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1. Clinico-Epidemiology Of Shigellosis In Children Suffering From Diarrhea In District Lahore

by Muhammad Nisar | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Dn Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1441,T] (1).

2. Community Trials Of Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccines In District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1649,T] (1).

3. Incidence Of Animal Bite Injuries In Three Tehsil Headquarter Hospitals Of District Swat

by Munibullah | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2133,T] (1).

4. Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Milk, Milk By- Products And Food Handler At Retail

by Kanwal Hafeez | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to check the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk, milk products and food handlers at various dairy retail shops in Lahore. A total of 100 samples, 30 samples of raw milk, 30 samples of pasteurized milk, 20 samples of yogurt, 10 samples of butter and 10 hand swabs samples of dairy handlers were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 54% (54 out of 100) samples. Overall high prevalence was recorded in raw milk, followed by hand swabbing samples of dairy handler, butter, pasteurized milk and yogurt. The results indicated unhygienic practices during milking and handling of milk at different critical control points such as transportation, storage, and post-pasteurization contamination. Overall high prevalence of ampicillin and amoxicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were recorded in all the samples of milk and milk products and the hand swabbing of dairy handlers, followed by resistant against chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin respectively. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by resistance against amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin which were 92.6%, 37%, 33.3%, 24.1% and 22.2% respectively. The antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk and milk products indicated the widespread use of these antibiotics in treating different types of infections associated in either livestock or humans which results in selection pressure of these antimicrobials and results in the emergence of these antibiotic resistant bacteria in different environmental conditions. The risk associated with human health as a result of ingestion of these antibiotic resistant bacteria can be prevented by adopting hygienic measures during milking, transport, storage and hygienic handling by the handlers so the human health can be assured. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1520,T] (1).

5. Detection Of Carrier And Subclinical Infection Of Babesia Ovis Trough Pcr At Government Farms Of Punjab

by Haider Noor | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Haemoprotozoan infections in ruminants are of significant importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Diseases are transmitted through ticks thus a number of epidemiological factors/risk factors are involved. Ovine Babesiosis is one such disease posing problems in Pakistan which is an agricultural country and livestock plays an important source of income for farmers. The economic losses in small ruminant production are significant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Carrier sheep infected with Babesiosis are challenge to current diagnostic methods and are difficult to detect because of the low number of parasites in circulation. However diagnosis of carrier animals in herd is important for preventing outbreaks by transmission through vector ticks to healthy animals and for obtaining epidemiological data of disease. The work done on Babesia ovis is negligible. For this purpose a study was conducted at two farms to measure the prevalence and optimization of PCR for Babesia ovis. Blood was collected into an anticoagulant containing vacutainer. First thin smears were formed and stained with Giemsa stain for microscopic examination of Babesia ovis. For DNA extraction Puregene DNA purification system, Gentra, was used. Extracted DNA was amplified in a thermolyser using B. ovis primers and then analyzed using electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel. Microscopic examination demonstrated a prevalence of 16 % while PCR results revealed prevalence of 29% for B. ovis. Results displayed that the efficacy of PCR is more sensitive than Light Microscopy. Data on infection rate between male and female and between different age groups was statistically non-significant. Herd wise prevalence was 36% and 22% in Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadarnagar, Okara and Small Ruminant Training and Research Center,Ravi Campus, Pattoki respectively. Common sites of attachment for the ticks were under the tail, perineal region and underneath ears.The data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1534,T] (1).

6. Socio-Demographic Rick Factors Of Dengue Fever In Infected Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Center In Lahore

by Arsalan Maqbool | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection, caused by positive strain RNA virus, genus Flavivirus. The four serotypes of dengue virus are DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. It is a severe flu like illness. Incubation period is 4-7 days and more severe form is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). 50–100 million patients of dengue infection occur annually of which 250,000 progress to DHF/DSS resulting in 24,000 deaths. This study was conducted for the purpose to detect the dengue virus in animals of dengue fever endemic area and investigate the maintenance host of dengue virus. A total of 462 blood samples were collected randomly from different species of domestic (Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep, Goat), draught (Horse, Donkey), pet (Cat, Dog), poultry (back yard poultry), and wild animals (Monkey), in the areas hit by dengue from Lahore during August 2011 to November 2011) The conformation of dengue infection in animal was performed by using NS-1, IgG and IgM ELISA. Results revealed that among monkeys and dogs dengue was positive in 64.71% (n=11) and 21.05% (n=20) respectively identified by IgM ELISA. Not a single animal was found positive for dengue by using NS-1 and IgG ELISA. Hence there is a need to work on determination of maintenance host of dengue fever virus in our set up and the need exists to further explore the certain aspects related to dengue and its spread. Although due to resources constraints this study provides very limited but elaborated results for further work in this domain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1557,T] (1).

7. A Case Control Study To Determine The Risk Factors Of Tuberculosis In Dairy Animals In Peshawar City And Its Suburbs

by Atta Ullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is chronic infectious disease of animals and human beings, which is characterized by progressive emaciation, nodules formation in lungs and involvement of local lymph nodes. Tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium species and it is endemic in Pakistan. In the world ranking regarding tuberculosis patients, Pakistan is on 6th position. A case control study was conducted in Peshawar city and its suburbs in order to determine the risk factors of tuberculosis in dairy animals. Prevalence of tuberculosis in dairy animals recorded in this study was 18.27%. A total of 750 dairy animals were included in the study in which 250 were positive cases and 500 were controls on the basis of tuberculin skin test. Controls were divided into two groups, group 1(animals above 1 year of age) group 2(animals under 1 year of age). All these animals were selected from civil veterinary hospital Peshawar and veterinary teaching hospital (University of Agriculture Peshawar); and villages located on ring road of Peshawar city. Data was collected from the owner on pre designed questionnaire to determine different risk factors associated with tuberculosis and it was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0. The calculated odds ratio in descending order were 2.70 for rotational grazing practice, 2.52 for keeping donkey with dairy animals, 2.22 for not having own bull for breeding, 2.05 for keeping animals inside the shed at night, 2.02 for living in rural geographical environment, 1.87 for low socio-economic status, 1.65 for not using tap water, 1.59 for herd size more than 16-30 animals, 1.47 for non lactating animals, 1.47 for illiterate owners, 1.42 for contact with wild animals, 1.30 for keeping old animals within the herd, 1.25 for using fertilizer on crops that offer to animals, 1.22 for cattle, 1.17 for dung disposal weekly and 0.45 for deworming practice in dairy animals. Odds ratio more than 1 was considered being a risk factor while less than 1 was being considered as a health promoting factor. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Tuberculosis is disease of zoonotic importance, and its incidence increasing day by day both in humans and animals. Therefore further research is the need of time to control and eradicate this disease globally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1627,T] (1).

8. Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasmosis In Goats And Their Attendants In Dort Minro (D.G.Khan), Punjab (Pakistan)

by Shams-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease of cats, however all warm blooded animals comprising mammals, birds and human beings can be infected with it. The disease is manifested by abortion, resorption, neonatal loses, birth of weak kids, birth defects and mummification of fetuses in pregnant animals. Global seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis is continuously evolving in animals and human beings. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis, the present study was conducted, in Fort Minro, to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of Toxoplasmosis in goats and their attendants. A total of 52 pastoral goat herds with herd size of "?20 - ?40" animals per herd were selected by convenient sampling technique. Out of these 52 pastoral herds, 237 goats were selected by systematic sampling method i.e each 5th unit was selected for sampling. The goats were sampled if the age of goats was ?6 months. Most common breeds of these herds were, Pahari and Hairy goat breed. A total of 92 herd attendants were also selected to determine the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasmosis in Farm workers / attendants. All serum samples were screened by LAT. For this purpose, the commercial Latex agglutination kit (Wiener Laboratorios S.A.I.C. Riobamba 2944, 2000 Rosario Argentina) was used for detection of specific antibodies of T.gondii in serum of goats and their attendants. A herd was considered as a positive, if at least one goat was found to be positive in that specific herd. Out of total 52 goat herds, 36 herds presented at least one or more than one seropositive animal. The number of positive animals in each herd, ranged from 1-10 animals. Out of 237 goats, 64 goats were positive for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Thus overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats was 27%. The seroprevalence was significantly high in female goats (21.5%) as compared to males (5.5%). Kajli/Pahari goat breed was more positive (14.8%) as compared to Hairy goats (12.2%). An increase trend of seropositivity was observed in goats with increase in age. Age group of "?3 years" of goats had highest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence of Toxoplasmosis, followed by age group "?1-<3 years", while age group "?6 m-<1Year" had lowest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence. Prevalence in males had 5.5% share in overall prevalence (27%) while prevalence in females had 21.5% share in overall prevalence. Data analysis of various risk factors determined that natural reservoirs of water, pastoral grazing and presence of cats and dogs were major risk factor of Toxoplasmosis in goat herds. Access of cats to drinking water and food resources and eating medium cooked meat were major risk factors for goat attendants. High prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats and Farm workers, suggests that Toxoplasmosis is endemic in the study area and further epidemiological studies should be focused on goat meat, milk and milk products. It is concluded that Toxoplasmosis can be reduce in human beings and animals by reducing risk factors and maintaining proper hygienic measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1710,T] (1).

9. Studies On Risk Factors Associated With Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157: H7 In Abattoir Environment

by Samiullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1711,T] (1).

10. Association Of Antimicrobial Resistant Campylobacter With Poultry Meat At Retailer Shops In Lahore Through Cross-Sectional Study

by Abdul Moeed | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: 6.1 Background Antimicrobial resistance is an under-appreciated threat to public health in nations around the globe. With globalization booming, it is important to understand international patterns of resistance. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are considered to be the most frequent cause of human acute bacterial enteritis worldwide, furthermore, numerous transmission vehicles are known, but raw milk, untreated surface water and especially poultry meat are major sources of human infections. In Pakistan studies reveal that among meat samples, the highest prevalence (48%) of Campylobacter was recorded in raw chicken. Therefore, the increasing level of resistance to the antibiotics among Campylobacter spp. is recognized as emerging public health problem. 6.2 Hypothesis " Campylobacter spp. was present in the poultry meat at retailer shops. " Unhygienic measures concerning to meat handling had a considerable effect on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter. 6.3 Methodology A cross sectional study of 3 months duration was carried out in the Lahore city of Punjab, Pakistan. Using the standard microbiological techniques and statistical analysis, the prevalence of Campylobacter and its pattern of antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Furthermore, through premeditated questionnaires, public awareness regarding meat-borne diseases, food safety and inappropriate usage of antibiotics were assessed as well. 6.4 Statistical design Data will be analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Quantitative variable were presented by using mean ± S.D. Qualitative variable were presented with help of frequency tables, pie charts and bar charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association among different variables. P value <0.05 was be taken as significant. 6.5 Outcome Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence and pattern of the antibiotic resistant campylobacter was assessed; moreover public awareness with special reference to food safety, knowledge of meat borne diseases and usage of antibiotics wereevaluated. Furthermore, one could play an influential role in public health by dissemination of awareness among the masses about the proper usage of antibiotics and food safety measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1728,T] (1).

11. Nosocomial Infections At Intensive Care Unit In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore City

by Ajmal Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1729,T] (1).

12. Descrptive Epidemiology Of Canine Parvovirus Disease In Dogs At Pet Enter Uvas In Lahore And Interventional Trial

by Hafiz Muhammad Umer Sulehria | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmed | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Pakistan has been bestowed with a huge population of livestock encompassing buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat, camel and other domestic animals such as cats, dogs, rabbits, etc. Out of these, dogs occupy a special attention due to many peculiarities they possess like sniffing, hunting, retrieving and many more. These specialties of dogs are utilized by military, rangers, police, anti-narcotic forces, other agencies, etc. There are three million dogs in Pakistan. A dog encounters many infectious and non-infectious diseases during the course of its life cycle. Some of the viral infectious diseases, and considered more important for a dog are, rabies, canine parvovirus infection, canine distemper, and infectious canine hepatitis. As a pathogen, canine parvovirus emerged in 1970s but later it evolved into two new antigenic strains, type 2a and type 2b which are distributed all over the world. Mostly, protection against CPV is gained from maternally derived antibodies in puppies but simultaneously they may interfere with CPV vaccination. Severe gastrointestinal signs are associated with CPV and this infection is transmitted through contact with infected feces via oro-fecal route or exposure with fomites and also via placental transmission. The virus is very stable in the environment and is susceptible to some cleaning agents like bleach. The current study was conducted to study the descriptive epidemiology of canine parvovirus disease in dogs at Pet Center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) in Lahore and to compare two types of hyper immune sera i.e. Canglob (Ghazi Brothers) and UVAS hyper immune serum for parvovirus through interventional trial, for treating the clinically diseased pups. The study included puppies aged between six weeks and six months. Puppies aged between six weeks and six months, found clinically suspected to be affected with canine parvovirus and showing the signs and symptoms like vomiting, bloody mucoid diarrhea, emaciation and anorexia and found positive for hemagglutination test were included in the study. Hemagglutination test was used as a diagnostic and a screening test to confirm canine parvovirus in the clinically suspected puppies. The disease was more observed in the puppies aged between 7 to 12 weeks. There were 28 females and 32 males observed in the study. The disease was more frequently observed in Labradors. The disease was observed to be more common in the dogs that weighed 4-6 kgs. Canine parvovirus HA titers were more observed in the dogs that had been ill due to CPV for the past 5-6 days. Only 16 puppies out of 60 were vaccinated. Also, it was observed that canine parvovirus geometric mean titer was higher in the non-vaccinated puppies. The disease was more observed in the pups vaccinated with a polyvalent vaccine and less observed in the pups that were inoculated with a monovalent vaccine. Most of the dogs were aged between 31-60 days when they got vaccinated. Sixty percent (60%) of the dog owners knew that if vaccination is done then the dog may be protected against the disease. The disease was more observed in the pups that were owned by more educated and economically stabled persons. The result of the statistical analysis using Pearson Chi-Square Test suggests that the difference between Group A and Group B regarding the outcome of the interventional trial is not statistically significant. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted that the UVAS produced hyper immune serum against canine parvovirus is equally good as compared with Canglob for the treatment of CPV diseased puppies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1831,T] (1).

13. Epidemiological Study Of Zoonotic Leishmaniasis In Humans And Dogs In District Jhelum

by Behzad kayani | Dr. Mamoona chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad hassan mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2000,T] (1).

14. Evaluation Of Vaccine Effectiveness Of Foot And Mouth Disease In District Dera Ghazi Khan

by Muhammad Fahed | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2163,T] (1).

15. Comprehensive Retrospective Study Of Dog Bites In Lahore Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill

by Toraiz Ahmed (2012-VA-902) | Dr. Nusrat Nauman | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Mr. Tariq Mahmood | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dog may be the best friend of humans but still they are animals and can bite. Despite of domestication dogs show the behavior of their ancestors as their ancestors (wolves) are voracious, strong, cunning, agile, swift and sharp teeth’s (Keuster et al. 2006). In fact dog bites millions of people every year and half of them are children of age from 5 to 9 (Sacks et al. 1996). One out of every five bite case needs medical interventions and treatment (Shuler et al. 2008). Dog bites are the results of attacks of pet or stray dogs on humans. Humans have close association with dogs in their daily life. This association may be as pet dogs or it may be as stray dogs in developing countries (Shuler et al. 2008). Dog bite injuries vary from common injury to severe condition such as rabies. Most of the studies show the association of dog bites with different breeds and considerable debates are also there that which breed is associated more with dog bites (Patrick and O'Rourke 1998). Regardless the breed, some other things are also important, like dog behavior, human behavior, no supervision of dog or carelessness in control and the scenario or conditions under which the dog is living (Cornelissen and Hopster 2010). Breed is rather not an important point to discuss in developing countries like Pakistan. As in developing countries most of the Dog bites occur due to stray dogs. Mostly the injuries are minor but still dog bites are one of the most important problems for society and health administration authorities as dog bites comprises about 90% of total animal bites. About 4.5 million Americans are bitten by dogs every year and about 30,000 of them require procedures of reconstructive surgery (Wilde 1997). Fortunately the fatalities from dog bites are much less. Dog bite cases turn into fatal condition when patient is bitten by potential rabies virus carrier and infection may occur that can be life threatening. Rabies, a viral disease caused by the bite of an infected animal that can cause acute inflammation of brain in warm blooded animals and humans. It is present in more than150 countries of the world (WHO 2005). An estimate shows that 10 thousand deaths occur worldwide due to rabies. Potentially 3 billion people are at threat of rabies in Africa and Asia and out of the total 84% of rabies deaths occur in rural areas. Millions of cases of dog bites cases go unreported throughout the world. This underreporting hides the actual burden of the problem in the community (Turner 1976). In humans dog bite is one of the complex phenomena that may occur by interaction of three elements, animal, scenario and the victim. Figures on dog bites mostly pool out from studies in public health institutions and hospitals (Jacob John 1997). Most of the studies show the scientific analyzed information only on victim while the circumstances and conditions surrounding the incidence of dog bites remain unknown. Important thing is fatalities from dog bites occur only in very small proportion of dog bites (Cleaveland et al. 2002). However treatment expenses and consequences of injuries have turned the issue of dog bite into significant public health importance (Coleman et al. 2004). The other side of coin is that the aggressive behavior development in dogs leads to relinquishment of shelter and euthanasia, which indicate a problem in term of animal safety (Guy et al. 2001). Public health specialists and Epidemiologists focus that fatal and non-fatal dog attacks can be controlled or prevented through effective preventive measures. For effective and suitable preventive measures it is pertinent to start examining the epidemiological data of the respective community. Epidemiological data is require to define the geographically high risk areas, seasonal patterns associated with the dog bites with respect to the victim, and other triggering factors (Sacks et al. 2000). For the sound preventive and control measures epidemiological data is one of the best tools for better decision making in public health issues (CDC 2003). In developing countries like Pakistan epidemiological studies of dog bites are important and are needed on the multi-dimensional aspects as dog bite incidence and other associated risks are much higher and vary according to area of study. These types of multi-dimensional studies may change the preventive strategy plans with their extra efficiency. Normally control and preventive measures are designed to lessen the risk of dog bites and followed by all communities. Possible control and preventive measures are control of free roaming and unrestrained animals, vaccination, breed or type bans, licensing of dogs, extensive media campaigns specially in rural areas, well defined post bite program, investigation of dog bite incidents (Wilson et al. 2003). Pakistan is among the world highest cases of rabies with about 50 thousand cases per year. Recent estimates show that 570 peoples die annually in Pakistan because of rabies (WHO 1996). In Pakistan people mostly neglect the minor dog bite cases and due to high illiteracy rate large numbers of cases go unreported (Wasay et al. 2008). This is because people suffering from dog bite normally rely on local remedies, such as rubbing red chilies on the wound from the house the dog belongs (in case of pet dog). Rabies virus can be killed upto 65% by washing with soap only (Burki 2008). Vaccination is the ultimate solution for rabies, but very less amount of people knows about the vaccination of dogs. Post exposure treatment is costly in dog bite cases. Cost analysis of post exposure treatment for dog bites shows the actual picture and importance of dog bites in public health sector. Billions of rupees are spent on the vaccines and treatment of dog bites cases (Chulasugandha et al. 2006). A large number of cases report to quacks and go unreported on official database. For the better decision regarding the public health problem the cases must be reported to official database. Weak reporting system is also an important factor in developing countries like Pakistan. As in Pakistan rabies and dog bites are not notifiable disease. No proper surveillance system is there for rabies is at present. Studies and surveys shows that 55% people didn’t even consider dog bites as a predisposing factor for rabies and they even didn’t know that the dog bite can be fatal (Knobel et al. 2005). To prevent and control dog bite it is necessary to have comprehensive epidemiological data that allows the identification of associated risk patterns. Rabies is endemic in Pakistan so this study is aimed to investigate the problem posed by dog bites in Lahore, Pakistan. Lahore is the second most populated city of Pakistan with population of 5.143 million (according to 1998 census). This study will help the officials of public health in making better decision regarding dog bites. This study is aimed at investigating the problems posed by dog bites in Lahore. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2202,T] (1).

16. Epidemiological Investigation And Risk Factor Analysis Of Brucellosis In Large Ruminants And Their Attendants At Govt. Livestock Farms In Punjab

by Muhammad Raashid (2007-VA-496) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Pakistan has been renowned as an agricultural country. It is rich in livestock sector having fairly large populations of domestic animals. Among these, populations of cattle and buffalo are 38.3 and 33.7 million respectively. The importance of cattle and buffalo cannot be denied at any level as these are the principal farming animals and milk and beef are widely consumed locally in the country. The estimated annual milk production of cattle and buffalo include 17.372 and 30.462 million tonnes respectively and a combined 1.829 million tonnes beef for human consumption during 2012-2013 (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-2013). Brucellosis, a worldwide bacterial zoonosis, is one of the most serious diseases causing huge loss to national economy and human beings among developing countries (Wu et al. 2013). The disease is endemic in Middle East, Central Asia, Africa, Mediterranean region and parts of Latin America (Gwida et al. 2010). Brucellae are Gram-negative bacteria, facultative anaerobic and intracellular pathogens. These show a wide range of host specificity. These coccobacilli measure from 0.6 to 1.5 µm long and 0.5 to 0.7 µm wide. Eight species have been identified in the genus Brucella such asBrucella abortus(B. abortus affecting cattle and buffalo), B. melitensis (sheep and goats), B. ovis (sheep), B. suis (swine), B. canis (dog), B. neotomae (desert rats), B. ceti (cetaceans) and B. pinnipedialis (pinnipeds) (Blasco 2010). This wide range of species covers almost all domestic animals however cats have found resistant. Generally it is considered as a reproductive problem in both male and female animals (Ficht 2003). Brucellosis has been listed as the second most serious zoonotic disease in the world after rabies by OIE (OIE 2009). B. abortus, the primary cause of Brucellosis in large ruminants, (cattle and buffalo), remains not only a significant threat as a source of human illness but also risks economy of the country (Makita et al. 2011). Present estimates of economic loss in meat and milk production resulting from Brucellosis are $800 million annually in the United States(OIE 2009). The incidence of the disease can be correlated to several factors including demographic and geographic factors(Soomro et al. 2014). Seroprevalence of the disease has been reported in different regions of Pakistan and ranges 3.25 to 4.4%(Naeem et al. 1990). Brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes can be recognized clinically by an abortion usually occurring form 6 months and onwards i.e. last trimester of pregnancy (Soomro et al. 2014). Brucellosis is principally a disease of sexually mature animals as it affects mainly the reproductive system and fertility of the animals. It significantly reduces the survival rate of newborns and also the milk yield (Sikder et al. 2012). Greyish white mucoid or mucopurulent discharges from the vagina, prior to parturition of cow, may show the clinical patterns of disease along withnormal patterns of parturition like swelling of the vulva, relaxation of pelvic ligament, enlargement of udder and discharge from the vulva (Shafee et al. 2012). Human infections as a result of Brucellosis range more than 500,000 annually round the world (Abo-Shehada and Abu-Halaweh 2011). Brucellosis can cause a wide range of symptoms similar to the flu and may also include fever (39-40°C), night sweats, headache, back pain and physical weakness. Severe form of infection may result in involvement of the central nervous system or the lining of the heart (Soomro et al. 2014). It is one of the principal public health problems for an agricultural country like Pakistan, where majority of the population is engaged in livestock farming (Shafee et al. 2012). Brucellosis in humans is a severely debilitating condition that usually requires prolonged treatment involving a combination of strong antibiotics. The treatment results in permanent and disabling sequel, and also in significant medical expenses along with loss of income due to loss of working hours. Brucellosis can be transmitted to humans by ways of inhalation, direct contact with infected animals or contaminated products of conception and ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat or meat products (Gwida et al. 2010; John et al. 2010). Brucellosis can also be transmitted from infected animals to human beings who are in close contact with animal secretions like infected vaginal secretions, blood, urine, feces, aborted fetus, or those who consume unpasteurized milk or other raw milk products. Shepherds, milkmen, butchers, knackers, veterinary assistants, and abattoir workers are at high risk (Agasthya et al. 2007) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2245-T] (1).

17. Isolation And Molecular Detection Of Salmonella Species In Milk And Milk Products

by Muhammad Umar Ijaz (2007-VA-040) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din-Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Salmonellosis is one of the emerging zoonotic diseases. Human infections result from contaminated raw or undercooked food. Various sources of contamination in milk are dirty udder, unhygienic handling and utensils, dirty hands of milkmen and poor quality water supply at the farm. To ensure food safety there is a dire need for the availability of valid, rapid and accredited diagnostic system. Conventional culture methods for detecting Salmonella spp. in foods needs 4–5 days. The development in molecular techniques made it possible to cut short the procedure. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the burden of Salmonella spp. in milk and milk products. In total 150 samples were collected, out of which there were 75 milk samples. These samples were collected from farm dairy herds (pooled milk) located in Harbanspura Dairy colony, Lahore. Salmonella was detected in 8 samples (11%) by conventional method. In addition to milk samples, 75 samples of milk products were also collected from retail shops. These include 50 samples of Yogurt and 25 samples of Yogurt milk. Milk products had 6 positive samples (8%). No sample of Yogurt was detected positive for Salmonella. The reason for this is that Yogurt had only Salmonella if it is present in starter culture. Furthermore yogurt is made after frequent heating. Salmonella is killed by such continuous and vigorous heating. Yogurt milk is prepared from Yogurt along with raw milk in a separate utensil. There are chances of contamination there so it had 6 positive samples. Total 14 (9%) samples were detected in 150 samples by conventional method. It was found that Salmonella was present in raw milk samples and milk products at places where either cleanliness was not proper, milk handling practices Summary 53 were not up to the mark, udder was not washed before milking or overall management practices were poor. Positive samples obtained by conventional method were further analyzed by PCR for Salmonella genus confirmation. Out of total 8 positive milk samples by conventional method, 5(62%) were confirmed as Salmonella genus. Similarly from 6 positive samples of milk products by conventional method, only 2(33%) were confirmed as of Salmonella genus. Further PCR was conducted for Salmonella typhimurium detection. Milk samples were containing 3(60%) positive samples while no positive sample was detected in milk products. On the basis of the results of present study, it is recommended that milk should always be boiled before use. Further Hygienic measures should be adopted during milking. Proper handling of milk and milk products is also important to limit the cross contamination. It is also advised that standards such as pasteurization and HACCP should be introduced to facilitate production of good quality milk. Electronic and print media should also create awareness among people about food safety. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2408-T] (1).

18. A Case Control Study On Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In District Lahore

by Shazia Muneer (2014-VA-510) | Prof. Dr. Masur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was designed to identify the association ofvarious risk factors with GDM.The study was consist of cases and controls andconducted for a period of 3 month i.e. February to April 2016. A total sample of 284 comprises of 142 cases and 142 controls were selected fromgynaecological outpatient department, tertiary care hospitalsof district Lahore. The cases matched on the basis of parity with control. The data about demographic and risk factors associated with gestational diabetes were collected through predesigned questionnaires. The study was completed in a period of three months. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0.The results of this study will be useful for the prevention and control of this disease from fatal outcome. The results of the study showed the relationship of GDM among cases than controls. It was observed that most of the woman’s were illiterate and housewives. The economic status was found statistically significant in present study. But overall participants werefrom lower middle class families. Present study showed that the woman’s with the age of 29-35, that is high age group and significant association found in the mother age. Previous history of diabetes mellitus and family history of diabetes mellitus also role plays in raising the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence was higher in those women who had family history of diabetes. The higher number seen among cases who had diabetes in previous pregnancy, which was significantly higher at(p value= 0.000). It was investigated that diabetes mellitus was more common in high BMI>25kg/m2 so it has strong relationship with high BMI. Conclusion This study was designed to identify the risk factors associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Because the prevalence of Gestational diabetes is increasing with increase the number of women in childbearing age. The timely diagnosis of GDM and identify its risk factors are need of the time to control fetal and maternal complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2535-T] (1).

19. Seroprevelance And Associated Risk Factors Of Avian Influenza Among Butchers In District Chakwal

by Shumaila Yousaf (2014-VA-513) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhary | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Hamad Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Summary: Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2598-T] (1).

20. Salmonella Contamination In Vegetables Due To Irrigation With Wastewater In Lahore

by Muhammad Shahjahan Zafar (2009-VA-398) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Ms. Noor-ul-Hudda.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Salmonella has been one of the major food-borne pathogens for animals and humans for last many years. Many food borne outbreaks and other sporadic cases occur due to Salmonella in many countries. Foods of animal origin are considered major sources of Salmonella. However, Salmonella infections due to consumption of raw vegetables have occurred numerously in recent past. 30% of sewage water is directly used for irrigation purposes in Pakistan for various crops including vegetables. It may be the cause of Salmonella contamination. Apart from conventional microbiological techniques, nucleic acid amplification technologies have provided the opportunity for rapid detection of Salmonella from various sources, providing better sensitivity and superior specificity, thereby refining the administration of outbreaks by more rapid confirmation. Untreated wastewater is the major source of Salmonella contamination of vegetables. Vegetable sampling was done from field, wholesale and retail markets of Lahore city and wastewater sampling was done from River Ravi, Lahore Canal and other sources by using aseptic techniques and was transported at 4°C. Salmonella species was isolated by conventional methods and suspected colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests TSI and Urease Test. DNA was extracted through boiling and 10% chelex method. Molecular characterization of isolated strains was done through PCR. Antibiotic resistance of confirmed isolates were also checked. A total of 320 (Vegetable n=160, Wastewater n=160) samples were taken for present study for screening of salmonella microbial contamination in it. Different types of vegetables including Coriander (n=40), Mint (n=40), Carrot (n=40), Radish (n=40) were used for analysis. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 46 Wastewater samples were also collected from various sources like River Ravi (n=60), Lahore Branch Canal (n=60) and Kharak Nala (n=40). Salmonella was found in 4/40 (10%) samples of Coriander, 3/40 (7.5%) of Mint, 5/40 (12.5%) of Carrot, 3/40 (7.5%) of Radish and 33/160 (20.63%) of wastewater samples through PCR detection. Many of the isolates were found multi-drug resistant. This study revealed the presence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella species in vegetables and wastewater. All the vegetables studied were contaminated with Salmonella. This data was designed to find out the magnitude and real picture of the pathogen. It helped in drawing a relationship between Salmonella contamination of vegetables and irrigation of wastewater. As wastewater is the main reason for bacterial contamination of vegetables, measures should be adopted at governmental level for reduction of this contamination. Water disinfection practices and continuous water supply for irrigation can reduce the bacterial load. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2624-T] (1).

21. Targeted Survey Of Avian Influenza (H5, H7, H9) In Backyard Poultry In High Risk Area Kasur District

by Shumaila IQbal (2009-VA-83) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Avian Influenza is the most feared disease of poultry and other birds throughout the world. The segmented, negative strand RNA viruses that form the family Orthomyxoviridae are divided into three types of influenza virus, A, B and C. Only influenza A viruses have been reported to cause natural infections of birds. The outbreak can be mitigated by applying biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movement, using inactivated vaccines and initiating an AI surveillance network throughout the country. A targeted survey was conducted for a period of 3 months in order to determine prevalence of Avian Influenza H5, H7 and H9 in the villages of Kasur district. Two stage cluster sampling without replacement was adopted in this study. Thirty clusters were selected and in each cluster, seven elementary units (chicken) were sampled, i.e. a total of 210 birds. Tracheal swabs were collected from live and apparently healthy backyard birds then swabs were stored properly at 4°C (24-48hours) until processed. Data were collected from the owner in a face to face interview. A detail predesigned questionnaire was filled after taking written consent from the owner. The sample was collected during the survey of backyard poultry in villages of Kasur district was processed for laboratory analysis. Polymerase chain reaction for Avian Influenza virus isolation was conducted to diagnose sample for AIV. The weighted proportion estimate with 95% Cl (confidence intervals) of the overall prevalence was computed by using “R” software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome. Variables with significant univariate relationship at p <0.25 was selected for inclusion in the final model. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% Cl (confidence intervals) were calculated (Hosmer and Lemeshow, 2000). CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Discussion 53 The management practice risk scores provide a means to quantify the level of risk to avian influenza across villages. However, the utility of such a measure cannot be assessed until these are related to AI status form clinical tests. Nevertheless it is useful to assess what factors are associated with these scores. In particular, specific profiles of farms can be identified with potential high risk and control resources allocate accordingly. For example, this study has found amongst other things that farms with mixed poultry breeds, which have reported diarrhea, or reported high mortality have high risk scores, and these might be targeted for intervention. Prevalence estimate of Avian Influenza was generated. Potential risk factors associated with this prevalence was identified and will be communicated to concerned persons through publication. The poultry birds reared completely outdoor have more chance to contact with wild birds which increase the occurrence of AIV. A strong association between source of water and AIV was found. Water source can play a vital role in transmission of AIV. Another strong association was found in unethical disposal of dead birds and waste poultry farm near to houses with increase the chances of infection. Presence of live bird market stall and visiting of poultry farm vehicle to villages can increase the chances of AIV infection. Elimination or reduction of above mentioned risk factors, use of disinfectant for cleaning and regular vaccination against AI could significantly improve backyard poultry production system in villages. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2655-T] (1).

22. Molecular Epidemiology Of Mycobacterium At The Animal Human Interface And Its Co-Morbidity With Diabetes Mellitus

by Zarfishan Tahir (2011-VA-624) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Abdul Majeed Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and fatal infectious disease which has afflicted mankind for several millennia. At the moment, TB is positioned at number five when it comes to the most common causes of fatality worldwide. TB is curable if it is properly diagnosed and treated. In 2015, it was estimated that 1.5 million deaths (an equivalent of 4,000 deaths per day) and 9 million new TB cases have been reported. Diabetes Mellitus is also widely distributed and estimated to affect 366 million people by 2030. The co-morbidity of DM and TB is re-emerging because of the progressive epidemiology of both diseases especially in the developing countries. Endemicity of TB and DM is growing in developing countries because of low socio-economic status and poor living conditions. In this study, a total of 500 tuberculosis positive patients were selected under TB DOTS program from five tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Sputum samples were collected from all the enrolled patients and smear microscopy was performed for TB confirmation. Blood samples were collected from the same patients for screening of diabetes mellitus. Sputum samples were also processed for culture and drug sensitivity on LJ medium. Molecular identification by PCR technique was carried out on all positive cultured strains and results were compared with reference strain H37RV. For DNA sequencing, PCR products were sent to Singapore where sequencing was performed by Sanger method. Data was compiled and variables including gender, age, drug resistance and treatment history and correlation among different variables was analyzed using chi-square test and Fischer’s exact test method at P-value of ≤0.05. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 20.0) was used for statistical analysis. The count data was statistically analyzed using SUMMARY 124 descriptive statistical tools. On screening for fasting blood sugar level, 74 (14.8%) patients were recorded as diabetics as well i.e. blood sugar level ≥ 126 mg/dl. Out of these 74 patients, 22 patients had previous history of diabetes whereas remaining 52 patients were newly diagnosed at the time of screening. The maximum distribution of TB-DM patients was found in age group > 57 years. Mean age of the group without DM was 39 years and with DM was 48 years. Coexistence of DM in TB patients was higher in males (62.2%) as compared to female study subjects. However, the gender difference is statistically non-significant (p value 0.243). The distribution of education level revealed that out of the total participants, maximum number of patients (n=220) were illiterate and similar trend was observed in diabetic patients with 54 (73%) individuals belonging to the illiterate group of the subjects. There is statistically significant difference between existence of DM and literacy level in tuberculosis patients. Among social and behavioral risk factors in tuberculosis patients, majority of the patients were unemployed (24%) in TB-DM group. Significant correlation p value ≤ 0.05 was found between coexistence of TB-DM and tobacco use. TB cases with diabetes were known to have history of smoking with 73% (n=54) while non-smokers were 27% (n=20). On sputum smear microscopy frequency of 3+ results showing high bacterial load, was profoundly higher i.e. 67.6% in diabetic tuberculosis patients as compared to non-diabetics which was 4.9% only. Total culture yield was 363 out of 500 sputum samples. There were 193 samples that were sensitive to all drugs, 9.4% were MDR strains (resistant to Isoniazid and Rifampicin). MDR-TB is significantly higher in TB-DM patients i.e. 13.5% as compared to 8.7% in TB only patients. In our study, DNA sequence data for drug resistance was studied by the sequence of rpoB gene of the wild type MTB strain. Sequencing results showed mutations at various spots of rpoB gene. SUMMARY 125 Most common mutational sites identified were at codon 531, 526 and 516 with frequency of 70%, 15% and 7.5%, respectively. Moreover, mutation sites at 512 and 574 codon had also been reported. In this study, predominantly two phylogenetic variants were identified. Majority of the isolated strains were Central Asia Strain (CAS) with a prevalence of 88.2% and rest were Beijing strain. However, attempts to find zoonosis could not be established. A total of 900 raw milk samples were also screened for M. bovis and no positive sample could be detected. The present study emphasizes the importance of screening for DM in TB patients, which had not been done in routine. This practice may prove to be helpful in reducing the disease burden of TB patients as well as DM patients. Thus it is recommended that the screening for DM should be implemented in TB/DOTS clinics. Emergence of Multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also a serious challenge for clinicians. A very large financial implication in terms of treatment, duration of chemotherapy and spread of MDR TB strains is being faced. Treating MDR TB is more complicated than treating drug sensitive TB. Patients with MDR TB require longer, much more costly treatment and experience higher mortality rates. Such a long time to initiate the treatment is not affordable, thus there is a dire need for some rapid technique like molecular based diagnostics for MDR detection, which can provide quick results and making it possible to start treatment at earlier to minimize transmission, morbidity and mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2710-T] (1).

23. Prevalence And Associated Risk Factors Of Needle Stick Injuries Among Health Care Workers In Government Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Lahore

by Gurdeep Singh (2014-VA-957) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Ali Ahmad sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In present study, seventy six percent (n=228) of respondents were involved in sharp injuries and twenty four percent (n=72) were not involved. This study concluded there was high occurrence of needle stick sharps injuries among healthcare workers in tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. There are several risks associated with handling healthcare sharps among healthcare workers which include, needle prick that could be contributed to cases of occupational infections such as HIV/AIDS. Majority of reported cases were due to following reasons , inadequate supply of barrier products ,unsafe practice such as recapping of needle In paramedical staff due to failure in standard guide lines to handle medical sharps and lack of reporting of sharps incidents and very lower ratio utilization of post exposure prophylaxis. It was observed that risks of needle stick injuries were reduced with the experience. Those who have work experience of 5 years or less had higher ratio of sharp injuries than those who had work experience five to eight years. Respondents with nursing profession and laboratory technicians were at high risk; their exposure to handle sharps is greater and due to failure in precautionary measure risk of needle stick injuries in this category is higher compared to other. While Females were at high exposure risk of sharp injuries at tertiary care hospitals than male. Respondents with education level of diploma were more exposed to needle stick injuries as compared with degree holders in paramedical staff. It was observed that shift of eight hour work is absolute and healthcare workers were normal with it. If work load increased and time was exceeded then it was difficult to manage such injuries .while training on infection control and prevention has no effect in government hospitals of Lahore to decrease the risk of sharps injury among healthcare workers. Several recommendations which need to be implemented at the hospitals were identified as discussed below. and special attention need to be given to nurses , cleaners , the critical care section and the department of medicines There is need of fully trained Summary 38 health care workers in critical care units , medical and surgical ward Momentary to developed infection control department in every government and private hospital of Lahore and give them special training about the handling of medical sharps. adequate supply of barrier products (gloves, masks, lab coats etc) Check and balance on proper use of barrier product , there is need of timely collection of used medical sharps in puncture proof containers such as safety boxes that should be ¾ full when emptying .Need of safe transportation in a covered vehicle for incarnation .Administration of hospital need to developed polices for reporting of needle stick injuries by designing a log form that capture information on demographic data of the employee. Data and time of injury, type of sharp, procedure involved, part of body involved where it occurred. So it’s important to analyzed enter data in an order to understand root cause. It’s important to conduct surveillance and prevent further injury. Infection control department should need to check post-exposure prophylaxis status in health care workers go through counseling and are followed up to enhance post exposure prophylaxis in health care workers it’s not up to individual effort it’s a team work by involving administration and health care workers.. In government hospitals of Lahore there is many factors which contribute to needle stick injuries it might be reduced by strengthening of reporting system is necessary. The responsibility of government is to strengthen the check and balance on use of barrier products (gloves, pads, lab coats etc.) and create awareness on standard guidelines on handling of medical sharps. Thus rate of needle stick injuries could be reduced to acceptable level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2748-T] (1).

24. Epidemiology Of Major Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Foal Diarrhea

by Ikramul Haq (2010-VA-60) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Present study was carried out in District Lahore and District Sargodha, Punjab province of Pakistan, from January, 2016 to December, 2016. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of Diarrhea in foals and to identify the major viral, bacterial and parasitic causes of diarrhea in foals in these districts. The foals that passed lose feces a least 4 to 5 times a day were considered diarrheic. The results showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 72.8% in the foals. District wise prevalence showed that the prevalence of diarrhea in foals were 73.7% in district Sargodha and were 72% in District Lahore. According to the results the prevalence of diarrhea in male foals was 74% and in female foal were 72%. The diarrhea was more prevalent in donkeys at is 76.6% as compaired to horses which was 74.5%. The viral (rotavirus), bacterial (Salmonella, Clostridium perfirengens and E. coli) and parasitic causes of diarrhea were identified by appropriate technique. The viral causes were diagnosed using ELISA technique. The bacteria were isolated by culturing and were confirmed by polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The parasitic causes studied using microscopic examination. To identify the cause of diarrhea 400 samples (200 from each district) were collected and processed for viral, bacterial and parasitic detection. The results showed that 91.1% of the samples were positive for one or more infectious agents. District wise results showed that the prevalence of more or more than infectious agents were higher in district Lahore (95.5%) as compared to district Sargodha which was 87.5%. The isolation of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in males it is 92.7% while were low in females which was 90.5%. The results showed that the prevalence of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in horses (92.4%) in comparision with donkey which was 87.8%. Experiment No. I: Investigation of Parasitic causes of Foal Diarrhea Fecal samples were preserved in 10% formalin and transported to the laboratory for diagnosis of parasites. The fecal samples from foals suffering from diarrhea were processed by using following parasitological examination. 4. Direct microscopic examination The sample negative with direct microscopic examination was examined using simple floatation examination. 5. Simple floatation examination The sample negative with Simple floatation examination was examined by using sedimentation floatation technique. 6. Sedimentation floatation Technique The sample negative by using Sedimentation technique was recorded as negative for parasites. The results show that 340 (85%) out of 400 samples were positive for one or more than one endo-parasites. The prevalence of endo-parasites was higher in district Sargodha it is 87.5% as compared to district Lahore, which was 82.5% (Table No.7). Gastrodiscus Spp were the higher prevalent endo-parasite and 308 (77%) (Table No. 10) of the samples were positive for Gastrodiscus Spp while the lowest prevalent endo-parasite was Anoplocephala spp with (3) 0.75% prevalence (Table No. 12). other helmenth such as Dictyocaulus Spp. (22.5%), Oxyuris Spp. (15.75%), Strongyloides Spp. (15.75%), Ascaris equorum (4.75), Tridontophorus Spp. (2%), Trichomena spp. (1.5%) Strongylus spp. (1.5%), and Paranoplocephala Spp. (5%) Experiment No. II: Molecular Diagnosis of Bacteria Causes of Foal Diarrhea The samples were culture for Salmonella, E.coli and Clostridium perfirengins on respective selective media and DNA was extracted from the culture. DNA was amplified by PCR and the bacteria were confirm using PCR. To diagnose Lasonia the DNA was extracted directly from fecal sample and were processed for lawsonia. The result show that 55% of the samples were positive for one or more than one type of bacteria. Maximum prevalence were observe of E. coli 48.75% and none of the sample were positive for lawsonia. The other isolated bacteria were Salmonella 18.24% and Clostridium perfiengens 18%. Experiment No. III: Investigation of Viral causes of Foal Diarrhea Foal suffering from diarrhea were screened and analyzed for presence of rotavirus by using commercially available ELISA kit The result of detection of rotavirus shows that rotavirus was detected in (70) 17.5% of the sample processed for the diagnosis of rotavirus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2800-T] (1).

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