Molecular Epidemiological Analysis Of Pbi-F2 Protein Of Influenza A Virus Reported From Pakistan
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Sero-Epidemiology Of Johne’s Disease Along With Its Effect On Serum Biochemical Profile In Cattle In District D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD) or Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp.
Paratuberculosis (MAP) is characterized by an incubation period of several years. It is a chronic
non-treatable disease of animals causing enteritis which ultimately leads to economic losses to
dairy and meat industries worldwide. To estimate sero-epidemiology of the JD through ELISA is
inexpensive, efficient, single step and sensitive for the detection of antibodies in cattle and
buffaloes. So, keeping in view the economic and public health significance of the disease, the
present study was designed with the objective to estimate the sero prevalence of JD using
indirect ELISA and to quantify the effect of JD on the level of serum proteins in cattle of D. I.
Khan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Johne’s disease is prevalent in cattle of D I Khan
that affects serum proteins level in dairy animals.
For the study animals were well restrained and about 5 ml blood was collected in Non-
EDTA coated vacutainer from the jugular vein of each animal using 5 ml disposable syringe,
after collection and proper labeling samples were transferred in Ice packed cooler to
Microbiology laboratory, Govt. College of Veterinary Sciences D.I Khan. Serum was collected
at the top of the vacutainer with the help of disposable pipette and was stored in eppendorf tubes
in deep freezer until transported to University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for
further analysis. Data was captured on questionnaires about the clinical signs and symptoms,
management practices and possible risk factors associated with Johne’s disease, was obtained
from the owners.
The collected serum samples were analyzed by Indirect ELISA using commercial ELISA
kit (Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX, USA) according to
The ELISA positive samples were processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis
using Biuret method (Doumas et al. 1981;Spencer and Price. 1977).The serum albumin was
determined by Photometric colorimetric test (Bromocresole green (BCG) method (Spencer and
Price. 1977).The globulin will be estimated by subtracting serum albumin from serum total
proteins (Javed et al. 2010).
Data regarding sero-prevalence by indirect ELISA were analyzed through Pearson's Chisquare
Test, while data regarding the effect on serum protein was analyzed by simple t-test using
statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. P < .05 was considered significant.
The present study demonstrated (12.7%) prevalence of MAP in cattle population of D.I
Khan. There were no significant effect of MAP on serum biochemical profile. The results of all
variables studied as under breed, gender, age, vaccinated status and management system. The
most frequent level was observed in females 13.7% as compared to males 0% (0/4). Among
different age groups, higher sero-prevalence 33.3% were present at age group above 6 years
while sero-prevalence of 7.1% in 2-3 years and 0% were recorded in age group 4-6 years.
Statistically a significant different were present between these groups. Moreover, there was no
relationship of vaccination status with disease because the prevalence recorded 16.6% and
vaccinated cases positive were recorded 0% but there was no significance difference among two
groups of animals. Breed wise risk factor statistically significant because the MAP cases were
highly prevalent in non-descript cattle 25% as compared to crossbred 5.8% and Sahiwal 0%
cattle breed. BCS category I had highest prevalence 66.6% while in BCS category II prevalence
was 23.8% and in BCS category III the prevalence was 0% recorded. Statistically the BCS of the
disease animals was significantly associated. Highest prevalence 100% were recorded above 60
days of diarrhea duration while 0% were recorded less than 60 days of diarrhea duration.
Statistically the sero-prevalence of diarrhea duration was highly significant. Management wise
sero-prevalence of Johne’s disease on the type of housing was higher in open 19.2% as compared
to confined 6.8% showing non-significant difference statistically. Sanitation wise seroprevalence
were higher in poor 19.2% as compared to good sanitation 6.8% showing also nonsignificant
difference statistically. Sero-prevalence of disease was less in well water 0% as
compared to tap water 25% showing there were a significant difference between the seroprevalence
of Johne’s disease under different water conditions. The results of total protein
analysis was statistically non-significant.
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Case Control Study Of Brucellosis And Its Associated Risk Factors At Commercial Dairy Farms
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Brucellosis, is a febrile, zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. It is a second most important zoonotic disease after rabies. (WHO, OIE, FAO). Brucella is gram negative, aerobic, non-spore forming and non-motile coccobacilli. (Gull and Khan, 2007).The main signs are abortion after fifth month of pregnancy, still births, birth of weak calves, infertility, placentitis in females and in male’s epididymitis and orchitis. Due to its zoonotic nature farm labors, butchers, veterinarians and slaughter house workers are at high risk. Signs in human brucellosis are highly variable i.e., flu, rising and falling of temperature and causes many other complications in the body. (Baba et al.2001; Grillo et al. 2006; Shimol et al. 2012). Standard tests for brucellosis are Rose Bengal Precipitation Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) (Memish et al, 2002). Its control is very difficult due to its variable incubation period, long survival time in both extracellular and intracellular environments, asymptomatic stages and resistant to the treatment, co-mingling, increasing population size and nomadism (Rahman et al. 2006).
The case study was conducted on the commercial dairy farms situated in the catchment area of University Diagnostic Laboratory, UVAS Lahore which were located Lahore, Kasur and Sheikhupura districts in Punjab. The data about positive and negative farms was obtained from university diagnostic lab, UVAS, Lahore. A predesigned questionnaire was filled from that farm workers in face to face interview. The sample size was calculated by the formula given by Schlesselman, 1982. The parameters for calculation of the sample size were power of study kept at 80% with 95% confidence interval. Total 90 samples were included (cases= 45, controls=45). Data was analyzed using chi-square. All statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 0.05.
In this study, absence of the calving pens at the farm, feeding and water practices, presence of streams and lakes near the farm and breeding practices show the strong association with this disease,by controlling the above factors and improving management at the farm can low the occurrence and spread of the disease in animals.
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Application Of Euroscore To Predict Risk Of Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting In Pakistani Population
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Coronary artery bypass surgery has become the standard of care for advanced coronary artery disease. It is one of the most audited and closely monitored operations in the history of surgery. Morbidity and mortality associated with this operation is also very closely monitored by surgeons, hospitals, professional bodies and governments at large. Based on the preoperative clinical information available about patients preparing to undergo coronary artery bypass surgery various predictive models for assessment of mortality risk have been developed over the last two decades in various regions across the world. Euro SCORE is one such predictive model which can accurately predict the risk of mortality for large groups of patients for the population in which it was developed. A large number of Pakistanis and nationals from South East Asian countries reside in different European countries and form part of the population on which this score has been developed and validated. We intend to find out the predictive accuracy of this model in our patients living in Pakistan.
Euro SCORE accurately predicts operative mortality in patients from Pakistani population.
This study will be conducted at the Department of Cardiac Surgery Shalamar Hospital Lahore. One hundred consecutive patients admitted to hospital for coronary artery bypass surgery will be enrolled in study. A total of 18 variables as included in EuroSCORE (Appendix 1) will be collected and entered into database. The expected mortality risk will be calculated by the EuroSCORE Calculator software (http://www.euroscore.org/). Actual or observed mortality and morbidity will also be recorded.
Statistical analysis will be performed using SPSS version16. Continuous numerical data will be presented as mean ± Standard deviation, the Student t test will be used to compare means of normally distributed data. The qualitative data will be analyzed using chi square test. The relationship of the observed and the expected rates of mortality will be assessed using ROC curves for the accuracy of prediction of the Euro-SCORE.
This study will indicate how accurately Euro SCORE can predict the risk of mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting in our population and more over it may indicate other patient related variables that can contribute to operative mortality other than Euro SCORE.
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Assessment Of Food Safety Practies In Various Bakries Of Central Punjab Pakistan
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note:
The bakery occupies significant market share among food processing industry and consumer goods. At the sale points, sale persons usually wear hand gloves to give the impression of adherence to food safety and hygiene principles whereas under a typical scenario the production unit of the same sale point might not have even have a soap for hand washing in the worker’s toilet. Through this study we assessed the level of food safety practices at production plant and sale point of the bakery items. Along with this, the level of awareness in employees regarding to food safety and personal hygiene were also assessed. The present study was conducted to evaluate the current food safety practices at bakeries from all towns of district Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Qasur. Data was collected from different districts of Central Punjab as Lahore 60%, Faisalabad 20%, Gujranwala 10%, Sheikhupura 5% and Qasur 5%.A modified questionnaire was used as study tool, consisted of 90 questions. These questions belong to food safety practices related to manufacturing, storage, personal hygiene, packing material, raw material, working environment and plant layout.
The results of present study showed that there is urgent need of taking steps for implementation of food safety regulations and training of concerned food handlers. All the stakeholders in food supply chain plays important role at different stages of the process. So every stakeholder involved in this chain is required to be equipped with the proper training regarding safe handling practices and safe production of food. The present study showed that there is urgent need of improvement in different areas of production. The present study showed that there is urgent need of improvement in 22.5% bakeries for food safety training, 29.5% for sanitation, 15% for personnel health, 27.5% for personnel hygiene, 22.5% for processing plant layout, 19.5% for premises management, 26.5% for pest management, 21% for food production and 20%for storage. There are also such bakeries which require major improvements, which are 26.5% for food trainings, 17% for sanitation, 18% for personnel health, 37.5% for personnel hygiene, 19.5% for processing plant layout, 17% for premises, 38% for pest management, 33.5% for food production, 40% for storage. Some bakeries require improvements, which are 21% for food trainings, 32% for sanitation, 35.5% for personnel health, 19.5%% for personnel hygiene, 34% for processing plant layout, 34% for premises, 19% for pest management, 31% for food production, 24.5% for storage. There is very little percentage of the bakeries which maintain good standards of safety and hygiene. Which is 12.5% for food safety training, 19% for sanitation, 22.5% for personnel health, 10% for personnel hygiene, 12.5% for processing plant layout, 19% for premises, 10% for pest management, 8% for food production and13% for storage.
These results clearly represents the poor condition of bakeries in central Punjab. This is due to lack of government interest in this sector, involvement of illiterate food handlers and lack of awareness of consumers. This situation can be handled with the implementation of government regulations and food laws, systematic monitoring of bakeries, trainings of the concerned stakeholders and spreading awareness in consumers. These steps are very necessary to be taken to overcome malnutrition and foodborne diseases.
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Comparative Evaluation Of “Onlay” Versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” Novel Polyester Meshplasty In Ventral Hernia Of Rabbits
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with the body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of two placement techniques “Onlay” versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” polyester meshplasty for the treatment of ventral hernia. Polyester is a non-absorbable mesh. Polyester mesh is not available in Pakistan and was acquired from a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brand name of (Parietex®, Covidien, France).
The experimental study was conducted on 24 (twenty four) healthy rabbits presented for massive ventral hernia repair. All rabbits were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before the study. The rabbits were allocated into two different groups, viz. group-A and group-B with 12 rabbits in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) a placement technique that was used for the treatment of ventral hernia in group-A. The rabbits of group-B were treated with “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) placement technique. Ventral herniorhaphy was performed in both groups using Polyester mesh with two different placement techniques. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both techniques were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation.
During the experiment, it was observed that “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fiber. It was observed that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” showed remarkable advantages over “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” placement technique is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol Combination With Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac Tromethamine In Dogs
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The study was designed on the premise that use of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol combination was more efficacious in providing better depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia than the combination of Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine.
Two separate combinations of anesthetic cocktails i.e. ketamine-xylazine-tramadol and ketamine-xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine were tested for their comparative efficacies. A total of 8 mongrel adult clinically healthy male dogs between 1 to 2 years of age which were presented to clinic for castration, were managed in to two groups comprising 4 (n=4) individuals in each. These groups were designated as group A and B. General and clinical examination of the animal, LFT and RFT were performed prior to surgery. Atropine was administered at dose rate of 0.04mg/kg SC twenty minutes prior to the surgery. Both anesthetic regiments were used respectively in either groups and their efficacy was tested based upon the depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia.
In case of group A ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and tramadol at a dose rate of 2mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia was monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. In case of group B, ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and ketorolac tromethamine at a dose rate of 0.5mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia were monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. Surgical procedure for castration was
performed as surgical plane of anesthesia was acquired. Postoperatively, Intramuscular antibiotics were injected for 5 days to avoid secondary bacterial infections to wounds. Cleaning of the wound with good antiseptic solution and excellent hygienic measures were adopted to minimize infection. Balanced diet was given to improve health of animals. LFT and RFT were performed preoperatively (baseline), and one hour postoperatively in each dog. The measurements were analyzed as change from baseline in each dog.
The results were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05), using statistical analysis software Statistica. The results of temperature, pulse and respiration were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05). Observations pertaining to depth and quality of sedation were analyzed by using t-test with statistical analysis software Statistica. Statistical significance was assigned at p≤0.05.
This study was helpful in determining efficacy of tramadol an opioid against ketorolac tromethamine which is an NSAID. This study emphasized upon discovering the most efficacious adjuvant to anesthetic combination of ketamine and xylazine. This study aimed to reduce the dose of xylazine without compromising the anesthetic effect of the combination while mitigating its side effects as well. This study provided us with a viable analgesic agent which may be administered peri-operatively to provide analgesia during immediate post-surgery period. Furthermore magnitude of improvement in depth of anesthesia helped determine an effective and cheap adjuvant to ketamine-xylazine combination.
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Phylogenetic Analysis And Gis Mapping Of Boophilus Species Of Ticks Of Bovine And Buffalo Of District Peshawar
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Livestock is playing a major role in the uplift of our national economy in terms of revenue from milk, meat and hides. In spite of this major contribution this sector is facing hurdles in its development. The infectious diseases and their vectors have occupied a mainstay in posing the uplift of this sector. Boophilus is an important biological vector for various protozoan and bacterial infections in animal as well as human. To date the identification of these ticks mainly rely on the morphological basis which have many variations among different identification keys. To make the identification more accurate at species level, the use of molecular tools is very necessary. Ticks were collected from the various areas of district Peshawar through random convenient sampling method. Briefly, 50 cattle and 50 buffaloes were sampled through forceps. Various ticks spp. were stored in 70% ethanol for further processing. Among the species Rhepicephalus microplus (Boophilus microplus) was the most prevalent specie (25.64103%) followed by Rhepicephalus annulatus (5.413105%) Rhipicephalus decloratus (5.128205%) Rhipicephalus distinctus (4.273504%), Rhipicephalus arnoldi (3.988604%), Rhipicephalus evertsi (5.698006%), while in Heamaphysalis species Heamaphysalis aciculifer highly prevalent (5.128205%) followed by Haemaphysalis parmata (4.843305%), Haemaphysalis excavatum (3.988604%) and Haemaphysalis houyi (3.988604%), so far Hyalomma species is concerned includes Hyalomma anatolicum (3.988604%), Hyalomma trancatum (4.843305%), Hyalomma detritium (5.982906%), Hyalomma egyptium (4.273504%), Hyalomma impeltatum (0.854701%) Hyalomma rufipes (1.709402%), Amblyomma pomposum (4.273504%), Dermacentor rhinocerinus (2.849003%), D. circumguttatus (3.703704%), and
Dermacentor marginatus (2.564103%) are highly prevalent in cattle. Among the buffalo, Rhipicephalus 173 (43.25 %) followed by Haemaphysalis 82 (20.5 %), Hyalomma 54 (13.5 %), Dermacentor 26 (6.5 %) and Amblyomma 9 (2.25 %). The species prevalent in Rhipicephalus are Rhipicephalus microplus 74 (42.78%), Rhipicephalus annulatus 15 (8.68%), Rhipicephalus decloratus 19 (10.99%), Rhipicephalus distinctus 14 (8.10%), Rhipicephalus arnoldi 16 (9.25%), Rhipicephalus evertsi 17 (9.84%) and Rhipicephalus kochi 18 (10.40%) followed by Haemaphysalis aciculifer 18 (21.96%), Haemaphysalis parmata 15 (18.30%), Haemaphysalis excavatum 23 (28.05%), and Haemaphysalis houyi 26 (31.70%), so far Hyalomma species is concerned, Hyalomma anatolicum 10 (18.52%), Hyalomma tranctum 7 (12.96%), Hyalomma detritium 9 (16.67%), Hyalomma egyptium 7 (12.96%), Hyalomma impeltatum 10 (18.52%), and Hyalomma rufipes 11 (20.37%) and Dermacentor rhinocerinus 9 (34.62%), followed by Dermacentor circumgutattus 8 (30.76%) and Dermacentor marginatus 9 (34.62%) and Amblyomma is concerned Amblyomma pomposum 9 (2.25%). DNA was extracted from the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) ticks through phenol-chloroform method. The extracted product was then run by gel stained ethidium bromide. The gel was visualized and examined bands on UV illuminator. Different sequences were retrived from database and genus specific primer were designed for the amplification of ITS-2 gene of Rhipicephalus genus of hard ticks. A consensus sequence was retrieved, a set of primers were designed by using Bioedit softwere version 7.2.6. DNA was extracted from 100 ticks and then run by PCR. Specific primers were designed for ITS2 gene. Phylogenetic tree based on the DNA sequences amplified from extracted from all the comparison with ticks and determined Genus Rhipicephalus area that are ITS2 Rhipicephalus ITS2 ribosomal RNA gene sequence 18s, thus obtained from Genebank.
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Descriptive Epidemiology And Risk Factors Of Antenatal Depression Among Women Visiting Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Mental health is an important but neglected component of reproductive health. Mental health problems among women of reproductive age group (15–45 yrs.) contributes to 7% of Global Burden of Diseases of women of all ages. During pregnancy prevalence of depression ranges from 4% to 20%. Women with perinatal depression experience full-blown major depression during pregnancy or after delivery (postpartum depression). The feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that accompany perinatal depression may produce or create difficulties to perform daily care activities for themselves and for their babies. Several risk factors predispose to depression during pregnancy are poor antenatal care, economic deprivation, previous history of psychiatric disorders, previous events during pregnancy like previous abortions, and modes of previous delivery like past instrumental or operative delivery age, marital status, gravidity, whether pregnancy was planned. Antenatal depression was the strongest indicator of postnatal depression. A hospital based cross sectional survey for duration of 4 months (December 2016 to March 2017) was performed in Lady Aitchison hospital Lahore. Pregnant women who visited to the obstetrics and gynecology departments for routine prenatal or perinatal care. Woman belongs to lower middle class was included and women with physical disabilities such as deafness and dumbness as well as those with a history of or ongoing mental illness/retardation was excluded in this study. Sampling was done by using convenience sampling technique and sample size was 300. Information regarding risk factors of antenatal depression was collected by using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh postnatal Depression Scale to assess depression after taking written consent. Data was obtained by face to face interview. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence
interval. Descriptive analysis was conducted in terms of who, when and where. Frequency distribution and graphs were be made. Chi- Square test was applied to see the association of risk factors. Depression and various risk factors have been identified among pregnant woman. Association found among various risk factors like age, education of woman and husband, occupation of husband, Husband income, Family type, number of persons living in home, number of children’s, number of daughters, trimester of pregnancy, mode of delivery, pregnancy status, fear from childbirth, Bitter experience/Complication in current /previous Pregnancy and Family Support. Through assessment provide an opportunity in need of intervention to safeguard the well-being of mother and baby and reduce the impact of antenatal depression on the mother, her baby, and her family.
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