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1. Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Mothers Towards Infant Care And Feeding

by Sadia Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ur-Din Ahmad | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1464,T] (1).

2. Microbiological And Physiochemical Analysis Of Drinking Water From Human And Veterinary Hospitals

by Kiran batool | DR. Arfan ahmad | Dr Hassan mushtaq | DR. jawad nazir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1958,T] (1).

3. Carrier Status Of Foot And Mouth Disease In Ruminants Through Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain

by Muhammad Usman | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmed | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It is caused by genus Aphthovirus of Picornaviradae family. FMDV is RNA virus having seven serotypes A, O, C, Asia 1, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3. Serotypes A, O, C and Asia1 are endemic in Pakistan and causes high economic losses to livestock industry .So priority is to apply quick and efficient methods for detection of FMDV infection and to limit the spread of outbreaks of the disease. Although CFT, VNT and ELISA are already being used for the diagnosis of FMDV in Pakistan but these diagnostic techniques are time consuming and their specificity and sensitivity is low. RT-PCR for the identification of FMDV is very much sensitive and specific, can be done within three hours after receiving of samples to the laboratory. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep and goats is frequently mild or unapparent, but can cause high mortality in young animals. The outbreaks of FMD in 1999 in Morocco, in 2001 in the United Kingdom & in 2007 in Cyprus has highlighted the importance of sheep in the epidemiology of the disease, although there have been numerous examples in the past where small ruminants have been responsible for the introduction of FMD into previously disease-free countries. The difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis should encourage the development of more rapid screening tests to assist in future control programs. In Pakistan, no study has been conducted to depict the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology and transmission of FMD virus to the large ruminants. Keeping in view this neglected area of research, present study is planned to apply the sensitive and economical RT-PCR technique for the rapid detection of carrier status of FMD virus in ruminants; and to highlight the importance and need of vaccination to small ruminants against FMD virus in order to control outbreaks of the disease and transmission to the large ruminants population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1577,T] (1).

4. Epidemiological Investigation About The Risk Factors Associated With Newcastle Disease Outbreaks During Period Of 2011-2012 in commercial broilers in Lahore.

by Rubab Maqsood | Prof. Dr. Athar Khan | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The poultry sector is one of the most systematized and vibrant divisions of the agriculture industry of Pakistan. The poultry sector has shown a vigorous growth of 8 to 10 percent annually, which reveals its distinctive potentialNewcastle disease, is an acute, contagious rapidly spreading viral disease of domestic poultry and wild bird of all ages with mortality up to 100% in the infected flocks. It is caused by avian Paramyxovirus serotype-I. This disease is major restraint to attain acceptable production levels in commercial broiler. In Pakistan ND is commonly reported disease in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated flocks. In the current study risk factors which were associated with the outbreak of Newcastle Disease regarding farm practices were identified and recommendations can be given for the control of ND on the basis of comparing current and previous (2011-2012) farm practices in environmentally controlled commercial broiler houses. The results of this study are applicable on all the commercial broiler population which is being reared in environmentally controlled houses in Lahore District.Number of environmentally controlled houses was 128 environmentally control sheds in Lahore District. But only 96 farm managers guven consent for the visit of their farm so the sample was n= 96 environmentally controlled houses. Sampling unit was one environmentally controlled house. A questionnaire was developed about the risk factors which were considered to be associated with ND outbreak. A total n= 96 Environmentally controlled houses of commercial broiler affected and not affected by the ND outbreaks in and around Lahore District were selected with the help of convenient sampling method and their owner/manager were interviewed face to face and information was also collected from the farm record. Out of 96 ECH(Environmentally Controlled Houses) of commercial broiler 79 suffered from newcastle disease outbreak while only 17 ECH were non-infected during period of 2011-2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and odds ratio was calculated for the studied and supposed risk factors. Distance between farms less than 5Km, feed transporting vehicle, method of dead infected birds' disposal and type of labor on the farms were found as risk factors for the newcastle disease out breaks. Water quality, biosecurity, feed storage method, heat source used, farms managers, litter disposal methods showed a negative association with the spread of disease. E. coli and salmonella infection were mostly observed as secondary infections among the ND affected flocks. Avian influenza showed an association with newcastle disease. Infectious bursal disease and hydro pericardium syndrome showed no association with ND epidemics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1628,T] (1).

5. Study On Effect Of Nigella Sativa (Kalonji)Alone And In Combination With Allium Sativum (Garlic) On Histopathology of Tissues Induced by Newly Emerged Newcastle Disease Virus in Broilers

by Saira jabeen | DR. Muhammad Yasin tipu | Dr.Hassan Mushtaq | Ishtiaq ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1921,T] (1).

6. Active Surveillance Of Wild Birds For Avian Influenza In The Wetlands Of Azad Jammu & Kashkmir

by Adnan Altaf | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Ali Ahmad | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2176,T] (1).

7. Seroprevalence And Associated Risk Factors Of Leptospirosis In Sheep And Goat In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Awais Akram (2008-VA-230) | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Sheep and goats, although representing an important source of animal protein in third world countries such as Pakistan, seem to have benefited little from veterinary care and production improvement. Sheep and goats are often the main source of daily meat and are used in ceremonial festivities throughout the country. Small ruminants (sheep and goats) are ubiquitous, with important contributions to the subsistence, economic, and social livelihoods of many humans, particularly in developing countries. According to FAO, (2010), approximately 95.7% of all goats and 63.3%of all ewes worldwide are located in developing countries and represent more than 70% of total animal production. Among the various factors that may lead to low productivity in tropical countries, infectious diseases may be very prevalent, impairing milk and meat production. Leptospirosis is an outstanding neglected disease, and since it is usually silent, its effects on livestock are often underestimated. As an example that may be considered for other tropical areas of the world, it was recently described as the most frequent and potentially the major infection impairing productivity in small ruminants. Unfortunately, a definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult to make. Most of diagnostic laboratories do not attempt to isolate leptospires because of their fragile nature, cost and complexity of the isolation media, and prolonged incubation period. Therefore, recognition of leptospiral infection has been based generally on serological evidence. A wide variety of serological tests, which show varying degrees of serogroups and serovar specificity, have been described. Two tests have a role in veterinary diagnosis: the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 180 serum samples were examined in this study. The animals were included in this study from various sources representing the diverse livestock production system / management conditions i.e. rural subsistence, peri-urban and semi commercia, sheep and goat farms in and around the Lahore. The blood samples were collected from randomly selected animals as well as on the basis of Leptospirosis- like symptoms or any other indication of the disease. The blood samples were collected in clean sterile vacutainers having no anticoagulant. From each animal 5-10 ml blood sample were collected by phlebotomy. For this purpose the area on jugular vein was sterilized with 70% alcohol and blood was collected in the vacutainer. The blood samples were put in slanted position in the refrigerator for two hours. Upon appearance of serum in the tubes usually after three hours of refrigeration, samples were centrifuged at 4000 revolution per minute (RPM) for five minutes. The sera were separated using a sterile pipette for each sample and clean sterilized vials were stored at -20°C in the freezer till used. The standard hygienic measures were adopted during collection and processing of blood samples. The ELISA is performed by the procedure that is described by the ELISA kit manufacturer. The sheep were divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 3.34 and 26.6%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, The goat were also divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 6.67 and 30%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in aborted animals that indicated that the leptospirosis had contribution in the abortion of the goat and sheep. The sheep were divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 13.3, 6.67, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, the goat were also divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 16.7, 13.4, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in urban areas where the sheep and goats were raised together that indicated that the leptospirosis can be spread from animal to animal. Conclusion: From the finding of the current study suggested that leptospirosis can be difficult to diagnosis properly. The proper diagnosis can helpful for the controlling the leptospirosis. The urban area, and physiological conditions, of sheep and goat, are the major risk factors. Suggestion and Recommendations: Proper diagnosis and good management can reduce the risk of leptospirosis in sheep and goat. The infected animal must be isolate and treat with proper medications. The further studies can helpful for more proper disease diagnosis and control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2274-T] (1).

8. Assessment Of Disordered Eating Attitudes In Relation To Body Image In Female University Students

by Fatima Muslim (2013-VA-280) | Ms. TahreemHussain | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors are on the rise on a global scale as a result of multi-cultural influences on today’s youth. Symptomology of Disordered Eating puts individuals at increased risk of developing clinical eating disorders (Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa &Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder and Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorder). Negative body image has been regarded as one of the strongest factors which lead to the development of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The current study hypothesized that negative body image is the cause of disordered eating and the results of the current study show that negative body image is in fact strongly correlated with Disordered Eating Attitudes. Female university students (n=400), were selected for the study. A number of 100 subjects who were first available from each university were selected for the study. Each participant filled out the questionnaire consisting of Demographic, EAT-26, Emotional Eating, and Body Image questions. The BMI of the participants was also calculated. Participants suffering from certain common chronic diseases were excluded from the study (n = 23) and statistics were applied to the data collected from the remaining 377 participants. Filled questionnaires were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 21. Comparisons were made between the group with normal eating behavior and the group with disordered eating attitude using student’s t-test. Pearson’s correlations was applied to assess relations between, Disordered eating attitudes, Emotional Eating, Body Image and BMI. One way ANOVA was used to determine the differences between Disordered eating, Emotional eating, Body Image and BMI of the participants from the different institutes. The results of the current study showed that disordered eating attitudes were present in 37.7% of the sample, however the behavioral problems of disordered eating were found in 57% of the sample and there was a strong correlation between disordered eating, emotional eating and negative body image (p < 0.01). Body Mass Index (BMI) was not correlated with disorderedeating, however it showed strong correlation with emotional eating (p < 0.05) and negative body image (p < 0.01), which, in turn are strongly correlated with disordered eating attitudes. Therefore, it can be concluded from the current study that there is a positive correlation between Disordered Eating, Emotional eating, being Overweight and a negative Body Image. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2290-T] (1).

9. Seroprevalence Of Dengue Fever In Tehsil Jatoi District Muzaffargarh, Punjab

by Muhammad Shahzad Ahmad Khan (2013-VA-848) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhery | Dr.Tayyaba Ijaz | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Waseem Shahzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dengue is caused by single stranded RNA virus that belongs to genus flavivirus and is a mosquito born disease. There are four serotypes of dengue virus DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. Signs and symptoms of dengue virus are high fever, severe headache, rash, muscle pain, retro-orbital pain and leucopenia. Incubation period is 4-7 days. There are three type of dengue fever named as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhage fever and dengue shock syndrome. More severe form of dengue is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Hypothesis of this study was that dengue virus is prevalent in Tehsil Jatoi District Muzaffargarh. Data was collected from individual in a face to face interview. Thirty clusters were selected and in each cluster seven (7) elementary unit (individuals) were sampled. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and blood samples were collected from individuals by using aseptic technique. The blood was drawn from the antecubital vein, from elbow or from the back side of a hand. Swab was applied to avoid bleeding. A total of 210 apparently healthy individuals were sampled from thirsty clusters and serum was observed through ELISA for confirmation of Dengue fever disease. 27 were found positive and 183 were negative for DF out of 210 sera samples. The data analysis was done by using “R” software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome. Overall weighted seroprevalence was recorded as 13.54 %, (95% CI, 8.144-18.92). This means that DENV was circulating in Tehsil Jatoi district Muzaffargarh, while data on risk factors were obtained through Summary 54 a detailed predesigned questionnaire from participants in a face to face interview translated into local language (Saraiki) after taking written consent from the individual. To identify the risk factors for Dengue fever disease seroprevalence, multivariable logistic regression were performed. The result showed that age (OR: 3.084, 95% CI: 1.180-8.061) was risk factors for dengue fever and anti-mosquito spray (OR: 0.349, 95% CI: 0.122-0.997) was protective (OR<1) factor against dengue fever disease. Variable with significant univariable relationship at P < 0.25 were selected for inclusion in the final model The study had provided successful estimate about the risk factors and seroprevalence of Dengue Fever. The finding of above study will be published. These finding could be utilized by the policy maker to control the epidemic of DF in population. Availability: Items available for loan: (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 2293-T] (1).

10. Isolation Of E.Coli O157: H7 From Cattle And Buffalo Meat From Slaughterhouse Of Two Different Management Systems In Lahore

by Ali Hassan Rehman (2008-VA-144) | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was designed to identify the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in buffaloes and cattle carcasses that were slaughtered in two different management systems in Lahore. In Management system A, proper risk assessment and hazard analysis was done and food safety protocols were followed in contrast to Management system B in which animals slaughtered on ground and no hygienic practices were followed. The present study was attempted to detect presence of E. coli O157:H7 in carcasses that were slaughtered in these management systems. For the confirmation of whether E. coli O157:H7 is present or not serological test were performed. For this Latex agglutination Kit method was used. A total of 100 meat samples, in which 50 (25 Cattle and 25 Buffaloes) were collected from management system A and 50 (25 Cattle and 25 Buffaloes) were collected from management system B. These samples were pre-enriched with Modified E. coliBrothand afterward cultured on Cefixime - tellurite Sorbitol MacCkony Agar. The colonies which were colorless and small were selected for confirmation with Latex agglutination test. For confirmation of E. coli O157 latex agglutination kit reagentswere allowed to come to room temperature. A pipette was used to transfer 0.2 ml normal saline into a 12 x 75-mm test tube.Using a sterile loop or needle, pick sufficient colonies from the plate and suspend them in the saline to achieve turbidity. One drop of the Prolex™ E. coli O157 Latex Reagent(Blue color) was placed in a test circle on the test card. Using a Pasteur pipette one drop of the test suspension was added into the same test circle and mixed by using stick provided. The card was gently rocked and examined for agglutination for up to two minutes. Isolates that were positive result with the test latex were tested further by repeating the procedure using the Prolex™ Negative Control Latex Reagent. The positive samples that showed agglutination were declared as positive for E. coli O157:H7. 1 cattle was positive for E. coli O157:H7 in management system A and 4 Cattle were positive in management system B, no buffalo meat sample positive in both systems. The results showed that E. coli O157:H7 was present in our meat value chain and a food safety hazard also. In management system A 1 meat sample was positive for harmful pathogenic bacteria. In management system B, 4 meat samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7. The conclusion of this study, Management system A is better than Management system B to minimize the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2647-T] (1).

11. Prevalence Of Mastitis And In-Vitro Antibiogram Study Of The Mastitogens In Bhag-Nari Cattle

by Shakirullah (2009-VA-089) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Muhammad Shafee | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Mastitis creates detectable changes in mammary gland and causes inflammation of the mammary gland. In terms of economic losses it is most expensive disease. Mastitis is a worldwide issue which affects the milking animals in any stage of life. Mainly it is caused by bacterial organisms. A study was designed to detect the mastitis and its mastitogens in Bhag-nari cows at district Naseerabad, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected from Bhag-nari cows. All information of milk samples (n=323) were collected randomly on the basis of designed performa (Annexure.1). Two to three strips of milk from each quarter were drawn on the floor surface to examine the presence of pus, blood clots, flakes and change in colour. Strip cup test was applied to detect the clinical mastitis. Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) was used for the detection of subclinical mastitis in Bhag-nari cows. Aseptic techniques were applied by using cotton swabs dipped into 70% ethanol to clean and disinfect teat end. Sterile tubes of 10ml capacity were used to collect the milk samples. The positive milk samples were kept immediately in an icebox cooler and transported to lab (CASVAB) in Quetta. Primarily each milk sample was cultured on Nutrient agar by spread out technique. Mannitol salt agar was used to culture the Staphylococcus aureus. Multiple streaking was applied to isolate the selected bacteria. On the basis of culture characters, microscopic morphology, staining method and biochemical tests bacterial isolates were identified. Prevalence of mastitis in Bhag-nari cattle in Naseerabad, Balochistan was 15.79%. Areas wise the prevalence of mastitis was 18.5%, 16.2%, 14.1% and 12.9% in DM Jamali, Chattar, Baba kot and Tamboo, respectively. Age wise prevalence in the study was 14.29%, 19.63%, 17.58% and 4.88% in age group of 3-5 years old, 6-8 years, 9-11 years and above 11 years, respectively. On the basis of calving number there was significant difference (P<0.05) among the various parity numbers. The animals milked once daily showed 17.06% SUMMARY 49 mastitis as compared to 3.33% mastitis in animals daily milked more than once. There was significant difference (P<0.05). The prevalence of mastitis in well fed and under fed animals was 5.63% and 18.65%, respectively. Highly significance relation (P<0.05) was observed between the animals of satisfactory and none satisfactory udder hygiene with 6.94% and 33.64% prevalence. The most common bacterial isolates (staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus dysgalactiae) were identified in the study. The most effective drugs against isolated bacteria were Ceftiofur, Oxytetracyclinc, chlortetracycline, Norfloxacin and Cephradine. Other antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin) were intermediate to resistive (Penicillin). Bhag-Nari is the only dual purpose cattle breed of Balochistan. The cattle have developed resistance to harsh environmental conditions of its home tract through centuries. The production potential (beef, milk) of the breed may be assessed and practical scientific approaches should be developed to improve the animal and facilitate the farmer. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2671-T] (1).

12. Cross Sectional Survey Of Avian Infleunza In Poultry Butchers Of Sentinel Live Bird Markets In Lahore District

by Gul Naz Namat (2014-VA-1120) | Dr. MamoonaChaudhary | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: 6.1 Background: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live bird markets. 6.2 Hypothesis: Avian influenza virus is prevalent in poultry butchers working in live bird markets with domestic and pet, wild, exotic birds. 6.3 Parameter/Methodology: A cross sectional survey of poultry butchers in Lahore was conducted in order to determine seroprevalence of avian influenza Disease. A target population was the poultry butchers/retailers in the District Lahore. A study population was the apparently healthy butchers in Lahore. A sample of 300 butchers was collected. Blood sample from apparently healthy butchers was collected from brachial veins as described in WHO (2010). Three ml blood was collected in the syringe and was allowed to clot to separate serum. Collected sera was stored in freezer at -70°C for further laboratory analysis. Data was gathered by simple random sampling technique. A total of 300 samples were collected. Haemagglutinationinhibition (HI) test applied to detect antibodies sensitivity. The test was followed as described by WHO (2013). 6.4 Statistical Design: The weighted proportion estimate with 95% Cl (confidence intervals) of the overall seroprevalence was computed by using R-software. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome. 6.5 Outcomes: Out of 300 blood samples of butchers of sentinel live bird markets, 171 blood samples are sero positive for H9 virus after HI Testing. The sero prevalence of H9 virus in butchers of live bird markets is found to be 57 %. The results of H5 and H7 are found to be negative. In univariable analysis, following risk factors which were significant as per criteria of selection in current study (p-value < 0.25); Education, Age, Smoking, Sticks smoke/day, Years of smoking, Having chronic disease, Birds sold/day, Keep birds at home, Access of stray dogs, Access of stray cats, Wash instruments after slaughtering, Do not clean cutting boards, Wearing of aprons.Multivariate analysis determined one factor i-e having birds other than broiler as significant factor having p-value < 0.001. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2804-T] (1).

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