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1. Studies On Gentamicin Toxicity In Broiler Chickens

by Muhammad Shah Rukh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of gentamicin sulphate at different dosage levels in broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted in two phases. During phase I one hundred broiler chicks were divided into A,B, C and D groups having twenty five birds in each and were injected gantamicin sulphate in the form of gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 5mg/kg, lOmg/ kg, 20mg /kg in groups A,B and C twice daily for four days respectively while group D kept as control. During phase II twenty five chicks were divided into groups E,F,G,H and I having five birds in each. Birds in groups E and F were injected gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 40mg/kg and 80 mg/kg while gantamicin sulphate injected in the form of Aagent 10% at the rate of 40 mg / kg and 80 mg/kg to groups G and H twice daily for four days respectively and the birds of I group were kept as control. Blood samples (3m1) were collected from all medicated and un-medicated groups before and after medication on different days and serum was separated for the measurement of different biochemical parameters. Post-mortem examination of all birds were performed at the end of experiment. Post-mortem examination revealed no abnormality in any bird during phase I (normal organs) while during phase II abnormalities such as congestion, inflammation of the kidney and necrosis, discoloured livers were recorded except control group. Six birds died during experiment in phase 11(2/10 at 40mg/kg and 4/10 at 80mg/kg dose). The mortality rates at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg were 20 and 40% respectively. An increase in Aspartate amino Transferase was observed in medicated birds during phase I while a significant increase in Aspartate amino Transferase, Alanine amino Transferase, uric acid and creatinine were recorded in medicated birds during phase II. From this study it is concluded that broiler birds tolerated gentamicin upto 20mg/kg while acute toxic effects at the dose of 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg of gentamicin were recorded in broiler chicks. No sign of visceral gout were recorded in any bird. There was no difference in the toxicity of two different preparations of gentaniicin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0893,T] (1).

2. Toxicity Of Flunixin Meglumine In Avian Species

by Muhammad Irfan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: This project was designed for the evaluation of different effects of toxic dose levels of flunixin meglumine and diclofenac sodium in broiler chickens. For this purpose one hundered and fifty broiler chicks were purchased from the market and were reared upto day 28 and then were divided into different groups (A, B, C, D E and F). Groups A, B, C and D were treated with flunixin meglumine at the dosage rate of 1.25, 2.5, 5.00 and 10.00mg/kg body weight JIM once daily respectively and group E was kept as Control. The remaining 25 birds of group F were treated with Diclofenic sodium 5.00mg/kg body weight by same route of administration and dosing interval as mentioned for flunixin meglumine. Treatment was continued for five consecutive days. Clinical signs, mortality, liver and kidney function tests were performed by estimation of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid and Creatinine in the serum samples. Postmortem findings and histopathological changes of different tissues were also recorded. Toxicity of flunixin meglumine was evaluated through the above mentioned parameters and this toxicity was compared with that of Diclofenac sodium. Based on the mortality data and biochemical analysis it was concluded found that flunixin meglumine was toxic in avian species. Keeping in view the environmental problem (vultures crises) it is suspected that flunixin meglumine may cause some problems in avian species as diclofenac sodium. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0925,T] (1).

3. Effect Of Sodium Bentonite On Growth Performance And Feed Efficiency

by Ghayur Ahmad Khan | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: A trial was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing sodium bentonite, to find the effectiveness of sodium bentonite on the growth performance of Sahiwal male calves. Twelve animals of almost same age and weight were selected from the available stock at Animal Nutrition Centre, Rakh Dera Chahl, Lahore. These animals were divided into three groups and fed a standard ration "A" according to their nutrient requirements. Rations of group B and C were supplemented with sodium bentonite at the rate of 2.5 and 5.0 per cent while group A served as control. The trial was run for a period of 90 days with normal managemental practices. During the experimental period body weight gain and feed consumption of the individual animals was recorded. At the end of the experiment the data were analyzed statistically. The result of the experiment suggested that addition of sodium bentonite had statistically non-significant effect on the body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversation ratio and rate of passage of digesta through the gastro-intestinal tract. Based on the results of this trial it could be inferred that supplementation of sodium bentonite may have some beneficial effect on the performance of calves. However, use of this clay over extended period of time needs to be investigated for any adverse effect in future Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0968,T] (1).

4. Impact Of Various Feeding Regimes On Growth Performance Of Male Buffalo Calves

by Rashid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline in per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animal origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem is to increase the production of meat. The potential of buffalo as a food animal to meet present and future demands of rapidly growing population deserves special attention because of its capacity to economically convert course roughages and other cereal by products into meat. Pakistan is second largest buffalo holding country in the world having 29 million buffalo. Traditional system of buffalo meat production is inefficient; animals destined for slaughter are mostly culled and old stock. Male calves are not reared specifically for producing meat but they are kept only for milk let down in villages and are slaughtered even at 6-7 days of age in pen-urban areas. So far very little work has been done to evaluate the tremendous meat production potential of buffalo calves with a particular plan of nutrition. Present study consisted of a feeding trial of about three months in duration. Fifteen Nih Ravi calves of approximately the same age and weight were selected for the subject study. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups which were reared on three different feeding regimes. Group I was fed TMR ad-libitum and 2 kg of green fodder. Group II was fed available green fodder ad-libitum and concentrate ration @ 1% of body weight. Group III was fed Lucerne hay ad-libitum and concentrate ration @ 1% of body weight. . Weighed quantity of feed was offer to every animal on individual feeding basis in a group and refusal was also recorded individually. The results of study revealed that animals fed on TMBR performed better as compared to other feeding regimes. Among three feeding groups, highest (124.60 ± 7.82 kg) weight gain was observed in TMBR group while, lowest (108.20 + 5.80 kg) weight gain was found in Hay group. As far as feed intake is concerned, highest (777.42 + 8.87 kg) feed intake was observed in fodder group while, lowest (755.10 ± 16.61 kg) feed intake was found in TMBR group. Out of three feeding groups, calves fed on TMBR showed best feed conversion ratio (6.07 ± 0.47) while, the feed conversion ratio in calves fed on hay and fodder was 7.04 ± 0.39 and 7.01 ± 0.32 respectively. Economic analysis per kg weight gain revealed that TMBR group had the lowest cost of production in rupees (101.43 ± 7.92) per kg weight gain, where as highest cost of production (130.40± 7.40) was found in hay group. Analysis of variance of serum chemistry means revealed that no significant differences were found in total protein, urea, glucose, and creatinine values for all three feeding regimes. On the basis of results of this study it is concluded that TMBR can be utilized as an alternate for our conventional feeding practices as it can meet all nutritional requirements of the animal. It is easy to handle, transport and store besides having a longer shelf life. It is suggested that further trials with TMBR be carried out on different age and sex groups of buffalo and cattle in order to evaluate its effects on the performance of the animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1227,T] (1).

5. Biometry Of Femake Reproductive Tract Of Nili- Ravi Buffalo

by Atta-ur-Rehman | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Knowledge of biometry of female reproductive tract of Nili Ravi buffalo is very important for artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, estrus detection and to deal with infertility problems. Animals were divided into four groups based on age and cyclicity, which were non cyclic heifer, cyclic heifer, non cyclic adult and cyclic adult. Each group contained ten reproductive tracts collected from government slaughter house at Lahore. Anatomical parameters of normal female reproductive tract (ovary, oviduct, uterine horn, intercornualligament, uterine body and cervix) were recorded. Mostly the shape of the ovary was almond in Nili Ravi buffalo except one animal where the shape of the ovary was oval. Length, diameter, circumference, weight, thickness, and ovarian bursa diameter of left and right of cyclic adult were significantly higher than that of non cyclic adult and non cyclic heifer. Mesovarien length of left and right ovary of cyclic adult, non cyclic adult and cyclic heifer was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer. There was no significant difference in mean number of follicles, outer diameter, total diameter and total length on both ovaries among different groups. There was no significant difference in number of regressed, developed and hemorrhagic CL on both ovaries in all groups. Length and thickness of left and right oviduct of cyclic adult were significantly higher than those of non cyclic adult and non cyclic heifer while, in case of oviduct weight there was no significant difference among different groups. Outer length, bifurcation lepgth, total length, diameter, weight, circumference and uterine artery diameter of left and right uterine horn of cyclic adult were significantly higher than those of non cyclic adult, non cyclic heifer and cyclic heifer. In the same way that of cyclic heifer was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer. Thickness of left uterine horn wall of cyclic adult was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer and non cyclic adult but in case of right uterine horn there was no significant difference in thickness among different groups. Mean number of caruncles of left and right uterine horn as well as length of dorsal and ventral intercornual ligament of cyclic adult and non cyclic adult was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer and cyclic heifer. Mean length, diameter, circumference, thickness and weight of uterine body and cervix of cyclic adult were significantly higher than those of non cyclic adult and non cyclic heifer. Mean length, diameter, weight, diameter and circumference of uterine body and cervix of non cyclic adult and cyclic heifer were significantly higher than those of non cyclic heifer. There was no significant difference in mean number of cervical rings among different groups of Nili Ravi buffalo while shape of the cervix was cylindrical in all groups. Length of cervix protrusion in vagina of cyclic adult and non cyclic adult was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer and cyclic heifer and that of cyclic heifer was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer. There was no significant difference between left and right parts of female reproductive tract except ovarian lengt, ovarian diameter, ovarian bursa d iameter and number of caruncles. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1349,T] (1).

6. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Schistosomiasis In Cattle

by Mudassar Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1433,T] (1).

7. Prevalance Of Endoparasites In Common Carnivorous Fish In Lahore.

by Imtiaz Aziz | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Due to intensification of fish culture practices, there is more likely the occurrence of various diseases in general and parasitic in specific in fish. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the prevalence of various parasites in local fish especially fishes of fresh water. Therefore, the present study has been planned to investigate the prevalence of various parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and liver of Wallago attu(Malee) ,Rita rita (Khaga), Channa marulius(Saul) and Mystus seenghala(Seenghari). Therefore, it was hypothesized that there is a variation in the occurrence of various endoparasites in various species of fish. A total fifty gut samples from each of breed of fish (Wallago attu (Malee),Rita rita (Khaga), Channa marulius(Saul) and Mystus seenghala(Seenghari) were collected from various fish markets located in Lahore City like Bhatti Gate, Samnabad, Tollinton Market, and were analyzed to determine the prevalence of various endoparasites in the intestine. The gut samples were collected in 0.9% physiological saline and were preserved in 4% formalin. The recovered parasites were fixed and identified on the basis of morphology to calculate the prevalence rate. The data thus collected was analyzed using a Pearson's chi-square. Results showed that out of 65 fish samples collected from Tollinton market that included Rita rita (n = 20), Wallago attu (n = 15), Channa marulius (n = 15) and Mystus seenghala (n = 15), 7 (10.76%) samples of gut harbored various parasites. Similarly, the prevalence rate of parasites in two other localities were 17.39% in Bhatti-gate fish market and 18.18% in Samanabad Fish market. The overall prevalence rate was found to be 15.5%. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence rate when data was assorted on the basis of localities. Both single and mixed infections were noted in fishes collected from all three localities and all four species of fresh water fish. The various parasites revocered from the intestines of the gut from all species included P. heteropneustus Cucullanus sp., Cucullanus sp., Phyllodistomum sp. and R. magna. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1499,T] (1).

8. Study On The Pathogenesis Of Clostridium Perferingens (Necrotic Enteritis) In Experimentally Infected

by Arif Mehmood | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. M. Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1546,T] (1).

9. Quality Analysis Of Drinking Water Form Various Sources Of Sahiwal City

by Farrukh Ali Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad Nasir | Prof .Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1552,T] (1).

10. Determination Of Various Physiological Indices In Dogs Induced By Antipiroplasm Drug

by Tanzila Bashir | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1644,T] (1).

11. Phenotypic Characterization Of Two Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes Of Pakistan

by Amjad Iqbal | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Poultry is the second largest industry of Pakistan and a significant proportion of poultry products (meat and eggs) originates from the rural poultry production system which is an important source of livelihood for about 80% of the rural households in Pakistan. The quest for greater production through the use of exotic breeds has created difficulties for backyard production systems and is dangerous on economic, social and scientific grounds. This practice is also resulting in rapid erosion of indigenous genetic resources. The commercial sector itself may require access to indigenous genotypes as its genetic base is quite narrow and for catering the future needs industry may require improvement in many other characteristics (for instance, adaptability and disease resistance) in addition to just egg and meat yield enhancement. Unfortunately, in many countries the indigenous breeds have not been studied for their potential uses and benefits and have been indiscriminately cross bred with exotic breeds. Therefore, it is crucial to study and characterize the indigenous breeds and generate necessary information to be used in future to reap maximum benefits. The generated knowledge would provide useful information essential for conservation of indigenous genetic resources. The knowledge about the morphological attributes of native chickens has not been adequately documented on technical and scientific grounds. Keeping this in view the present study was planned and data on qualitative and quantitative traits regarding the morphology were collected on Aseel and Naked-neck chickens using a specially designed performa.All recorded data were entered in MS Excel 2010 spreadsheets. The qualitative parameters were expressed as percentages and quantitative parameters were expressed as mean ± standard error. A great variation in plumage colors and patterns was observed in both Aseel and Naked-neck chickens. The Aseel chickens possessed a pea comb whereas Naked-neck chickens possessed single comb. Also it was interesting to note that about 10% of Aseel hens possessed spurs however spurs were absent in Naked-neck females. On the basis of quantitative traits,it was found that the Naked neck chickens were smaller in size than the Aseel chickens regarding body weight (Aseel: 1938.7±36.9 g in females and 2317±98.4 g in males; Naked neck: 1160.4±19.3 g in females and 1415±22.2 in males), shank length (Aseel: 8.1±0.1 cm in females and 10.3±0.1 cm in males; Naked neck: 7.5±0.05 cm in females and 8.6±0.1 cm in males), shank circumference (Aseel: 44.2±0.5 mm in females and 52.4±1.1 mm in males; Naked neck: 36.5±0.7 mm in females and 41.4±0.5 mm in males), and keel length (Aseel: 15.1±0.1 cm in females and 16.0±0.2 cm in males; Naked-neck: 14.1±0.2 cm in females and 14.7±0.1 cm in males). The information about indigenous Aseel and Naked-neck chickens documented in the present study can be used as reference in future for conservation and breed improvement programs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1679,T] (1).

12. Isolation And Characterization Of Phytase Producing Microrganism From Soil

by Ghazal Aziz | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Phytase is an enzyme of great importance because it is added as a biofertilizer to soil and added in animal feed to increase the uptake of inorganic phosphorous. Phytase production is the property of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that harbor in rhizosphere part of the soil. These phytase producing bacteria can be utilized as biofertilizers as and can increase the soil fertility and crop production. Soil samples were collected and screened for the production of phytase (an extracellular) enzyme on phytase screening media (PSM). Six bacterial isolates (PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30) showed distinguished clear zones (> 6mm) on PSM. Isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei PHY02, Enterobactor intermedius PHY03, Bacillus badius PHY06, Escherichia coli PHY07, Shigella sonnei PHY12, and Klebsiella pneumonia PHY30. Effect of physical parameters (temperatures, pH and osmotic pressure) on growth and enzyme production by selected isolates was determined. Optimum growth and production of phytae by PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30 (27, 9, 19, 40, 32, and 19 IU, respectively) was at 37°C. PHY07 showed highest enzyme production, followed by PHY30 and PHY02. Isolate PHY06 showed similar growth and enzyme activity at 37°C and 42°C but it was significantly reduced at low temperature. Effect of pH on phytase production on selected isolates indicates that all isolates produces maximum amount of phytase at pH 6.5. At pH 6.5 enzyme units released by PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30, were 26, 15, 19, 41, 19, and 32 IU, respectively. Production of enzyme decreased with the increase in osmotic pressure. PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30 showed optimum enzyme production (27, 15, 17, 41, 18, and 32 IU, respectively) at 1 % NaCl in PSM (Figure 1C). Effects of carbon source on both growth and phytase production of isolates showed that PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12 had significantly higher (P<0.05) cell densities and enzyme production in glucose, while PHY02 and PHY30 had higher enzyme activity at 0.3% lactose. Nitrogen source in growing media also effects the growth and production of enzyme. PHY02 and PHY12 had better growth and production at 0.1% peptone, while PHY07 and PHY30 had significantly higher phytase level in media modified with peptone but at higher concentration (0.3%). Addition of tryptone in growth medium significantly enhanced the growth and enzyme production by PHY03, and PHY06. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1685,T] (1).

13. Phylogenetic Analysis Of Local Isolate Of Canine Babesiosis

by Burhan-ud-Din | Dr Harron Akbar | Prof Dr | Prof Dr Azhar Maqbal | Faculty of Veterinary Science.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1859,T] (1).

14. Effeect Of Ascorbic Acid And Moulting On Semen Quality In Native Chickens

by Adnan Jabbar | Dr Amjad Riaz | Prof Dr | Prof Dr Mian Abdual Sattar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1860,T] (1).

15. Isolation And Characterization Of Antibiotic Resistant Lactobacilli From Fermented Food Products

by Shahgull | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Aftab anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2002,T] (1).

16. Standardization Of Bovine Serum Albumin (Bsa) For Cryopreservation Of Beetal Buck Semen

by Muhammad Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Mian abdul sattar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Naseem ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2018,T] (1).

17. Slow- Release Non-Protien Nitrogen Impact On Performance Of Weaned Crossbred Calves

by Shahzad naveed | Prof. Dr. Talat naseer pasha | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Anjum khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2030,T] (1).

18. Isolation Of Phytase Gene From Bacteria Obtained From Different Sources

by Raja Danish munir | Prof. Dr. Masroor ellahi babar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2065,T] (1).

19. Effects Of Substitution Of Soyabean Oil Meal With Dried Brewer'S Yeast On The Performance Of Japanese Quails

by Zafar Iqbal Chauhan | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Dr. Jaweeed Ahmed Qureshi | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Dried brewer's yeast (DBY) (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a byproduct of the brewing industry and is a valuable food for animals. DBY contains 45% CP and 35% soluble carbohydrate. The amino acid profile of DBY is comparable to other vegetable protein supplement (VPS) like SBM. The present study was designed to study the effect of substitution of SBM with DBY on the performance of Japanese quails.. For the purpose quails were fed with five rations in which SBM was replaced with DBY at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for 42 days. Weekly weight gain and daily feed consumption was recorded. Maximum weight gain (144.61g), feed efficiency (4.01) carcass weight (104.72g) and dressing percentage (69.53%) was observed in quails fed ration in which 100% SBM was replaced with DBY. Minimum weight gain (137.67 g) poor feed efficiency (4.21) lower carcass weight (78.28g) and poor dressing percentage (54.48%) was recorded in quails fed ration in which 100% DBY was replaced with SBM. No adverse effect on internal organs liver, heart and carcass was seen. From the foregoing study it was concluded that DBY could be successfully incorporated in quails rations upto 10% without any undesirable effect on the performance of quails. It has been demonstrated from the results that DBY improves body weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage which ultimately decreases the cost of quality meat production. The study also indicated that rations containing DBY were comparatively cheaper and cost per kg of live weight was decreased and net profit per quail was greater. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0409,T] (1).

20. Comparative Efficiency Of Urea Molasses Mineral Blocks And Urea Treated Wheat Straw In Fattening

by Farrokh Saeed | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Jaweed Ahmed Qureshi | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline in the per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animals origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem of meat shortage is to increase the production of meat by fattening the male buffalo calves. These calves could be fattened by using the cheaper sources of agriculture by-products available in our country. Wheat straw is being fed to ruminants with supplemental green fodder. It is also fed as a sole roughage during the lean periodof the year. It is however deficient in fermentable nitrogen and has poor digestibility due to more lignification. Urea impregnation of straws has been shown to improve the intake as well as digestibility. It has been concluded that urea treatment with 4% urea solution at 40 to 50 percent moisture level could be advantageous to improve crude protein content of straw and its digestibility. Molasses, a by-product of sugar industry, is an excellent and a cheap source of digestible energy as compared to all other similar energy feeds. Urea provides nitrogen needed for adequate development of animal flora and thus enhances the utilization of fibrous feed.Preparation of urea molasses blocks appears to be an appropriate technology to fulfill the requirements of animals. A fattening trial was conducted on two groups of buffalo calves with 8 calves per group, to study the comparative efficiency of urea molasses mineral block and urea treated wheat straw. The experiment was conducted for 90 days. Feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency, concentration of urea in serum, concentration of total protein in serum and digestibility of different nutrients in the animals were recorded. Economics of fattening rations was also determined. The results of the study revealed non significant differences in weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, concentration of urea in serum and concentration of total protein in serum of buffalo calves. Digestibility trial revealed that there was non significant difference in digestibility of dry matter, ether extract but significant difference in digestibility of crude fibre and crude protein. The findings of this study revealed the benefits of utilizing urea ammonia treated wheat straw in the fattening ration upto 38% level. It was also ascertained that urea molasses blocks are equally effective in enhancing the growth rate of buffalo calves. Moreover, urea molasses blocks are a useful tool of supplementation of forage diet because of ease of transportation and balance nutrient profile. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0453,T] (1).

21. Comparison Of Two Methods Of Estrus Synchronization In Sahiwal Cows

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 24 Sahiwal cows were selected for this study and randomly divided into two groups viz A and B. Group A cows were injected two injections of prostaglandin F2 intramuscularly without palpation 11 days apart, while the other group involved the veterinarian skill for detection of palpable corpus luteum and only single injection of prostaglandin was given in all the cows. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Estrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. 91.66% and 83.33% cows from A and B groups respectively responded to the treatment. This response was slightly greater in cows of group A than group B. Interval to the onset of estrus after treatment was found non-significant (P>O.05) in both group cows. The length of estrus in group A was 21.54±1.65 hours whereas it was 19±0.88 hours in group B. The difference in the length of estrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The conception rate of both groups was found to be 54.54% and 50% respectively, which was slightly higher than the second group. The mucus characteristics of both the groups were noted and 81.81% and 70% cows were found having typical fern like pattern and discharged clear (Transparent) mucus. No one cow having atypical fern pattern and cloudy discharge of mucus conceived. The behavioural signs and the physical changes were recorded. There was little difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group B the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group A. The cost per animal for group A and B was 303 rupees and 276.50 rupees, economically group B technique seems to be profitable to the farmers, and by adopting this technique one can save money. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0462,T] (1).

22. Progesterone And Lh Profile Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Low Breeding Season

by Rizwan Nasr Cheema | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the main objective was to determine the oestrus activity of buffaloes during low breeding season. Out of six buffaloes 3 showed oestrus and out of these 2 repeated oestrus cycle. Both the primary and secondary symptoms of oestrus were clearly visible at oestrus. Length of the oestrus cycle was observed as 21.5 days with the average oestrus period 30.8 hours. The mean progesterone concentration in cyclic buffaloes on the day of the oestrus cycle (d=0)was 0.09 ng/ml and the highest serum progesterone concentration were observed on 16th day of oestrus cycle. In the non cyclic buffaloes the progesterone concentration remained around 1 ng/ml throughout the study. At the onset and the end of the oestrus the concentration of luteiningzing hormone was 3.9 ng/ml. Whereas at the beginning of standing heat average luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration 3.8 ng/ml. The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) was 14.4 ng/ml observed. The average time of LH surge was 17.6 hours after the onset of the oestrus. End of oestrus time of following LH surge was 17.2 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0512,T] (1).

23. Detoxification Effects Of Aflatoxin Contamination In The Poultry Feed By Using Different Chemical Techniques

by Awan, Naeem Nazir | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Mr. Anjum Khalique | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Aflatoxins, the toxic fungi metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are potent natural contaminants of feed stuffs. Aflatoxin effects all species of animals and poultry resulting, depressed growth, production and immunity against diseases. The importance of aflatoxin in the poultry industry lies in economics loss due to the effect of reduced adsorption, utilization and metabolism of fat and protein, by decreasing bone strength, lameness, lethargy and weakness of wings ataxia, refulled or curled feather, reduced amino acid and vitamin (riboflavin) absorption, impaired immunity resulting in increased susceptibility towards infectious diseases, poor feed conversion ratio, less weight gain and feed consumption and moderate to high mortality. In addition to these effects there may be reduced ability to produce antibodies in response to vaccination. Such immune related problems are extremely difficult to diagnose. An investigation was undertaken to study the comparative value of various adsorbents to minimize the effect of aflatoxin on the performance of broiler chicks. Six experimental rations viz, A, B, C, D, E and F were prepared for the said purpose. Ration A served as negative control, Ration B, served as positive control having 100 ppb level of AFB 1. Ration C, AFB 1 @ 100 ppb and Sodium Bentonite @ 2% of the ration. Ration D, AFB 1 100 ppb and Myco-fix plus 1.0 kg/ton of feed. Ration E, AFB 1 @ 100 ppb and Myco-fix plus 2.50 kg/ton of feed. Ration F, AFB 1 @ 100 ppb and Myco-ad @ 2.0 kg/ton of feed (Commercial Adsorbents). Two hundred and forty, day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six groups having forty birds in each and which were further sub-divided into four replicates comprising of ten birds in each. The body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. The drooping feather percentage, leg deformities percentage, mortality percentage, postmortem lesions, bursal body weight ratio and dressing percentage were recorded at the end of experiment. However, the antibody titre for Newcastle disease vaccine was analyzed at 2lth, 28th, 35th, and 42nd day of the experiment. The experiment lasts for six weeks. The results indicated highly significant differences (P < 0.05) of weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio among all the groups, there was also significant differences (P<0.05) was observed among the values of dropping feather and dressing percentage, however there was no difference in leg deformities of different control and experimental groups. There was highest percentages of mortality and postmortem lesion in the experimental group F (Myco-ad) and positive control group B, (AFB 1, @100 ppb), than the groups, A, C, D and E. There was significant difference in the geometric mean titres among the groups while there was no difference in bursal body weight ration among the groups (P <0.05). From the data of present study it can be concluded that group A (Negative control) showed the best performance among the experimental groups in all above mentioned parameters: In experimental group C (Sodium bentonite) gave a better affect on the performance of birds, rather than other groups placed on the commercial adsorbents (Myco-fix plus and Myco-ad). The commercial adsorbent Myco-ad @ 2.0 kg/ton of feed had highly drastic effect on the health status and growing abilities of the birds. However, the use of Myco-fix plus (Commercial adsorbent) had some beneficial effect on experimental birds. It is recommended that more research work should be conducted to investigate more suitable measures to minimize the effect of aflatoxin Bi, before final conclusion are drawn. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0523,T] (1).

24. Effect Of Different Antioxidants In Rice Polishing On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Aziz, M | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad Mian | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The oxidation of rice polishing and complete feed, can significantly decrease nutritional value. The end result is a loss in nutrient quality, impairmeI of health of birds, reduction in performance and increased production cost. The detrimental effects of oxidation can be minimized by adding antioxidants to rice polishing. Quality antioxidants interrupt the reaction and control subsequent losses in nutrient value. Antioxidant protect the quality of rice polishing and feed as formulated by the nutritionist to achieve maximum growth and feed efficiency. An investigation was undertaken to study the comparative value of various antioxidants to minimize (Peroxide value, free fatty acid number) the effect of oxidation in rice polishing on the performance of broiler chicks. Six experimental rations viz, A, B, C, D, E and F were prepared for the said purpose. Ration A served as negative control (Fresh rice polishing without antioxidant), Ration B served as positive control (Rancid rice polishing without antioxidant). Ration C (Feedox) 125 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration D Santoquin 500 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration E Oxistat 125 gm/ton of rice polishing, Ration F Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) @ 500 gm/ton of rice polishing. One hundred and eighty, day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six groups having thirty birds in each group and which were further subdivided into three replicates comprising of ten birds in each. The body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. Pancreas weight, dressing percentage, mortality percentage and comparative study of antioxidants were determined at the end of experiment. However, the peroxide value of rice polishing at fresh, rancid and on weekly basis was analyzed. The experiment lasts for six weeks. The weight gain of the birds fed on various experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 5-6 weeks of age were 645.0, 538.33, 655.33,709.17,663.33 and 643.0 gms respectively. Significantly more weight gain (709.17gm) was observed in the birds fed on ration D containing santoquin. Overall total weight gain of birds fed on experimental rations A to F were 1628.8, 1343.7, 1484.2, 1608.8, 1508.1 and 1471.1 gms respectively. However, the results revealed non-significant differences among weight gain of birds. The results of feed consumption indicated that birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 3063.77, 3082.0, 3277.2, 3247.13, 3360.0 and 3223.33 gms respectively. However, apparently the birds fed on ration E containing Oxistat antixodant consumed more feed as compared to other rations. The data on feed efficiency showed that birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 5-6 weeks of age were 2.558, 2.756, 2.473, 2.334, 2.590 and 2.540 respectively. Significantly (P< 0.05) better feed utilization was observed in birds fed on ration D containing Santoquin as compared to chicks fed on ration E containing Oxistat and B containing rancid rice polishing, but there was no difference in the birds fed on ration E, A, F and C. However, the feed efficiency of birds from 0-6 weeks of age fed on experimental rations A to F were 1.969, 2.209, 2.122, 1.943, 2.133 and 2.191 respectively which revealed non-significant difference among the rations. Present results revealed that weight of pancreas of birds fed on different experimental rations A, B, C, D, E and F from 0-6 weeks of age were 2.692, 3.735, 3.064, 2.89, 3.232 and 2.839 gms respectively. Significantly more weight of pancreas was observed in the birds fed o ration B containing rancid rice polishing. However, non-significant difference were noticed in the birds fed on other experimental rations. The peroxide value in rice polishing at first and the end of 6th week of experiment of rations A, B, C, D, E and F 0.8, 61.2, 2.1, 1.4, 2.4 and 2.5, at 6th week 10.3, 80.7, 6.3, 3.3, 5.9 and 7.6 respectively. It was concluded that Santoquin was the best antioxidant in controlling the oxidation process in rice polishing as compared to other antioxidants, i.e., Oxistat, Feedox and BHT used in the present experiment. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. For further study various antioxidants with various levels and various sources of fat containing ingredients (rice polishing) at various levels of inclusion should be tested. 2. This type of study should be performed with fresh ingredients. 3. Different methods i.e. control of air, moisture, temp. Of storage period, light etc. should adopted to minimize the development of rancidity. 4. Storage duration of rice polishing should be at least six weeks. 5. Storage of feed should be at controlled environment. 6. Processing of rice polishing should be in such a way that lipase enzyme not become active. 7. Santoquin (Ethoxyquin) antoxidant proved to be best in controlling oxidation process in rice polishing i.e. peroxides formation than Feedox, Oxistat and BHT antioxidants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0524,T] (1).

25. Morphological Abnormalities In The Spermatozoa Of Cross Bred Cow Bulls During Summer Season

by Afzal, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Imriaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In this study twelve normally producing breeding bulls three of each Sahiwal and Friesian breeds and six bulls of 50% Cross-bred were selected. The mean volume of ejaculates were 4.87, 4.22 and 5.95m1 in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred, respectively. There is no significant difference among the volume of breeds during the months May, June and July. The semen concentration were 637.369, 606.554 and 312.806 million per ml in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred. However, the concentration of spermatozoa in Cross-bred were significantly lower (P<0.01) as compared to Sahiwal and Friesian bulls. The overall average values for head abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P <0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Crossbred (2.65 vs 7.20 and 8.90%) respectively during summer season. The neck abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P<0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Cross-bred 1.13 vs 3.52 and 5.59% respectively during summer season. Similarly the values of mid piece abnormalities percentage were significant higher in Cross bred vs Sahiwal and Friesian (2.04 vs 0.60 and 1.83%) respectively during summer season. The same results pertaining to protoplasmic droplets and tail abnormalities were obtained. The overall average abnormalities percentage in spermatozoa of Sahiwal breed were significantly lower vs Friesian and Cross-bred (8.64 vs 21.32 and 27.67%) respectively during summer season. These results indicated that Exotic breed (Friesian) as well as Cross-bred have poor adaptability against the stress of the high temperature during summer season, so they produce lower quality semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0549,T] (1).

26. Effect Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) On The Growth Performance And Immune Styatus Of Broiler Chicks

by Anwar-ul-Haq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present research work was undertaken to assess the immuno-modulatory effect of Garlic on different concentrations and Zinc Bacitracin on the antibody titers against ND in NDV vaccinated broiler chicks. For this purpose 150 day-old broiler chicks were purchased from the local market and divided into 5 equal groups i.e. A (vaccinated, non medicated control), B (administered with ND vaccine and Zinc bacitracin), C (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and 1 g/kg Garlic), D (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic 5 g/kg), E (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic (10 g/kg). Each group comprised of 30 chicks. Group E was fed on a ration containing Garlic at the dose rate 10 g/kg of feed and given throughout he study period i.e. upto 42 days of age. The comparative immuno-modulatory effects of Garlic and Zinc Bacitracin were worked out on the basis of GMT levels in ND vaccinated unmedicated birds alongwith the ND vaccinated, medicated birds. These titers were evaluated by using HA and HI tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, weight gain, FCR, postmortem findings, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus, bursae and liver were also assessed in drawing the final conclusion. Data was analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) to find out the means of the experimental groups. The birds that were, NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds NDV vaccinated and Garlic 5 g/kg medicated secured second position regarding weight gain and FCR among the three experimental groups (A, B and C). The birds from group B (Z.B. and NDV) had the higher body weight than group (A and C). Feed conversion ratio of group B was also found to be better than group A (NDV vaccinated, unrnedicated) and group C (NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated). None of the three treatments (Garlic, Z.B. and control) had any adverse effects on the weight size, and texture of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver). The birds belonging to group E (NDV vaccinated, Garlic 10 g/kg medicated) had shown the highest antibody titers on day 42. While the birds of group A (NDV vaccinated, unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titers. Among the three experimental groups (B, C and D), the birds from group D had higher antibody titers as compared to other treatment groups. Whereas the group B had the higher antibody titers than the group C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0842,T] (1).

27. Efficacy Of Gentamicin And Enrofloxacin In Endometritis In Postpartum Buffalo

by Muhammad Assad Javaid | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This study was carried out on 40 postpartum buffaloes suffering from endometritis with the objective that if gentamicin (@ 4mg/kg body weight, I/M) or enrofloxacin (@ 5mg/kg body weight, I/M) for 3 consecutive days is effective against the endometritis. Twenty postpartum, untreated, healthy buffaloes were kept as control (group C). The uterine characteristics and blood samples for haematological studies were examined before (day 0) and after treatment (day 4). Mucus samples were examined for fern pattern at first estrus before treatment and after treatment. Both the treatment did not differ significantly (P> 0.05) among them; however, they had significantly (P< 0.05) beneficial effect on cervical diameter, location of uterus, texture of uterine wall and symmetry of uterine horns. Intensity of uterine infection was cured sigtnificantly. The haematological values revealed a significant improvement (P<0.05 in EST, Hb and TLC in endometritic animals (group A and B) but the difference was non significant in control group. Whereas value of TEC was non significant in group A and C and significant improvement was observed in group B after treatment. Moreover, when we compare the 3 groups (A,B and C) to each other, non significant difference was observed among the Hb concentration in three groups. Whereas, ESr was not significant between group A,B and C, but was significant between groups B and C (P<0.05). in TEC, the values were significant difference in group A with C group B with group C. but no significant difference in group A with group B. and in TLC, there was significant difference in group A with group B and group ?A with group C, but no significant difference in group B with group C. similarly in DLC the values of eosinophils were significant in group A. but no significant difference in group B and group C in before and after treatment. In neutrophils, there were significant differences in values of group B but no significant difference in group A and group C. also in lymphocytes, significant difference was found in group B, but was not no significant difference in group A and C in before and after treatment. As in basophils, monocytes, there was no significant difference in before treatment and after treatment. Furthermore, when these DLC value were compare with each other after treatment, there was significant difference in neutrophils and lymphocytes within group A with B, A with C and B with C. in monocytes, significant difference was found in A with C group and group B with C, but no significant difference in A with B. In eosinophils, no significant difference was found in all three groups. And in basophils, significant difference was found in group A with C and B with C. but no significant difference in A group with B group. The physical signs (uterine tone, vulvular swelling, hyperemia, and wetness in vagina, switching of tail, mucus discharge) and behavioural signs (Micruration, rising of tail, bellowing, mounting and restlessness of estrus were studied. After treatment estrus was observed in 45% of group A and 55% of group B buffaloes. The pregnancy rate was 60% in group A and 50% in group B buffaloes. This was comparable to the pregnancy rate in group C buffaloes (62%). And there were no significant difference in the conception rates. It is concluded that both gentamicin and enrofloxacin are equally effective for the treatment of postpartum endometritic buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0847,T] (1).

28. Diagnosis And Prevalence Of Trypanosoma Evansi In Camels Through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) And Haematocrit Centrifugation Thechnique (HCT) in Punjab (Pakistan)

by Jahanzaib | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The most important protozoan disease of camels is trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi. There was little epidemiological information on the prevalence of infection. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of Trypanosorna evansi in camels through haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total number of 100 camels of different age and sex groups were selected from different localities including Bahawalpur, Lahore, Gujranwala and faisalabad to find out the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Punjab (Pakistan) and to evaluate the sensitivity of PCR assay and HCT for the diagnosis Trypanosoma evansi. Blood samples were collected and examined by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence was recorded as 4% and 13% by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction. The positive samples by the polymerase chain reaction also included the positive animals by the haermatocrit centrifugation technique. The results showed that PCR was more sensitive method for the detection of trypanosomiasis as compared to the haematocrit centrifugation technique. Thus PCR can be used for the diagnosis of camel trypanosornosis during both acute and chronic phases of infection, and for use in the evaluation of treatment. Application of PCR to field diagnosis is therefore clearly indicated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0862,T] (1).

29. Clinico Epidemiological Study Of Bacterial Causes Of Respiratory Syndrome In Cattle And Buffalo Around Lahore

by Ahtasham-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents associated with respiratory tract infections in cattle and buffalo. For this purpose 100 clinically sick cattle and 100 clinically sick buffalo of both sex and age were examined. The samples were taken randomly from the Outdoor Hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Lahore. various District Veterinary Hospitals of Lahore and Private Veterinary Clinics of Lahore during September 2004 to February 2005. All the animals presented during the above mentioned period were clinically examined. Those showing signs of cough and nasal discharge were clinically examined, and their respiration rate, pulse rate, temperature and lung auscultation was performed. The frequency of clinical signs were observed and found it as, abnormal lung sounds 36.5%, Nasal discharge 69%, Cough 73%, Anorexia 93.5%, Depression 90.5%, Dyspnea 28%, Fever 84.5%, Increased pulse rate 66%, Increased respiratory rate 76.5%, Increased breath sounds 64.5% and Loud breath sounds 56%.Whereas no above mentioned signs were observed in control group. A total of 200 samples of nasal mucus were collected from 100 clinically sick cattle and l00 clinically sick buffalo. Nasal swabs were collected from clinically sick animals. Nasal swabs collected from the nasal cavity of the affected animals, in gamma sterilized cultural swabs, were properly labeled and kept at 4°C till further processing. Each affected animal was also tested For Bovine Tuberculosis using Single Intradermal Test. Smears were made from each nasal swab, stained with Gram's staining and was examined for the presence or absence of bacteria. Each positive bacterial swab was inoculated in nutrient broth, tubes, which was incubated at 37°C and then examined after different intervals of time for turbidity. A loopful of material from positive turbid broth was streaked on the nutrient agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Different types of colonies were purified. Smears were prepared from each type of colony, stained with Gram's staining and examined under oil immersion lens. The staining and morphological characteristics were recorded. Out of total 200 samples, only 152 were positive for bacterial contamination. The prevalence so calculated was 76% amongst the animal examined. A total number of I 52 isolates belonging to the genera Pasteurella, Streptococcus. Staphylococcus. Escherichia and Mycobacteriurn were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological, staining, cultural and biochemical characters of the organisms isolated from nasal mucus of cattle and bLiffalo. Of these Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from 43 (21 .5%), Pasteurella multocida 3 I (I 5.5%), Escherichia coli 11 (5.5%), Streptococcus 29 (14.5%), Staphylococcus 23 (11.5%) and Mycobacteriurn bovis 15 (7.5%). The main objective of this study was to assess and record the incidence of various bovine respiratory tract infections and to study the bacterial etiological agents involved in the production of respiratory tract syndrome. The etiological agents were identified by cultural and biochemical characteristics of isolates. These findings will help in devising proper and early measures required to cure the disease and to boost LI the prodLictive performance of these ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0870,T] (1).

30. Bioavailability Of Amoxicilin Trihydrate In Broiler Chickens Administered Through Drinking Water

by Amir Bakhsh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Bioavailability of two oral commercial formulations of amoxicillin trihydrate i.e. oracin-50 (Mediexcel, Pharmaceuticals (Pvt.) Limited Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica, µµchickens. The birds were divided into two groups A and B and than six replicates of each group were made. The birds were reared upto 30 days. Group A was medicated by Oracin-50 and group B was medicated by Bioxil-20. The medication was continued for three consecutive days and blood samples were collected before and after medication as per schedule. The plasma level of amoxicillin were determined by microbiological assays. The concentrations versus time data were plotted on logrithmic paper and various bio-availability parameters were determined. Peak concentrations of both oral preparations appeared with in two hours. However Oracin-50 peak concentration revealed 5.26±1.605µg/ml which was not significantly higher than 4.71±0.142ig/ml as depicted by Bioxil-20. Mean ±SEM of the area under curve (AUC) for Oracin-50 was 296.783±6.331µg. hr/ml and 259.26±4.866 µg.hr/ml for Bioxil-20 statistical analyses revealed no significant different minimum concentration of Oracin-50 revealed 2.550±O.0763µg/ml while 2.450±O.07637µg/ml as depicted by the bioxil-20. Both the preparations took the same time (2 hour) to attain the peak level of the plasma concentration. The present study also revealed that amoxicillin is not much stable in water. Oracin-50 decreased 34% and Bioxil-20 decreased 35% in 72 hours There was no significant difference (P<O.05) in the stability of both groups. The comparative study of the two Pharmaceutical preparations Oracin-50 (Mediexcel Pharmaceutical Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica Pharmaceutical Pakistan) revealed that there was no significant difference (P<O.05) between the means of two groups. The statistical evaluation revealed bio-equaleancy between two drugs. Amoxicillin is broad spectrum antibiotic, its bioavailability is better than other antibiotic. Its MIC is also very low (O.25igIml) but its half 1fe is short. So its repeated doses should be given. As it is somewhat unstable, in case of drinking water. The medicated water should be changed get the maximum efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0894,T] (1).

31. Efficacy Of Livergen And Icterene Aginst Experimentally Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rabbits

by Ahmed Sardar Mirza | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof.Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: The study was conducted on 35 male rabbits weighing from 1-1.5 kg. The study was carried out on the basis of elevation and decline in the levels of Alanine Transminase (ALT/SGPT), Aspartate Transminase (AST/SGOT) by inducing experimental hepatic injury by paracetamol and then treating it with hepatoprortective agents like, Livergen, Icterene and Jetepar. The rabbits were divided into the seven group i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F and G. All animals except animals of group A which is a control group were administered with hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol 2.5g/kg at day zero, while group C, D and E received hepatoprotective dose of Livergen syrup 1ml, 2ml and 3ml/kg respectively at day 2 for five consecutive days in addition to the toxic dose of paracetamol at day zero. The animals of group F received hepatoprotective dose of Icterene tablets 140mg/kg at day 2 for 5 consecutive days in addition to paracetamol toxic dose at day zero. The animals of group G received hepatoprotective dose of Jetepar syrup 1ml/kg at day 2 for five consecutive days in addition to the hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol 2.5g/kg at day zero. The blood samples were collected at day 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Concludingly, the drug Jetapar was found to be best effective. While Livergen and Icteren showed equal effective results at normal dose but significantly less than Jetepar. However, Livergen at dose 2ml/kg and 3ml/kg showed equal but almost similar results to Jetepar at last day. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0915,T] (1).

32. Development And Standardization Of Agar Gel Diffusion Test For Diagnosis Of Gigantocotyle Explanatum In Buffaloes

by Shahzad Sharif | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Gigantocotyle explanaturn is one of the most prevalent paramphistome among the flukes which parasitize cattle and buffaloes. Diagnosis of parasitic diseases can be performed by coprological and immunological techniques. In the present study standardization of agar gel diffusion test (AGDT) was carried out. The soluble antigen of Gigantoco1'/e explaflatuni was prepared after homogenization of adult flukes in normi' saline and subsequent collection of supernatant after cenirifugation. 1-lyperimmunc senim against the antigen was rflise(l in rabbits. Agar gel plates were prepared and antigen was standardized against known positive serum. The faecal and blood samples were collected from 200 suspected buffaloes from two abattoirs of the Lahore city. AGDT was performed for serological identification of the samples and coprological examination for detection of ova. The recovery of flukes from the liver, bile duct and gall bladder of thc same animals was also carried out. 'l'he efficacy of serological and coprological examination for the diagnosis of G. explanatum was compared with that of direct recovery of parasite from liver of slaughtered animals. Out of the 200 buffaloes 51 (25.5 percent) harhoured (7, explanatum in their livers, bile duct and gall bladder. The serological examination of the same animals showed that antibodies against (7. explanalum were detectable in 29 (56.85 percent) buffaloes by AGDT while the coprological examination of same animals revealed that ova of (i. explanatum were present in 23 (45.1 percent) out of the 51 animals. From these findings it can be inferred that efficacy of AGDT is superior to faecal examination and could become a useful technique for herd diagnosis of G. explandatum in buffaloes under field conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0919,T] (1).

33. Antimicrobial Activity Of Mentha Longifolia And Artemisia Maritima

by Sakhawat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was undertaken to determine the use of medicinal plants as an antibacterial agent and its potential as an alternative medicine against bacterial infections. For this purpose water, methanol and chloroform extract of the Artemisia maritirna and Mentha Ion gifolia were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus subtilis by Disc Diffusion Method, Well Diffusion method and Micro Dilution Method. After determination of the antibacterial properties the data was analyzed statistically by using paired t-test and it was observed that methanol extract had greater antibacterial activity as compared to chloroform and water extract, whereas, chloroform extract had moderate antibacterial activity but the water extract had negligible antibacterial activity. From the four tested organisms Escherichia coli was more susceptible to methanol extract of Mentha ion gfolia. In general Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to both plant extracts as compared to other three tested microorganisms. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0924,T] (1).

34. Preparation And Evaluation Of Rabbit Anti-Buffalo Immunoglobulin Antibody Peroxidase Conjugate

by Muhammad Babar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most sensitive rapid and reliable techniques for diagnosis of infectious diseases. For execution of ELISA, antibody-peroxidase conjugate is the fundamental reagent. Turnip peroxidase was purified from turnips, that includes homogenization, inactivation of catalase, ammonium sulphate precipitation and size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-25-80. The purified peroxidase had Rz value of 1.7, total protein 0.9 mg/ml and total enzyme activity 36152 units/liter. The buffalo serum Ig-G was fractionated using 40 percent final concentration of ammonium sulphate followed by anion exchange chromatography. The salt fractionated serum globulins (10 ml) was depleted of its Ig-G in less than 25 minutes on DEAE cellulose packed column followed by suitable elution. The Ig-G solution (1.0 gm/dl) was mixed in four times volume of oil base (Liquid paraffin and emulsifiers). Rabbits were primed and boosted (0.25ml/: subcut) with buffalo Ig-G antigen with 21 days interval. The immune serum was harvested on 21 days post-boosting. The serum contained 2048 agar gel precipitation AGP units and 10,000 ELISA units. Rabbit anti buffalo Ig-G was purified with salt precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. The peroxidase was linked with the rabbit anti-buffalo Ig-G using the sodium metaperiodate. The conjugate was titrated against buffalo Ig-G and working dilution for execution of ELISA was 1: 2000. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0926,T] (1).

35. Comparative Nutritional Evaluation Of Conola And Rapessed Meal And The Effect Of Their Inclusion Levels On Broiler Performance

by Muhammad Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof.Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: High feed cost was a big limitation for development of poultry industry. Feed millers were using low cost feed ingredients to combat this problem. Canola is the seed of Brassica napas or Brassica compestris species. The oil component of canola contain 2% eruic acid and have a low level of glucosinolates content 30 mole/g in meal portion. Rapeseed meal is one of the key products of the oil industry. The protein content and metabolizable energy of rapeseed meal and canola meal was 35.5%, 36.5 and 1800 K cal/kg, 2000 Kcal/kg respectively. The amino acid profile of canola and rapeseed meal is comparable with other vegetable protein sources. The project was designed to study the nutritional value of canola and rapeseed meal and effect of their inclusion level on broiler performance. Seven rations were formulated contains 0, 10, 20, 30% of canola and rapeseed meal and designated as A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Two experimental trials were started at the same time but these were conducted separately. In experiment no. 1 which was a general performance trial. A total of 210 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 21 experimental units having 10 chicks of each. The experimental ration were offered to birds with respect to relevant experimental unit for the duration of 6 weeks. During experimental period feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of chicks were recorded. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among different levels of canola meal and rapeseed meal with respect to study parameters. In experiment no. 2 which was a metabolic trial. A total of 21 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 7 experimental units having 3 chicks of each. The experimental rations were offered to birds for first 18 days. After 18 days each bird of every replicate from each treatment was shifted to metabolic cages. These birds were offered feed in cages for three days. From day 21 to 22 the feaces to these birds were collected for the estimation of dry matter and gross energy. At the 23rd day the birds were shifted back to their shed. After wards all the experimental units were treated accordingly till the duration of 6 weeks. There was a non-significant difference (P>0.05) among the AME calculated of the canola meal and rapeseed meal based diet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0948,T] (1).

36. Effect Of Light Restriction On Performance Of Baroilers Fed Conventional And Non Conventional and Non Conventional Growth Promoters

by Shafique-ur-Rahman | Dr. Athar Mahmood | Prof.Dr | Dr. Farina Malik Khattak.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: This study was performed to investigate the effects of light restriction and non conventional growth promoters on growth performance of broilers. For this purpose one hundred and eighty broiler chicks were grown in an open sided house for a period 42 days. Chicks were randomly distributed into four groups (A, B, C and D) each containing five replicates with nine birds each. Groups A and B were reared under continuous light, groups C and D received restricted light of 20 hrs light and 4 hrs dark.. Groups A and C were fed with diet containing conventional growth promoter. Zinc bacitracin at dose rate of 0.5 grams per kilogram of feed was used as a conventional growth promoter. Groups B and D received non conventional growth promoters. Botanical growth promoter 1 (B.G.P 1) was used as non conventional growth promoter dose rate was 1 gram per kilogram of feed. Body weight gain and feed intake was recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment mortality, microbial count and economics of the project was calculated. Data revealed that birds in all groups had non significant (P>0.05) weight gain, feed intake and FCR when compared with each other. Microbial count was higher in groups fed with conventional growth promoters than non conventional growth promoters. Mortality in control group A was highest (8.8%) as compared to group B, C and D which was 4.4. 6.6 and 0% respectively. Rectal temperatures of all treated groups were similar (37oC) to those of control birds. This study clearly indicated that non conventional growth promoter can be used in place of conventional growth promoters and restricted lighting reduces mortality and electricity cost. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0956,T] (1).

37. Different Control Measures Againts Musca Domestica Associated With Poultry Farms

by Muhammad Shoaib | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0959,T] (1).

38. Effect Of Group Size On Growth Performncl Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves During Winter Months

by Rafiuddin | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Falak Sher Khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The study was performed to investigate the effect of group size on growth performance of Nih Ravi buffalo calves during winter months. For this purpose, 39 weaned calves were reared in different group sizes. Group A having single calf, group B having four number of calves, and group C having eight number of calves, with three replicates in each group .Space was provided 16 square feet per calf, while manger length 18 inch per animal for a period of 12 weeks (24 November2006 to 15 February2007). During this period it was observed that ambient temperature ranged from 14°C to 17°C and relative humidity (RH) 59 to 64 %. Green fodder was offered adlibitum and concentrate @ 1% of body weight. During the experimental period, the following parameters were recorded i.e., daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, weekly feed efficiency, daily water consumption ,rumination, fortnightly body measurement, rectal temperature twice daily, respiration at morning, incidence of diarrhea and respiratory illness. The data indicated that calves in group C showed significantly (P<0.05) more weight gain, increased feed intake increased body measurement and the higher percentage of respiratory illness when compared with all other groups .Where as no difference in water consumption, daily rectal temperature, respiration, feed efficiency, rumination and diarrhea between the groups A, B and C was observed. This study clearly indicated that the overall performance of group C, having eight numbers of calves is better than that of others A, having single calf and B, having four numbers of calves. The calves assessed in term of increased time spend in eating of fodder / concentrates with increased dry matter consumption, full social interaction and greater access to space in group housing reflects better welfare as compared to that in individual housing and calves kept in groups of more than four calves preferable from health and growth perspective. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0971,T] (1).

39. Effectis Of Supplementation Of Phytase On Growth Performance And Mineral Utilization (Ca, P & Zn) In Japanese Quail

by Muhammed Arshad Shad | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Two third of phosphorus present in poultry diets is in bound form (Phytate P) and is predominantly not available to poultry, as non ruminant species lack sufficient endogenous phytase activity. Phytate probably compromises the utilization of protein/amino acids, energy and minerals including calcium, ferrous, zinc, magnesium, potassium & many others and can contribute to mineral deficiencies. Dietary inclusion of phytase enzyme economically generates blo-available phosphorus and reduces the Phosphorus load on the environment. Phytase is the requisite enzyme to degrade phytate and notionally phytase has the capacity to hydrolyze the phytate and release inorganic Phosphorus. Keeping this thing in view a 28 day long feeding trial was planned. A total of 900 day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments each having 10 replicates of 15 birds. Six corn soybean based diets (A & B) were formulated in such a way that they contained similar levels of CP and ME (24% & 2900 kcal/kg) but were different in Phosphorus & Calcium levels. Diet A was in accordance with the nutritional requirements of Japanese quail as specified in NRC (1994) whereas, diet B had lower levels of total Phosphorus and Calcium(0.20% and 0.15% less relative to diet A respectively). Five levels of phytase enzyme (250, 500, 750, 1000 FTU/kg of feed) were added to diet B to obtain diets C, D, F and F, respectively. Body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, plasma calcium and phosphorus, zinc retention, keel /shank length, dressing %, tibia ash%, toe ash%, deficiency symptoms, mortality % and economics of all experimental rations were the parameters considered. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Technique. The difference among the treatment means were tested by Duncans's Multiple Range (DMR) Test. The results of the experiment revealed that body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, plasma calcium and phosphorus, keel /shank length, dressing %, tibia ash% and toe ash% of groups E and F were significantly higher than group B, C and D, (P<0.05).The performance of group E and F was comparable with that of group A (+ve control). No significant difference was observed between these groups. As far as deficiency symptoms and mortality is concerned, a large number in the groups B (39.30%), C (2 1.33%) and D (16.00%) was found suffering from leg weakness, swollen joints and crippled legs. A higher mortality rate was also recorded in these groups (4.67%, 3.33% and 2.67%, for groups B, C and D, respectively). Very less number of birds showed the above mentioned signs in groups A (0%), E (8.67%) and F (3.33%), similarly mortality percentage in these groups also remained considerably low (1 .33%, 2.67% and 2.00% for groups A, E and F, respectively). Data pertaining to economics of the experiment revealed a considerably low cost of feed/kg of the group F than all the other treatment groups. The difference between group F and A was calculated as Rs. 1.89. A large amount can be saved as profit if diets are formulated with out DCP and are supplemented with phytase ensuring optimum utilization of phytate. From the results of above experiment it is concluded that phytase supplementation ensures phytate degradation making available, the minerals and other nutrients chelated to it. Phytase supplementation not only facilitates the feed formulatin but also make possible the inclusion of ingredients which contain anti nutritional factor named, "phytate". This consequently results in considerably improved performance and ultimately higher profitability of the farm. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1038,T] (1).

40. Studies On Levels Of Calcium And Phosphorous In Sheep And Goats Of Different Eclogical Zones Of Punjab

by Muhammad Ilyas | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: To determine the values of Calcium and Phosphorous in blood of Sheep and Goats of Centeral Mix Zone (Lahore, Kasur and Okara) and Cotton Zone (Sahiwal and Pakpattan), about 1000 blood samples were collected. In addition to blood, samples of feed, fodder, soil and water were also collected from same sites. Species under the study were sheep and goat. Sampling was done in two seasons i.e., summer and winter. For blood collection, animal were subdivided in two groups i.e., adult and young stock. In Sheep and Goats 50% samples were taken from adult animals and 50% from lambs and kids. Heparin was used as anticoagulant in blood samples. By using centrifuge machine blood plasma was separated and preserved in freezer. Feedstuff and soil samples were dried in oven and ground to 1mm particle size by using Willy mill. Water samples were given no treatment except filtration. Plasma samples were digested by using 10% TCA, whereas soil and feedstuff samples were subjected to wet digestion. After dilution all samples were run in atomic absorption spectrophotometer for estimation of Calcium and Phosphorous. The mean plasma calcium values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.15±0.5, 8.73±0.45, 10.08±1.23, 10.12±1.3 and 8.99±0.76 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 9.18±1.1, 8.83±0.98, 9.96±1.22, 10.6±1.32 and 8.77±0.76 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for kids in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.15±1.21, 8.73±1.12, 10.1±1.67, 10.1±1.78, 8.99±1.13 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for kids in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 9.18±1.13, 8.83±1.11, 9.96±1.23, 10.6±1.76, 8.77±1.45 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Sheep in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.24±1.34, 9.26±1.22, 10.1±1.43, 9.74±1.1 and 8.4±0.98 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Sheep in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 9.09±1.1, 8.80±0.99, 10.1±1.56, 10.2±1.58 and 8.93±0.99 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Lambs in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.24±1.21, 8.88±0.98, 10.0±1.76, 10.2±1.88 and 8.71±1.34 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for lambs in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 8.84±0.98, 8.60±0.89, 9.98±1.13, 10.1±1.88 and 8.81±0.95 respectively. The mean plasma Phosphorous values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 5.19±0.5, 6.10± 0.45, 4.84±0.34, 6.33±0.34 and 6.02±0.65 respectively. The mean plasma phosphorous values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 5.3 1±0.45, 6.12±0,56, 4.81±0.34, 6.29±0.75 and 6.00±0.67 respectively. The mean plasma Phosphorous values for Sheep in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 4.95±0.45, 6.16±0.80, 5.07±0.56, 6.4±0.8 and 5.79±0.55 respectively. The mean plasma Phosphorous values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 5.56±0.54, 6.19±0.65, 4.72±0.43, 6.38±0.74 and 6.17±0.8 1 respectively. The Phosphorous is present in normal range in the plasma of goats in the districts of Kasur, Okara and Pakpattan in the winter and summer seasons but the Lahore and Sahiwal districts are deficient in winter and summer seasons. The calcium is present in normal range in the plasma of sheep in the districts of Kasur, Okara and Pakpattan in the winter and summer seasons but the Lahore and Sahiwal districts are deficient in winter and summer seasons. The oat fodder, jantar, maize fodder, sorghum fodder, wheat grains, corn grains, oat grains, rice grains, wheat straw, wheat bran, rice husk and feeding plan like sorghum plus wheat straw are deficient in calcium in all the district of both zones but the grasses, barseem fodder, toria fodder, millet fodder, lucern fodder, sawank, kasni, Cotton seed cake and feeding plans like grazing, barseem plus wheat straw are normal for calcium concentration for all districts in both of the zones. All the districts are in normal range for calcium concentration in soil. Water mean calcium values were found higher in Sahiwal (3.42 ppm) district as compared to Lahore (2.65 ppm) district. The Phosphorous is present in normal range in the plasma of goats and sheep in all the districts in the winter season and summer season.The grasses, barseem fodder, toria fodder, millet fodder, jantar, lucern, sawank, kasni maize fodder, sorghum fodder, wheat grains, corn grains, oat grains, rice grains, wheat bran cotton seed cake, grazing and feeding plans like barseem plus wheat straw, sorghum plus wheat straw are normal or marginal normal but the oat fodder, wheat straw and rice husk are deficient in phosphorous for all the districts of both zones. The Okara and Sahiwal districts are in normal range for phosphorous concentration but the Kasur, Lahore and Pakpattan are marginal deficient for phosphorous concentration. Water mean phosphorous values recorded in this study were higher in the Pakpattan (123 ppm) district and lower in Lahore (24.2 ppm) district. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1112,T] (1).

41. Nutritional Evaluation Of Sorghum At Different Stages Of Growth

by Shahid Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique | Mr. David McGill | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Pakistan's economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock production. Fodder crops cover 16 to 19% of the total cropped area in the country. The country is still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons) and digestible protein (1.76 million tons), which is still not sufficient to meet the feeding requirement of livestock in the country. The shortage of fodder is a major limiting factor for livestock growth. A study was planned to focus on nutritionally improved high yielding sorghum variety (JS2002) on two different topographically sites viz Okara and Bhakar districts. Initially the soils of the selected sowing sites were analyzed for its type and pH before sowing. The chemical composition of sorghum fodder was determined to assess the nutritive value at different cutting stage of growth in district Okara and Bhakar. Sorghum samples were analyzed for proximate analysis, macro minerals and In-situ digestibility using fistulated animals. The results of present study showed that average dry matter, moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash, NDF and ADF values from all the cuts of sorghum fodder were 24.29%, 75.56%, 8.5 1%, 28.26%, 2.34%, 7.5%, 62.95%, 61.04%, 38.41%, percent respectively from district Okara and were 23.48%, 76.53%, 7.95%, 27.5 1%, 2.23%, 8.25%, 61.04%, 37.04 percent respectively from district Bhakar. The dry matter, crude fiber, NDF and ADF also increase as plant gets maturity. The average In-situ digestibility at 24 hrs and 48 hrs from all the cuts of sorghum fodder were 67.53%, 78.5 1% and 67.16%, 77.90% from Okara and Bhakar respectively. In-situ digestibility decreases as fiber increases. The average Ca, P. Na, K values from all the cuts of sorghum were 0.40%, 0.11%, 0.05%, 1.86% in Okara district and were 0.32%, 0.14%, 0.03%, 2.02% for Bhakar district. The average yield of sorghum fodder was 21.73 t/ha in Okara and was 18.41% in Bhakar districts. A significant difference was seen in nutritive value of sorghum fodder from all the cuts from Okara and Bhakar districts. This differenc3e might be due to the temperature fluctuations, water availability and soil fertility. It was concluded that topographically the Okara district is better for growing sorghum fodder. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1113,T] (1).

42. Development And Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For The Identification Of A, O And Asia 1 Strains Of FMDV In Pakistan

by Muhammad Ikram | Dr. Atif Hanif | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It is caused by genus Aphthovirus of Picomaviradae family. FMDV is RNA virus having seven serotypes A, 0, C, Asia I, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Pakistan and causes high economic losses to livestock industry. So priority is to develop quick and efficient methods for detection of FMDV and to limit the spread of disease outbreak. Although CFT, VNT and ELISA are already being used for the diagnosis of FMDV in Pakistan but these diagnostic techniques are time consuming and their specificity and sensitivity is low. Multiplex PCR for the identification of FMDV is very much sensitive and specific, can be done with in three hours after the receipt of samples. Present study has been designed to optimize multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection of FMD virus. RNA was extracted from virus stock obtained from QOL, UVAS Lahore and from field samples. After RNA extraction the samples were subjected to synthesize cDNA by the use of Reverse Transcriptase enzyme. After cDNA synthesis PCR reaction was carried out. The amplified products were resolved on 1.5% Agarose Gel. A multiplex RT-PCR strategy was optimized and developed for the detection of virus serotypes A, 0 and Asia l. Restulst of this study helped to develop an efficient and economical method for rapid detection of FMD virus and also helpful in differential diagnosis from other vesicular diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1189,T] (1).

43. Prepartyion And Evaluation Of Cheddar Cheese From Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacterum Bifidum

by Irum Naz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Cheese is a food product which is made by fermenting milk by adding certain starter culture. It is highly proteinaceous and contains high content of fat. It has many flavors but Cheddar Cheese is most popular among all of its kinds. By adding probiotics in cheese it would be added to the group of functional foods. Probiotics are live micro organisms that are useful for human body if taken in proper amount. There are many food products which contains probiotics like yogurt and fermented milk but the main drawback of these products are their shelf life which is very short and probiotics does not remain viable for longer period of time . The study was formulated to manufacture probiotic cheddar cheese, chemical and sensory evaluation of probiotic cheese and to check the viability of probiotics. The data was statistically analyzed for the effect of storage and treatment on probiotic viability by using Duncan's test. The probiotic cheddar cheese was manufactured at Haleeb Foods. Starter culture and rennet was provided by Haleeb foods and probiotic cultures in freeze-died form were obtained from Christian Hansen, Denmark. The starter culture alone and in combination with different concentrations of probiotics were added to milk for cheese making. After completing all the steps involved in its preparation, cheese were removed from mould, packed in vacuum cryovac packaging and were placed for ripening for 90 days at 4ºC. Sensory evaluation of Cheddar Cheese was done by a team of panelists to check its flavor, colour, taste, texture and overall acceptability at every fifteen days interval during maturation time. There is a significant effect of different levels of probiotics on flavor, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability of Cheddar Cheese. Storage has also shown a significant effect on the sensory parameters of cheese. Chemical tests like pH, fat, moisture, protein, salt and acidity concentrations were also carried out after fifteen days interval at the laboratory of Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. There is a significant effect of pH, acidity, fat and protein on cheddar cheese. As pH lowers with the passage of time its acidity increases. So there is significant effect of storage on different treatment levels. The levels of Lactobacillus acidophilus specifically have shown an increased acidity. Viability of probiotic bacteria was checked at 15 days interval at the Laboratory of Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. During ripening Bifidobacterium bifidum has shown a good viability level of 107 and 108 cfu/20g of cheese. But on the other hand lactobacillus acidophilus have sustain its numbers for about two weeks and then decreased to a very low level. So there is a significant effect of viability on both strains during the storage. There is non significant effect of levels on viability of probiotics. The statistical analysis used was two way analysis of variance to check the treatment and storage effect on probiotic cheddar cheese by following the method (Steel et al., 1997). Significance of means was compared by using DUNCAN'S multiple range tests (1955). The research has enabled us to conclude the outcomes that the Cheddar Cheese is a good vehicle for delivery of probiotics but the lactobacillus strain needs more improvements its viability is concerned. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1206,T] (1).

44. Processing, Nutritional Evaluation And Utlilization Of Rumen Content For Fattening Of Nili-Ravi Male Calves

by Muhammad Waqar Khan | Prof. Dr. Arata Koga | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The cost of feed, as percentage of total production costs, accounts for about 50-60% of ruminant feeding systems. According to estimates, Pakistan is deficient by 40 and 80 percent in forage and concentrate feeds. For economical production of balanced feed for livestock, poultry, fish and pet animal, non-conventional feed resources need to be explored to find solution to the existing gaps. For this purpose the present study was conducted to determine the nutritional profile, processing and utilization of rumen contents in buffalo feed. The study was conducted in three phases. In phase one, bovine rurnen contents were collected from the slaughter house near Bakar Mandi and were analyzed at Nutrition laboratory. UVAS, Lahore. In phase two, rumen contents were ensued with wheat straw. with and without addition of 6% molasses for a period of 90 days at Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Proportion of'rumen contents and wheat straw were 1:1 on DM basis. Wheat straw was also treated alone by reducing its DM to 44% with water and by addition of 6% molasses. In two types of silages the wheat straw was urea treated @ 4% on DM basis of wheat straw by making 25% solution. The pH of silagesi (containing rumen contents and wheat straw 50:50 on DM basis) of ruinen contents is 4.78 and of silage2 (containing rumen content, wheat straw and molasses. 47:47:6 on DM basis respectively) is 4.70. The pH of silage3 (containing rumen contents and wheat straw (urea treated), 50:46:4 respectively) is 4.92 and pH of silage4 (containing rumen contents and wheat straw (urea treated) and molasses, 47:43:4:6 respectively) is 5.1 Irespectively. The silage containing rumen contents and wheat straw showed a increase in CJ' as compare to simple rumen content and silage which were urea treated have significant (p<O.05) increase in CF. In phase three, a metabolic trial was conducted at Buffalo Reaearch Institute, Pattoki, in which 25 male buffalo calves were fed the diets having tOtal mixed ration (100%TMR) (Tc), 70%TMR with 30% silagel ('I'I), 70% 1'MR plus 30% silage2 (T2), 70%TMR with 30% silage3 ('13), and70% TMR plus 30% silage4 (T4). The data thus obtained was statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The significant differences between means were tested by Duncan's Multiple Range test. Among the treatments containing ensued rumen contents without molasses, feed efficiency was significantly (P<0.05) more efficient than those silages which were ensiled along with molasses. I lowever, the I)M intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group and silage treated with noIasses and urea. When means were compared there were significant differences among all treatments for DM intake and feed efficiency. Comparatively efficient TMR (I &3) are those which formulated with those silages (silagel&3) which do not contain molasses. TMR1 is the most economical and the best efficient TMR which is formulated with silagel (containing just rumen content and wheat straw 50:50 without any treatment of urea and molasses). Even TMR formulated with silage I is more efficient than control 'l'MR and it also economical as compare to control TMR. It was concluded that rumen contents could replace 50% of conventional TMR without any adverse effects on health of buffalo calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1214,T] (1).

45. Linkage Analysis Of Myp12 And Myp14 In Families From Lahore

by Maryam Zahra | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Myopia is one of the most common refractive errors of the eye worldwide that can effect clarity of vision, limit occupational choices and contribute to increased risk to vision threatening conditions. Six families of different casts were enrolled from Lahore (Punjab). Total of six autosomal dominant families were screened for linkage to the known nonsyndromic autosomal dominant and QTL myopia locus, MYP12 and MYP14 respectively. 5mL blood sample were collected aseptically in a 5Oml falcon tubes containing EDTA. DNA extraction was done by inorganic method. Three markers for each locus were selected from literature and redesigned by using 'primer 3' software. These markers were optimized for their annealing temperature and specific concentration of PCR ingredients by gradient PCR. After that all of the markers were amplified separately on genomic DNA samples of each family. PCR products of each of the marker were run on 1.2 % agarose gel along with 50 base pair ladder to visualize the bands of amplified products at 110 volts for 30 minutes. Linkage analyses were carried out by genotyping through PAGE unit of Major Science, model no. MV-2ODSYS. PCR products were run on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) to examine amplified bands of microsatellites. A standard 5Obp DNA ladder was run along with the sample PCR products as a reference. By reading the alleles appeared on gel haplotypes were constructed for each member of these families. The overall results of this study did not show evidence for linkage of myopia in thee families to the selected loci MYP12 and MYP14 on chromosomes 2 and 1 respectively. It might be possible any other identified locus or any new locus involved in this population of Pakistan. The findings represented here do not represent the conclusion of this study but do provide ongoing data for further investigation into the exact gentic causes of mypia in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1216,T] (1).

46. Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs

by Adeel Shahbaz | Prof Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr. Shahan Azeem | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used. In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1218,T] (1).

47. Detection Of Hazardous Organism In Raw And Pasteurized Milk With Particular Reference To 3Enterobacteriaceae

by Ayesha | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to detect the hazardous organisms in raw milk from public health point of view. In total one hundred twenty (120) milk samples were collected from milk retail shops in and around Lahore. Out of these 120, one hundred samples were of raw milk and rests of the twenty samples were of pasteurized milk. Their microbiological quality was studied by performing standard plate count (SPC), coliform count and identification of hazardous bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The micro flora of milk was also studied for the prevalence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Milk supplied in Lahore city was found to have poor microbiological quality. Bacterial load was determined by SPC and coliform count. The standard plate count (S.P.C) of the raw milk ranged from 4.2x106 to 7.7xl07 c.f.u/ml. The coliform counts ranged from 3.4x 104 c.f.u /ml to 6.9x105 /ml. A total of 81 isolates were identified from raw milk samples. These included Yersinia (3 strains), Klebsiella (16 strains), Escherichia coli (14 strains), Enterobacter (11 strains), Shigella (3 strains), Salmonella (19 strains) and' Proteus (15 strains).The standard plate count for pasteurized milk ranged from 1.45x104 c.f.u/ml to 3.8x 105 c.f.u/ml. The minimum and maximum coliform count was 7.2x102 to 8.4xl03 c.f.u/ml respectively for pasteurized. All samples were outside the international standard for coliform bacteria. A total of 13 isolates were identified from pasteurized milk samples. These included Yersinia (2 strains), Klebsiella (1 strains), Escherichia coli (6 strains), Enterobacter (2 strains), Shigella (1 strains) and Proteus (1 strains). All the isolates showed multiple drug resistance to various commonly used antibiotics in veterinary practices. Escherichia coli were resistant to all antibiotics used except Gentamicin (10µg). Enterobacter was sensitive to all the antibiotics used except to Ampicillin (10µg). Shigella was sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg), Kanamycin (30µg), Choloramphenicol( 25µg), but showed resistance to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg)., Salmonella was resistanct to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg). But sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg). .All the isolates showed greatest resistance to Penicillin (10 ug.) whereas, most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentamycin, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol. Finally, it is recommended that the members of the public should always boil raw milk before consumption because of their microbial content. Therefore, it is highly recommended that hygienic practices and regulations, such as on-site pasteurization and implementation of HACCP following established standards, should be introduced to facilitate the production of raw milk of high quality and safety. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1219,T] (1).

48. Use Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (Bht) As Antioxidant In Buffalo Semen Extender

by Tayyab Munir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The Buffalo is the major milk producing animal in Pakistan. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is the one of the best breeds of the world. Buffalo contributes seventy percent of total milk production in Pakistan. The excellent buffalo bulls are few in number and their semen volume and sperm concentration is also low as compared to cattle. The animal has lower fertility particularly when inseminated with frozen semen. There are many reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may be the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (POS) from the plasma membrane of spermatozoa causing damage to the membrane integrity due to lipid peroxidation. The addition of optimum level of antioxidants like BHT to buffalo semen extender before freezing may be answer to this problem. The main objective of the present study was to determine the level of total of antioxidants in the semen and to optimize the quantity of BHT in the semen extender of the Nili Rave Buffalo bulls. In this study semen from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls ( n=10) was collected twice per week and diluted with Tris egg yolk citrate extender. Antioxidant BHT was added to the extended semen at the rate of 1.0mM, 1.0 mM and 2 mM while Control was containing no BHT. The semen was visually analyzed under phase contrast microscope for motility, vitality (Eosin/Nigrosin staining), plasma membrane (HOS assay) and acrosomal integrity (NAR), at three stages i.e. after dilution, before freezing and after freezing. For the determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), semen samples were transported under ice to Spectophotometric Laboratary, GC. University Lahore. Data collected was presented as mean= SEM. Treatment groups were compared using one way ANOVA and Results were compared by using Duncan Multiple Range Test using SPSS (version 16.0) ; SPSS Chicago IL. Result of this study show significant (P< 0.05) improvement in semen motility, vitality, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity at 1.5 mM BHT concentration as compared to Control, however, insignificant difference was noticed with in treated groups and with in bulls. Maximum TEAC value (2.42) was observed in the extended semen containing two mM BHT and minimum TEAC values (0.58mM) in the post thaw semen sample with BHT. It is concluded that addition of antioxidants in the buffalo semen improve the semen quality before and after freezing. Fortification of buffalo semen extender with BHT (@ of 1-1.5 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and hoped to increase the fertility of buffalo. However, field fertility trials need to be carried out for confirmation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1288,T] (1).

49. Effect Of Two Synchronization Protocols (Ovsynch Va 2Pg)And Gnrh Pn Day Of Breeding On Reproductive Performancein

by Hasan Riaz | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The main objective of the present study is to compare the two synchronization protocols (Ovsynch vs 2PG) on estrus response, follicular development, ovulation, pregnancy rate and fecundity in Beetal and Teddy breeds of Pakistan. The secondary objective is to determine the efficacy of GnRH at the time of breeding on pregnancy rate in Beetal goats. Experiment 1 was conducted with a total of 28 goats during breeding season (September-October) at Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara. The goats were randomly allocated in one of two treatment groups, Ovsynch and two PGF treatments. The Ovsynch treated does received an intramuscular injection of GnRH analogue 12.5µg lecirelin (Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy), on "Day 0". On "Day 7" does were treated with injection of PGF2? analogue 37.5µg d-cloprostenol (Dalmazin®, Fatro, Italy,) followed by a second injection of 12.5µg lecirelin (Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy), after a 48h period. Animals in the double PGF group received two injections of 37.5µg d-cloprostenol (Dalmazin®, Fatro, Italy), 10 days apart. In order to determine the estrous response and its duration, two aproned bucks were used twice daily for 30 minutes after the last PGF2? injection in both groups until the termination of estrous signs. All goats were naturally bred 12h after the onset of estrus. Follicular and luteal activity was monitored by transrectal Ultrasonography (ALOKA, SSD 900 Japan) with the aid of a 7.5-MHz linear array transducer daily- from the start of treatment, until estrus and then twice a day until the cessation of large follicles (apparent ovulation). On day 7 after breeding, all goats were re-examined by transrectal ultrasonography to determine the ovulation rate, based upon the number of CL's present. Pregnancy rate and fecundity (no of embryos per doe) was again determined at Day 30 after breeding by transrectal ultrasonography. Experiment 2 was performed on 25 goats. These does were randomly allocated to two groups (GnRH, n=11 and Control, n=14). GnRH does received 12.5µg lecirelin on the day of natural breeding (12h after standing estrus), while the control does did not receive any treatment. Timing of ovulation, pregnancy rate and fecundity were assessed by transrectal ultrasonography as in Experiment 1. Estrus (Experiment 1) was detected in 10 out of 14 does (71%) in Ovsynch group, while all 14 goats (100%) of double PGF responded group. The interval from the last PGF injection to estrus was 48.0 ± 2.6h in the Ovsynch group, while 36.0 ± 1.2h in the double PGF group (P<0.05). The interval from the last PGF injection to ovulation did not differ significantly between the Ovsynch (73.0 ± 4.8h) and double PGF (66.0 ± 2.7h) groups respectively. Similarly the interval from standing estrus to ovulation was not significant between the Ovsynch (24.0 ± 3.7h) and double PGF (30.0 ± 2.7h) treatments respectively. Estrous duration was similar in both treatment groups (44.7 ± 4.9h for Ovsynch and 47.1 ± 2.9h for the 2PGF). The size of ovulatory follicle was similar in both treatment groups (Ovsynch, 7.1 ± 0.2mm; 2PGF, 7.1 ± 0.1mm). On day 7 after breeding, the ovulation rate (no. of CL's on the ovary) were similar in both the Ovsynch (1.6 ± 0.2) and double PGF (2.0 ± 0.2) groups. The pregnancy rate as determined by transrectal ultrasonography on day 30 (Fig. 1) revealed 6/10 (60%) in the Ovsynch and 11/14 (78%) in the double PGF groups respectively (not significant). Fecundity was similar for both treatment groups (1.6 ± 0.2). In Experiment 2 the interval from standing estrus to ovulation recorded was not significant (31.2 ± 2.9h and 36.0 ± 5.3h), the ovulatory diameter (6.8 ± 0.1mm, 7.2 ± 0.5 mm (P<0.05), the pregnancy rate (54% (6/11) and 64% (9/14), and fecundity (1.5 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 0.5) were not significant between GnRH treated and control does respectively (Table 2). From these experiments it can be concluded that the Ovsynch protocol, which is a non-steroidal and safe approach for estrous synchronization appears to be similar to the double PGF injection protocol, in terms of the reproductive performance in goats. However, this needs to be tested on larger number of animals. Furthermore, the use of GnRH at the time of breeding does not improve the reproductive performance in goats. The data generated has important implications for commercial goat farming in the developing countries. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1295,T] (1).

50. Effect Of Replacinh Inorhanic With Organic Trace Minerals On Greth Performance Carcass Characteristics And Meat Composition of Broilers

by Zulqarnain | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Poultry is one of the vibrant segments of agriculture sector of Pakistan. Its contribution in agriculture and livestock is 4.81% and 9.84%, respectively. Poultry meat contributes 23% of total meat production of Pakistan. Poultry sector has shown a healthy growth at the rate of 8-10 percent annually. For optimum production and health, animal receive a balance diet that supplies nutrient at desired concentration. Organic trace minerals have been used in broiler feeds, showing promise in improving growth performance, bird health, processing yield and meat quality characteristics. Interest is also building in using organic trace minerals in place of a portion of the feed inorganic mineral supplement in order to get maximum growth and health with lower levels of mineral intake, thus lowering the amount of minerals excreted from the birds. The average feed consumption based on gram/bird at different ages showed that maximum feed consumption was exhibited by group F followed by group E, D, C, B and A. The data of feed consumption when subjected to analysis of variance showed significant difference (P<0.05) feed intake was during first three weeks but during the last two week non significant difference was observed in feed. The feed intake in group supplemented with organic trace minerals was significantly different from that group supplemented with inorganic trace minerals. The average body weights of broilers at different ages showed that broilers of group A attained maximum weight, which was followed by group B, C, D, E and F, respectively. . Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant (P<0.05) difference in weight gain due to treatments. The weight gain in group supplemented with organic trace minerals was significantly different from that group supplemented with inorganic trace minerals. The overall FCR of group A was found to be the best among all groups. Birds in group B performed better than rest groups i.e., C, D, E and F. The analysis of variance among various experimental groups during 1st three weeks revealed a non significant difference between all groups i.e., A, B, C, D, E and F, however, FCR was significant difference (P<0.05) during last two weeks. Result obtained showed significant differences in carcass characteristics i.e., shank length, keel length, bursa weight while non significant differences in dressing percentage, liver weight, heart weight, spleen weight and gizzard weight due to supplementation of organic minerals. Statistically significant differences were found in shank and keel length with supplementation of organic minerals, however non significant differences were found in shank and keel length in groups feeding inorganic trace minerals. The bursa weight of the birds in group supplemented with organic trace minerals was significantly lower from all groups, however non significant differences were observed in among birds in group supplemented with inorganic trace minerals. The economics of production of broilers in different experimental groups A, B, C, D, E, and F showed that average cast of production remained 43.40, 43.50, 46.10, 45.36, 44.91 and 45.66 per kg live weight. Higher cast of production was observed in group C (46.10) and F (45.36) while group A (43.40) was having the lowest cast of production which showed significant differences from all other groups. As the proximate analysis of broiler thigh and breast meat is concerned, Dry matter, moisture percentage and ash percentage of both breast and thigh portion of broiler meat for group A, B, C, D and E showed non significant differences among all treatments, while the data on crude protein and ether extract in breast and thigh part of meat of broiler when subjected to analysis of variance showed significant difference (P<0.05) among treatment groups A, B, C, D, E and F group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1317,T] (1).



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