage level of 10 mg/kg body weight. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0318,T] (1).

11. Efficacy Of Different Ionophorus Antibiotics Against Coccidiosis In Poultry

by Shafique Butt, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Asif Rabbani | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: Two hundred day old broiler chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and reared up to four weeks of age in hygienic conditions. After four weeks of age, chicks were divided randomly into four groups. Group A was kept as control, group B as infected non treated, group C as monensin treated and group D as salinomycin treated. After four weeks of age, chicks of group B,. C and D were infected with mixed infection of avian Eimeria species, while group A was kept as control. Signs and symptoms of coccidiosis appeared after seven days of infection. After appearance of signs and symptoms the birds of group C and D were treated with monensin and salinomycin. The effect of medication on feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, oocyst count and dressing percentage were recorded weekly upto 7 week of age. There was significant difference (p<O.05) of feed intake between group B, C and D. Maximum feed intake was in group B, followed by group A, D and C respectively. Weight gain was maximum of group A followed by group B, D and group C respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control group A was better than all other groups while feed conversion ratio of group B (infected nontreated) was poor than all other groups. Oocysts count was zero after six days of medication in group C (monensin treated) while it was zero after eight days of treatment in group D (salinomycin treated). Oocyst count was 120,000 oocysts/gm of faeces in group B (infected nontreated) after 49 days of age. While it remained zero through out the experiment in control group (group A). Mortality was maximum (33.50%) in group B (infected non treated) followed by in group D (10.22%) and group C (6.77%) respectively. While mortality remained zero in group A (control). Dressing percentage was better in group A (69.39%) followed by group D (65.30%), group C (63.07%) and group B (60.01%) respectively. Observing the effects of monensin and salinomycin on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, oocysts count and dressing percentage in experimentally infected (coccidiosis) chickens, it was concluded that monensin has comparatively better results than salinomycin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0319,T] (1).

12. Efficacy Of Ivermectin Against Ecto & Endo Parasites In Equine

by Hameed, A | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Asif Rabbani | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The project was designed to find out the efficacy of ivermectin against ecto. and endoparasites in equine. Fifty naturally infested equine were selected for treatment trials and divided into three groups i.e., A (endoparasites) 20 animals, B (ectoparasites) 20 animals and C (both endo. and ectoparasites) 10 animals. The comparative anthelmintic trials were conducted on 20 gastro-intestinal nernatodes infested animals of group A (A-i and A-2). 10 animals (group A-I) were medicated with Ivomec mi. (0.2 mg/kg body weight.) subcutaneously and 10 animals (group A-2) were administered with Rintal granulate (6 mg/kg body weight) orally in feed. The percentage efficacy was based on the reduction in number of egg discharged in faeces, post-medication. The percentage efficacy observed was 99.26% and 95.65% in the animals medicated with Ivomec inj. and Rintal granulate respectively on 14th day of post medication. The comparative acaricidal drug trials were conducted on 20 ectoparasitic infested equine of group B (B-i and 13-2). 10 animals (group B-i) were injected subcutaneously with Ivomec (0.2 mg/kg body weight) and 10 animals (group B-2) were once sprayed with Asuntol 0.1% solution. The cure percentage was determined on the basis of negative skin scraping samples on 14th day oF post- treatment. The cure percentage was 70% and 50% in the animals treated with ivomec inj. and Asuntol solution spray respectively. The efficacy of Ivomec subcutaneous injection (0.2 mg/kg body weight) was assessed in the 10 animals of group C infested with both G.I.T. nernatodes and ectoparasites. On the 14th day of postmedication the drug was l00% effective against G.I.T. nematodes and 80% against ectoparasites in equine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0339,T] (1).

13. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Caesalpinia Crista, Ivermactin, Levemisole And Oxfendazole Against Toxocara Vitulorum

by Saeed Ahmad sindhu | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahimad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present project was designed to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Caesalpinia crista Linn. seed (Karanjwa) at different dosage levels against Toxocara vitualorum infection in buffalo calves. During the both phases of first experiment, anthelmintic efficacy of Caesalpinia crista Linn. seed (powder) was tested at different dosage levels but anthelmintic efficacy was not observed at the dosage levels ranging from 2 gm to 6 gm/kg body weight. It was concluded in the first experiment that Caesalpinia crista Linn. seeds have no anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo calves. During the second experiment clinical trials were conducted to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Caesalpinia crista Linn. seeds (Karanjwa), Ivermectin (Ivomec), Levamisole (Anthelmine) and Oxfendazole (Systarnex) against Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo calves under field conditions. Again results of second experiment support the zero percent (0%) anthelmintic efficacy of . crista Linn seeds (Powder) at the dosage level of 4 gm/kg body weight against vitulorum in buffalo calves. Anthelmintic efficacy of Ivermectin. (Ivomec, I ml/50 kg body weight), Levamisole (Anthelmine 1 ml/15 mg body weight) and oxfendazole (systamex 1 ml/5 kg body weight) was observed to be 99.30%, 98.30% and 100% respectively against Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0360,T] (1).

14. Efficacy Of Amoxicillin Trihydrate Against Haemorrhogic Septicaemia Under Field Conditions In Buffalo Calves

by Sharif Masih | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. MuhammadSarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the efficacy of anoxicillin trihydrate (Claiioxyl L.A. Beechaji) and sulfadinidine 33.3% (Diadine, Pfizer) against Haemorrhagic Septieaemia in Buffalo calves under field conditions. Thirty animals were treated with axioxicillin and thirty with sulfadimidine. Pasteürella Lultocida was isolated from these animals using tryptose ager in the laboratory and their pathogenicity was also tested in rabbits.. Severity index of each animal was recorded before and after treatment based on clinical symptoms of disease exhibited by each animal. Improvement in disease condition leading to death or recovery were recorded for each group. Results of these trials indicated that anoxicillin at the rate of 15mg/kg was 93.33% effective in the improvement of clinical cases where as sulfadimidine (200mg/kg) was 40% effective. Sulfadimidinè was not effective in the later stages of the disease whereas anoxicillin was effective in early as well as later stages of the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0368,T] (1).

15. Efficacy Of Triclabendazole Against Fascioliasis In Sheep And Goat Under The Field Conditions

by Haleem Hasan, Shah | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0374,T] (1).

16. Comparative Efficacy Of Nitrofurans, Sulphadimidine & Monensin Against Coccidiosis In Sheep & Goats Under Field Conditions

by Anselm Lewis, Khokhar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present work was designed to study the comparative efficacy of Nitrosol, Suiphadimidine and Monensin against naturally infected sheep and goats with coccidiosis. Forty sheep and forty goats (infected) were selected and divided into four groups each i.e. S1, 2, S3, 84 and G, 02, G, 04 respectively. The animals of groups S and were treated with nitrosol 15 mg/kg body weight, S2 and 02 with sulphadimidine 140 mg/kg body weight, S3 and G with monensin 5 mg/kg body weight daily for five days. The sheep and goats in groups S4 and G4 were not medicated and served as control. The oocyst count per gram of faeces were compared on the 7th, 15th and 21st day of post medication. The oocyst count was reduced in groups S, S2, and S3 by 95.79%, 99.53% and 85.81% and in groups 1, G by 95.97%, 99.60% and 85.01%. The oocyst count in infected untreated control groups S4 and 04 increased. All the three anticoccidials tested gave appreciable response in reduction of oocyst counts but suiphadimidine was found to be the best amongst the three drugs. Nitrosol proved to be the 2nd whereas monensin proved to be the third in efficacy against coccidiosis in sheep and goats. No side affects of these drugs were observed) it is suggested that further research should be planned to test the efficacy of other anticoccidial drugs like lasalocid, amprolium colpidol, robenidine coxistac etc. under local conditions to select new drugs against coccidiosis in sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0376,T] (1).

17. Effect Of Glucocorticoids Alongwith Antimicrobial Drugs Against Haemorrhagic Septicaemia In Buffalo

by Ramzan, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Two long acting antibiotic preparations of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin were used in these trials against Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, singly and alongwith a combination of synthetic glucocorticoids (Dexamethasone and prednisolone). Eighty buffalo calves suffering from Haemorrhagic Septicaemia were selected and treated under field conditions. Weighted clinical score was recorded before and after treatment in each case, on the basis of severity of clinical symptoms. Reduction in this score and recovery or death of animal was also noted. It was concluded that amoxicillin was more effective than oxytetracycline and the addition of glucocorticoids reduced the convalescence period and also increased the survival rate. Therefore long acting amoxicillin alongwith Dexamethosone and prednisolone is recommended as the successful therapy for Haemorrhagic septicaemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0420,T] (1).

18. Effect Of Routine Deworming On The Development Of Resistance Against Git Nematodes In Sheep

by Akram, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: In this project the effect of routine deworming on GIT nematodes in sheep was studied with particular reference to the development of drug resistance. Comparison was studied by treating the flocks where routine deworming was practiced with the levamisole and albendazole and where routine deworming was not practiced with any medicine. One twenty sheep positive for GIT nematodes infection were selected. They were divided into six groups A, B, C, D, E and F comprising of 20 animal in each group. Animals of group A, B, C were selected from two different floclwhere routine deworming was practiced with levamisole and albendazole respectively. Animals of group D, E, & F were selected from unregistered private flocl where routine deworming was not practiced. Rectal faecal samples were collected before medication and at the seventh day of medication from all the six groups of sheep to count the eggs per gram of faeces and to count the number of larvae after culture under laboratory conditions. Groups A & D were treated with the levamisole orally at the dosage rate of 7.5 mg/kg. Groups B and E were medicated with albendazole orally at the dosage rate of 5 mg/kg and groups C & F were kept as control and remained untreated. Then the efficacy of levamisole and albendazole in addition to the development of resistance against these anthelmintics was estimated. Experimental study revealed that the levamisole showed 98.73% efficacy in the first timely dewormed flock and no any resistance was recorded whereas, 72.55% efficacy was noticed in the regularly dewormed flock, with a slight resistance. Albendazole had 97.13% efficacy in the first timely dewormed private flock and 61.24% efficacy in the regularly dewormed flock. This shows a strong evidence of resistance in the albendazole treated flock. No side effect were observed in both the groups. Levamisole was found better dewormer with less chances of resistance. However, both drugs can be used safely to achieve control of nematode parasites in sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0421,T] (1).

19. Efficacy Of Ivermectin And Coumaphos Against Ectoparasites In Cattle And Buffaloes

by Nadeem Haider, Syed | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmed | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: The project was designed to find out the efficacy of ivermectin and Coumaphos against ectoparasites in cattle and buffaloes. Thirty buffaloes infested for ectoparasites were selected for the treatment trials and divided into three groups i.e. Bi, B2 and B3 having ten animals in each group and thirty cattle infested for ectoparasites were selected for the treatment trials and also were divided into Cl, C2 and C3 groups. The comparative acaricidal drug trials were conducted on 20 infested animals against ectoparasites of group BI and Cl having ten animal in each were medicated with Ivermectin (lvomec: MSD) injected once by s/c route at dose rate of 200 pg/kg body weight. Observation were made on 7th and 14th day post-medication. Skin scrapping examination was done. The overall efficacy of invermectin on 7th and 14th day in buffaloes was 40% and 80% and in cattle 50% and 90% respectively. The comparative acaricidal drug trials were conducted on 20 infested animals for ectoparasites of B2 and C2 having ten animals in each were treated with Coumaphos (Asuntol: Bayer) at the dose rate of 30-50 gm/animal. On the 7th and 14th day post medication skin scraping examination was done. The efficacy of Coumaphos on 7th and 14th day in buffaloes was 50%, 50% and in cattle 70%, 70% respectively. Animals were also observed for any side effect of both medicine. No side effects were observed during the period from treatment to last observation in any group i.e. groups BI, Cl and B2, C2 groups. On last observation no spontaneous recovery was noted. In B3 and C3 in untreated and control groups. From the results of present study it is concluded that Ivermectin (Ivomec MSD) is the drug of choice for the treatment of ectoparasites in cattle and buffaloes when it is given at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0422,T] (1).

20. Efficacy Of Triclabendazole And Oxyclozanide Against Fascioliasis In Buffaloes And Their Effect On Blood Parameters

by Amer Aziz | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Haji Ahmed | Dr.Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: A comparative study was made among Fasinex 5% (Triclabendazole 50 mg/mi, Ciba Giegy), Endex 19.5% (Triclabendao1e 120 mg/mi + Levainisole 75 mg/mi, Ciba-Geigy) and Zanil 3% (Oxyclozanide 30 mg/mi, ICI) against fascioliasis in buffaloes and their effect on blood parameters. Sixty naturally infected buffaloes were selected and divided into four equal groups i.e. A, B, C and D containing 15 animals each. Each animal of Group A was given Fasinex 5% (1 ml/4.2 kg), Group B was given Endex 19.5% (1 mi/la kg), Group C was given Zanil 3% (1 ml/2 kg), while group D was kept as control. The mean efficacy of Fasinex 5% and Endex 19.5%, was 100% while Zanil 3% was 92.5% on 28th day post medication. Haematological changes were observed after examining the Total erythrocytic count, Haemoglobin estimation, Packed cell volume, Total leukocytic count and Differential leukocytic count which showed that there was a significant lower values for red blood cells counts (RBC), Haernoglobin (fib) and packed cell volume (PCV) while higher values were obtained for eósinophil counts in infected buffaloes. The data were analyzed statistically by applying One way Analysis of Variance (Anova Table) technique and Least significant difference test. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0434,T] (1).

21. Comparative Efficacy Of Oxfendazole, Albendazole And Ivermectin Against Gastro Intestinal Nematodes Of Horses

by Nadeem Kamal | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Mubasher | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0437,T] (1).

22. Efficacy Of Three Different Drugs Against Ectoparasites In Naturally Infested Dogs And Their Effect On Blood Parameters

by Sharoon Sabir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Mubsher | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate and compare different drugs in 40 naturally infested dogs (based on skin scrapping examination) taken from Dog Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and different Pet Clinics. Ivomec, Neguvon and Sulphur Tar Oil were used in three groups while one was control group. Treatment in each group was repeated after 14 days. Blood parameters i.e. Hemoglobin Estimation (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Total Erythrocytic Count (TEC) and Total Leucocytic Count (TLC) were estimated. Results of treatment were evaluated on 14 days and 21 days after the first treatment on basis of skin scrapping examination and improvement in clinical symptoms. Efficacy of ivermectin, trichiorophon and sulphur tar oil was 80%, 70% and 40% on 14th day after 1st treatment. Same results were observed one week after second treatment indicating no additional benefit.Based on these observations it was concluded that ivermectin (200 µg/kg, s/c) was safe to use and its efficacy was significantly higher than Neguvon and Sulphurate oil. Moreover a single injection is sufficient for mild cases of ectoparasites but in severe cases second injection may be repeated after 14 days interval. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0508,T] (1).

23. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Caesalpinia Crista, Fumaria Parviflora, Mebendazole And Ivermectin Against Haemonchus

by Saeed Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khalid Pervez, CMS (25n) | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Caesalpinia crista, Eumaria parviflora, Mebendazole and Ivermectin against Haemonchus ntortus in sheep. Anthelmintic efficacy of Casesalpinia crista at the dose level of 4 gm/kg body weight was 86.85%, Furneria parvifl at the dose level of 4 gm/kg body weight was 85.32%, Mebendazole at the dose level of 15 mg/kg body weight was 98.05% and Ivermectin at the dose level of 200 jig/kg body weight was 96.55%. There was marked decrease in EPG in all the four groups A, B, C and D treated with . crista, . p.ryjflora, Ivermectin and Mebendazole respectively, whereas an increased value of EPG was observed in group E (unmedicated control) in response to the increasing intensity of infection in sheep. Haematological study of infected animals revealed a considerable increase in Neutrophils, Monocytes, Basophils and Eosinophils while a considerable decrease in Lymphocytes, Total leukocytic count and Total serum proteins was observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0518,T] (1).

24. Comparative Efficacy Of Oxyclozanide, Rafoxanide And Bithionol Sulphoxide Against Paramphistomiasis In Buffaloes

by Umar, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was designed to test the anthelmintic efficacy of oxyclozanide, Rafoxanide and Bithionol suiphoxide against paramph istomiasis in naturally infected buffaloes. The comparative anthelmintic trials were conducted among Nilzan drench - Id (Oxyclozanide 3.0% + Levamisole 1.5%,), Fasifree - Prix (Rafoxanide 30 mg/mI), Irchasol - Medivet (Bithionol sulphoxide 10% + Levamisole 1.5%) and Nilverm drench - ICI (Levamisole 1.5%) against paramphistomiasis in buffaloes. Seventy five naturally infected buffaloes were selected and divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E containing 15 animals each. Each animal of group A was given Nilzan drench (lml/2kg body weight), group B was given Fasifree (lml/4kg body weight), group C was given Irchasol (lml/2kg body weight), group D was given Nilverm (lml/2kg body weight), while group E was kept as control. The efficacy of anthelmintics was evaluated by counting eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 7, 14 and 21 post-medication. The mean efficacyh of Nilzan drench was 97.29%, mean efficacy of Fasifree was 98.5% and of Irchasol was 85.56% while Nilverm did not have any effect for the treatment of Paramphistomiasis in buffaloes under field conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0547,T] (1).

25. Surveillance Of Disease Problems And Economic Losses In Commercial Broiler Farms In And Around Lahore

by Mudasser Jamil, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Athar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The main objective of present work was to investigate the prevalence of various diseases and economic losses, resulting due to various factors among the commercial broiler farms in and around Lahore. For this purpose, oniy those farms were included, for the purpose of collection of data which had a capacity from 5000 to 2000 birds. A questionnaire was designed to collect the data from each farm that related to morbidity rates, mortality rates, vaccination, susceptible age, managemental fault, economic losses and cost analysis for various diseases. This study project was divided into two portions. During one year retrospective study (October 1996 to September, 1997) data was collected from 28 broiler farms. They had a total capacity of 118,000 birds and overall diseases mortality rate was 9.09%. Important diseases observed in this study were IBD (2.5%), 1-IPS (2.09%), earJ' chick mortality (1.85%) followed by colibacillosis (0.6%). Respire tory disease complex (0.5%), Ascites (0.47%), Coccidiosis (0.4%), Aspergillosis (0.314%) and N.D. (0.05%). Economic losses due to these diseases were calculated to be about 4.7% ed on 10 farms randomly selected out of 28 farms. Influence of season on disease was observed by Jividing a calender year into winter season (October 1996 to March 1997) and summer season (April 1997 to September 1997). Comparison of winter and summer season revealed that the incidence of IBD, Ascites, Respiratory disease complex and early chick mortality were higher in winter than summer, while incidence of hydropericardium coccidiosis and colihacillosis were higher in summer than winter. In second phase of this project, a prospective study was arraiied from January, 1998 to March, 1998 in 22 farms. During this study, 21700 birds were examined and overall 9.91% mortality rate was recorded. Important diseases observed in this prospective study were IBD (2.9%), ECM (2.25%), Respiratory disease complex (1.08%) and lIPS (1.11%) followed by colibacillosis (0.67%), ascites (0.51%), foul typhoid (0.14%), coccidiosis (0.37%), aspergillosis (0.29%), fowl cholera (0.16%) and N.D. (0.13%) n descending order. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0552,T] (1).

26. Comparative Efficacy Of Buparvaquone And Oxytetracycline Against Theileriosis In Cattle And Their Effect On Blood

by Sarvat Yab Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Theileriosis is a serious disease of the cattle which is caused by species of Theileria resulting in death due to severe anaemia. The present study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of buparvaquone (Butalex, ICI) and oxytetracycline (Terramycin 100 PVP) and their effect on various blood parameters, viz, total erythrocytic count (TEC), total leukocytic count (TLC), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin estimation (Hb) in and around Lahore. Thirty infected cattle showing clinical signs of Theileriosis (diagnosed based on blood smear examination) were used in this study. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups designated as A, B and C comprising 10 animals each. Besides this 10 healthy cattle were kept as control as group D. Haernatological examination revealed a significant decrease in the erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin level of the infected cattles. Total leukocyte count was also decreased. Animal of group A was treated with single intramuscular injection of Butalex at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. The efficacy of the drug was 90 per cent. There was marked increased in the erythrocyte, leukocyte, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration. Group B was treated with intramuscular injection of Terramycin 100 PVP at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The efficacy of the drug was 40% and there was slight increase in the haematological values. riThe haematological values of group C were much more decreased while in group D, these values were just same. From this study, it is concluded that buparvaquone 2.5 mg/kg body weight (Butalex ICI) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Theileriosis under field condition in our country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0558,T] (1).

27. Surveiilance Of Disease Problems & Economic Losses In Commercial Layer Farming In Tehsil Arifwala

by Javid Iqbal, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The main objective of the present study work was to investigate the prevalence of various diseases and economic losses resulting because of various factors among the commercial layer farming in Tehsil Arif Wala. The farms having housed birds 5000 - 15000 were visited in this study work. The project was divided into two portions. The data of retrospective study revealed total mortality of 16.44% ( 58725/357100 ) due to various diseases. Highest mortality was due to gumboro (27.50%) followed bt leukosis (26.38%), Newcastle disease (15.33% observed only in one farm) early chick mortality ( 5.06%), heat stress ( 4. 14 %), coryza (3.09%) and Salmonellosis ( 1.98% ). The diseases in which the mortality was less than 2% were E-coli, Coccidiosis, C.R.D., I.B., Aspergillosis, Enteritis and Pox. In active surveillance mortality was 27.28% (52019/190700) clue to various diseases. Highest mortality was due to Icukosis (24.57%) followed by Marek's disease (12.98%), early chick mortality (12.75%), gumboro (10.54%), C.R.D. (7.39%), Aspergillosis (7.10%), E-Coli (6.75 %), Coayza (4.81%), saimonellosis (4.33%) and enteritis (3.86%). The diseases in which the mortality was less than 3% were Coccidiosis, l.B., and Heat Stress. In retrospective study economic losses by different factors were chicks ( 25.61%), feed (67.31%) and medicine (7.08%). In active surveillance economic losses due to different factors were chicks (32.29%), feed (62.53%) and medicine (5.18%). From this study it is concluded that viral infections such as gumboro, leukosis, Marek's and N.D. are important in layers responsible for high mortality and economic losses. Therefore, it is recommended that proper vaccination should be done and propel vaccination schedule should be adopted The diagnosis of each disease was made by clinical findings and postmortem findings but in case of active surveillance, the diagnosis of Salmonelosis was confirmed by the laboratory tests. A questionnaire was also designed to collect the data from each farm that was related to morbidity rates, mortali rates , vaccination, susceptible age , managemental faults & economic losses for various diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0581,T] (1).

28. Effect Of Probiotics & Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicates On The Performance Of Broilers

by Iftikhar Hussain Akram | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Javed | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: This project was designed to observe the effects of Probiotics and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicates on the growth, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the antibody titers of N.D. vaccine in broiler chicks. For this, 360 chicks from SB chicks were purchased and were divided into four groups each comprising 90 chicks and furthermore each group was divided into three replicates in each having 30 chicks in it. The experiment lasted for forty two days. The birds were vaccinated according to the program of Rhone Merieux. The probiotic ( Protexin ) was given in group A @ 0.1% in feed and Mycotoxin (Mycoad ) was used in group B 0.2%, in group C ( combination of ProtexinO. 1%+Myco-ad 0.2% ) was given and group D was kept as control. The experiment was carried out at the level of 50ppb on aflatoxins. The use of probiotics and HSCAS is really beneficial in broiler production. The probiotics caused more weight gain (1925 gms. ) and better feed efficiency (F.C.R.2.2 ). On the other side, the results in case of HSCAS were really appreciating as there was controlled mortality (2.2%) acceptable weight gain (186 1.7gms.) and F.C.R.(2.13). To use the product was also economical but in case of brobiotiscs it was uneconomical to use. The combination of both product gave very poor results which was, perhaps, due to antagonistic effect of both. The titers in group B where HSCAS was used, were found excellent ( day 28:35.2 GMT, day 35:4 1.6 GMT, day 42:46.4 GMT) as compare to control( day 28:20.8GMT, day 35:17.6 GMT, day 42:15.2GMT). So the group B (HSCAS ) gave the excellent performance in terms of weight gain, F.C.R., mortality % and remained quite protective throughout the experimentation against the N.D. disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0614,T] (1).

29. Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Moxidectin, Ivermectin And Albendazole Against G.I.T. Nematodes Of Sheep Under Field Conditions

by Ali Abdullah Shah, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Haji Ahmad | Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: In this experiment comparative anthelmentic efficacy of moxidectin, ivermectin and albendazole was studied in sheep under field conditions. For this purpose, 60 sheep positive for nematodal infestation and 20 negative based on faecal examination were selected from the field. They were divided into 4 groups A, B, C & D having 20 animals in each group. Animals of group-A, B, C were medicated with moxidectin (0.2 mg I kg SIC injection), ivermectin (0.2 mg / kg S/C injection) and albendazole (5 mg / kg, orally) respectively. Animals of group-D were kept as control group. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted by McMaster technique on day 0, 7th 141h day post medication. To calculate the weight gain by these animals, weight was measured on day 0, 28th day of post medication Based on the reduction in the number of eggs per gram of faeces, efficacy of moxidectin was estimated to be 98.65% and 99.7% on day 7 and day 14 post medication respectively. Efficacy of ivermectin was estimated to be 98.9% and 100% while that of albendazole 94.96% and 97.67% on day 7, day 14 respectively. The weight gain observed after 281h day of post medication was 1.18 kg, 1.37 kg, 1.05 kg, 0.5 kg for animals treated with moxidectin, ivermectin, albendazole and control groups respectively. In conclusion, moxidectin and ivermectin are injectable preparations available in the market and can be used for the treatment of nematodes in sheep under field conditions in this area quite successfully. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0649,T] (1).

30. Effect Of Low Level Feeding Of Tylosin And Zinc Bacitracin On The Weight Gain And Immunity Of Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease Virus

by Rahat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The study was aimed to reveal the effect of low level feeding of Tylosin (tylan premix) and Zinc bacitracin (Albac) on the weight gain and immune response of broiler chicks vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus. Two hundred and forty day-old chicks were purchased from local market. They were divided into 3 groups i.e., A, B and C, each group was further divided into 2 sub-groups i.e. A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2. Group A was fed Tylosin (Tylan premix) at the dose rate of 20gm/50kg of feed, 10-42 days of age. Group B was fed Zinc bacitracin (Albac) at dose rate 12gm/50gm of feed, 1.42 days of age. Group C was fed on un-medicated feed A1, B1 and C1 were vaccinated at 7 and 21 days against NDV and A2, B2 and C2 were reared without vaccination. The parameters studied were (1) the effect of low level feeding of Tylosin and Zinc bacitracin in broiler chicks on weight gain, (2) feed conversion ratio and HI titre of Newcastle disease virus vaccination was monitored on weekly basis upto 42nd day of age. This study indicated that Tylosin and Zinc bacitracin when used at recommended dosage levels (20gm/50kg feed and 12gm/50kg feed respectively) did not interfere with the development of birds, immune response of birds in vaccinated groups. Their medication in feed rather produced beneficial effects on weight gain and antibody production due to heavier weight and good health status. Their weight gain studies indicated that the medicated and vaccinated birds fed on Tylosin and Zinc bacitracin medicated feeds had significantly higher body weights than those fed on nonmedicated and non-vaccinated group at 42 days of age. The immune response of vaccinated birds was higher than those of non-vaccinated birds in the presence of medication. However, there was a need for further investigation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0671,T] (1).

31. Effect Of Ivermetin On Liver At Therapeutic And Higher Doses In Healthy And Diseased Dogs

by khawar Qayyum | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The project was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin against external parasites as well as its toxicity on liver at therapeutic and higher doses in healthy and disease (positive for external parasites) dogs of local breeds. For this purpose forty dogs were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) comprising 10 dogs in each. Dogs of groups A and B were healthy while dogs of group C and D were positive for external parasites. Dogs of group A were administered ivermectin at therapeutic doses (0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) while of group B were given ivermectin 10 times higher dose (2mg/kg body weight subcutaneously). Similarly dogs of group C and D positive for external parasites were given normal and higher doses of ivermectin respectively. To assess the efficacy of ivermectin, skin scrapping examination was performed before and after treatment, while to evaluate the toxicity alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme activity was measured before and after treatment. The results indicated that ivermectin was quite effective against external parasites 70% and 80% at therapeutic and higher doses respectively, but the efficacy against ticks was 100% at both the dose rates without any side effect except in one dog showing irritation at the site of injection at the higher dose of ivermectin. Liver enzyme study indicated that alkaline phosphatase was not altered significantly in diseased or healthy dogs at low or higher doses of ivermectin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was also not altered significantly in diseased as well as in healthy dogs. Therefore it is concluded that ivermectin is a safe drug for the treatment of ectoparasites in local breeds of dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0742,T] (1).

32. Efficacy Of Various Chemical Agents Against Avian Influenza Virus (Type H9)

by Imran Altaf | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Muhamad ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: In the present project, 300 eggs were taken from Big Birds. They were cleaned and incubated for 9 days. After 9 days they were candled to separate the live and dead embryo. On the 11th day, the embryos were inoculated with the different concentrations of drugs which were to be tested. The detail of these drugs are given below: Chlorine was taken in the concentration of 1, 2 and 5 ppm. They were divided into control and experimental groups containing drug + Normal saline and drug. + virus. The results showed that 2 ppm and 5 ppm chlorine was most effective as disinfectant, while 1 ppm was not effective. Iodine was also tested in the concentration of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 per cent for control and experimental groups in the same fashion as in chlorine. The results showed that 1% and 0.5% solutions are highly antiviral but are toxic for living cells, while 0.1% iodine is virucidal against virus and can be used for the living cells as it was not toxic for embryo. In case of amantadine 50 jig/mi, 500 jig/mi and 1000 jig/mi were used along with virus and Normal saline for experimental and control groups, respectively. Results show that 1000 i.g/ml concentration was toxic for cell and hence can not be used in vivo, while 50 jig/ml failed to stop the replication of virus. 500 jig/ml concentration not only stopped the viral replication but also did not kill the embryo. So 500 jig/mi of amantadine can be used in poultry, if desired. Acyclovir is another pharmaceutical product, used in the concentration of 50 jig/mi, 200 jig/mi and 400 jig/mi in the fashion as described above. Results showed that acyclovir was effective within the range of 200 jig/ml to 400 jig/mi without any fear of damage to cell, but 50 jig/mi concentration failed to stop the viral replication and also showed high HA titer. In herbal group, Soyabean was tested in the concentration of 1 g/l00ml, 5g/l00ml and 10 g/l00ml. When the results were collected it was noticed that neither concentration of soyabean has any antiviral effect against influenza. Opuntia plant group which comprises of three species named: 0-Stricta, O-Dellinii and 0-Manocantha was testified for their antiviral efficacy. The concentrations used were 1 gm, 5 gms and 10 gms dissolved in 100 ml of Normal saline. Their extracts were obtained and injected in the embryo alongwith virus and Normal saline for experimental and control groups after giving them an interaction time of one hour. In the results, 10 g/l00ml and 5 g/l00ml show a good anti-viral efficacy against influenza, while 1 g/l00ml failed to show any significant effect and gave high HA titer. So in Pakistan these herbal drugs should be further investigated so that these can be used against influenza. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0743,T] (1).

33. Effect Of Xylazine As A Preanaesthetic Medication With Chloral Hydrate Induced Anaesthesia in Equines

by Kashif Shahzad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the effect of Xylazine as a preanaesthetc medication w ith chioral hydrate induced anaesthesia in equines. The study was conducted over eight donkeys which were divided into two groups i.e. group A and group B having four animals in each group which were used in a cross over fashion. Animals of group A were given chioral hydrate alone at the dose rate of 100mg/kg body weight intravenously while animals of group B xylazine hydrochloride (1mg/kg body weight) were administered as a preanaesthetic medication followed by chioral hydrate (100mg/kg body weight). After a washout period of two weeks, animals of group A were given xylazine as a preanaesthetic medication followed by chioral hydrate at the same dose rate as given previously. While animals of group B were given chloral hydrate alone. Different parameters such as induction, recumbency, recovery period, temperature, pulse, respiration and reflexes were used for the evaluation of anaesthesia. Liver toxicity was evaluated by measuring Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes. The results of this study indicated that induction and recovery period were reduced and smooth with xylazinc premedication as compared to chioral hydrate alone. Liver enzymes were not affected with the use of chioral hydrate (100mg/kg body weight) alone or in combination with xylazine hydrochloride. From this study it is concluded that xylazine premedication gives better results and should be used along with chioral hydrate in equines for the surgical anaesthesia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0778,T] (1).

34. Effect Of Diclofenac Sodium On Experimentally Induced Aseptic Arthritis In Equines

by Dr . Aqeel Javeed | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr . Muhammad | Dr . Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Aseptic arthritis of the knee joint was induced in 12 healthy donkeys, weighing 60 to 85kg by intra-articular injection ot O.3m1 of turpentine oil. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups A and B of 6 animals each. Group A served as a control whereas in Group B anti-arthritic drug, diclofenac sodium (Diclocare 5%) was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 2.5mg/kg body weight daily for 5-6 days starting one day after the induction of arthritis. In group B, the joint circumference became normal on 6th day after induction of arthritis while in group A (control), the joint circumference took 16 to 20 days to become normal. According to this trial, diclofenac sodium provided an early return to normal stance and weight bearing in treated group B, taking longer time in control group A. No significant change in blood Haemoglobin, Total erythrocyte count, Total leukocyte count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Packed cell volume was observed in control and treated animals. It is concluded that diclolènac sodium is an effective treatment for arthritis in donkeys. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0780,T] (1).

35. Bioavailability And Pharmacokingetics Of Ampicillin In Volunteeers

by Naseer Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ampicillin were investigated in six healthy male volunteers after intravenous and oral administration of penbritin 500mg and relative bioavailability of ampicap 500mg after oral administration. The blood samples were collected at various time intervals following administration of single dose of 500mg to each individual volunteer. The concentrations of ampicillin in serum samples were determined by using microbiological assay. The serum concentrations of ampicilin at different time intervals were plotted on semi-logarithmic graph paper. The bioavailabilty and pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated and expressed as mean + S.D. The peack oncerntration of 8.58+0.02 ug/ml reached in 2.30+0.002 hours after oral administration. By calculating the AUC i/v and AUC oral the bioavailability of penbritin 500mg oral was calculated and was 51.60+ 2.2.0 and that of ampicap was 50.00+10.00. The relative bioavailability (Bioequivalence ) of ampicap was determined by dividing the AUC (Ampicap) by AUC (penbritin) and it was 96.94+5.18%. Time to reach the maximum concerntration of penbritin orally was 2.30+0.002 and that of ampicap was 2.31+0.006 hours The half-live of elimination after i/v administration of penbritin was 1.005+0.00 hours, after oral administration was 1.21+0.001 hours and that of ampicap was 1.21+0.004, respectively. The volume of distribution after pendbritin i/v, penbritin orally and ampicap orally was 11.08+0.091, 25.92+0.76 and 26.64+0.82 liters, respectively. The total body clearance of penbritin was 127.84+10.53, 246.70+104.13 and 254.46+45.32 ml/minutres, respectively after penbritin i/v, penbritin orally and ampicap. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0812,T] (1).

36. Efficacy Of A Newly Developed Herbal Diuretic Mixture In Broiler Chickens

by Mahreen Zahara | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: A number of diuretic drugs are presently used in poultry under the name of "flushers". These drugs play an important role in poultry disorders especially in cases of ascties, liver disfunctions, nephritis, Urates deposition, restoring normal functions of kidneys by eliminating toxic substances and extra fluid (through urinary system) and in oedematous conditions. The present study was under taken to evaluate the efficacy of a new locally prepared herbal diuretic mixture containing Cuminum Cyminum, Robonate of Poast, Sneeze wort and Salt petre and was compared with uronex in broiler chicken. For this purpose, one hundred a day-old boiler chicks were reared under standard conditions. At the age of 28 day they were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, D and E. The birds of group A, B and C were given herbal diuretic mixture at different dilutions 1%, 2% and 3% in drinking water. The birds of group D were given uronex in drinking water and birds of group E were given with normal water, being control group. Diuretic efficiency of this herbal mixture was evaluated by measuring total serum protein, electrolytes (sodium and potassium) creatinine and uric acid contents before and after drug administration in broiler chicks. Non significant (P>O.05) changes were observed in the serum protein and serum creatinine levels. The values of serum sodium, potassium and uric acid were significantly (P< 0.05) decreased in treated birds after medication as compared to control birds. From these observations it is concluded that the newly prepared herbal diuretic mixture was effective and can be successfully used for the elimination of toxic and oedematous fluids in broiler chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0813,T] (1).

37. Effect Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) On The Growth Performance And Immune Styatus Of Broiler Chicks

by Anwar-ul-Haq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present research work was undertaken to assess the immuno-modulatory effect of Garlic on different concentrations and Zinc Bacitracin on the antibody titers against ND in NDV vaccinated broiler chicks. For this purpose 150 day-old broiler chicks were purchased from the local market and divided into 5 equal groups i.e. A (vaccinated, non medicated control), B (administered with ND vaccine and Zinc bacitracin), C (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and 1 g/kg Garlic), D (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic 5 g/kg), E (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic (10 g/kg). Each group comprised of 30 chicks. Group E was fed on a ration containing Garlic at the dose rate 10 g/kg of feed and given throughout he study period i.e. upto 42 days of age. The comparative immuno-modulatory effects of Garlic and Zinc Bacitracin were worked out on the basis of GMT levels in ND vaccinated unmedicated birds alongwith the ND vaccinated, medicated birds. These titers were evaluated by using HA and HI tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, weight gain, FCR, postmortem findings, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus, bursae and liver were also assessed in drawing the final conclusion. Data was analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) to find out the means of the experimental groups. The birds that were, NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds NDV vaccinated and Garlic 5 g/kg medicated secured second position regarding weight gain and FCR among the three experimental groups (A, B and C). The birds from group B (Z.B. and NDV) had the higher body weight than group (A and C). Feed conversion ratio of group B was also found to be better than group A (NDV vaccinated, unrnedicated) and group C (NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated). None of the three treatments (Garlic, Z.B. and control) had any adverse effects on the weight size, and texture of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver). The birds belonging to group E (NDV vaccinated, Garlic 10 g/kg medicated) had shown the highest antibody titers on day 42. While the birds of group A (NDV vaccinated, unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titers. Among the three experimental groups (B, C and D), the birds from group D had higher antibody titers as compared to other treatment groups. Whereas the group B had the higher antibody titers than the group C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0842,T] (1).

38. Effect Of Prophylactic Measures Against Coccidiosis In Broiler Breeder Chicks

by Imtiaz Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The experiment was designed to study the effect of coccidiosis vaccine in comparasion with chemo-prophylactic and therapeutic measures against coccidiosis and their effect on weight gain, mortality and blood parameters in broiler breeder birds. For this purpose one hundred and twenty day-old broiler breeder chicks were obtained from local market and reared in the Experimental room of the Medicine Section, College of Veterinary Sciences (CVS), Lahore under standard managemental conditions upto 49 days of age. The birds were fed on commercial coccidiostat free feed purchased from the market The following materials (vaccines, medicine, caeca) were used 1. Local vaccine (Eimeria vaccine) was obtained from Parasitology Laboratory, CVS., Lahore. 2. Imported vaccine (Immucox; Vetec Laboratories, Canada) was purchased from the market. 3. Amprolium 60% was purchased from Grace Pharma, Lahore. 4. The infected caeca of broiler chicks was obtained from different farms and diagnostic laboratories. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler breeder birds were divided into eight groups comprising of 15 birds in each group. Different groups were arranged according to the following pattern: Group A. was non-infected control group, group-B was infected control group. Infection was given on day 22, group-C was vaccinated infected group. Local vaccine was given on 3rd and 10th day of age followed by the dose of 30,000 sporulated oocyst at 22nd day of age. Group-D was vaccinated with local vaccine (non infected). Group-E was vaccinated infected group. Imported vaccine was given at 7th day followed by infection at 22nd day. Group-F was vaccinated with imported coccidial vaccine, non-infected group. Group-G was infected and treated group. Infection was given on day 22 of age and the birds will be treated with Amprolium 60% at the dose of lg/2 litre of drinking water for 5 consecutive days. Group-H was non-Infected, treated with Amprolium 60% at the dose of lg/2 litre of drinking water for 5 consecutive days. The weight of birds was weekly recorded starting from day one upto the end (42nd day) of the experiment. Faecal examination for the counting of oocyst per gram of faeces were recorded after every 4th day of the administration of infection. It was observed that the performance of the birds of group D (noninfected, vaccinated with local vaccine) was the best as compared to all other experimental groups. However, group E (infected, vaccinated with Imported coccidial vaccine) was also given good performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0850,T] (1).

39. Clinico-Biochemical Studies On Detomidine Analgesia And Effects Of Its Combinatios On Animals

by Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the newly introduced imidazole derivative, drug "detomidine" with alpha-2 adr2noceptor binding properties, and its various combinations in animals. A clinico-hiochemical study was carried out to explore the various aspects of a novel sedative and analgesic drug. Analgesia was evaluated by performing castration in small ruminants, rumenal fistulization in large ruminants, skin prick test, electric stimulation, and developing an experimental colic model in donkeys. The parameters used to evaluate analgesia revealed that detomidine has greater potential to lessen the pain during minor and major surgical interventions in different animals. However, its local usage to achieve paravertebral and epidural analgesia proved that detomidine produces general effect after getting into the circulation and very poor local effect. It has been concluded that the drug can be used as preanaesthetic with chloral hydrate and pentothal sodium anaesthesia to perform major surgical exercises in equine and canine respectively. In addition it has an edge over other sedative drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on various physiological parameters of the animals. Clinical trials have proved that detomidine "a novel sedative and analgesic" is a drug of choice for restraining, examination, and minor and major surgical manipulations on equine, bovine, caprine, ovine and canine species without any untoward effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0867,T] (1).

40. Effect Of Vitamine (Alpha-Tocopherol) Supplementation On Total Lipid Profile In Rabbits

by Aman Ullah | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An experimental trial of forty five days duration was conducted in July and August, 2004 at Physiology Department, Faculty of Bio-Sciences, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. The study was conducted to see the effect of vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) on total lipid profile in rabbits. Thirty two, 2 months old white rabbits were purchased, weighed and randomly divided into four groups, comprising of eight rabbits each i.e. group A, B, C and D. The rabbits of group A were fed on normal diet and acted as control animasl. The rabbits of group B were also fed on normal diet along with replacement of 2% cholesterol. The objective to add cholesterol is to induced hypercholesterolemia artificially from the beginning of the experiment. They were orally administered cholesterol powder through disposable syringes from start to end of experiment. During the experiment these rabbits were not treated with vitamin E (alpha tocopherol). The rabbits of group C were also fed on normal diet alongwith replacement of 2% cholesterol for first fifteen days of experiment to induced hypercholesterolemia. After the induction of hypercholesterolemia these rabbits were treated with vitamin E at a dose rate of 50 mg/kg body weight. The rabbits of group D were also fed on normal diet alongwith replacement of 2% cholesterol for first fifteen days of experiment to induced hypercholesterolemia. After the induction of hypercholesterolemia these rabbits were treated with vitamin E at a dose rate of 75 mg/kg body weight. The feed for rabbits were prepared and were given with green fodder twice a day. The rabbits were reared in room carpeted with dry forage and dry soil, from the start to the end of the experiment. Standard conditions of feeding, water and temperature were maintained. The rabbits were kept in light for 24 hours throughout the experimental period. Biochemical analysis i.e. serum cholesterol, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL), serum triglycerides (TG) and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) carried out. It was concluded that vitamin E has significant effect on total lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Vitamin E as an antioxidant can reduce the incidents of atherosclerosis in hypercholeterolemic rabbits and ultimately reducing the risk of heart disease in rabbits as a human model. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0888,T] (1).

41. Plasma Concentration Of Doxycycline After Flock Medication Via Drinking Water In Broilers

by Ayaz Ali Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted on the bioavailability of doxycycline in broiler chickens after multiple oral administration at the dose rate of 10mg/kg.b.wt. under field condition and comparison was made between the two different pharmaceutical preparations of doxycycline. Stability of doxycycline solution in drinking water was also evaluated in the study. Microbiological assay was used to determine doxycycline concentration in plasma and water samples. Doxycycline was given to 2 groups of 30 chickens. Maximum plasma level of 4.116 0.326 g/ml (group 1) and 4.00 0.280 g/ml (group 2) was obtained after doxycycline administration, having no significant difference. Minimum plasma level of 1.566 0.202 g/ml (group 1) and 1.116 0.116 g/ml (group 2) were observed during the field experiment. Both the formulations attained peak levels of the plasma concentration at the same time which was 6 3.46 hours. Mean SEM of the area under curve (260.933 15.043 g.hr/ml) of group 1 had no significant difference from that (246.383 13.187 g.hr/ml) of group 2. Statistical analysis revealed bio equivalency between the two preparations of doxycycline. The residual doxycycline HCl content of doxycycline HCl solution was 89.72% (group 1) and 81.6% (group 2) after every 4 hours expressed as the percentage of the initial concentration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0890,T] (1).

42. Effect Of Detomidine As A Preanaesthetic Medication With Ketamine Induced Anaesthesia In Canines (Dogs)

by Muhammad Tanveer Khaliq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammd Ovais Omer | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the effect of detomidinc as a preanaesthetic medication with ketamine induced anaesthesia in canines. The study was conducted over eight dogs which were divided into two groups i.e. group A and group B, comprising four animals each which were medicated in a cross over fashion. Animals of group A were given Ketamine alone @ of 15 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly while animals of group B were given Detomidine @ 4Ojig/kg intramuscularly as preanaesthetic medication followed by ketam inc hydrochloride. After a washout period of two weeks, animals of group A were given detomidine as a preanaesthetic medication followed by ketarninc hydrochloride at the same dose rate as given previously. While animals of group B were given ketarnine alone. Different parameters such as, induction, recumbency, recovery peridd, temperature, pulse, respiration and reflexes were observed for the evaluation of anaesthesia. Liver toxicity was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT) enzymes. The results of present study indicated that induction, recumbency and recovery were rapid, prolonged, smooth and uncomplicated respectively with detomidine premedication followed by ketarninc as compared to the ketamine given alone. Hyperthermia and respiratory depression was observed in both cases, where as tachycardia and bradycardia were noticed in the two treatments respectively. Liver enzymes gave non significant values with the use of ketamine hydrochloride with detomidine hydrochloride and ketamine (alone) in both cases .From this study it is concluded that detomidine premedication gives significant results and is recommended along with ketamine hydrochloride in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0891,T] (1).

43. Studies On Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids) Toxicity In Broilers

by Asif Farooq Awan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This project was designed for the evaluation of different effects of toxic dosage levels of NSAIDs (piroxicam, ketoprofen, phenyl-butazone and dipyron) in broiler chickens. For this project two hundred and twenty five healthy broiler chickens were purchased from the market and were reared upto 28 days. Then one hundred and twenty five were divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E having twenty five birds in each group. On day 29th four groups A, B, C and D were medicated with piroxicam, ketoprofen, phenyl-butazone and dipyron twice a day at dose rate of 1, 5, 50 and 50 mg/kg body weight respectively intra-muscularly for four days. Birds from group E were kept as control. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. A physical examination was performed daily. Signs of toxicity and mortality rate in each group was recorded. Blood samples from wing vein (3 ml) was drawn on day 29 before medication and on days 33, 37, 41 after medication from same birds for determination of serum values of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Uric Acid, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Creatinine. Postmortem examinationwas performecd after all samples taken. In second experiment other 100 birds were divided into five groups K, L, M, N and O comprising of 20 birds in each group. Each bird of group K was injected I/M piroxicam 2 mg/kg twice a day. Each bird of group L was injected I/M ketoprofen 10 mg/kg twice a day. Each bird of group M was injected I/M phenyl buazone 100 mg/kg twice a day. Each bird of group N was injected I/M metamizole 100 mg/kg body weight for twice a day upto four days and group 0 was kept as control group. Postmortem examination was performed after medication. Based on the necropsy findings and biochemical analysis it was found that piroxicam was safest drug (NSAIDs) in the avian species. Keeping in view the environmental problem of decline in population and its possible link with Diclodenic sodium,(vultures arises) it is recommended that piroxicam which has good pharmacological effects in human medicines may be used instead of diclofenac sodium in veterinary practice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0892,T] (1).

44. Studies On Gentamicin Toxicity In Broiler Chickens

by Muhammad Shah Rukh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of gentamicin sulphate at different dosage levels in broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted in two phases. During phase I one hundred broiler chicks were divided into A,B, C and D groups having twenty five birds in each and were injected gantamicin sulphate in the form of gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 5mg/kg, lOmg/ kg, 20mg /kg in groups A,B and C twice daily for four days respectively while group D kept as control. During phase II twenty five chicks were divided into groups E,F,G,H and I having five birds in each. Birds in groups E and F were injected gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 40mg/kg and 80 mg/kg while gantamicin sulphate injected in the form of Aagent 10% at the rate of 40 mg / kg and 80 mg/kg to groups G and H twice daily for four days respectively and the birds of I group were kept as control. Blood samples (3m1) were collected from all medicated and un-medicated groups before and after medication on different days and serum was separated for the measurement of different biochemical parameters. Post-mortem examination of all birds were performed at the end of experiment. Post-mortem examination revealed no abnormality in any bird during phase I (normal organs) while during phase II abnormalities such as congestion, inflammation of the kidney and necrosis, discoloured livers were recorded except control group. Six birds died during experiment in phase 11(2/10 at 40mg/kg and 4/10 at 80mg/kg dose). The mortality rates at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg were 20 and 40% respectively. An increase in Aspartate amino Transferase was observed in medicated birds during phase I while a significant increase in Aspartate amino Transferase, Alanine amino Transferase, uric acid and creatinine were recorded in medicated birds during phase II. From this study it is concluded that broiler birds tolerated gentamicin upto 20mg/kg while acute toxic effects at the dose of 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg of gentamicin were recorded in broiler chicks. No sign of visceral gout were recorded in any bird. There was no difference in the toxicity of two different preparations of gentaniicin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0893,T] (1).

45. Bioavailability Of Amoxicilin Trihydrate In Broiler Chickens Administered Through Drinking Water

by Amir Bakhsh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Bioavailability of two oral commercial formulations of amoxicillin trihydrate i.e. oracin-50 (Mediexcel, Pharmaceuticals (Pvt.) Limited Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica, µµchickens. The birds were divided into two groups A and B and than six replicates of each group were made. The birds were reared upto 30 days. Group A was medicated by Oracin-50 and group B was medicated by Bioxil-20. The medication was continued for three consecutive days and blood samples were collected before and after medication as per schedule. The plasma level of amoxicillin were determined by microbiological assays. The concentrations versus time data were plotted on logrithmic paper and various bio-availability parameters were determined. Peak concentrations of both oral preparations appeared with in two hours. However Oracin-50 peak concentration revealed 5.26±1.605µg/ml which was not significantly higher than 4.71±0.142ig/ml as depicted by Bioxil-20. Mean ±SEM of the area under curve (AUC) for Oracin-50 was 296.783±6.331µg. hr/ml and 259.26±4.866 µg.hr/ml for Bioxil-20 statistical analyses revealed no significant different minimum concentration of Oracin-50 revealed 2.550±O.0763µg/ml while 2.450±O.07637µg/ml as depicted by the bioxil-20. Both the preparations took the same time (2 hour) to attain the peak level of the plasma concentration. The present study also revealed that amoxicillin is not much stable in water. Oracin-50 decreased 34% and Bioxil-20 decreased 35% in 72 hours There was no significant difference (P<O.05) in the stability of both groups. The comparative study of the two Pharmaceutical preparations Oracin-50 (Mediexcel Pharmaceutical Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica Pharmaceutical Pakistan) revealed that there was no significant difference (P<O.05) between the means of two groups. The statistical evaluation revealed bio-equaleancy between two drugs. Amoxicillin is broad spectrum antibiotic, its bioavailability is better than other antibiotic. Its MIC is also very low (O.25igIml) but its half 1fe is short. So its repeated doses should be given. As it is somewhat unstable, in case of drinking water. The medicated water should be changed get the maximum efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0894,T] (1).

46. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Antiviral Agents Avian Influenza Virus(Type H7)

by Tahir Mahmood Shaukat | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | ghjgh | Prof.Dr.Khushi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: In this project 3 different concentrations of each of amantadine HC1, extracts of fresh leaves of opuntia herb, papaya and dried powdered leaves of green tea in distilled water were evaluated for their antiviral activity, by injecting into 10 days old live embryonated broiler chicken eggs through chorioallantoic sac route. For each drug embryonated eggs were treated only with it's 3 different concentrations to evaluate toxicity, whereas to check antiviral efficacy, embryonated eggs were treated with suspensions of three different concentrations of drug with 4HA titre of AIV (type H7). In case of amantadine HC1 out of 50ug/ml, 500ug/ml and l000ug/ml concentrations only 500ug/ml was found to be an ideal concentration, as in addition to stop virus growth it also did not kill the embryos. In case of Opuntia dellinii all the 3 concentrations used were not toxic for embryos, but antiviral oeffect was observed only by 4gm and 8gm/100ml concentrations. Green tea extract was found to be effective against AIV only at 8gm/100ml concentration with no damage to chick embryos. Papaya leaves extract as a whole failed to check virus replication at all the three concentrations used in this experiment i.e. 2gm, 4gm and 8gm/100ml. All these dose levels were not lethal for chick embryos. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0900,T] (1).

47. Efficacy Of Livergen And Icterene Aginst Experimentally Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rabbits

by Ahmed Sardar Mirza | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof.Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: The study was conducted on 35 male rabbits weighing from 1-1.5 kg. The study was carried out on the basis of elevation and decline in the levels of Alanine Transminase (ALT/SGPT), Aspartate Transminase (AST/SGOT) by inducing experimental hepatic injury by paracetamol and then treating it with hepatoprortective agents like, Livergen, Icterene and Jetepar. The rabbits were divided into the seven group i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F and G. All animals except animals of group A which is a control group were administered with hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol 2.5g/kg at day zero, while group C, D and E received hepatoprotective dose of Livergen syrup 1ml, 2ml and 3ml/kg respectively at day 2 for five consecutive days in addition to the toxic dose of paracetamol at day zero. The animals of group F received hepatoprotective dose of Icterene tablets 140mg/kg at day 2 for 5 consecutive days in addition to paracetamol toxic dose at day zero. The animals of group G received hepatoprotective dose of Jetepar syrup 1ml/kg at day 2 for five consecutive days in addition to the hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol 2.5g/kg at day zero. The blood samples were collected at day 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Concludingly, the drug Jetapar was found to be best effective. While Livergen and Icteren showed equal effective results at normal dose but significantly less than Jetepar. However, Livergen at dose 2ml/kg and 3ml/kg showed equal but almost similar results to Jetepar at last day. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0915,T] (1).

48. Antimicrobial Activity Of Mentha Longifolia And Artemisia Maritima

by Sakhawat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was undertaken to determine the use of medicinal plants as an antibacterial agent and its potential as an alternative medicine against bacterial infections. For this purpose water, methanol and chloroform extract of the Artemisia maritirna and Mentha Ion gifolia were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus subtilis by Disc Diffusion Method, Well Diffusion method and Micro Dilution Method. After determination of the antibacterial properties the data was analyzed statistically by using paired t-test and it was observed that methanol extract had greater antibacterial activity as compared to chloroform and water extract, whereas, chloroform extract had moderate antibacterial activity but the water extract had negligible antibacterial activity. From the four tested organisms Escherichia coli was more susceptible to methanol extract of Mentha ion gfolia. In general Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to both plant extracts as compared to other three tested microorganisms. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0924,T] (1).

49. Toxicity Of Flunixin Meglumine In Avian Species

by Muhammad Irfan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: This project was designed for the evaluation of different effects of toxic dose levels of flunixin meglumine and diclofenac sodium in broiler chickens. For this purpose one hundered and fifty broiler chicks were purchased from the market and were reared upto day 28 and then were divided into different groups (A, B, C, D E and F). Groups A, B, C and D were treated with flunixin meglumine at the dosage rate of 1.25, 2.5, 5.00 and 10.00mg/kg body weight JIM once daily respectively and group E was kept as Control. The remaining 25 birds of group F were treated with Diclofenic sodium 5.00mg/kg body weight by same route of administration and dosing interval as mentioned for flunixin meglumine. Treatment was continued for five consecutive days. Clinical signs, mortality, liver and kidney function tests were performed by estimation of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid and Creatinine in the serum samples. Postmortem findings and histopathological changes of different tissues were also recorded. Toxicity of flunixin meglumine was evaluated through the above mentioned parameters and this toxicity was compared with that of Diclofenac sodium. Based on the mortality data and biochemical analysis it was concluded found that flunixin meglumine was toxic in avian species. Keeping in view the environmental problem (vultures crises) it is suspected that flunixin meglumine may cause some problems in avian species as diclofenac sodium. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0925,T] (1).

50. Preparation And Evaluation Of Rabbit Anti-Buffalo Immunoglobulin Antibody Peroxidase Conjugate

by Muhammad Babar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most sensitive rapid and reliable techniques for diagnosis of infectious diseases. For execution of ELISA, antibody-peroxidase conjugate is the fundamental reagent. Turnip peroxidase was purified from turnips, that includes homogenization, inactivation of catalase, ammonium sulphate precipitation and size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-25-80. The purified peroxidase had Rz value of 1.7, total protein 0.9 mg/ml and total enzyme activity 36152 units/liter. The buffalo serum Ig-G was fractionated using 40 percent final concentration of ammonium sulphate followed by anion exchange chromatography. The salt fractionated serum globulins (10 ml) was depleted of its Ig-G in less than 25 minutes on DEAE cellulose packed column followed by suitable elution. The Ig-G solution (1.0 gm/dl) was mixed in four times volume of oil base (Liquid paraffin and emulsifiers). Rabbits were primed and boosted (0.25ml/: subcut) with buffalo Ig-G antigen with 21 days interval. The immune serum was harvested on 21 days post-boosting. The serum contained 2048 agar gel precipitation AGP units and 10,000 ELISA units. Rabbit anti buffalo Ig-G was purified with salt precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. The peroxidase was linked with the rabbit anti-buffalo Ig-G using the sodium metaperiodate. The conjugate was titrated against buffalo Ig-G and working dilution for execution of ELISA was 1: 2000. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0926,T] (1).



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