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1. Decolorization Of Effluents From Textile Dyes By Fungi

by Ghulam Rasool Anjum | Dr.Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr.Ali Raza | Mr.Zahid Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography Dissertation note: Textile sector is one of the large exporting and the most important industrial sector of Pakistan. It accounts about 64% of the total export from our country. At present there are 650 textile processing units working in Pakistan. Textile industries consume large amount of water for wet processing of textile. Out of many contaminants present in wastewater, such as acids, bases, toxic organic and inorganic dissolved solids, and colors, Colors are considered the most undesirable and are mainly caused by dyes which are used in textile dying industry. The objective of the study was to decolorize the cotton industry waste water effluents by treatment with microorganisms like Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus flavus, an extent to make it least harmful to water habitats and also to make it fit for irrigation purposes. The influencing parameters that affect the percentage of decolorization rates are optimized in still culture fermentation. Spectrophotometric analysis method was used to estimate decolorization of textile industry effluent at its ?max (350nm). The optimal values of the parameters such as effluent to water ratio, fermentation time, pH, and carbon to nitrogen ratio are found to be 1:0, 72 hours, 4.0, and 1: 2.33 for Trichoderma harzianum and 1:1, 72 hours, 5.0, and 1: 2.33 for Aspergillus flavus respectively. The concentration of different ions like Ca+2, Mg+2 and H2PO4-1 were also optimized for maximum decolorization and the optimized conc. were 0.025%, 0.025% and 0.025% for Trichoderma harzianum and 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.05% for Aspergillus flavus respectively. The maximum percentage of decolorization at the optimized conditions on large scale was found to be 83.31% and 80.02 % with Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1279,T] (1).

2. Estimation Of Heavy Metals In The Drinking Water Of Residential/Industrial Areas Of Lahore By Atomic Absorption

by Waheed Ahmad | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Sualeha | Miss Shagufta Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Heavy metals are chemical elements with a specific gravity that is at least 5 times the specific gravity of water. The elements studied were mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium and chromium. Heavy metals have no useful biological function in the body but might be highly toxic as they cause precipitation of proteins especially the enzymes. This investigation was therefore carried out to estimate concentration of these metals and their influence on biological system. For this purpose drinking water samples were collected in one litre polyethylene bottles adding 5 mL of concentrated HNO3 as preservative to adjust the PH<2.00 to maintain heavy metal concentrations during analysis. Samples were marked with unique numbers with dates for the study of Acid Extractable metals. Similarly samples were prepared and preserved for micro biological testing. The metallic ions were estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer of Perking Elmer Model A. Analyst; 2003 at recommended wavelengths for metal ion. Acetylene gas was used as fuel (at 8 psi) and air as an oxidizer. Statistical analysis was done. The calibration curves were prepared separately for all the metals by running suitable concentrations of the standard solutions. It was evident that concentration of chromium, lead, mercury, arsenic and cadmium were high in several drinking water sources in Lahore. This problem is particularly alarming for ground water sources. Almost all water sources are contaminated with lead. According to WHO maximum acceptable limit 10 ppb ,8 water sources had mean chromium concentration in water samples above maximum acceptable limit of WHO (50 ppb), 94 water samples were contaminated with cadmium according to WHO maximum acceptable limit (10 ppb), 13 water sources had arsenic concentration above maximum acceptable limit according to WHO (50 ppb) where as 7 water samples were having concentration of arsenic less than minimum acceptable limit according to WHO (10 ppb) and only 5 water sources meet the criteria of WHO for concentration of mercury, the acceptable limit of 2 ppb. Multitube Fermentation Technique/MPN Method as described by Mackie & McCartney was used for microbiological analysis i.e. Colifcrm bacteria. The results of this study revealed that both samples i.e. tap and ground water do not show conformity with the standards for safe portable water recommended by WHO. The most frequently encountered pathogen in this study was Escherichia Coli which was isolated more in ground water than tap water. It is therefore concluded that by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer concentration of heavy metals in water can be determined and thus on the bases of this work precautionary measures can be taken to prevent the health hazards of these toxic metals. Similarly microbiological analysis of drinking water has provided the evidence that most of the water sources are contaminated with microbes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1170,T] (1).

3. To Study Influence Of Butyric Acid On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Asiya Akbar | Dr.Abu Saeed Hashmi | Miss Shagufta Saeed | Prof.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Poultry have been on the earth for over 150 million years, dating back to the original wild jungle fowl. Poultry provide humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat and feathers. There is a large commercial chicken industry that provides us with eggs and meat. Because poultry products are in demand around the world and because chickens and other poultry can be reared in almost any part of the world, a renewed interest in poultry projects for schools, 4-H groups and in the home has developed. The butyric acid is an excellent growth promoter as it is an efficient nutrient for the intestinal mucosa increasing the density and length of villi, enlarging the adsorption surface of the intestine. It is also known as antibacterial agent against pathogenic microorganisms including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Brachyspira etc. and as modulator of the intestinal flora supporting useful microorganisms such as lactobacilli. Rice polishings was used as a substrate for the production of butyric acid and corn steep liquor as additive. Solid state anaerobic fermentation process was used for butyric acid production through C. tyrobutyricum according to the predetermined optimized conditions. Estimation of butyric acid was carried out by organic analysis method by Deniges (1918).This method is based on the catalytic oxidation of butyric acid into diacetic acid ,which gives red coloration with sodium nitroprusside. Effect of butyric acid on the performance of Broiler chicks was studied by conducting feeding trial on 132 day old broiler chicks purchased from commercial hatchery and was randomly subdivided into 12 units, 11 chicks each. Four diets "A", "B", "C" and "D" (table) were constructed whose composition is as follow. "A" diet was served as control, while the "B", "C" and "D" diets were supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6 % butyric acid respectively. These diets were randomly assigned to the above chicks for a period of 42 days as feeding trial. The performance of birds was monitored in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency and dressing percentage. From the results obtained it is concluded that O.4 % butyric acid gave maximum gain in weight, feed efficiency ratio and dressing percentage. Hence it can be stated profoundly that the ration containing 0.4 % butyric acid has stimulated the gastric secretions which ultimately had improved the performance of broiler chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1251,T] (1).

4. Production Of Methane Gas From Effluent Of A.B Murie By Methanobacterium Ruminantium

by Huma Shabbir | Dr.Abu Saeed Hashmi | Miss Saeeda | Miss Shagufta Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: There is extreme shortage of energy in our country. Homes, private sectors and industries are suffering a lot due to this shortage. There are different sources of energy like fossil fuels which include coal, petroleum and natural gas etc. Apart from it there are number of renewable sources but fact is that all these sources are getting diminished because of excessive use due to growing population of the world. In order to increase energy in our country it is imperative to utilize the industrial waste. At present a lot of industrial effluent is being wasted which can be used for the production of fuel in the form of methane gas. The production of methane was carried out by anaerobic fermentation by Methanobacterium ruminantium culturing on Effluent of A.B Murie. Before its production the proximate analysis of effluent was carried out to know its inherent nutritional potential. The fermented organism Methanobacterium ruminantium was isolated from feces of buffalo bull. The optimizing conditions of growth medium such as temperature, pH, ionic concentration of growth medium (Ca+2, Mg+2) and Carbon-Nitrogen ratio in the medium, for maximum methane production was determined on micro scale. Detection and estimation of methane was carried out by burning and by measuring pressure on pressure gauge. The optimum conditions thus determined on micro scale was applied on higher scale in a 3 liter flask. The pressure of methane gas obtained was 1.3 psi. It is therefore concluded that effluent of A.B Murie contain sufficient potential of methane production. The methane thus produced can be used as a fuel and light source for their own use. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1285,T] (1).

5. Detoxification Potential Of Yeast Sludhe Ahainst Ochratoxin In Broiler Chicks

by Huma Mujahid | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aftab | Miss Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Ochratoxin the fungal secondary metabolite is a potent natural contaminant of poultry feed. Mycotoxins present in poultry feeds from the raw material used in their production is the major cause of toxic feed. The intake of very low levels of Ochratoxin-A result in overt ochratoxicosis resulting in impairment of immune system and acquired resistance to infections causing health problems which lead to economic losses in the form of reduced productivity The research study was conducted to study the harmful effects of Ochratoxin on broiler chicks and the adsorptive potential of yeast sludge against Ochratoxin in broiler chicks . Aspergillus ochraceus was grown on Sabraud's Dextrose Agar and ochratoxin was produced on fermented wheat grains .One fifty day old Chicks of broiler breed were purchased from Big birds hatchery and were raised on commercial broiler diet till 7 days. Four diets A,B,C and D were formulated A diet serve as control, B diet contained OTA 500ppb, C diet contained OTA 500ppb and 1% Yeast sludge and D diet contained OTA 500ppb and 2% Yeast sludge. These four diets were assigned randomly to the chicks, such that there were three replicates on each ration and each replicate contained 10 chicks. Vaccination against N.D and IBD was performed according to the schedule. During feeding trial weight gain , feed consumed, FCR and mortality rate was determined. Group B (500ppb OTA) showed a decrease in weight gain and feed consumption as compared to group A (control diet) , C (1% yeast sludge and 500ppb OTA) and D (2% yeast sludge and 500ppb ochratoxin). Group D showed more improvement in weight gain, feed consumption and FCR as compared to group C. Blood serum and tissue samples were collected from the birds slaughtered at the end of experimental trial. Concentration of serum total protein, albumin and activity of alanine transaminase were determined. Blood Serum levels of total protein and albumin were lower in the group B (500ppb OTA) than group D having 2 % yeast sludge but the group C fed on 1% yeast sludge did not show much improvement in those parameters. Activity of ALT was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) in group C as compared to all other groups. Whereas blood serum ALT activity of the birds fed on ration B was significantly high (P< 0.05) as compared to blood serum ALT of group A The Level of Ochratoxin in Liver and Kidneys was also determined and it was found to be highest in Group B (500ppb OTA) and lowest in Group D (500ppb OTA + 2% yeast sludge). Based upon the observations obtained in this study it can be concluded that ochratoxin-A is a nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic agent. But supplementation of 2% yeast sludge in the broiler diet can effectively detoxify the effects of ochratoxin as compared to supplementation of 1% yeast sludge in the chicks diet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1313,T] (1).

6. Antibacterial Activity Of Indihenous Hernal Exteacts Ahainst Urease Profucinh Bacreria

by Rubina Yasmeen | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aftab | Miss Shagufra Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Poultry farming is a profitable business but is facing serious ammonia environment particularly during winter season when ventilation frequency is reduced to maintain the shed's temperature. Urease producing bacteria in droppings are main cause of emitting ammonia in the sheds. The ammonia poultry environment is inducing reduced weight gain, immuno-suppression, enhanced susceptibility to respiratory pathogens, etc. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of 14 local herbs (Aloe Vera, Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Calotropis procera, Cannabis sativa, Carum capticum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Lantana camara, Mangifera indica, Mentha piperita, Nigella sativa, Opuntia ficus indica, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinalis) and four commercial herbal products (Mentofin, Suduri, Safi, Yucca) were evaluated for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against Proteus mirabilis by serial dilution method. It was observed that with reference to rise in pH, Ammonia concentration and urease activity in aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Allium sativum (pH: 8.5560, 8.8480, Ammonia:4.42, 3.52 µg/mL, Urease: 0.009, 0.007 U/mL respectively) had shown best results as compared to control positive (pH: 9.03, Ammonia: 6.7µg/mL, Urease: 0.013 U/mL). Alcoholic extracts of Mangifera indica (8.8820, 5.42µg/mL, 0.010 IU/mL), Mentha piperita (8.8880, 4µg/mL, 0.008 U/mL) Carum capticum (8.9540, 4.84µg/mL, 0.009 U/mL) and aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica (8.8100, 5.22µg/mL, 0.010 U/mL) had weak activity against P. mirabilis. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (pH: 8.91, 8.96, Ammonia: 5.16, 5.06 µg/mL, Urease: 0.01, 0.01 U/mL) has weak inhibitory effect. All commercial products had shown strong antibacterial activity (pH: 4.8-6.8, Ammonia: 0µg/mL, Urease: 0 U/mL). Results of remaining herbal extracts were not significantly different (p<0.05) from positive control. It was concluded that all herbal products had strong antibacterial activity against P. mirabilis. Mentofin had shown best results with optimum inhibitory concentration (1/1000 mL). Alcoholic extracts of few herbs had shown weak bactericidal activity. These herbs might give better results in-vivo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1314,T] (1).

7. Isolation And Characterization Of Collagen Type Ii From Poultry Trachea

by Sidra Ashraf | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Sualeha Riffat | Zahid Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This project was designed to use poultry waste to isolate and characterize collagen type II from its trachea. Collagen type II is being used along with condroitin sulfate and glucosamine for the treatment of osteoarthritis and is also available as a neutraceutical product in the market. For project purpose, trachea of slaughtered broiler birds were collected from the market and after removing adhering tissue and debris, it was then washed thoroughly first with distilled water and then with deionized water. Tracheal cartilage was then cut into small pieces and defattened with chloroform: methanol (2: 1 v/v) solution. After this, the cut pieces were properly cleaned with deionized water. 0.5% Pepsin solution in 0.5 M acetic acid was prepared. Cartilage was then hydrolyzed by the already prepared 0.5 % pepsin (in 0.5 M acetic acid) at 4 ° C for 48 hours. The extract was then separated from the tracheal pieces and the viscous solution obtained was centrifuged at 12000 rpm for 1 hr at 4 "c. Now the collagen was expected to be in the supernatant which was salted out by adding NaCI to a final concentration of 2.5M and kept for almost 12-16 hrs. This collagen was again centrifuged at 12000 rpm for 1 hr at 4 C. The obtained collagen pallet was redissolved in 0.5 M acetic acid and then it was dialyzed against 0.1 M acetic acid followed by dialysis with distilled water. The sample after dialysis was put in petri dishes and kept in freezer for overnight to let it be prepared for lyophilization. The frozen collagen sample was then lyophilized. After lyophilization, the sample gave an appearance of a white mesh. This sample was reconstituted in PBS with pH 8 to run it on SDS-PAGE. The procedure of SDS-PAGE in non reducing conditions was adopted for the characterization of collagen type II in the sample. The description of results of SDS-PAGE is given below: Lane M contains protein markers of different molecular weight. Lane 1, 2 and 3 contains samples at different steps of the whole procedure showing clear bands of collagen type II. Lane 4 contains lyophilized sample of collagen type II showing the thickest band (alpha chain of collagen type II). In this research, poultry waste has been used for making health improving product. As in our country poultry is used in bulk quantity so if its waste might be used in any medicinal product then it might not only be useful but also economical for such a developing country as ours. Another thing is that as this collagen Type II has been extracted from poultry trachea, it shows that tracheal cartilage is a rich source of such collagen type. Collagen Type II is used in the cure of arthritis especially rheumatoid arthritis so through this research, it has been made clear that poultry waste can be utilized in a positive way in medicinal industry and also that collagen Type II acts as an effective neutraceutical. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1330,T] (1).

8. Preparation Of Turnip Peroxidases And Its Application To Remove The Phenolic Content Of Sannerty Effluent

by Muhammad Usman Amin | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Miss. Faiza Masood | Mr. Tanveer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Peroxidases are heme-containing oxidizing enzymes, which are wide spread in nature. They have the ability to catalyze the oxidation of many organic and inorganic electron donor substrates through a reaction with hydrogen peroxide or organic hydrogen peroxides. In this study peroxidase were purified from turnip using ammonium sulphate precipitation, poly ethylene glycol precipitation and zinc sulphate precipitations in order to find some simple and less expensive procedure for partial purification of peroxidases. Ammonium sulphate and PEG (6000) in the presence and absence of NaCl were used to make aqueous two phase system. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) without NaCl purified enzyme most efficiently. (NH4)2SO4 layer was subjected to dialysis and for further purification on sephadex gel which gave maximum enzyme activity of 1544u/mg protein. SD-PAGE analysis was done to determine enzyme purity. Purified enzyme was charged into the tannery waste water along with H2O2 to remove toxic phenolic content up to 98.24%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1356,T] (1).

9. Bioconversion Of Agriculture Waste To Lysine With Brevibacterium Flavum (Wild) And Its Biological Evaluation In Broiler Chicks

by Amber Nawab | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Masroor | Ms. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1511,T] (1).

10. Suitability Of In-House Developed Pt-Pcr Fro The Detection And Serotyping Of Dengue Virus In Pakistan

by Kashif Iqbal Sahibzada | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aftab | Ms. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Dengue Virus (DENV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of family Flaviviridae having four serological different serotypes such as DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4 (Bai et al., 2008) Being a Flaviviridae member, the dengue virus is transmitted to human by genus Aedes, mainly Aedes agypti. Over the years dengue fever has become a significant infectious disease in different parts of the world that leads and increases the growth of mosquitoes. It has become epidemic in more than 100 countries on the globe with more than 2.5 billion people at the risk of infection. Pakistan has witnessed some severe outbreaks of dengue viral infection which results to major morbidity and mortality since mid of 90s. There is a need to overcome this infectious and in many cases fatal disease. Imprecise fatality morbidity and statistics underrate the magnitude of dengue as a regional health problem. Medical and public health services have been incapable to diminish this infection since there is no current vaccine available to prevent infectious disease, no effective medical treatments that avert the development of severe symptoms and no sustainable control measures against the vector that guarantee protection of affected communities. Management of dengue patients and principally dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) cases are the alarming challenges now a day and in the upcoming episodes in this country. To deal with this challenge a sensitive and specific technique is required for its early diagnosis along with the knowledge of dengue serotype to increase the specificity of diagnosis and treatment. This study was designed to check the usefulness of nucleic acid based molecular determination of dengue virus along with nucleic acid sequencing/ analysis of different Dengue serotypes through phylogenetic studies. Total 50 Blood samples were collected from the dengue suspected patients in 2011 outbreak of dengue. Samples were analyzed by PCR based detection and were compared with IgG, IgM detections to check the usefulness of PCR based nucleic acid detection. In second phase of study nucleic acid sequencing was done The study has recommended PCR as a suitable and sensitive method for the rapid detection of dengue virus as it was found more sensitive than other utilized techniques including antibodies detection however it was not found useful to differentiate between primary and secondary infection for which a combination of IgG, IgM is more helpful choice. Nucleic acid analysis helped to define the common serotypes/genotypes of dengue virus circulating in Pakistan. In addition the present study has correlated our studied serotypes to other serotypes circulating in the globe which showed 98% homology with Srilankan strain and find out sequence similarities of our serotypes to the other serotypes distributed worldwide through phylogenetic analysis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1551,T] (1).

11. Decolorization And Degradation Of Azo Dyes In Textile Effluent By Candida Tropicalis

by Urooj Chaudhry | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Ms. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Azo dyes are synthetic organic compounds widely used in the textile, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industries. It consist of one or more azo bonds (-N=N-) associated with one or more aromatic systems. Studies indicate that these dyes are toxic, harmful to the environment and form carcinogenic and/or mutagenic aromatic amines. These are not readily biodegradable in textile effluent treatment. To decolorize and degrade the textile industry dye effluents by treatment with microorganism Candida tropicalis (yeast) to an extent to make it least harmful to the water habitat and also to make fit for irrigation purposes. The influencing parameters that affect the percentage of decolorization rates are optimized in still culture fermentation. Spectrophotometric analysis method was used to estimate decolorization of textile effluent at its?max 390 nm. The optimal values of parameters such as effluent to water ratio, fermentation time and pH and carbon to nitrogen ratio are found to be 1:5, 72 hours, 6.0and 1:1.72 respectively. The concentration of ionic saltof CaCl2 was also optimized for maximum decolorizationand optimized concentration was 0.15% for Candida tropicalisrespectively. The decolorization of effluent was carried out on large scale in a flask of 2.5 L by applying the predetermined optimum levels. In this case the maximum percent of decolorization of the effluent was found to 80.34% with Candida tropicalis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1629,T] (1).

12. Lysine Production On Pilot Scale By Brevibacterium Flavum And Its Characterization, Purification And Crystallization

by Muhammad Faisal | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | DR. Aftab | Mrs. Shagufta Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Food and feed protein demands have increased due to raise in population. Therefore continuous efforts have been progressed to enhance the production rate by conventional and non conventional methods. Fermentation technology have participated decisive role for a long time period and presently the amino acids formed by fermentation set apart principal biotechnology products significantly. By consuming low-cost carbon supply mutants originate potential to the inexpensive built-up for amino acids. L-lysine demand is steadily rising in the sector of feed stuffs, soft drinks, food ingredients, pharmacy and biological fluids, etc. In order to meet the market demand and accomplish growing and assorted L-lysine requirements, microbial metabolic engineering and recombinant DNA technology is the only hope and possibility for advancing the strains. Purification and isolation of material produced is a very significant element extremely influences fermentation practice usefulness and manufacturing expenses. It demands enhancement in the recycling procedure of amino acids, mainly L-lysine. The present study was designed to produce lysine on pilot scale by using Brevibacterium flavum. A variety of agricultural byproducts like wheat bran, sugar cane molasses and rice polishing were utilized as substrate for lysine production through fermentation by using Brevibacterium flavum. Primarily optimum conditions were determined through fermentation for lysine production on micro scale. Subsequently these conditions were employed for biosynthesis of lysine on pilot scale. Qualitative assay of lysine was performed by TLC and quantitative assay by spectrophotometrically. It was found that amongst all the substrates 4% molasses was produced maximum lysine at 300C. Different inorganic and organic material like 0.4% CaCO3, O.4% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.1% NaCl, 0.8% KH2PO4, 2.5 % (NH4)2SO4, 0.5 % urea, 0.04 mg % biotin and 0.6 % corn steep liquor were found to be optimal for maximum lysine yield. After pilot scale production of lysine in fermentor, different techniques of downstream were applied. The biomass liquor thus produced was purified and crystallized through different techniques to transform in to L-lysine crystals. The information thus attained was subjected to statistical analysis by using one way ANOVA on optimization of different parameters for L-lysine production and comparison of mean values was done by Least Significant Difference (LSD). Based on the above observations it was concluded that molasses is the most suitable substrate among other agriculture wastes for maximum lysine production with Brevibacterium flavum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1631,T] (1).

13. Extraction, Purificaton And Characterization Of Proteolytic Enzyme From Fig (Ficus Carica)/ Karachi

by Haseeb Akram Sindhu | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aftab | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Today, the enzymes are generally used in various industrial applications and require for more stable, highly active and specific enzymes are growing rapidly. Global market for industrial enzymes is reported to be €1 billion in 1995 (Godfrey and West, 1996) whereas, it was increased to $2.3 billion in 2007 and was expected to increase to over $2.7 billion by 2012. In this piece of research work, purification and characterization of papain (a proteolytic enzyme) from Kachri (Cucumis trigonus) and Ficus (Ficus carica) were carried out. Extraction of papain was done using 0.1M alkaline phosphate buffer of pH 8.00, 70% ethanol and dist.water. Purification of papain was carried out by Ammonium Sulphate precipitation and dialysis followed by Gel filtration by Sephadex G-50. Then characterization of papain such as protein estimation, determination of proteolytic activity (international Unit) of enzyme and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to determined molecular weight. Finally, the yield and proteolytic activity of papain was measured and compared with the commercial product available in the market. Crude preparation of enzyme has a wide specificity due to the presence of various proteinase and peptidase isozymes. The performance of the enzyme depends on the plant source, the climatic conditions for growth, and the methods used in its extraction and purification, for example, if the fruit is healthy, then enzyme found is more active. Papain is used in many industries such as breweries, pharmaceuticals, food, leather, cosmatics, detergents, meat and fish processing for a variety of processes. Therefore, the end use segments are many in signifying that papain has high export demand (Ezekiel and Florence, 2012). Outcomes In case, Kachri and Ficus contain high concentration of proteolytic enzyme. These enzymes being present in natural fruit were free from any toxic effect. Hence can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Statistical analysis Student's t-Test was used for comparing the means of two samples Kachri (Cucumis trigonus) and Ficus (Ficus carica). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1722,T] (1).

14. Bioconversion Of Agricultural Wastes To Lysine And Its Biological Evaluation In Broiler Chicks

by Shagufta Irshad | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Ali Raza | Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2100,T] (1).

15. Biochemical Effects Of Ginger And Turmeric Extracts In Diabetic And Dyslipidemic Model Of Rats

by Naveed Hussain | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. M. Wasin | Mrs. Shagufta Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2101,T] (1).

16. Bioconversion Of Molasses To Glucose Oxidase Through Solid State Fermentation With Aspergillus Niger

by Wajeeha Zafar (2012-VA-574) | Dr.Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Muhammad Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Enzymes can be defined as soluble colloidal organic catalysts which are produced by living cells and are capableof acting independently of the cells. Glucose oxidase belongs to oxidoreductaseand is also called as glucose dehydrogenase. The glucose oxidase enzyme (GOX) oxidizes glucose to gluconic acid. In cells, it aids in breaking the sugar down into its metabolites. Glucose oxidasehas found several commercial applications including glucose removal from dried egg; improvement of color, flavor, and shelf life of food materials; oxygen removal from fruit juices, canned beverages. It has also been used in an automatic glucose assay kit in conjunction with catalase and chiefly in biosensorsfor the detection and estimation of glucose in industrial solutions and in body fluids such as blood and urine. It is often extracted from Aspergillusniger. GOX is a dimeric protein. The active site where glucose binds is in a deep pocket. This enzyme acts outside of cells, is covered with carbohydrate chains (Raba and Horacio 1995). Aspergillus niger is the potential source for the production of glucose oxidase and is preferreddue to its high production ration of extracellular enzyme. The ability of Aspergillus niger toutilize a wide range of waste products as nutrition source makes it more economical source of the enzyme (Rajesh et al .2002). The glucose oxidase fromA. nigerisalso an intracellularenzyme present in the mycelium of the organism. Aspergillus nigeris a filamentous fungus belonging to phylum Ascomycota. It Produces microscopic conidia on conidiophores that are produced asexually. Hyphae possess septa and are hyaline. They are supported at their base by foot cells from which conidiophores originate. It possesses long, double-walled, smooth and colorless to brown conidiophores.It is commonly foundin mesophilic environments such as soil, plants and enclosed air environments. It is capable of surviving in various environments, it is not only a xerophilic fungus, but is also a thermo tolerant organism. It is because of this property that it exhibits a high tolerance to freezing temperature(Schuster 2002). Glucose oxidase was first isolated from mycelia ofA. nigerandPenicilliumglaucumby Müller. A large number of microbes including bacteria and filamentous fungi have been used for the production of glucose oxidase. Glucose oxidase is produced at large scale using A. nigerand P. amagasakiense. Many bacteria are also involved in the production of this enzyme; some of these are Zymomonasmobilis, Micrococcus and Enterobacte(Yogananth et al. 2012). Glucose oxidase (GOX) from Aspergillus niger is a well-characterised glycoprotein consisting of two identical 80-kDa subunits with two FAD co-enzymes bound. Both the DNA sequence and protein structure at 1.9 A have been determined that these identical subunits size vary from 70 to 80 KDa. It catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose (C6H12O6) to D -gluconolactone (C6H10O6) and hydrogen peroxide. It is produced naturally in some fungi and insects where its catalytic product, hydrogen peroxide, acts as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent (Ikram et al . 2014). Glucose oxidase has a molecular weight of 160,000 a.m.u. (Tsugeet al .1975) and consists of two identical polypeptide chain subunits having nearly equal molecular weights linked by disulphide bonds (O'Malley and Weaver 1972) and it is highly specific for β-D-glucose (Bentley 1963). Each subunit of the glucose oxidase contains one mole of Fe and one mole of FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotides) and it contains 74% protein, 16% natural sugar and 2% amino sugars (Tsugeet al. 1975). The Glucose oxidase enzyme in its purest form is pale-yellow powder. The molecular weight of GOX ranges from approximately 130 kDa to 175 KDa (Kalisz et al. 1997). Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neithercaustic nor corrosive, non-toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries (Anastassiadis and Morgunov 2007 ). This enzyme is present in all aerobic organisms and normally functions in conjunction with catalase (Coxon and Schaffer 1971). This enzyme is also used as an antioxidant (Berg et al. 1992). It is mainly available from microbial sources and is normally produced by aerobic fermentation of Aspergillus nigerand Penicillium species (Fiedurak1996; Lu et al. 1996; Plush et al .1996; Rando et al. 1997). It has high specificity for D-glucose (Kuly and Cenas 1983). This enzymeis also widely used to produce gluconicacidthatGOXtogether with Horse Reddish peroxidase has a range of applications in the food industry for glucose determination. GOX is being used in the textile industry producing hydrogen peroxide for bleaching process. This enzyme is also used to determine capillary glucose in screening of gestational diabetes (Mesiggi et al. 1988). This enzyme is utilized to extend the shelf life of fish(Field et al.1986) andproduction of calcium gluconate, gluconic acid and its derivatives (Khurshid2009). Solid state fermentation [SSF] has been recently considered as the most cheapest and more environmentally friendly relative to submergedliquid fermentation [SLF] in the production of value added industrial based products such as enzymes, bio fuels.Advantages of Solid State Fermentation over Submerged Fermentation isHigher volumetric productivity, usually simpler with lower energy requirements, Might be easier to meet aeration requirements, Resembles the natural habitat of some fungi and bacteria and Easier downstream processing (Mienda et al. 2011). Molasses is a dark brown, almost black, moist granular sugar. Its distinctive molasses taste is due to its high content of minerals. Nutritively, it has high iron content (Draycott and Philip 2008). Aspergillus niger is a fungus, one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.The genus Aspergillus isimportant economically, ecologically and medically (Nizamuddinet al.2008). Glucose oxidase enzymewas producedthrough the microbial fermentation. For that purpose solid state fermentation wasdevelopedwithA.niger. Solid state fermentation was applied to utilize agricultural residue such as Molasses as substrate. The current research work was focused on production ofextracellular Glucose Oxidase (GOX) fromAspergillusniger using industrial waste such as molasses as substrate by Solid state ( static ) fermentation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2219-T] (1).

17. Physical, Chemical and Biological Treatment of Rice Husk to Improve Its Nutrative Value

by Rahat Naseer (2003-VA-196) | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Prof. Dr. Habib ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis submitted without CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2450-T] (1).

18. Bio-Conversion of Molasses to Phytase Through Solid State Fermentation With Aspergillus Niger

by Faseeha Nasim (2012-VA-633) | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Ms. Faiza Masood | Prof. Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD Corrupt. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2484-T] (1).

19. Evaluation Of Bioactive Peptides/ Proteins/ Alkaloids From Extracts Of Croton Tiglium, Lawsonia Inermis And Eruca Sativa Against Mastitis Causing Bacterial Strains

by Rubia Saeed (2011-VA-377) | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Mastitis is considered as one of the most prevalent disease in dairy animals of Pakistan. Bacteria which are found in most mastitis cases are S. aureus, S. agalactiae and E. coli. Infections caused by these bacteria are being treated by various antibiotics but due to their development of resistance towards these drugs, there is need to explore some alternatives like medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of mastitis. Croton tiglium, Eruca sativa and Lawsonia inermis have been reported to have antimicrobial activity, thus the extracts of these medicinal plants will be explored to their antimicrobial activity against mastitis causing bacterial strains. Present study purpose was to evaluate the bioactive proteins/alkaloids/peptides from extract of C. tiglium, E. sativa and L. inermis against mastitis causing bacterial strains. For this purpose, the leaves and seeds samples of selected medicinal plants (C. tiglium, E. sativa and L. inermis) were collected from Bagh-e-Jinnah and were identified from Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against mastitis causing bacterial strains. For this purpose, dust free leaves and seeds of selected plants were cut into small pieces, homogenized in ethanol/buffer and centrifuged. The resulting supernatant was then collected to check its antimicrobial activity against S. agalactiae, S. aureus and E.coli. Antimicrobial activity was analyzed by well diffusion method. Regarding the antimicrobial activity assay, the overnight grown cultures of the selected microbial strains was spread on the LB agar plates and the extracts was applied to wells incubated was done at 37°C for overnight. Inhibition zone was measured. Then the extracts having maximum activity were purified by GC.MS and the nature of extract was examined. All experiments were performed in triplicates so mean and average of the values was taken. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2853-T] (1).

20. Exploration Of Genetic Polymorphisms And Differential Expression Analysis Of Bovine Alpha-Lactalbumin And Osteopontin Genes Involved In Milk Composition

by Sidra Manzoor (2010-VA-92) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Muhammad Imran | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Economically important traits of dairy animals are usually controlled by a large number of genes. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in potential genes has been associated with economically important traits. During lactation, mammary epithelial cells produced large amounts of specific milk proteins. Due to the expression sites, physiological properties and chromosomal localization, LALBA and SPP1 genes might be considered as candidate genes for milk composition in buffalo. Alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) gene has been reported to be highly transcribed in transition and peak phase while late lactation exhibited its decline with progressive rise in SPP1 expression. This project was designed to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism that influencing the gene expression thus modulates the milk protein content in Nili Ravi. Samples of unrelated Nili-Ravi buffalo were collected from two Government, Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki, and Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI) Bahadarnagar Okara, livestock farms. Milk samples were collected at 15, 90 and 250 days lactation for expression analysis. The genomic DNA was extracted by using the standard Phenol Chloroform Isoamyl alcohol (PCI) protocol. Specific set of primers was designed for the amplification of the LALBA and SPP1 genes. The amplified PCR products were sequenced for the identification of SNPs. To determine the differential expression of bovine LALBA and SPP1 genes, RNA was isolated from milk samples using the TRIzol reagent and converted it into cDNA. Taqman probes were used that are specifically designed to detect and target the DNA sequence. Five intronic polym orphic sites were identified in LALBA while exonic regions exhibited a complete homology with reference sequence. Additionally, eleven polymorphisms were identified in bovine SPP1 gene, six were in coding region and five were Summary 122 found in intronic portion of the gene. The analysis and correlation of all identified polymorphism was done by using SNPs data analysis software “SNPator”. Results obtained from expression study was stored in in-build software of Real Time PCR and Cycle threshold (Ct) values of LALBA and SPP1 mRNA were compared in individuals of Nili-Ravi buffalo to determine the variation in expression levels. The LALBA gene expression was observed highest in transition phase with a gradual decrease of expression in mid and late lactation. The sample, NR-5, was observed highly expressed (79.30) while NR-2 with low expression (19.28) for alpha lactalbumin in early lactation. The change in LALBA regulation at same stage was considered due to genetic variation of the respective animal. While the SPP1 gene expression was observed with the highest values in peak lactation and remains elevated in late lactation. NR-4 has the highest (72.27) expression among all mastitis free healthy animals while NR-2 was observed with low expression. Thus, the identified SNPs might be used as genetic marker for milk production traits. Gene expression patterns may also help us to understand the molecular mechanisms of bovine LALBA and SPP1 genes influencing milk composition. However, the expression of both genes was considered in a correlation with other genes involved in milk production pathway. Also, the mutational effects of other milk proteins might be involved in determining the expression pattern of both genes in selected animals. Therefore, further studies are likely to explore the regulation of milk protein genes and their translational efficiency during the course of lactation in dairy animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2830-T] (1).

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