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1. Antigenic Relatedness Of Caecal Eimeria Species In Broilers By Sds-Page

by Muhammad Tayyub | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is caused by various species of Eimeria. Avian coccidiosis is divided in two types (intestinal and caecal). Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix cause caecal eimeriosis.E.tenella is the most pathogenic species and its infection is causing huge economic losses to poultry industry world wide. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Kasur and Sheikhupura). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. The prevalence of coccidiosis was higher (65.25%) in both districts. Coccidiosis was found more prevalent in district Kasur (66.5%) as compared to Sheikhupura (63%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional methods like Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation.. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 67.5% and 12.25% respectively in 400 suspected caecal samples. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Kasur (67.5%) as compared to district Sheikhupura (63%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Kasur (13%) than district Sheikhupura (11.5%). Protein profiling of all E. tenella strains was performed to check antigenic related ness between different isolates of E.tenella. More tan ninety percent isolates were antigenically identical which showed that E.tenella isolates in both districts were antigenically related. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1239,T] (1).

2. Comparative Efficiency Of Routine Identification Methods With Molecular Technique (Pcr) For Detection Of Caecal Eimeria Species in Broilers

by Muhammad Yasir | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Caecl coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix and poultry industry is facing huge economic losses due to this infection world wide. Eimeria tenella is the most common cause of caecal coccidiosis but E. necatrix is also isolated rarely. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Lahore and Gujranwala). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. Prevalence of coccidiosis was found 68%. It was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to Lahore (64.5%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional (Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation) and molecular technique (PCR). Polymerase chain reaction was found the most sensitive ands accurate technique for species identification as compared to all conventional techniques. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 68% and 12.5% respectively. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to district Lahore (64.5%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Gujranwala (13.5%) than district Lahore (11.5%). The difference in percent prevalence of coccidiosis and species of Eimeria may be due to difference in farm management, farming type, biosecurity measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1274,T] (1).

3. Mosquitocidal Efficacy Of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae And Its Combined Therapy

by Aalia Riaz | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1489,T] (1).

4. Vectorial Role Of Anopheles Subpictus By Using Poymerase Chain Reaction

by Shumaila Kausar | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Haroon Akber.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Vector-borne diseases are among the major causes of illness, death and economic losses particularly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mosquitoes are most important single group of insects, transmitting wide range of human diseases like malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis and several other infectious diseases. Malaria is a major global public health problem. Several Anopheline species are prevalent in Pakistan among which Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies are confirmed vector of Plasmodium. An. subpictus is a confirmed secondary vector of malaria in many countries. A wide range of this species is also distributed in Pakistan. The aim of the present study was to determine the vectorial role of An. subpictus in the transmission of malaria in Pakistan through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After species identification, the mosquitoes were examined microscopically and were found negative for the presence of human Plasmodium sporozoites. The DNA extracted from An. subpictus was subjected to PCR but no Plasmodium specific amplification was observed. Keeping in view the sample size, it was concluded that further study is required with even large sample size before declaring that An. subpictus is not a vector of Plasmodium in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1811,T] (1).

5. Evaluation Of Insecticide Resistance And Biochemical Mechanisms In Anopheles Subpictus In District Kasur, Pakistan

by Huma Naeem | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Imran Rashid | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Mosquito are major vectors, considering the havoc they play by transmitting many diseases which have greatly affected human beings worldwide. The ecological, socioeconomic conditions of different regions and the emergence of insecticide resistance in main vectors are strongly responsible for determining the geographical distributions and incidence of vector-borne diseases. Among mosquitoes, Anopheles species are responsible for transmission of filariasis, Japanese encephalitis virus and malaria in subtropical region. An. subpictus is a confirmed vector in many countries of South and Southeast Asia. The present study was designed due to limited earlier records regarding insecticide susceptibility status of An. subpictus from district Kasur, Punjab. During the first half of the study, three insecticides i.e. DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% and permethrin 0.75% were testing by using WHO susceptibility bioassay. A total approximately (n=1000) different types of mosquitoes were caught from district Kasur. Mosquitoes belonging to three genra Anopheles, Culex and Aedes were found in our collection. After species identification, An. subpictus was separated for further processing. It was highly abundant species among Anophelines species captured. Field collected adult blood fed females of An. subpictus was reared in the insectary for F1 generation. Two to three days old non engorged adults of An. subpictus were evaluated by using WHO susceptibility bioassays. Both male and female mosquitoes have shown resistance against all three insecticides tested. Probit analysis was used to check the time-response values. Percentage mortalities were recorded against DDT, deltamethrin and permethrin (mortality range 29.47 %-76.28 %.) with higher KT50 and KT95 values.Second half of the study was undertaken to quantify detoxifying enzymes in An. subpictus following WHO biochmical assays. Biochemical analysis of detoxifying enzymes in An. subpictus has revealed that there is significant alteration/elevation of metabolic enzymes when compared with the lab strain might be a contributing factor in conferring insecticides resistance. Elevated levels of GST (0.469 ± 0.115), MFOs (11.665 ± 4.165), ? esterases (1.5808 ± 0.7657) and ? esterase (3.9682 ± 2.311) were detected in An. subpictus. There was a significant high alteration of AChE enzyme activity detected in this species with 57.52% (± 9.234) mean percentage propoxur inhibition. These enzymes are implicated in the metabolism of DDT, pyrethroids and carbamate insecticides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1823,T] (1).

6. Benzimedazole Resistnace Against Haemonchus Contortus Through Evaluating B Tubulin Gene By Using Molecular Technique

by Abdullah Saghir Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Kamran ashraf | Dr.Jawaria ali | Dr.Muhammad imran rashid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1890,T] (1).

7. Cytochrome B Gene Amplification A Novel Approach For Diagnosis Of Theileriosis In Cattle Under Field

by Muhammad Faiz rasool | Prof. Dr.Kamran ashraf | Dr.Nisar ahmed | prof. Dr. Tahir yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1893,T] (1).

8. Dna- Based Methodology For The Identification Of Git Haemonchus Placci From Cattle Hosts

by Qasim Ali | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Imran Rashid | Dr. Nauman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2154,T] (1).

9. Molecular Diagnosis Of Trypanosomiasis In Pet Dogs Of Lahore

by Muhammad Asif (2007-VA-460) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Trypanosomaevansiis a protozoa that causes surrain a wide variety of mammals. It is widely reported in adult dogs (Rashid et al. 2008; Defontis et al. 2012). Trypanosoma evansiis utmostcommonlyexisting trypanosome in animals. It is a salivarian pathogen (Hoare. 1972). Stomoxyand Tabanidssppare menifested as mainvectors universally. Oral spreadis also reported in both wild and domestic animals (Adams and Lionnet. 1983). Since 2008, surra became obligatory not only in horses, because it has been considered as a multi-species disease by the OIE (OIE. 2008; Salim et al. 2011). Surra usually follows an acute course of infection in dogs, though it is sporadically prevalent (Ravindran et al. 2008). Outbreaks of canine trypanosomiasis have been reported in India, Iran,Brazil, and South America (Herrera et al. 2004; Morteza et al. 2007; Umezawa et al. 2009). Trypanosomaevansionly has been reported from subcontinent (Ravindran et al. 2008). Causative agent for American trypanosomiasis is Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and African trypanosomiasis (surra or sleeping sickness) whose causative agent isTrypanosomaevansi(T.evansi).These are two forms of canine trypanosomiasis.It was originally an enzootic disease mingling in mammals and birds, which served as areservoir. The disease became zoonotic due to interaction between rural populations and natural foci, which are the results of biologicalinequity (Johns et al. 2000). Peracute to acute infections due to trypanosome result in high temperature, hemorrhages in the mucosal and serosal sides. Anemic condition of the patient is produced due to loss of RBCsfrom circulationby the mononuclear phagocytic system which is the cardinal feature of trypanosome infection.In chronic infections, anemia may be resolved due to little parasitic load in blood at capricious degrees. (Urquhart et al. 2002). Some note able signs may compriseedema of throat and head, Blindness due corneal opacity, Temperature and anorexia. Larynx may alter the voice of the dog due edema, which can complicate with rabies. Infected dogs are considered as a risk factor in household spread of the Chagas disease in humans (Cohen and Gurtler.2001). In native animals, dogs have the flankingassociation with humans; they may assumedconsiderable epidemiological importance in the perspective of public health and zoonosis. In humans,T.evansiproduce chronic pathological changes, which includes congestive cardiac insufficiency, finding of which isproblematic and can be unexploited due to multisystemic nature of the infection; it increases the need for epidemiological and experimental support. Moreover, causative agent of trypanosomiasis must beconfirmed by laboratory analysis, which can make availablesignificantprovisionwhen using suitable techniques, suitable reagents, and subsequent good laboratory practices (Eloy & Lucheis. 2009). There has been development of several compounds with value against canine trypanosomiasis, however none of these products have been produced in a large commercial scale or even accessible in the market. The apparent inaccessibility of new trypanocides in the market have continued a great challenge to the treatment of the infection. Diminazine aceturate dose of 3.5 mg/kg in T.congolense infection; 7 mg/kg inT. brucei andT. evansi(Aquinos. 2007) has shown efficacy when used to treat canine trypanosomiasis.However, treatment does not provide satisfactoryresults but only sustained the life of the dog for some reasonable period (Amora. 2004). Dogs were vaccinated with a fixed T.rangeli against canine trypanosomiasis recently (Basso et al. 2007). Experimental infections of the vaccinated dog produced disease of low parasitaemia apparently from vaccine induced immunity. Furthermore, feeding of the vaccinated dogs with the nymph stage of triatomine reduced the rate of infection in the bugs. Since dogs are the reservoir of Chagas disease in man, advances in this area could reduce the rate of infection of kissing bug which will in turn aid in the control of the disease in man (Basso et al. 2007) are necessary to establish the diagnosis.Sensitivity of direct parasitological examination is directly related to parasitic burden, biological material. The diagnosis oftrypanosomiasis is based on combination of comprehensive clinical inspection, appropriate sample collection, sample size, suitable diagnostic tests and suitable conduction of tests and logical interpretation of results. In canine trypanosomiasis where disease prevalence is great, some tests of low diagnostic sensitivity may suffice (OIE. 2008). Parasitological diagnosis could be made by microscopic inspection either of blood, lymph node or CSF of infected dogs (François et al. 2005). Pet dogs have been the companion of human being since ages, and shares the environment and belongings. Trypanosoma is found in dogs causing health problems effecting their routine activities. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of the infection is must to do for better therapeutic approach and early recovery of the animal. PCR is gold standard test for the molecular diagnosis of disease leading to quick diagnosis, early recovery and cost saving. So, regarding to disease importance and dogs domestications which is increasing day by day in and around Lahore area, we have focused this species to determine the Trypanosoma evansistatus in dogs in this area. This whole study is based on two diagnostic techniques i.e. screening through microscopic examination and confirmation of these samples via PCR with details regarding age, sex and breed association with the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2259-T] (1).

10. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Chickens Raised Under Different Poultry Production System In Muzaffar Garh Area

by Muhammad Jamil Manzoor Daha (2012-VA-823) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein in shortest possible time, but still it is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap because of increasing future demands. Roundworms can cause a reduction in growth rate and damage to the intestinal mucosa, leading to blood loss and secondary infection. Heavily infected chickens may show symptoms of weight loss, droopiness, and diarrhea. Economic losses are usually associated with ascarid, Heterakis, and Capillaria, infections because of treatment cost, as well as the reduction in feed efficiency and weight gain as well as drop in egg production. Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds in different production systems , in and around district Muzaffar Garh and samples were examined by using the direct smear method, flotation technique and simple sedimentation technique. Adult worms load were examined by necropsy of dead birds fortnightly. Post mortem of dead birds during study was examined for presence of nematodes in gastro intestinal tract fortnightly from each enrolled shed in the study. The samples of adult worm found were collected for identification. During the present study four species of nematodes were identified. Ascardia galli was recovered from the small intestine, Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti from the caecae . The most common gastrointestinal nematode was Ascaridia galli followed by Subulura brumpti and Heterakis gallinae. The present study has indicated that good husbandry techniques and regular deworming practices reflect markedly on the incidence and worm – burden of infected chickens Availability: No items available

11. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Chickens Raised Under Different Poultry Production System In Muzaffar Garh Area

by Muhammad Jamil Manzoor Daha (2012-VA-823) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein in shortest possible time, but still it is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap because of increasing future demands. Roundworms can cause a reduction in growth rate and damage to the intestinal mucosa, leading to blood loss and secondary infection. Heavily infected chickens may show symptoms of weight loss, droopiness, and diarrhea. Economic losses are usually associated with ascarid, Heterakis, and Capillaria, infections because of treatment cost, as well as the reduction in feed efficiency and weight gain as well as drop in egg production. Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds in different production systems , in and around district Muzaffar Garh and samples were examined by using the direct smear method, flotation technique and simple sedimentation technique. Adult worms load were examined by necropsy of dead birds fortnightly. Post mortem of dead birds during study was examined for presence of nematodes in gastro intestinal tract fortnightly from each enrolled shed in the study. The samples of adult worm found were collected for identification. During the present study four species of nematodes were identified. Ascardia galli was recovered from the small intestine, Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti from the caecae . The most common gastrointestinal nematode was Ascaridia galli followed by Subulura brumpti and Heterakis gallinae. The present study has indicated that good husbandry techniques and regular deworming practices reflect markedly on the incidence and worm – burden of infected chickens Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2346-T] (1).

12. Molecular Diagnosis Of Babesiosis In Cattle With Special Reference To Cardinal Signs In District Lahore, Punjab

by Shakeel Hussain (2007-VA-463) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Pro. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Tick infestation and the resulting transmission of serious pathogens in ruminants is one of the most important problems of the livestock industry in developing countries (Aktas et al. 2012).Bovine babesiosis is economically the most important tick-borne disease of cattle worldwide including areas of Australia, Africa, South and Central America. Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, causing Anemia in the host affected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is more sensitive and specific technique, offers an alternative approach for the diagnosis of Babesiosis (Zulfiqar et al. 2012). Geo-climatic condition of Punjab, Pakistan favours the multiplication and survival of ticks which play a major role in the biological transmission of Tick Born Diseases. In earlier reports the prevalence of cattle tick infestation was more than 50% from Punjab (Durrani et al. 2008, Sajid et al. 2009). Keeping in views the importance of the disease, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Babesiosis in cattle of Lahore, District of the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of sixty (60) blood samples was collected randomly from dairy cattle of District Lahore. These samples were transported to the Laboratory of Parasitology, Department, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore and were kept at 4oc until further processing for Microscopic examination (Zakir et al. 2014) and then for PCR. We focused on the early detection of Babesiosis through Microscopic examination of Blood samples. For further confirmation of Babesiosis, the blood samples were processed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as described by Zulfiqar et al. 2012. The thick and thin smears of the blood samples were made on the new particularly labeled glass slides. The dried blood smears were fixed in absolute methyl alcohol for one Summary 32 minute. Staining was performed using Giemsa Stain as method followed by Zakir et al. 2014 i.e. the glass slides bearing thick and thin blood smears were stained with one fourth of dilution of commercially available Giemsa stain for four minutes and were observed under oil immersion at 100X objective to detect the presence of Babesiosis. All the blood samples were examined through Microscopy showing 04 positive ones, then all the samples were processed using PCR for final confirmation of Babesiosis in Cattle. PCR was performed under the conditions as previously described by Zulfiqar et al. 2012. PCR reaction was performed to obtain amplified products over 30 cycles by 94ºC for 5 min., 94ºC for 30 sec., 50ºC for 30 sec., 72ºC for 45 sec. and completed with a final extension step of 7 min. at 72ºC. Finally the amplified DNA fragments were analyzed after electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel. Prevalence rate will be determined with the help of the following formula: Prevalence rate = No. of positive samples / No of total samples x 100 Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2404-T] (1).

13. Identification Of Isospora Species In Domestic Cats And Its Chemotherapy

by Waseem Hassan (2008-VA-137) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs and cats are kept as pet animals in and around Lahore area. Along with other problems, parasitic problems are common in these animals. Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are the most commonly seen parasites in cats in many parts of the world. No data existed about its prevalence, possible risk factors and therapeutic control of Isospora infection in cats in Lahore, Pakistan. Hence the present study was aimed to assess the associated risk factors, prevalence and best therapeutic remedy for Isospora infection. A total 100 faecal samples were collected from Tollinton market, pet clinics of Lahore and pet center of University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore. Epidemiological parameters taken into consideration included sex (Male n=61, Female n=39), breed (Persian n=54, Siamese n=18, Himalayan n=16 and local or cross bred n=12), age (kittens n=21, adults n=79), environment (captive n=60, household n=40). Samples were examined by using direct smear technique. Species of Isospora were differentiated on the basis of their size by micrometry and by oocyst shape. Oocysts were counted by Mc-Master counting technique. Oocysts were counted on day of sample collection and day 10 post treatment. Positive samples were subjected to two chemotherapeutic agents; Amprolium and Furazolidone. Chi square test was applied to assess the prevalence and its relation with other risk factors was applied on pre-treatment and post treatment oocysts reduction count. Higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of Isospora was found in cats from captive system (65%) as compared to cats from household (10%) system. Persian breed was found to be more prone (42.59%) to the infections with Isospora species. Age group was not associated as a risk factor. Positive cats were divided into 2 groups for therapeutic trials. Group I (n=16) was treated with Amprolium 150 mg/kg/day for 5 days while group II (n=16) with Furazolidone 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Amprolium reduced the oocysts by 100% while Furazolidone causes 87.5% reduction of oocysts. 41 So it can be concluded from the present study that Isospora is highly prevalent in Lahore area and Amprolium is better chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of coccidiosis in cats than Furazolidone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2541-T] (1).

14. Study On Prevalence Of Intestinal Nematodes In Buffalo And Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal And Conventional Drugs Against Intestinal Nematodiosis In Buffalo Calves

by Abdul Rehman Qureshi (2014-VA-09) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Imran Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Parasites are a major cause of disease and production losses in livestock, frequently causing major economic loss and impacting on animal health. In livestock roundworms are deliberated the important economically upsetting internal parasites. Although buffalo can be diseased with tapeworms and flat worms, their effect on animal performance is minimal compared to the round worms. Buffalo feed on dry concentrate are less infected with parasite as compared to those who fed on pastures. The timing and frequency of anthelmintic treatments under such climatic conditions will vary greatly from place to place. Humid climates are permanently favorable for the development of infective larvae. With the frequently use of one or more dewormer animal produces anthelmintic resistance also its cost a lot for large herds. Herbal medicine is better option for control of intestinal worms. Herbal drugs are cheap, easy available and easy in administration. The present study was designed to 1. Check the prevalence of intestinal nematodes in the buffalo population. 2. To determine the efficacy of herbal drugs against intestinal Nematodes in buffalo calves 3. To evaluate the comparison of effectiveness between herbal and commercial drugs to control the intestinal Nematodiosis in buffalo calves. One hundred buffalo’s faecal samples were examined to check intestinal nematodes prevalence. All buffaloes belonging to various breeds were examined. 56 (93.33%) were Mix breed, 13 (72.22%) Nili Ravi breed and 18 (81.82%) of Kundi breed were positive for intestinal nematodiosis. 47 SUMMARY Among the examined (87 %) buffaloes were found positive for nematodiosis. Ten buffaloes found positive (10 %) were less than 12 months, 25 buffaloes were between 1-2 year, 39% buffaloes were between 2 - 4 year and 13 buffaloes were above 4 years old were found positive for intestinal nematodiosis. Among these buffaloes, 65 were male and 35 females. Out of male buffaloes 55 were found positive. While among 35 females 32 were positive for intestinal nematodes. A total of 30 infected buffalo calves, of various ages (8-12 months), both sexes average body weight of 100 kg and naturally infected with intestinal nematodiosis were used for anthelmintic trials. These were randomly divided into 3 groups i.e. A, B, and C each having 10 calves. Group A and B were treated with herbal medicine. Group A was treated with dried powder Nigella Sativa (Kalonji) seeds at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight. Group B was treated with Citrullus colocynthis (Kor Tumbha) fruit dried powder at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight, group C was treated with Albandazole at dose level of 7.5 mg / kg body weight. The sample were taken on 0 day, 7th day, 14th, 21st and 28th day and EPG was determined by modified McMaster technique. Statistical analysis was done using the statistical package for social science, (SPSS) version 20 (Chicago IL, USA). Data was presented as (mean+ S.D), the group descriptive measures were compared by CR Design (Anova) and applying differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Post hoc test using Duncan multiple range test, to check the pair wise differences and alpha M. There was highly significant difference between commercial and herbal drugs. There was small significant difference between herbal drugs Nigella sativa and Citrullus 48 SUMMARY colocynthis, both were highly effective against intestinal nematodiosis but less effective than Albandazole. It is observed Nigella sativa dose showed a significant reduction in EPG .p value is p > .2284 at o day and at 7th day P>0.0146 ,at 14th day p> .0029 . There was also a significant decrease in EPG by Citrullus colocynthis but when compared these herbal drugs with commercial drugs the efficacy of herbal drug is 100 % at 21st day. Recommendation. Both herbal drugs Nigella sativa and Citrullus colocynthis used in trial were found highly effective against intestinal nematodiosis in buffalo calves but less effective than synthetic drug Albandazole hence, these herbal drugs cannot be recommended to be used as routine deworming of animals at farm level. Keeping in view effectiveness of these herbal drugs in early age and having no side effects, it is recommended to be administered as feed additive to enhance immune-potentiation, effective anthelmintic and liver tonic. There is dire need to carry out more research with increased dose rate of these herbal drugs and also use in combination with other herbal as well as synthetic drugs to evaluate its synergistic effect so farmer can be benefited of its maximum potential. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2637-T] (1).

15. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Mites Infestation In Sheep In Tehsil Bhag Of District Bolan

by Shujat Ali (2008-VA-208) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Estimated population of sheep in Pakistan is 27.8 million. Balochistan is the largest province which comprises 44 percent of the total area of Pakistan and only 4.9% of entire population of the country. Share of Livestock in Agriculture is 55%, 11.4% of National GDP of Pakistan and more than 47% in the economy of Balochistan. In between the Chelicerates, (mites and ticks) characterize the biggest and most wide taxon, with a valued 0.5–1 million species. More then 48,000 species defined (Halliday et al., 2000). Mange is a contagious disease showing signs like crusty, dermatitis and loss of hairs. Almost 50 mites species having 16 families and 26 genera responsible for mange where all the main mite species having the orders of Astigmata and Prostigmata. Bolan district is situated in the center of Balochistan province of Pakistan Population estimate 640,000 (2005). Bolan district is administratively subdivided into six tehsils viz Bhag, Dhadar, Machh, Sani, Khattan. The present study was carried out in tehsil Bhag. Latitude 29.0415, longitude 67.8239, Altitude 88 meters above the sea level. 1442 square kilometer of Tehsil Bhag. Mean rainfall is 209.9 mm, range of temperature (Avg) is between 40.6°C and 14.58°C. Four distinct breeds of sheep found in Balochistan are Balochi, Bibrik, Harnai, Rakhshani. A total of 200 sheep were randomly selected to study the prevalence of mites’ infestation. Skin scraping technique was used. For chemotherapy 30 sheep positive for mange mites through skin scraping test were randomly selected and divided into 3 groups of viz A, B, C. Each group contain 10 number of sheep. Sheep’s in group A were injected Ivermectin at 0.2mg/kg bwt subcut while the animals in group B, were treated with Trichloroforn in the form of 0.15% solution as topical application. The members in group C were treated topicaly with aqueous Summary 37 extract of Nicotiana Tobacum (tobacco). Treatment were done on day zero and repeated on day 15. The sheep in each group were examined in routinely and samples of skin scraping were collected at day 0, 7, 14 and 28 days (Habib et al., 2009). The effectiveness of particular treatment was estimated on the basis of reduction of clinical sign and negative skin scraping. 200 sheep of different breed, age, sex and areas were examined. 30/200 (15%) sheep were found positive for mange mites infestation. Mites infestation was noticed high in male sheep (16%) as compare to female sheep (14%). According to Breed Balochi sheep breed was noticed highly positive (22%) for mange mites infestation. Area wise prevalence was witnessed high in union council Bhag (25%). Mostly effective drug observed for mites infestation was Ivermectin with 90% efficacy at day 28 in conclusion mange mites infestation in sheep at Bhag tehsil of Dist Bolan and Ivermectin is the best effective drug for mange mites into the following in order by Seguvan and Nicotiana Tobaccum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2676-T] (1).

16. Acaricide Resistance Of Tick Population Infesting Buffaloes In District Narowal

by Muhammad Mubashar Abdullah (2015-VA-1104) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Tick imperviousness to acaricides is an expanding issue in Pakistan and represents a genuine financial danger to the domesticated animals and veterinary pharmaceutical enterprises. New acaricides are to a great degree costly to grow so the present acaricides ought to be viewed as a constantly decreasing asset, which ought to be ensured by all methods conceivable. The principle goal of the review was to distinguish the stages of tick imperviousness to acaricides at close business and collective ranges in District Narowal, Pakistan. Likewise to contrast the in vivo techniques and with explore acaricide administration procedures which may build the life expectancy by utilized acaricides. To meet these points a field survey (February 2016 to March 2017) was carried out at 3 tehsils (Tehsil Narowal, Shakargharand Zafarwal cities of Pakistan to monitor levels of field tick resistance to acaricides. The larvae were originally obtained from engorged female A.hebraeum, Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, R. appendiculatusand R. evertsievertsi. The larvaewere tested against different concentrations of trichlorofon, ivermectin and cypermethrin using the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT). Mortality dose data were subjected to probit analysis using a BMDP statistical package. Factors of resistance (FOR) were calculated by comparing the larval response of ticks from the field. On the communal farms high levels of tick resistance were detected to cypermethrin as well as partial resistance to ivermectin whilst no resistance was detected against trichlorofon. On the commercial farms, however, ticks were equally resistant to trichlorofon, cypermethrin and ivermectin. The populations of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, on these farms had developed higher levels of resistance to the testacaricides than the equivalent R. evertsievertsi, R. appendiculatus and A.hebraeumpopulations. Higher levels of tick resistance to trichlorofonwas observed on3 tehsils (Tehsil Narowal, Shakarghar and Zafarwal)than on communal farms, however, there was no significant differences in tick resistance to ivermectin and cypermethrin at both the commercial and communal farms. It was surmised that inappropriate use of acaricides might have resulted in higher tick resistance to the currently available acaricides on the commercial as well as the communal farms. Correct acaricide usage may solve this problem to a limited extent. Comparative in vivo tests were also carried out on the larvae and adults of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, to determine the susceptibility of this tick to different concentrationsof the currently used acaricides, (amitraz, ivermectin and cypermethrin) at three commercial dairy farms, (“Brycedale”, “Sunny Grove” and “Welgevind”) in the areas of District Narowal, Pakistan. Resistance of field strains of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Dermacentor,were determined using the Adult Immersion Test (AIT) as the latter test took into account factors such as oviposition assessment and reproductive ability. At “Brycedale”, resistance to trichlorofon and ivermectin was detected with the AIT method. Emerging resistance to trichlorofon and resistance to ivermectin were also detected . At “Sunny Grove” resistance was detected to cypermethrin and at “Welgevind” resistance was detected to ivermectin with the SLIT whilst no resistance was detected using AIT. It would appear that the Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, populations tested on these dairy farms were more resistant toivermectin than to trichlorofon or cypermethrin. Nearly 50% of the dairy farms sampled showed resistance to ivermectin and the majority had susceptible Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, populations to both amitraz and cypermethrin. In general there was a good correlation between the Cypermethrin and Trichlorofon whilst in many cases there was poor correlation between the Cypermethrin and Ivermectin. From this study it would appear that the In vivo method was a reliable to detect resistance within seven days. In vitro method the ELT and the RET could possibly be used as screening methods to detect acaricide resistance on farms whilst the SLIT would remain the test of choice for National surveys. In addition the ELT is less costly and does not require sophisticated equipment for field testing if resistance development compared with other in vitro test methods. This method, however, still needs to be validated and standardized for use in Narowaland the rest of punjab where tick control is important. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2849-T] (1).

17. Acaricide Resistance Of Tick Population Infesting Buffaloes In District Narowal

by Muhammad Mubashir Abdullah (2015-VA-1104) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Latif | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Tick imperviousness to acaricides is an expanding issue in Pakistan and represents a genuine financial danger to the domesticated animals and veterinary pharmaceutical enterprises. New acaricides are to a great degree costly to grow so the present acaricides ought to be viewed as a constantly decreasing asset, which ought to be ensured by all methods conceivable. The principle goal of the review was to distinguish the stages of tick imperviousness to acaricides at close business and collective ranges in District Narowal, Pakistan. Likewise to contrast the in vivo techniques and with explore acaricide administration procedures which may build the life expectancy by utilized acaricides. To meet these points a field survey (February 2016 to March 2017) was carried out at 3 tehsils (Tehsil Narowal, Shakargharand Zafarwal cities of Pakistan to monitor levels of field tick resistance to acaricides. The larvae were originally obtained from engorged female A.hebraeum, Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, R. appendiculatusand R. evertsievertsi. The larvaewere tested against different concentrations of trichlorofon, ivermectin and cypermethrin using the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT). Mortality dose data were subjected to probit analysis using a BMDP statistical package. Factors of resistance (FOR) were calculated by comparing the larval response of ticks from the field. On the communal farms high levels of tick resistance were detected to cypermethrin as well as partial resistance to ivermectin whilst no resistance was detected against trichlorofon. On the commercial farms, however, ticks were equally resistant to trichlorofon, cypermethrin and ivermectin. The populations of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, on these farms had developed higher levels of resistance to the testacaricides than the equivalent R. evertsievertsi, R. appendiculatus and A.hebraeumpopulations. Higher levels of tick resistance to trichlorofonwas observed on3 tehsils (Tehsil Narowal, Shakarghar and Zafarwal)than on communal farms, however, there was no significant differences in tick resistance to ivermectin and cypermethrin at both the commercial and communal farms. It was surmised that inappropriate use of acaricides might have resulted in higher tick resistance to the currently available acaricides on the commercial as well as the communal farms. Correct acaricide usage may solve this problem to a limited extent. Comparative in vivo tests were also carried out on the larvae and adults of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, to determine the susceptibility of this tick to different concentrationsof the currently used acaricides, (amitraz, ivermectin and cypermethrin) at three commercial dairy farms, (“Brycedale”, “Sunny Grove” and “Welgevind”) in the areas of District Narowal, Pakistan. Resistance of field strains of Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Dermacentor,were determined using the Adult Immersion Test (AIT) as the latter test took into account factors such as oviposition assessment and reproductive ability. At “Brycedale”, resistance to trichlorofon and ivermectin was detected with the AIT method. Emerging resistance to trichlorofon and resistance to ivermectin were also detected . At “Sunny Grove” resistance was detected to cypermethrin and at “Welgevind” resistance was detected to ivermectin with the SLIT whilst no resistance was detected using AIT. It would appear that the Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, populations tested on these dairy farms were more resistant toivermectin than to trichlorofon or cypermethrin. Nearly 50% of the dairy farms sampled showed resistance to ivermectin and the majority had susceptible Hyalloma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Ixodes, populations to both amitraz and cypermethrin. In general there was a good correlation between the Cypermethrin and Trichlorofon whilst in many cases there was poor correlation between the Cypermethrin and Ivermectin. From this study it would appear that the In vivo method was a reliable to detect resistance within seven days. In vitro method the ELT and the RET could possibly be used as screening methods to detect acaricide resistance on farms whilst the SLIT would remain the test of choice for National surveys. In addition the ELT is less costly and does not require sophisticated equipment for field testing if resistance development compared with other in vitro test methods. This method, however, still needs to be validated and standardized for use in Narowaland the rest of punjab where tick control is important. Availability: No items available



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