Your search returned 43 results. Subscribe to this search

Not what you expected? Check for suggestions
|
1. Evaluation Of Liver Functions At Varying Degrees Of Hepatectomy In Dogs

by Farhan Ahmad Atif | Dr. M. Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Liver is the most important organ because of its multiplicity of functions. It played a pivotal rote in the nutrition and maintenance of the body. In this project 16 dogs were taken and divided into 4 groups comprising 4 dogs each. In group-A total removal of right lateral lobe was performed. In group-B half part of the right lobe was resected. Group-C was sham operated in which only laparotomy was experienced. Whereas, group-D acted as control. Liver function tests were conducted in all the groups before and after surgery. rfhe.e was slight elevation in the values of liver enzymes which remained within the normal range except alkaline phosphatase. Metabolic ability was not affected appreciably after resection of half and complete removal of right lateral lobe. All the dogs were euthanized after 8 weeks post-operatively. The dogs of group-B showed hepatic regeneration that was 31.2, 38.8 and 28.3 percent in dog No.6, 7 and 8 respectively. The histopathology of regenerated tissue revealed normal hepatic tissue. The analysis of results has clearly indicated that resection of liver upto this extent does not alter liver functions noticeably and thus partial hepatectomy can be performed without any fear. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0596,T] (1).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Used Against Equine Colic

by Hamad Bin Rashid | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Horse is a delicate animal and has a marked tendency towards gastro-intestinal disorders. Unlike other diseases of equines, colic provides the horse a lot pain, the veterinarian and the horse owner much anguish and loss. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of hyoscine-n-butylbromide, pentazocine lactate and detomidine hydrochloride. Eighteen horses suffering from colic brought to the Veterinary Hospital, Lahore Race Club, Lahore and the Outdoor Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore were used in this study, while 6 normal horses were kept as control. rI1i diseased horses were randomly divided into A, B and C groups. The physical examination of the affected animals was performed to determine the degree of dehydration, PCV and concentration of serum electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Bicarbonate were measured before treatment, 1 hour and 2 hour post treatment by flame photometry. In healthy animals PCV and serum electrolytes were in normal range. Increased PCV was observed in most of the affected horses (range 27-64% Mean 43.22%). One hour after the treatment the PCV ranged from 29.1-62.8% (Mean 43.82) while after 2 hours, It was 30.82-60.1% (Mean 43.77%). The lower values of PCV could be attributed to parasitic anaemia. Serum Sodium, Chloride and Bicarbonate concentrations were decreased i.e. 108-13 1 mEq/L (Mean 118.88), 70-91 mEq/L (Mean 79.26) and 23.3-31.1 mEq/L (Mean 26.67) respectively. While serum Potassium concentration was increased i.e. 3.0-5.4 mEq/L (Mean 4.25). One hour after the treatment the values of Nat, OF, HC03 and K were 108.8-132.4 (Mean 121.1), 74.1-94 (Mean 81.6), 24-31.4 (Mean 27.24), 3.3-5.2 mEq/L (Mean 4.39), respectively, while 2 hours after the treatment the values of Na, CF, HC03 and K were 109-133.1 (Mean 122.97), 74.5-99 (Mean 83.55), 24.5-31.9 (Mean 27.83) and 3.7-5.1 mEq/L (Mean 4.53) respectively. The efficacy of hyoscine-n-butylbromide was 100% within 5 hours post treatment. The efficacy of pentazocine lactate was 100% within 4 hours post treatment, while the efficacy of detomidine hydrochloride was 100% 4 hours post treatment. Among pentazocine and detomidine, the efficacy of detomidine was better as more horses recovered in the same time period as compared to pentazocine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0599,T] (1).

3. Effect Of Stress Following Vaccination (Bur - 706) Against Infectious Bursal Disease In Broilers

by Ilyas Rasheed | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Habib-ur-Rehma | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The project was designed to detect and control vaccination stress, following vaccination with live intermediate type infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine administered orally and also its effects on immune response in commercial broiler chicks. Comparative efficacy of aspirin and multivitamins was determined to combat the sress. One hundred and sixty day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, B. C and D, each group having 40 birds. Group A was kept as control, B was vaccinated but non-medicated, C was given multivitamins alongwith vaccine for 3 postvaccination days and group D was treated with Aspirin for 3 postvaccination days. Blood samples were collected on days 1st, 14th 28th and 42nd for detection of antibody titer against IBDV. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected 10 birds of each group after 24, 48 and 72 hours of vaccination for ascertaining the following parameters, heterophil/lymphocyte ration, estimation of serum biochemical substances (protein, glucose and cholesterol). On day 42, adrenal gland/body weight ratio and pathological lesions in adrenal gland wre noted. An effort was also made to ascertain the economics of flock at the end of the experiment. No significant statistical difference among birds of different groups was noted in the following parameters: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical substances and adrenal gland/body weight ratio. Vaccine did not cause detectable stress in broilers. Multivitamins therapy showed positive effects on the immune response growth traits of the birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0670,T] (1).

4. Studies On Stress Induced Effects In Broilers Following Vaccination (Hydro Poultry) Against Hydropericadium

by Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Sameera Akhtar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The project was aimed at determining the vaccination stress follow hydropericardium syndrome vaccine (hydro-poultry vaccine, simple vaccine; Adenovirus type-4 Pak) by subcutaneous route under wing at 12th day of age and comparative efficacy of multivitamins and aspirin to combat it. One hundred and seventy day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 40 birds each. Ten-day old broiler chicks were used for collection of blood sample by cardiac puncture for detection of maternal antibody titre. Birds were kept for the period of 42 days. The birds of group A served as unvaccinated, unchallenged control. Group B was given vaccine and no treatment. Group C was given vaccine and multivitamins for 3 days post-vaccination group D was given vaccine and aspirin for 3 days post vaccination. Blood samples were collected from 10 randomly selected birds from each group at different post vaccination (Against HPS) periods i.e. 24, 48 and 72 hrs for serum biochemical analysis and 10 birds from each group at 14th 28th ad 42' days for determining antibody response against hydropericardium syndrome. 10 birds of each group were slaughtered on 42 days for collection of adrenal glands. The following parameters were studied (1) determination of heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (ii) estimation of serum biochemical analysis (Total Serum Protein, serum glucose, serum cholesterol). (iii) determination of adrenal body weight ratio (iv) gross pathological and histopathological examination of adrenal glands (v) estimation of antibody response against hydropericardi um syndrome vaccine. Inactivated virus vaccine against hydropericardium was unable to induce any stress in broiler chicks and the above mentioned parameters can act as good indicators for detection of vaccination stress to some extent. Multivitamins played a minor role in improving the condition of bird whereas, aspirin did not seems to be much effective in this study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0707,T] (1).

5. A Study On The Pathogenesis Of Yolk Retention In Broiler Chicks

by Kashif Aziz Khan | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Shahnnaz Hamid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection, off-feed period between hatching and housing, first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed) on yolk absorption. In Experiment-1, yolk sac infection was introduced in half of chicks while remaining acted as negative control. In Experiment-2, one third chicks were housed 24 hours after hatching, one third after 48 hours and remaining one third after 72 hours. In Experiment-3, one third chicks were offered feed immediately after housing, one third after 24 hours and remaining one third after 48 hours. Water was offered to all chicks immediately after housing. In Experiment-4, one third chicks were fed with commercial starter ration, one third with ground corn during first 24 hours followed by commercial starter ration and remaining one third were offered with 2% sugar solution in first 24 hours followed by commercial starter rations. Body weight, yolk sac weight, yolk sac/body weight ratio, estimated yolk absorption and composition of yolk was studied for each group. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0726,T] (1).

6. Molecular Diagnosis Of Bovine Tuberculosis In Humans

by Muhammad Bilal | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Mnsur-uddin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. In humans it is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and occasionally by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium africanum. Bovine tuberculosis caused by M bovis is the main cause of enteric TB in humans. it is transmitted through milk, meat and dairy products. It is also recorded that it can also cause pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. A study was conducted to detect the M bovis in human pulmonary sputum samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate M bovis from M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Sputum of 400 patients was randomly analyzed with PCR assay. Two (0.5%) out of 400 sputum samples were positive for M bovis while remaining were positive for M tuberculosis. Over all 0.5% cases were positive for M bovis causing pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. The two positive cases were analyzed in the background of their history. History revealed that both of them belong to different families and areas were in close contact with animals for a long time. It suggested that they caught infection from animals. It was an evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis of M bovis in humans. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0865,T] (1).

7. Application Of Different Control Measures Against Argas Persicus

by Qaiser Siddique | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: To final out the comparative efficacy of different control measures against Argas persicus, In-Vitro and In-Vivo studies were carried out for the in-Vitro studies three thousand soft ticks Argas Persicus at different stages of their development were used in the experiment. The ticks were divided in to 5 groups A, B, C, D and E having 600 ticks in each group. The ticks of each group (600) were further divided in to three replicates having 200 ticks in each. The ticks were maintained in small plastic boxes containing tick rearing medium at a controlled temperature of 25 Co and 60% relative humidity. The 5 treatments are applied with a small (1 liter) hand held sprayer at the rate of 20ml per box 345 cm2 surface area. The first application was made after 24 hours and repeated twice at 48 hours intervals. On day 0,3,5,7 and 10, the ticks were separated from the manure by immersing the manure in water and retrieved the ticks with the help of sieve. The ticks relating to each group were counted and the counts of each group were compared. The reduction in the counts in test groups as compared to control group A indicated the efficacy of the treatment. It was noticed by the comparative mortality of the ticks in the replicates of different groups that in mortality of ticks in Group A occurred as 6.17% in B as 67.67% in C as 70.67% , in D as 100% and in E as 71.83%. The findings of the In Vitro experiment showed that the efficacy of Tiekide was 100% and in ranking order was placed at No. 1 amongst the test groups and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) as compared to B, C and E groups. However the findings of Groups B, C and E were not significant amongst each other (P>0.05). For the In-Vivo studies, the experiment was conducted on a layer farm infested with Argus persicus. A total of 100 layers infested with Argas persicus were reared under experimental conditions on particular farm. One hundred infested birds were divided into 5 groups i.e A,B,C,D and E, each group consisting of 20 birds. The ticks of all members of the groups were counted on day 0,3,5,7 and 10. Group A acted as infested and non treated, B was treated by application of EM1 under the infested wings, C was applied EM5, D was applied Tiekide (Homoeopathic formula) under the wings the medicine was also orally administered @ 2 drops in 1 ml water and members of Group E were applied 1% solution of Ivomec (Ivermectin). The results indicated that the reduction in the mean tick counts was 95.74% in Group D which was placed at No. I, in descending order the mean tick counts reduced by 70.97% in Group E, 68.59% in Group C, 67.63% in Group B and only 1.93% in control Group A. The Tiekide was claimed to be a drug of choice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0932,T] (1).

8. Repair Right Sided Diaphragmatic Hernia Using Autogenous Jejunal Graft In Dogs

by Miss Rasha | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Asim Khalid Mehmood | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to evaluate the viability and healing process of the perfused jejunal graft as an implant for the repair of canine diaphragmatic hernia. Diaphragmatic defect was created in 12 healthy mongral dogs irrespective of age and sex. A window was established through obliqus externus and obliqus internus muscles to have an access to the diaphragmatic crus. The jejunum was identified through the same window and a part of required dimension was ressected with intact blood supply. After resection the integrity of jejunum was restored by end to end anastamosis. After making the window identifies the jejunum. And ressect the selected part according to the diaphragmatic defect along with its blood supply. Then the jejunal graft was sutured on the diaphragmatic defect. A diaphragmatic defect of 4X4cm in size was created experimentally on right muscular portion of diaphragm through subcostal/paracostal approach. Experimental dogs were evaluated individually at 20th, 40th and 90th day post operatively .The defect was later on grafted using autogenous perfused jejunum. The size of jejunal graft was sufficient enough to cover the defect 4X4cm created in diaphragm. Clinical examination of the experimental animals was conducted in respect of dyspnea, signs of shock, cynosis and pain. The observations, with respect to the given parameter varied significantly. Physical examination of experimental animals was undertaken with respect to body temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate during post-surgical period. All the dogs showed good post-surgical recovery with minor complication only in the first week after surgery. Diaphragmatic outline was found intact when examined through plain chest radiography. Post-mortem examination revealed no evidence of discoloration, necrosis, injuries and bleeding but the adipose tissue deposit were found at the site of diaphragmatic repair. Histopathological examination of repaired site of diaphragmatic defect revealed fibrous tissue deposits. CONCLUSION The results of present study clearly indicated that the use of perfused jejunal graft with intact blood supply was a viable option and a better choice for the repair of diaphragmatic defect through right paracostal/ subcostal approach in dogs. The use of perfused jejunal graft resulted in lower chances of infection in comparison with synthetic! mesh material reported in literature and was also an economical procedure for the repair of diaphragmatic hernia. RECOMMENDATION Based on the findings of the present study use of autogenous perfused jejunal graft with intact blood supply is recommended as first choice of surgical treatment for the repair of diaphragmatic hernia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1006,T] (1).

9. Tissue Residue Studies Of Enrofloxacin In Broilers Chicks

by Irfan Irshad | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the second largest industry of Pakistan. Antibiotics are enormously used in poultry both for prophylactic and treatment purpose. Irrational use of antibiotics in poultry industry has led to the serious concern among the general public. It has also resulted in emergence of drug resistance in many susceptible organisms. The present study has therefore been planned for quantitative detection of Enrofloxacin residues; in tissues (liver, kidney, fatty tissues and muscles) of broiler birds. So, the present study was designed to detect Enrofloxacin residues in tissues of birds reared under experimental conditions and routinely slaughtered at different poultry shops. The study was completed in two phases. In phase-I, tissue samples from 75 broiler birds reared at Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore were analyzed for quantitative detection of Enrofloxacin by HPLC. In phase-TI, the 25 broiler birds were purchased from various poultry shops of different local markets of Lahore. Tissue sample (Liver, Kidney and thigh muscles) from these broiler birds were also analyzed for quantitative detection of Enrofloxacin by HPLC. In experimentally reared birds, the highest concentration of Enrofloxacin observed was 306ng/g. In the birds injected with Enrofloxacin intramuscularly the overall highest concentration was 68ng/g. The concentration in kidney, liver and thigh muscles was in the range of 28-64 ng/g, 26-63 ng/g, 26-68ng/g in kidney, liver and thigh muscles respectively in birds injected with drug intramuscularly. The drug residues were detected up to 120 hours post treatment in intramuscularly injected birds. In orally treated birds level of Enrofloxacin in the kidney, liver and muscles were between 56-2 17 ng/g, 29- 306 ng/g ,27- 170 ng/g. The residues were detected up to 96 hours post treatment in birds given Enrofloxacin orally. The result of phase-Il showed that among the 75 market samples, 10 (40%) muscles, 8 (32%) liver and 7 (28%) kidney samples showed the Enrofloxacin residues. Out of 25 samples in which Enrofloxacin residues were detected 20 (80%) samples showed the residues concentration above MRL. This study helped us in drawing true picture about Enrofloxacin drug residues in poultry meat and it is clearly indicated that proper withdrawal time is not being observed while marketing birds. This poses a great health concern for end consumer. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1086,T] (1).

10. Study Of Incidence Rate And Chemotherapy Of Balantidiasis In Donkeys

by Adnan Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Equines have been serving the mankind for many purposes since as early as the human history. In equines parasitic infection is a major problem. Factors such as continuous exposure to parasites, climatic conditions, and lack of knowledge on the part of livestock farmers regarding parasitic transmission play an important role in sustaining parasitic diseases. Balantidium coli causes a protozoal disease known as Balantidiasis. It is normally found in large intestine of pigs (wild and domestic) and also explained in camels, primates including human, rodents, and equines but distinctly found in dogs. Balantidiasis is manifested by diarrhea, dysentery, severe colic pain, tenesmus, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Balantidium coli may act as opportunistic pathogen in other infectious diseases. There is considerable information on B. coli in cattle and buffalo raising communities in the world. Investigations on Balantidium coli have not been conducted actively in the study area where equine rearing is one of the major occupations. This study will therefore is expected to serve as base line data for further work on this parasite. The faecal samples of 400 donkeys irrespective of age and sex reared in and around Lahore were examined coprologically out of which 73 were found positive for Balantidium coli yielding the incidence rate of 18.25%. Chemotherapeutic trials of Secnidazole and Nigella sativa were performed on a group of 10 donkeys each (Group A & B) along with keeping 10 donkeys as positive & 10 donkeys as negative control (Group C & D). The animals of group A were treated with secnidazole (Dysen forte) at a dose rate of 10mg/kg orally for one day. The group A Showed the efficacy of 89.51% at day 14th (post treatment). The animals of group B were treated with Nigella sativa (Kalonji) at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight orally for five days. This group showed the efficacy of 40.02% at day 14th after medication. Similarly the effect of B. coli on various blood parameters (Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) was studied in these animals. At day zero (pre-medication), the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.61 + 0.076, 10.61 + 0.13, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.47 + 0.27, 31.48 + 0.22, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day 14th after medication the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.79 + 0.094, 10.69 + 0.126, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.79 + 0.16, 31.64 + 0.13, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day zero (pre-medication), the hemoglobin and pack cell volume values of groups A, B and C were below the normal (Hb = 11.0 - 11.6 g/dl, PCV (%) = 32 - 33) while of group D were approximately normal. On day 14th (post-medication), there was increase in Hb and PCV values of groups A and B. The Hb and PCV values of group C and D were not changed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1307,T] (1).

11. Etiological Study Of Pancytopenic Children

by Dr. Syed Maaz Nadeem | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Asim Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pancytopenia is a hematological condition in which there is a decrease in all three cell lines of peripheral blood i.e. erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets leading to anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Complications of anemia, repeated infections and bleeding tendencies are sometimes horrifying and may result in death of individual. The present study was designed to analyze the underlying pathology, different clinico-haematological features and importance of bone marrow study in one hundred children presenting with pancytopenia. Present study was carried out in pediatric laboratory of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.. Detailed history was taken in all cases. Complete blood counts were done on an automated blood analyzer (Sysmex Kx-21). For counter check of total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count and platelets, smears were also prepared and stained by using Giemsa stain. Red cell morphology was done on blood smear for theconfirmation of red cell indices. A total volume of 3 ml venous blood was drawn into a syringe. Out of which 1.0 ml was delivered into EDTA containing vacutainer and remaining 2 ml blood was transferred to a plain glass tube. After clotting and centrifugation serum was obtained for screening of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus. Bone marrow aspiration was also performed where indicated. Megaloblastic anaemia (42%) Aplastic anaemia (26%) and ALL (8%) were found to be the common causes of pancytopenia in our scenario. Less common causes of pancytopenia were infections (8%), mixed deficiency (4%), MDS (4%) and lymphoma (4%). In all above mentioned cases clinical manifestations and peripheral blood counts played an important role in their evaluation. Two cases of haemophagocytic syndrome (2%), a rare cause of pancytopenia were also diagnosed in this study. This study also explained the importance of physical examination, peripheral blood findings and bone marrow examinations in the management of pancytopenic patients. Peripheral blood film and bone marrow aspiration should be performed simultaneously in pancytopenia patients when the diagnosis is not confirmed. Bone marrow examination in most cases gives the specific diagnosis. However, in few cases, additional tests may be required. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels may be needed for confirmation of megaloblastic anemia. Serum iron, TIBC and iron staining on bone marrow smears may be required in iron deficiency anemia. In cases of leukemia flow cytometry study may be more helpful in reaching a final diagnosis. Bone marrow biopsy is mandatory in aplastic anemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1539,T] (1).

12. Studies On The Incidence And Pathology Of Different Reproductive Disorders In Desi Laying Hens In And Around Lahore

by Shahbaz ul Haq | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This project was designed to study incidence and pathology of reproductive disorders in Desi laying hens. This study also represented an endeavour to establish relationship between salmonellosis, mycoplasmosis and egg drop syndrome-76 infections and diverse types of reproductive abnormalities. A total of 300 Desi laying hens were randomly selected from the various poultry sale centres of Lahore and villages around Lahore. Blood sample and female genital tract of each bird were collected. The ovaries and oviducts of all hens were thoroughly examined to detect any gross pathological lesion. Organs exhibiting gross pathological lesions were subjected to histopathological examination. The biometrical study of ovaries and oviducts of all birds was also conducted. Serologically the incidence of salmonellosis, mycoplasmosis and egg drop syndrome 76 was detected by adopting rapid method agglutination test, rapid slide agglutination test and haemagglutination inhibition test, respectively. In this study 32 (10.67%) birds exhibited five pathological conditions i.e. oophoritis, degenerated ovarian follicles, salpingitis, cystic oviduct and adenoma. Macro and microscopic pathological lesions were studied in all the above five conditions. Out of 300 serum samples, 113 (37.66%) were positive for Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum infection, 209 (69.66%) were positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection and 41 (13.66%) samples were positive for EDS-76 infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0517,T] (1).

13. Comparative Evaluation Of Polyvinyl Tube And Cephalic Vein As Ureteral Substitutes In The Dog

by Bilal Qasim | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | DR. Asim Aslam | Dr. M. Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Ureteral prosthesis was the procedure adopted for the conduit of urine in the most natural way either by introducing synthetic graft, autograft or both at different ureters. In this project 21 healthy dogs of either sex were used. Laparotomy was performed under aseptic precautions on eighteen dogs with the remaining three as control animals. In group A an eight centimeter piece of left ureter was removed from its mid portion. One end of the selected polyvinyl tube was introduced into the lumen of the renal portion of the ureter in a telescoping fashion upto a distance of 0.5 cm and firmly secured with modified matress sutures using 4/0 prolene. Other end of the tube was secured in cystic portion of the ureter in the same manner. In group B, 8 cm segment of right ureter was removed in the same manner as described for group A, but in this group instead of Polyvinyl tube an 8cm cephalic vein graft, harvested from one of the forelimbs was used as a ureteral substitute. A 12 cm small diameter polyvinyl tube was passed through the lumen of the graft such that both the ends of the tube protruded beyon The protruding ends of the tube were passed into the renal and cystic segments of the ureter. This was done to stabilize the graft and proper approximation of the cut ends of the ureteral segments and the graft for suturing. The respective ends of the ureteral segments and the graft were sutured with horizontal mattress everting sutures using 4/0 prolene. Then a small nick was given in the renal ureteral segment to remove the tube. The nick was repaired with one horizontal mattress suture using the same suture material. In group C polyvinyl tube and cephalic vein were grafted in the left and right ureters respectively as described for group A and B. All the survivor dogs were kept under observation for 3 weeks and evaluated on clinical observations, biochemical studies and intravenous urography. Euthanasia was performed after the experimental period and operative sites were explored and gross changes were recorded. The analysis of the results clearly indicated that the use of polyvinyl tube was a better option over cephalic vein for the ureteral prosthesis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0554,T] (1).

14. Study Of Incidence & Pathology Of Different Reproductive Disorders In Female Breeder Layers

by Imtiaz Ahmed Cheema | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr.Rashid Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: This study was carried out to find the incidence and pathology of reproductive disorders in breeder female layers. A total of 120 breeder female layers were randomly selected from various poultry sale centers of Lahore. Blood sample and female genital tract of each bird were collected. The ovaries and oviducts of all hens were thoroughly examined to detect any gross pathological lesion. Organs exhibiting gross pathological lesions were subjected to histopathological examination. The biometrical study of ovaries and oviducts of all birds was also conducted. Serologically, the incidence of Salmonella pullorum and Mycoplasma gallisepticurn was detected by adopting rapid method agglutination test and rapid slide agglutination test, respectively. This study also represented an endeavor to establish relationship between Salmonellosis and Mycoplasmosis infections and adverse types of reproductive abnormalities. In this study 15 (12.5 %) birds exhibited seven pathological conditions i.e. cystic ovary, degenerated ovarian follicles, salpingitis, impaction of oviduct, ruptured oviduct, adenoma and underdeveloped tracts. Macro and microscopic pathological lesions were studied in all the above conditions. Out of 120 serum samples 57 ( 47.5 % ) were positive for Salmonella pullorum infection and 87 (72.5%) were positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0654,T] (1).

15. A Study On Stress Induced Effects In Broilers After Vaccination (Angavag) Against Hydropericadium Syndrome

by Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Muhammad Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The main aim of this study was evaluation of vaccination (Angavac) stress against hydropericardium syndrome with an oil- based vaccine and possible measures to check that stress. For this purpose one hundred and seventy chicks (day-old) were randomly divided into four groups namely, A, B, C and D. Each group comprised of forty birds while ten birds were used to collect serum samples for evaluation of maternal antibody titre in the chicks. Group "A" was kept as control while group B, C and D were vaccinated against Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). Group "B" was kept as such while group C and D were supplemented with multi-vitamins and aspirin respectively in drinking water. Blood samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 hours post vaccination from ten randomly selected birds from each group to study heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio and change in serum chemistry i.e. (protein, glucose and cholesterol). Blood serum was also collected from 10 randomly selected birds of each group an day 14, 28 and 42 of the experiment to see the level of antibody titre in the groups. Adrenal/body weight ratio, pathological examination of adrenal gland and economics of the flock was also studied at the end of experiment. Vaccine did not cause any significant stress in broilers. However, multivitamin therapy gave better growth traits and increased profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0656,T] (1).

16. Comparative Efficacy Of Craniodorsal & Ventral Surgical Approaches For Femoral Head And Neck Excision In Dogs

by Aamir Aslam, Ch | Dr . Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr . Asim Aslam | Dr . Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: There are different joint problems in dogs but out of all the incidence of hip joint problems is higher. There are different problems of hip joint mainly, hip dysplasia, leg-calve-perthes disease, degenerative joint disease, irreparable fracture of acetabulum, femoral head and neck. Different methods are used as a treatment for above mentioned ailments. The methods used for such type of problems are categorized into conservative, palliative and surgical. The surgical treatment is further divided into (1) salvage procedure i.e. femoral head and neck excision (2) total hip replacement. The present project was launched to find out the efficacy of two approaches used for the femoral head and neck excision in dogs. The study was conducted on 18 mongrel dogs of either sex ranging in weight from 20.25 kg, which were divided into three groups of 6 dogs each. In group A femoral head and neck excision was performed by using craniodorsal approach, whereas in group B ventral approach was used for the same procedure. Group C was kept as control in which the femoral head was luxated by using either approach. All the dogs were kept in kennels for a period of sixteen week and results were collected on the basis of clinical and radiographic evaluations. All the dogs were euthanized at the end of experimental period and operation sites were explored to find out the gross changes and also to find out the evidence of false joint formation in the muscles. The analysis of results clearly indicated that craniodorsal approach was a better procedure than ventral approach for the femoral head and neck excision in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0667,T] (1).

17. Detection & Control Of Vaccination (Gumboro Vaccine Nobilis Strain D-78 Stress Against Infectious Bursal Disease

by Subtain, Syed M | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr . Asim Aslam | Dr . Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: This research programme was intended to ascertain the stress produced after vaccination with live intermediate type of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine, which was administered orally through drinking water. It was also intended to manage the effects of vaccination stress with the supplementation of vitamins and aspirin. One hundred and sixty day old layer chicks were divided into four experimental groups i.e. A, B, C and D, 40 birds in each group. Group A was kept as control (non-vaccinated), B was given vaccine but not medicated, group C was administered vaccine as well as multivitamins for 3 days post-vaccination while group D was also medicated with aspirin for 3 days post-vaccination. The studied parameters were: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical analysis (serum protein, glucose and cholesterol), determination of antibody response against IBDV. At the end of experiment (42nd day) adrenal glands were isolated from 10 randomly selected birds from each group. The glands were subjected to gross and histopathological Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0678,T] (1).

18. Evaluation And Management Of Stress Induced By Vaccination Against Coccidiosis In Broilers

by Irfan Asghar, M | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr . Asim Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of vaccination stress on the performance of broilers by "Coccivac" vaccine against coceidiosis. Different blood factors like heterophil / lymphocyte ratio, total serum proteins, serum cholesterol, serum glucose levels and adrenal gland/body weight ratio, and pathological exmination of adrenal gland were used to appreciate the effects of stress in broilers. Vety-stress check and vitamin C were found useful in combating vaccine stress; the use was also economical. The results of this study represents an endaveour to suggest effective post vaccination measures for improving health status of broiler chiccks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0681,T] (1).

19. Detection And Control Of Vaccination Stress In Pullets Against Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Avinew)

by Shakila Khanum | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Muhammad Akram Munir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The project was carried out to detect the stress in layer chicks caused by vaccination against Newcastle disease. It alsi intended to find out the role of vitamins and aspirin in combating vaccination stress. One hundred and seventy (170) day-old layer chicks were obtained from the market. 10 day old chicks were utilized to determine maternal antibody Litre against NDV. Four groups were made at random comprising of 40 birds each. These were labelled as A (control group), B (vaccine), C (vaccine + vitamin) and D (vaccine + aspirin). The studied parameters in the experiment were: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical analysis, adrenal! body weight ratio, pathological examination of adrenal glands as well as detection of antibody response against NDV. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no considerable stress was induced in the birds vaccinated against NDV vaccine. It was also concluded that vitamins have a positive effect on immune response and growth rate of bird. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0722,T] (1).

20. A Study On The Prevalence Taxonomy And Control Of Mange Mites Infestation In Equines And Their Effect On Blood

by Arshad, M | Dr.Kamran Ashraf | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present research project was designed to find out the prevalence, taxonomy and control of mange mites infestation in equines and to record the effects of mange on different blood parameters of the said animals. For this purpose, a total of 200 equines suspected for mange mites infestation were examined during June August (1999). Out of these 200 suspected equines, 24 were found positive, indicating an overall prevalence of mange mites as 12%. Out of the positive animals, 20 naturally infested animals were selected for further investigation and divided into two Groups-A & B having 10 animals in each. Ten animals of Group-A were medicated with ivomac injection by (Rhone Poulenc) at a dose rate of 0.2 mg / kg body weight or (1 ml / 50 kg b.wt.) subcutaneously and the 10 infested animals of Group-B served as untreated controls. The efficacy of drug was assessed by examination of skin scrapping and the animals were re-examined at 7th, 14th and 28th day post treatment with ivomac injection. Taxonomy of the identified species was also carried out. In addition, the effect of mange mite infestation on different blood parameters of equines was also recorded. Haematological parameter showed significant reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) while Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was increased in infected animals. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) showed reduction in the neutrophils and lymphocytes but eosinophils, basophils and monocytes were increased in number in mite infested horses. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that the skin scrapings examination of the animals showing irritation and pruritis should be carried out on regular basis and those found positive should be given prompt acaricidal treatment. Ivomac injection @ 0.02 pg / kg body weight has proved the most beneficial as a single injection was found to be quite effective to cure the mange mites infestation in these animals. Hence, the farmers, Tonga pony owners and other equine lovers should use Ivomac Injection to treat and control the mange mites infestation in horses, mules and donkeys. This will not only result in the improvement of the health status of these animals but also increase income of the owners. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0733,T] (1).

21. Effect Of Ivermetin On Liver At Therapeutic And Higher Doses In Healthy And Diseased Dogs

by khawar Qayyum | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The project was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin against external parasites as well as its toxicity on liver at therapeutic and higher doses in healthy and disease (positive for external parasites) dogs of local breeds. For this purpose forty dogs were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) comprising 10 dogs in each. Dogs of groups A and B were healthy while dogs of group C and D were positive for external parasites. Dogs of group A were administered ivermectin at therapeutic doses (0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) while of group B were given ivermectin 10 times higher dose (2mg/kg body weight subcutaneously). Similarly dogs of group C and D positive for external parasites were given normal and higher doses of ivermectin respectively. To assess the efficacy of ivermectin, skin scrapping examination was performed before and after treatment, while to evaluate the toxicity alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme activity was measured before and after treatment. The results indicated that ivermectin was quite effective against external parasites 70% and 80% at therapeutic and higher doses respectively, but the efficacy against ticks was 100% at both the dose rates without any side effect except in one dog showing irritation at the site of injection at the higher dose of ivermectin. Liver enzyme study indicated that alkaline phosphatase was not altered significantly in diseased or healthy dogs at low or higher doses of ivermectin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was also not altered significantly in diseased as well as in healthy dogs. Therefore it is concluded that ivermectin is a safe drug for the treatment of ectoparasites in local breeds of dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0742,T] (1).

22. Effects Of Lincomycin And Spectinomycin Combination On The Immune Response Of Newcastle Disease Virus Vacinated

by Rahat Munir Chaudhry | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The project was designed to observe the effects of Lincospectin on the immune system of broiler chicks. Chicks divided in groups A, B and C were offered Lincospectin at 225mg/kg; 450mg/kg and 112.5 mg/kg body weight levels, respectively. All the chicks in various treatment groups were reared upto day 42 and the effects of Lincospectin on organ body weight indices, gross lesions on liver, spleen, thyrnus and bursa of Fabricius, and immune response of chicks against Newcastle Disease Virus vaccination, were determined. The organ body weight indices of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius and liver did not indicate significant differences (P>0.05) amongst the Lincospectin treated and untreated groups. However, the bursal body weight ratio of chicks in groups A, B and C at day 7 were significantly higher than those of group D. The data obtained on the analysis of HI antibody titre against Newcastle Disease Virus on days 1,7,14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 indicated that the geometric mean HI titres of Lincospectin treated groups (A, B and C) were quite different from each other and the chicks of group A had the best sero conversion. It was concluded that over all group A had the best immune response against NDV vaccination. This study indicates that Lincospectin at a dose rate of 225mg/kg body weight did not interfere in the immune response of chicks to NDV, helped in better wiehgt gains upto day 42 and did not cause any gross or histopathological lesions in the organs like thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen or liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0756,T] (1).

23. Prevalence And Taxonomical Studies On Haemoparasites Of Equine And Their Effect On Blood Parameters During Winter Season

by Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was conducted between November 1999 and January 2000 to find out the prevalence and to study the taxonomy of haemoparasites of horses. In addition, their effect on haematological parameters was also studied. A total of 40 out of 435 horses were found positive for haemoparasites. The prevalence recorded was 9.20%. Out of positive animals 22(5.O6%) were positive for babesia species, of which 10 (45.45%) were infected with 6 (27.27%) were infected with B.caballi and 6 (27.27%) were positive with mixed infection of and B caballi out of remaining positive cases, 14 (3 22%) were positive for T.evansi and 4 (0.92%) were positive for P.multipapillosa. Animals of group A, belonged to all the places of other groups. Animals of group B showed 10.52 % prevalence for haemoparasites, Babesia species was present in 6 (6.31%) and T.evansi was present in 4 (4.21%) animals respectively. Horses of group C showed prevalence as 14.28% haemoparasites out of which 6(8.57%) were positive for babesia species, and 4 (5.7l%) positive for T.evansi. Similarly, animals in group D, indicated 11.11 % prevalence of haemoparasites including babesia species 3 (3.33%), T.evansi 3 (3.3%) and P.multipapiltosa, 4 (4.44%) respectively. Ten out of 180 (5.56%) horses of group E were positive for haemoparasites and 7 (3.89%) were positive for Babesia spp. and 3 (1.66%) were positive for T.evansi. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin estimation, packed cell volume, neutrophils and basophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in lymphocytes and eosinophils in the infected horses as compared with healthy horses of group A From the results of the present study it may be concluded that the horses belonging to the poor community need due attention for the control of haemoparasite diseases. Services must be extended to educate owners of these Tonga ponies for the control of haemoparasitic diseases and their vectors. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0767,T] (1).

24. Effect Of Asocrbic Acid And Acetylsalicylic Acid Supplementation On Performance Of Broiler Checks Exposed to Heat Stress

by Bilal Anwar | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid on the performance of broiler chicks exposed to heat stress. A total number of 100 chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D A and E) having 20 birds each. Group A was kept is control. Group B was kept at (34-36°C) only during 3rd and 4th week. Group C was kept at 34-36°C) and Sb-Asper-C was also supplemented only during 3rd and 4th week. Group D was kept at (34-36°C) only during 5th and 6th week. Group E was kept at (34-36°C) and Sb-Asper-C was also supplemented only during 5th and 6th week. All the birds were vaccinated with Lasota NDV strain on day 1 and 14. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated at end of experiment. Serum samples were collected on day 1, 14, 28 and 42 of life for determination of geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition (GMHI) titer against NDV. Five birds from each group were slaughtered on day 28 and 42 for the pathological examination of bursa, thymus and spleen. Ratio of weight of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight were also calculated on day 28 and 42. The data was analysed statistically. Our results indicated that heat stress increased the FCR of the birds but decreased the immune response (GMHI) and ratio of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight of the birds. On gross pathological examination, heat stress caused atrophy of bursa, spleen and thymus but no microscopic changes were observed. This study also indicated that Sb-Asper-C (containing ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid) supplementation during heat stress had beneficial effects on FCR, serum antibody development and ratio of weight of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight of birds. It is concluded from this experiment that the Sb-Asper-C (containing ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid) has expressed itself as an anti-heat stressor and also shown to be an immunopotentiating agent under heat stress. So Sb-Asper-C is recommended in heat stressed birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0777,T] (1).

25. The Effect Of Experimentally Induced Yolk Sac Infection With Staphylococcus Aureus On Immune Status Of Broiler Chicks

by Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to study the effect of experimentally induced yolk sac infection with Staphylococcus aureus on immune status of broiler chicks. For this purpose one hundred day-old chicks were procured from local market and were randomly divided into two groups, A and B having fifty chicks each. Confirmed pathogenic isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated into the yolk of each chick of group A while group B acted as control. Ten chicks from each group were slaughtered at interval of 48 hours i.e. on 3rd 5th 7th, and 9th day of the experiment and serum and yolk were collected. Experimental parameters included pathological examination of yolk sac, yolk sac weight/body weight ratio, antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in serum and yolk and analysis of fractional serum proteins. Results showed that yolk sac weight/body weight ratio was higher in treatment group than in control group. Marked pathological changes (abnormal colour, consistency and odour) were also observed in unabsorbed yolks of the infected group. Geometric mean titres of maternal antibodies against NDV were significantly lower in serum while higher in yolk of the infected group as compared to control one. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for serum protein analysis and percent area covered by each protein fraction was calculated. The percent area covered by most fractions of serum protein was lower in infected chicks than the control chicks. It is therefore concluded that experimental yolk sac infection with Saphylococcus aureus leads to decreased maternal antibodies absorption from infected yolks and altered serum proteins indicating decline in the immunity of the chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0786,T] (1).

26. Effect Of Experimental Yolk Sac Infection With Escherichia Coli On Immune Status Of Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Salah-ud-Shah | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was designed to evaluate the effect of experimental yolk sac infection with E. coli on immune status of broiler chicks. One hundred day old broiler chicks were divided in to two groups i.e. A and B containing 50 birds each. Experimental infection with E. coli was given intra yolk to group A on day-1 of experiment, while group B was kept as control. Ten chicks from each group were sacrificed to collect serum and yolks on 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th day. Parameters studied were pathological examination of yolk sac, yolk sac/body weight ratio, antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus and analysis of fractional serum proteins. Results of this experiment showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to gross pathological changes of yolk sac (enlarged, discoloured, abnormal consistency and congested blood vessels) and increased yolk sac/body weight ratio. Geometric mean titer against NDV was decreased in serum and yolk of treatment group. Analysis of fractional serum proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed that percentage area covered by most of serum protein fractions was decreased in treatment group as compared to control group. It was concluded that intra yolk infection with E. coli resulted in pathological changes of yolk sac, increased yolk sac/body weight ratio and decreased immunity, which was evident from decreased maternal antibody titers and altered serum proteins profile of chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0790,T] (1).

27. Effect Of Hormone Addition (Pgf 2 Alpha) And Oxytocin In Semen Extender On Post Thaw Semen Quality And Fertility in Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Dr. Rafaqat Ali | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This project was executed to improve the semen quality during freezing process and to improve subsequent fertility rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes with hormones (PGF2a and oxytocin) supplementation. Pooled semen from Nih Ravi buffalo bulls (n2) was divided into 8 equal parts after complete evaluation and subjected to the hormonal treatments. PGF2a (Lutalyse®) @ 2.5mg, 5.0mg and 7.5mg and oxytocin (Cintocinon®) @ 2.5 I.U, 5.0 I.U and 7.5 I.U/lOOml of diluted semen were added. One group (-ye control) received indomethacin @ 20mg + PGF2a @ 5.Omg/lOOmi of diluted semen. One group remained without any treatment (+ve control). Semen was cooled, filled in 0.5ml straws, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 h ours and frozen i n liquid nitrogen. After 24 hours of deep freezing, semen was thawed and evaluated for percentage motility of spermatozoa, plasma membrane integrity (HOS assay), acrosome integrity (NAR), viability (Live/Dead), longevity (hours) and fertility. Four (4) straws from each treatment group were thawed and pooled in 5m1 cuvette in water bath at 37°C and evaluated for quality parameters. Twenty five (25) straws from each treatment group were used to inseminate the buffaloes in standing estrus at 3 A.I centers (Phool nagar, Changa manga and Kot radlia kishen) in district Kasur. Pregnancy was checked 60 days post insemination. Data collected was presented as mean ± SEM, treatment groups were compared using ANOVA, unpaired two sample test and Pearson correlation at 5% level of confidence interval using Minitab® computer software. Results o f this study revealed that addition of both Lutalyse® (PGF2a) and Cintocinon® (oxytocin) did not show significant (P>0.05) improvement in any quality parameters measured and a non significant correlation was observed between treated groups and control except indomethacin and viability of spermatozoa where a significant negative correlati9n (r = -0.980) was found. However, blocking of seminal prostaglandins with indomethacin shows significant (P<0.05) deterioration in percentage motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and longevity of spermatozoa but acrosome integrity remain unchanged. Results of fertility trial showed significant difference (P<0.5) among treatment groups. In conclusion, we can say that although hormonal addition did not improve semen quality but improve fertility rate, therefore, the importance of prostaglandins in semen can not be neglected. The W nature and physiological amount in buffalo semen should be investigated and maintained by exogenous addition after dilution during processing to maintain post thaw semen quality and fertility. However, it is suggested that pure forms of hormones should be used to add in semen instead of Lutalyse® as it contains 1.56% alcohol which is supposed to be detrimental to spermatozoa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0923,T] (1).

28. Molecular Detection Of Babesia Bigemina And Babesia Bovis In Carrier Cattle By Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

by Muhammad Suleman | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Babesiosis is a highly important disease in the world, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. A wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally man are affected by this disease, which is transmitted by ticks and has a worldwide epidemiological distribution. While the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections also occurs in other domestic animals , including horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. The present study targeted the carrier cattle infected with Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, as they are difficult to detect because of the low numbers of parasites that occur in peripheral blood. However, diagnosis of low-level infections with the parasite is important for studying the transmission and standardizing epidemiological studies. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of the gene from the parasite, and tested the ability of this method to detect carrier cattle. A study was conducted to detect the. Babesia in blood samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis by using specific primer in carrier cattle. Blood samples of 100 cattle were randomly analyzed with PCR assay 29 (29.0%) out of 100 blood samples were positive for babesiosis in which 18% were positive for Babesia bigemina and 11% were positive for Babesia bovis, While the Light Microscopy detected only 18 (18%) out of the same samples. The samples found positive by LM were reconfirmed during the PCR assay but no sample was found to be having both Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis infections simultaneously. Thus it is concluded that PCR is a reliable molecular diagnostic technique to detect low level of infections in carrier animals in a population and thus could be used as an effective screening tool for the control and eradication of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0929,T] (1).

29. Standardization Of Tuberculin Test In Buffaloes And Detection Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Blood Through PCR

by Asad Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. In bovine it is mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Bovine tuberculosis caused by M bovis is the main cause of enteric TB in humans. It is transmitted through milk, meat and dairy products. Bovine TB is still a significant zoonosis in many parts of the world and it accounts for 25.8% of TB in man. A study was conducted to standardize the tuberculin test in buffaloes and to detect the M bovis in buffalo blood samples through PCR based techniques. A total of 100 buffaloes were tested by Single Comparative Cervical Intradermal Tuberculin Test (SCCIDTT) for this research and 100 blood samples were also collected from the same under aseptic condition. Data was also collected from owners & milkers of buffalo before and after SCCIDTT. A PCR (is a nucleic acid-based technique that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of micro-organism) assay was described which could detect M bovis in blood samples. Blood of 100 buffaloes was randomly analyzed with PCR assay. Over all two (2.0%) out of 100 buffaloes were found positive to tuberculin test while fifty four (54 %) out of 100 blood samples of the same buffaloes were found positive for M bovis in PCR. The positive cases were analyzed in the background of their history. History revealed that the animals herd was crowded and were reared much closed to each other for a long time. It suggested that they got infection from other animals. It was an evidence of bovine tuberculosis of M bovis in buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0951,T] (1).

30. Comparison Of Multiplex Pcr & Conventional Methods For The Diagnosis Of Tuber Culosis (TB) in Human, Buffalo & Cattle in Lahore District

by Naima Mumtaz | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rarf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis, one of the most widespread infectious diseases, is the leading cause of death due to single infectious agent among humans and animals in the world. It is endemic in Pakistan with about 1.5 million people infected, and Pakistan ranks seventh among the 22 high-burden tuberculosis countries worldwide (WHO, 2006). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of human TB, but an unknown proportion of cases are due to Mycobacterium. bovis. The study was conducted in Lahore to compare the multiplex PCR and conventional methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis caused by M tuberculosis and M bovis in 300 humans' sputum and 1000 bovines' milk samples. Conventional methods included Ziehi Neelsen staining, culture and biochemical tests. For M tuberculosis and M bovis the pncA gene and specie -specific 500 bp fragments were targeted respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR was found statistically significant in comparison to Ziehl Neelsen staining and culture for the differential diagnosis of TB. Pyrazinamide resistance was found in 15 (34.8%) out of 43 isolates recovered from media inoculated by sputum and milk. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0954,T] (1).

31. Diagnosis Of Bovine Tuber Culosis In Deers Kept In Captivity By Pcr And Tuberculin Test

by Zeeshan Nayyer | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, granalomatous, highly communicable, zoonotic and debilitating disease. The etiological agents of tuberculosis belong to the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis. A total of 50 blood samples from emaciated deers were collected from deer’s kept in captivity suspected from TB. These samples were subjected to DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction and tuberculin test for the sensitivity and specificity of these tests.The results obtained were analyzed by standardization of PCR for M. bovis. PCR is a nucleic acid based technique that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of microorganism. Results indicated that 4% and 20% of deers were positive for M. bovis infection with the tuberculin test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) respectively. From the results it is evident that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is more sensitive than the tuberculin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and gives much higher percentage of positive cases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0970,T] (1).

32. Diagnosis Of Paratuberculosis (Johne,S Disease) In Cattle And Buffaloes Through Histopathological Techniques And Polymerase Chain Reaction

by Farhan Anwar Khan | Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof .Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Paratuberculosis, one of the infectious disease, is the emerging cause of poor health, low productivity and finally death due to single infectious agent among dairy and beef yielding animals (cattle and buffaloes) in the World. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the most common cause of bovine Johne's disease. The study was conducted in Lahore to compare conventional methods and PCR for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis caused by M avium subspp. paratuberculosis in 300 cattle's and buffalo's tissue samples (150 of each specie), including terminal ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Conventional methods included Ziehi-Neelsen's (ZN) acid fast staining and histopathology. For M paratuberculosis insertion sequence IS 900, specific 626 bp fragment, were targeted. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR was found significant in comparison to Ziehl Neelsen staining and histopathology for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle and buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1011,T] (1).

33. Comparison Of Different Diagnostic Techniques For John'S Disease In Small Ruminants

by Saba Badar | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din | Dr.Asim Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Paratuberculosis is one of the most hazardous infectious diseases, causing heavy economic losses due to poor health, low productivity and high fatality rate among domestic and wild ruminants. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of Bovine Johne's disease. In this study PCR were used to detect the presence of the Acid Fast Bacillus Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, in the intestinal tissues and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of small ruminants causing Paratuberculosis. PCR was compared to HEY medium culture on the Herrold's Egg Yolk Media. The samples were collected from Lahore Slaughter house and brought to the Molecular Pathology Laboratory at the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The study was conducted to compare PCR and the HEY medium culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis caused by M avium subsp. Paratuberculosis. A total of 500 tissue samples, 250 of the ileum and 250 of the mesenteric lymph nodes were collected randomly for the identification of Johne's disease. All samples were inoculated on the HEY medium prepared in the same laboratory aseptically. Followed by DNA extraction through the Kit method then run the PCR for insertion sequence IS 900, specific 626 bp fragment, were targetted in the genome of M paratuberculosis. The results of the study showed more samples detected positive by PCR as compared to conventional culture methodology. Also they showed in the mass of 500 tissue samples that more bacilli are prone to the samples of small intestines than associated mesenteric lymph nodes. Regarding the sensitivity of the two techniques the PCR seemed more sensitive to detect the mycobacterium in the tissues than the conventional, laborious and time consuming HEY medium culture technique; though culture has been used as golden standard in this study also. When statistically analyzed results were insignificant due to small sample size. The study will help in comparison of the two latest techniques for the diagnosis of M paratuberculosis, to check the validity of the better technique. In this study the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was checked and compared with culture on the HEY medium staining for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in small ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1077,T] (1).

34. Immunohistochemical And Pathomorphological Studies Of Chronic Granulomatous Enteritis (John'S Disease) in Bovines

by Muhammad Shahid | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Paratuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is a peril for both livestock and human beings. The present project was designed to study the pathmorphological changes induced by the organism and standardize more reliable diagnostic techniques to identify the M paratuberculosis. Tissue samples from ileurn and mesenteric lymph nodes were randomly collected from 1 50 cattle and buffalo, each in present study that was conducted in Lahore. Gross lesions were recorded on a Performa. The samples were subjected to acid fast staining of smears from pellets after density gradient centrifugation and paraffin embedded tissue sections. All the samples also subjected to polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The smears prepared from bacterial pellets of mucosal and cortical scraping of terminal ileum and MLN were stained indicated 11.4 % small intestine and 12.7% lymph nodes of cattle's and 8.7% and 10.7% lymph nodes of buffalo's tissue samples were positive. ZN staining of paraffin embedded tissue showed 8.0 % small intestine and 10% MLN of cattle's and 6.0 % of small intestine and 8.7% MLN in buffalo's tissue samples were positive. On basis of PCR 5.4% intestinal tissue samples and 6.0% MLN of cattle were positive. 3.4% intestinal tissue samples and 07(4.7%) MLN of buffaloes were positive. In buffaloes 4.0% intestinal tissue samples and 6.0% MLN were positive by IHC. In cattle 6.7% intestinal tissue samples and 8.0% MLN tissue samples were positive by IHC. In cattle, 27/150(18.0%) animals showed lesions in both intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes while 5/32 (15.7%) animals showed lesions in lymph nodes only. Out of 27/150(18.0%) intestinal tissue samples, 20/27 (74.1%) samples showed corrugation of the intestinal mucosa while 7/27 (26%) showed diffuse thickness. In buffalo, 24/150 (16.0%) animals showed lesion in both intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes while 2/26 (7.7%) animals showed lesion in lymph nodes only. Out of 24 intestinal tissue samples, 19/24(79.2%) with gross lesion, samples showed corrugation of the intestinal mucosa while 5/24(20.9%) showed diffuse thickness. In histopathology 20/27 samples of cattle showed focal granulomatous lesions while 7/27(26%) samples showed sever infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes while 28/32(87.5%) lymph nodes showed infiltration of paracortical and cortical region of the lymph nodes with macrophages ,lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells While 4/32 (12.5%) samples showed moderate infiltration of macrophages. In buffaloes 19/24 (12.7%) samples showed focal granulomatous lesions while 5/24 (20.9%) samples showed sever infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes while 22/26 (84.7%) lymph nodes showed infiltration of paracortical and cortical region of the lymph nodes with macrophages ,lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells While 4/26 (15.4%) samples showed moderate infiltration of macrophages. The sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemical method was found significant in comparison Ziehl-Neelsen staining and histopathology for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle and buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1078,T] (1).

35. Polymerase Chain Reaction And Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (Rflp) By Using Ssu-r DNA Amplification for the Species Specific Diagnosis of Trypanosomiasis in Horses

by Naveed Sabir | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: In the current research project, a pari-trypanosome polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized by using 18S single sub unit ribosomal DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was also optimized and evaluated for the species specific diagnosis of the trypanosomiasis in horses. Blood samples from one hundred (100) suspected horses were collected aseptically from different localities of Lahore. Fresh blood smear was prepared from each sample. After drying and fixing with absolute methanol, the slides were stained with Giemsa stain. Microscopic examination of stained blood smears revealed 8 positive samples out of one hundred (100) suspected horses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on the same trypanosomiasis suspected blood samples to evaluate its sensitivity. Genomic DNA was extracted by using Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Fermentas mci., USA). The PCR was performed in a 50 tl reaction mixture. The tubes containing PCR mix were subjected to amplification cycles in a thermocycier after adjusting the amplification conditions. After completion of the amplification cycles, the PCR product was characterized by 1.2 % agarose gel electrophoresis along with 100 bp DNA ladder to estimate the size of the PCR product and the gel was photographed with a Polaroid camera. PCR gave a higher percentage of positive cases i.e. 21% as compared to microscopic examination. Semi-nested polymerase chain reaction was carried out on product of the first run amplification by using same reaction mixture and amplification conditions except for template DNA. In case of semi-nested PCR 1 tl of the simple PCR product was used. Semi-nested PCR gave 100% (21/21) results. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was conducted on nested products of the positive samples. A reaction mixture of 20 1iJ was used and samples were incubated over night at 37 °C in an incubator. The restricted products were characterized by 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis along with 100 bp DNA ladder and photographed with Polaroid camera. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the nested products revealed that none of the species including T. congolense, T. theileri, T. brucei and T. vivax was found in all (2 1%) positive animals having trypanosoma infestation. It can be concluded from current study that a pan-trypanosome polymerase chain reaction is a superior and sensitive test as compared to Giemsa stained blood smear examination. The test can not only be used for early diagnosis of the trypanosomiasis but it can also be used to screen out the carrier animals those act as a reservoir of the infection for the horses and other susceptible animals. The advantage of this test is its sensitivity, universal applicability and the existence various possibilities for restriction enzyme analysis of the amplified region depending on the trypanosome species. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1079,T] (1).

36. Detection Of Canine Parvo Infection At Different Pet Clinics In Lahore Through Haemagglutination (Ha)

by Asif Ali | Prof.Dr.M.Younus Rana | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Canine parvovirus, caused by a haemagglutinating canine parvovirus (CPV), one of the most important acute viral infectious diseases of pups, had been prevalent in the country. In the present study, 200 faecal and blood samples, from clinically suspected cases of parvovirus diseases dogs were collected from five pet centers of Lahore. Serum samples were harvested for hemaglutination inhibition test while the faecal samples were diluted and centrifuged to collect the supernatant. Being a haemagglutinating (HA) virus, the pre-filtered supernatant from all suspected samples was checked for any HA activity using 1% washed chicken erythrocytes. Out of total of 200 samples, 127 samples were found HA positive. Postmortem of dead dogs suspected for CPV infection was done and various gross pathological lesions were noted. Blood filled intestine lumen was found during postmortem. When lumen of intestine was opened it gave washed out appearance of intestine as mucosa was severely sloughed off. The heart of young puppies showed marbled appearance due to the presence of whitish layer on heart. Tissue samples duodenum, jejunum, ileum and heart were preserved in 10% formalin solution. The CPV cases were also observed in the locally found cross breed. This could be due to the emergence of the new stains of parvo virus due to which the cross breed getting affected. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1260,T] (1).

37. Relationship Of Gender And Body Condition Score On Histomrphometric And Physical Characteristics Of Selected Selected Skeletal Muscles in Kundi Buffalo

by Muhammad Usman Saleem | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Saima Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Introduction: Present study was conducted to study the effect of gender and BCS on selected skeletal muscle properties in Kundi buffaloes. Tenderness, juiciness and water holding capacity are the attributes of meat quality and are related with the muscle fiber number and diameter. Normal pH of the meat is 5.2-5.4 and any deviation from these values show that the animal was under stress before slaughter. Materials and Methods: Four groups of 10 animals each were taken. The first group was of 10 male animals having BCS 1-4 and the second group was of 10 male animals having BCS more than 4. The third and fourth groups were of 10 female animals each having BCS 1-4 and more than 4 respectively. Samples of muscles trapezius cervices longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus were taken from each animal 24 hours post mortem. pH of the meat was measured with the help of pH meter 24 hours post mortem. Water holding capacity of the meat sample was measured 24 hours post mortem using Honikels gravimetric bag method. Samples were processed for light microscopy and stained by using Eosin and Hematoxylin staining technique. Tissue sections were observed for counting muscle fiber number and measuring the diameter of muscle fiber using a morphometry program. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was made using independent sample t- tests for the comparison based on gender or BCS between groups, and analysis with in a group was made using one way ANOVA. Results: It was observed that the pH, WHC and muscle fiber number was higher in males as compared to those of females. Muscle fiber diameter was greater in females as compared to those of males. Animals with BCS 1-4 had a lower pH, greater WHC, larger muscle fiber diameter and higher muscle fiber number than those animals having BCS > 4. pH of trapezius cervicalis is higher than longissimus lumborum and semitendinosus but its WHC is lower than semitendinosus and longissimus lumborum. Longissimus lumborum has least muscle fiber diameter however trapezius has got the largest muscle fiber diameter. Number of muscle fibers in semitendinosus muscle is highest. Conclusion: Through this research we determined that gender and BCS affect meat quality parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1451,T] (1).

38. Detection Of Soulfonamide Residues With Associated Histopathological Findings In The Tissues Of Cattle An Buffalo

by Mujahid Iqbal | r. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1483,T] (1).

39. Patho-Morphological Studies Of Reproductive Tract Disorders In Cattle And Buffalo

by Abdul Jabar | Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmed | Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Asim Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Reproductive tract disorders like endometritis, pyometra, follicular cysts, leuteal cysts etc have been reported as major causes of low conception rate and poor productivity of livestock. Reproductive tract lesions in cattle and buffaloes play an important role in animal breeding either by causing infertility or sterility of animals resulting in high economic losses. Besides of other reasons, presence of different types of bacteria inside the uterus of breeding animals causes deleterious effects on the reproductive tracts causing severe disorders and ultimately leads to failure of pregnancy. All these microbes results in the infection of uterus that ultimately affects animal's conception rate. A total 100 reproductive tracts of slaughtered cattle (n=40) and buffaloes (n=60) were randomly collected from Lahore abattoir, Sherakot to study the impact of bacteria on the reproductive tracts, efficacy of variety of antibiotics on different bacterial isolates, gross and histopathological lesions. The swab samples for bacteriology were processed for purification and identification of bacterial isolates by doing number of conventional tests for final characterization and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity was performed. In this study seven different bacterial isolates were identified from all the samples. These include: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species, Aeromonas species, Micrococcus species and Lactobacillus species. By the analysis of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity, all eight different species of bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chlortetracycline. Contrary to these, all bacteria were 100 % resistant to Bacitracin followed by Sulphaphenazole, Ticarcillin/Clavulanic acid and Trimethoprim. Out of the total 100 reproductive tracts of cattle and buffaloes collected randomly, 54 showed lesions with different severity. Most of the lesions were uterine hemorrhages followed by pyometra, para-ovarian cysts, pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, leuteal cysts, follicular cysts and uterine tumors. These lesions were observed slightly higher in number in buffaloes than in cows. Tissue samples of reproductive tracts were processed for histopathology and histopathological lesions were observed under microscope at 4X, 10X and 40X. Histopathological lesions in endometritis were hemorrhages in stratum compactum, very thick blood vessels, congestion, necrosis and degeneration of endometrial glands, glandular tissue fully filled with mononuclear cells, completely destroyed secretary epithelial cells. While in metritis, intact endometrial mucosa, proliferation of connective tissue, infilteration of inflammatory cells and mononuclear cells in the myometrium were observed. In pyometra samples, thick layer of exudate on the surface of endometrium, severe infilteration of mononuclear cells, sloughing of endometrial mucosa, necrosis of endometrial glands and glands filled with heavy population of mononuclear cells, proliferation of fibrous connective tissues in between endometrial glands, many macrophages are also present, infiltration of polymorphs mononuclear cells were observed in stratum functionalis. In uterine lymphoma, tumor tissue was in follicular pattern, neoplastic cells variable in size and having round nucleus, many mitotic figures present, and stroma consisted of broad irregular bands of collagen. In conclusion, out of 100 reproductive tracts of slaughtered cattle and buffaloes were examined and gross lesions were found 54% including uterine hemorrhages 20% followed by pyometra, para-ovarian cysts, hydrosalpinx, luteal cysts, follicular cysts and uterine lymphoma as 17, 8, 3, 3, 2 and 1%, respectively. The bacteria isolated from reproductive tracts in cattle and buffaloes were Escherichia coli 100% followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus species, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus species, Corynebacterium species and Aeromonas species as 51, 47, 40, 34, 24 and 5%, respectively. In endometritis, PMN cells, thickening of endometrium, congestion, very thick blood vessels, degeneration of endometrial glands, glandular tissue fully filled with mononuclear cells, completely destroyed secretary epithelial cells, intact endometrial mucosa, proliferation of connective tissue and hemorrhages are observed while in pyometra, sloughing of endometrial mucosa, glands filled with heavy population of mononuclear cells, proliferation of fibrous connective tissue in between endometrial glands, many macrophages are also present, congestion and degeneration of endometrial glands was seen. Tumor tissue was in follicular pattern, neoplastic cells variable in size and having round nucleus, many mitotic figures present, and stroma consisted of broad irregular bands of collagen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1541,T] (1).

40. Comparison Of Histological Alterations In Intestinal Mucosa And Morphometery Of Different Organs In Two Strains Of Broiler Under Selected Dietary Conditions

by Hafiz Yasir Ahmad | Dr. Saima Masood | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Hafsa Zaned.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Organic acid are well known for their positive influence on the histomorphology of different organs of broiler birds. Present study aims to evaluate the effect of organic acid (formic acid and propionic acid) on histomorphology of two strains of broiler used in Pakistan. One hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks were divided into 4 groups (n=30). Out of 120 day old broiler chicks, 60 birds of Hubbord strain divided in two groups and remaining 60 birds comprising of Cobb strain and also divided in two groups. These Hubbord and Cobb strains further divided into Hubbord organic acid supplemented group (HOAS), Hubbord non-supplemented (HNS), Cobb organic acid supplemented group (COAS) and Cobb non-supplemented group (CNS). All non-supplemented groups were fed a corn-soya based basal diet and supplemented groups were fed same diet with addition of organic acid (formic acid 70%and propionic acid 30%) in the ratio of 1gm per Kg of diet. At 21 day, fifteen birds of each group were slaughtered and measurements, weight of heart, liver, gizzard, proventriculus, small intestine and large intestine and also length of small and large intestine, were taken. Samples from all three segments of small intestine of all groups were processed for measurements of villus height by H&E staining. Same procedure was repeated after 42 days for remaining birds. Results showed that the organs of organic acid supplemented birds gained more weight than non-supplemented groups and supplemented birds gained more villus height than the non-supplemented groups. There was no significant difference of results showed between two strains of broiler except in case of villus length of duodenum and jejunum. All the results were same for both age groups (21 & 42 days). It could be concluded from the results that organic acid has beneficial effect on the growth of different organs of broiler birds and supplementation with organic acid can positively influence the height of villus of small intestine but there is no significant difference between two strains of broiler in case of organic acid supplemented birds as well as non-supplemented group in case of villus length of duodenum and jejunum where hubbard strain of broiler perform significantly better than cobb strain of broiler. Hence organic acid improved the histomorphology of different organs of broiler birds which resulted in more absorption and utilization of nutrients which further led to improved growth performance of broiler birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1543,T] (1).

41. Studies On Epidemiological Risk Factors, Treatment Patterns And Effects Of Vaccination Against Peste Petits

by Mahboob Ali | Dr.Muhammad Avais | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1549,T] (1).

42. Comparative Pathological Studies Of Brucellosis In Azikheli And Nili Ravi Buffaloes At Slaughter House I District Sawat

by Sayyed Irfanullah Khan | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Saima Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1741,T] (1).

43. Comparison Of Various Strains Of Ibd Vaccines On Basis Of Pathological Lesions And Antibody Titer

by Sohaib alam | Dr. Mautti ur rehman | Dr. Asim aslam | Dr.Aftab ahmed anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1867,T] (1).



Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Email:rehana.kousar@uvas.edu.pk Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.