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1. Clinicopathological Study Of Theileriosis In Naturally Infected Sheep

by Muhammad Waseem Akhter | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Habib.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Theleiriosis in sheep is an important infectious disease of small ruminants characterized by General weakness, weight loss, anorexia, elevated body temperature, petechial hemorrhages on conjunctival mucosa, swollen lymph nodes, anemia and cough. Changes in hematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters are good indicators for diagnosis of theileriosis. For this purpose a total of 100 blood samples from infected sheep as well as 50 blood samples from healthy sheep were collected on the basis of clinical examination and peripheral blood smears from different farms in and around Lahore. The collected samples were processed at Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. Hematological parameters were measured by automatic hematology analyzer & serum biochemical parameters were measured by using commercial kits by colorimetric methods using spectrophotometer. Histopathological changes were observed by making slides of tissue samples, and observed under microscope. Molecular confirmation of Theleria sp. was done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Finally the data obtained for hematological and serum biochemical parameters were analyzed by using Student's t test. Previous studies on serum biochemical parameters and hematological parameters were mostly done in large ruminants. But there is little investigation available on the biochemical and hematological alterations of theileriosis in small ruminants. In this study blood samples taken from sheep were examined under microscope by making thin blood smears using Giemsa stain. Theileria piroplasms were seen in RBCs at 100x. Blood samples were also processed for PCR test. In all Theileria ovis positive samples 520-bp fragment was generated on gel by using primers TSsr 170F and TSsr 670R for sheep. All samples positive on microscopy were also positive by PCR. This study provides the base line data for molecular diagnosis of Theileria ovis in sheep in Pakistan. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in the sheep naturally infected with theileriosis while healthy sheep were selected as control. Hematological findings revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBC count, WBC count, Hb Conc. and PCV in infected animals as compared with healthy animals. Serum biochemical findings also revealed alterations in activities of enzymes and plasma proteins. A significant decrease in total proteins, albumin, glucose and creatinin and triglycerides was observed while significant increase (P<0.05) in ALT, AST, bilirubin was observed in affected animals as compared with healthy animals. A non significant increase in urea and cholesterol concentration was also observed in infected animals as compared to healthy animals. Different tissues were examined to study gross and histopathological changes. Liver was large, pale and friable. Prescapular lymph nodes were swollen and spleenomegaly was also seen. Kidney showed hemorrhagic spots and some were mottled. Histological examination of the lymph nodes revealed edema, widened intercellular spaces, parenchyma degeneration, massive lympholysis, widened sinuses at some areas and macrophages. Splenic nodules were sparse, diminished in size and lymphocyte depletion in follicles was prominent.In liver, mild infiltration of leukocytes around blood vessels, vacuolation in hepatocytes, increase in sinusoidal space and atrophy of hepatic cord was seen and hepatic cord was broken. In kidney, degeneration of tubular epithelium cells was seen. This study concluded that theileriosis in sheep was associated with some alterations in blood parameters and histopathological changes which could be useful in the diagnosis of ovine theileriosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1642,T] (1).

2. Diagnosis Of Dengue Virus Serotypes In Effected Patients By Elisa In Lahore Pakistan

by Muhammad Khurram Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an acute febrile disease caused by any of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV I , DENV 2, DENV 3 and DENV 4), belonging to flaviviruses. It is a public health problem of growing importance in areas where the insect vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are present. A total of I 50 clinically suspected dengue patients were recruited, mean age of the patients was 31 .86+1 .66. The maximum age of the patients was 81 years and minimum age of the patient was 5 years. Out of I 50 patients 24.0% (n=36) were tested negative for any of the four serotype of the Dengue virus. The analysis showed that 45.3% (n=68) patients had DENV2 serotype, 16.7% (n=25) had DENV 3 serotype and 14.0% (n=21) patients were diagnosed to have DENV 4 serotype; none of the 150 patients was reported to have DENV I serotype. The most prevalent serotype was Dengue virus serotype 2 and Dengue virus serotype 4 was observed as lowest, while Dengue virus serotype I was having zero prevalence. Out of 150 patients 58.7% (n=88) were male while 41.3% (n=62) were females. Among the male population 31 were affected by Dengue virus serotype 2, 18 males were Dengue virus serotype 3, and Dengue virus serotype 4 was observed in 18 males while 21 males were reported negative for any of the serotype. In contrast among female population Dengue virus serotype 2 was present in 37 females, Dengue virus serotype 3 was observed in 7 and Dengue virus serotype 4 was fixed in 3 females only; while 15 females were negative for any of the serotype of Dengue virus. The data showed that p-value (p< 0.005) depict the association between gender and serotypes of Dengue fever. Our Research point out the prevalence of three out of four serotypes among the Pakistani population, which is a shocked fact as per pathogenesis theory that second infection by a different serotype may prove fatal for previously recovered person. Therefore a strict mosquito control programme is direly needed to prevent these incoming events to occur, the only hope and solution is in our environment. Moreover masses education regarding dengue fever might prove helpful in preventing zoonoses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1163,T] (1).

3. Toxicopathological And Immunosuppressive Effect S In Broilers Induced By Concurrent Exposure To Aflatoxin-Bi And Ochratoxin-A

by Sajid Umar | Prof.Dr.M.Younus Rana | Dr.Aftab | Dr.Muti-ur-Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1280,T] (1).

4. Effect Of Zinc Supplementation On Cadmium (Cd) Toxicity In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)

by Umair Ishtiaq | Prof. Dr. Muhannad Younus Rana | Dr. Muti - Ur- Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as an environmental pollutant especially due to its anthropogenic activity. Exposure to Cd is known to cause harmful effects of different levels of the trophic chain, because of bioaccumulation. Toxic effects of Cd are observed in the kidneys, lungs, testes, prostate, and the erythropoietic system in chicken and rat. These effects are associated with teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. Zinc posseses protective and antagonistic action in the uptake and toxic effects of cadmium, probably because of Zn-induced synthesis of metallothionein that detoxifies Cd by firmly binding this metal. The objectives of present study are: 1) To understand the effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity in Japanese quails 2) To study the effect of zinc and cadmium on liver and kidney function along with histopathological changes. This experimental trial was carried out at Avian Research and Training Centre (ARTC), UVAS Lahore and tests were performed at Pathology Deptt UVAS Lahore. Day old Japanese quails (C. coturnix japonica) (n = 560) were used in this experiment. For this purpose, a total number of 560, day old chicks of Japanese quail were procured from the hatchery of ART Centre. They were assigned to seven dietary treatments. There were four replicates in each treatment group and each replicate was of twenty chicks. A =Control diet group will receive only basal diet without any supplementation. B= Basal diet + 50 mg/kg Cd, C = Basal diet + 75 mg/kg Cd, D =Basal diet +100 mg/kg Cd E=Basal diet+50 mg/kg Cd+40 mg/kg Zn, F=Basal diet+75 mg/kg Cd + 40mg/kg Zn and G =. Basal diet+100 mg/kg Cd + 40mg/kg Zn. Each group consisted of 80 birds. The body weight of each the birds was carried out weekly. Blood samples were collected on the 21st (3rd week), 28th (4th week), 35th (5th week) and 42nd (6th week) days of treatment from each group to evaluate the liver and kidney functions and vital organs were collected after slaughtering from each group and then histo-pathological analysis was done. The data was analyzed by two way ANOVA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1339,T] (1).

5. Pathology Of Experimental Enterotoxemia In Sheep And Goats

by Azam Ali Nasir | Prof. Dr. M. Yonus Rana | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muti-ur Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: During the present study intestinal scrapings were collected from sheep suspected for enterotoxaemia. Samples were subjected for the isolation by repeated culturing in Reinforced Clostridium medium. Growth on blood agar revealed characteristic colonies of Clostridium perfringens after 18-24 hours. Biochemical and mice inoculation tests were performed. Isolated organism was identified by indirect ELISA. The pure growth was subcultured in RCM in bulk quantity and calculated the dose for experimental infection. In the second part of the study, sheep and goats were procured, dewormed and kept in the experimental house of UVAS, Lahore. The experimental infection comprised of the whole culture of C. perfringens type D was inoculated intraduodenally via para-mid line between animals of group A and B while in animals of group C and D inoculated only starch solution to achieve the objectives. Accumulative clinical score in sheep was found to be 9 to 16, 13 to 22 and 15 to 23 at 10, 20 and 30 hours PI respectively while in goats the accumulative scores varied from 5 to 15, 9 to 16 and 14 to 21 at above mentioned time intervals. The highest mean score for clinical findings in sheep was anorexia, frothing followed by dehydration while in goats, the highest mean score was recorded for diarrhea dehydration, and anorexia. No significant clinical findings were noted in control groups. There was a significant increase in blood glucose, urea and serum creatinine in infected group of sheep and mean values reached up to 141 mg/dl, 92 mg/dl and 7.5 mg/dl respectively at 30 hours PI while in goats a similar pattern was observed with the mean values raised to 142 mg/dl, 111 mg/dl and 10.2 mg/dl for blood glucose, urea and serum creatinine respectively. There was no significant change found in RBC and platelet count of both species but there was an early increase in the mean WBC count of sheep 19.7x103/µl at 10 hours but then decreased to 14.7x103/µl at 30 hours PI while in goats it was 23.6x103/µl and then decreased to 15.3x103/µl. The mean PCV % age increased in animals of both infected groups but more in goats and reached to 52% in 30 hours. During the third part of the present study, the animals were slaughtered and PME performed. The accumulative score for gross lesions were recorded and it was found between 14 to 24 in animals of group A with the highest score for congestion and edema of different organs whereas in goats it was between 12 to 22 with congestion and hemorrhages of intestine having highest scores. The samples were kept in formalin for histopathological examination and accumulative lesions score was noted in different organs. The highest mean score in sheep was recorded in kidneys and lungs and in goat intestine, lung and kidneys were the major organs affected. A polymerase chain reaction was optimized under our own laboratory condition for the detection of alpha and epsilon toxins of Clostridium perfringens type D from different tissues. Alpha gene was amplified at annealing temperature 52.2oC with amplicon size 247bp and ETX gene at the annealing temperature. 50.2oC with amplicon size 665bp. The erythrocytes of different species were used to know the sensitivity against culture supernatants of C. perfringens type D. It was observed maximum hemolysis occurred in human erythrocytes (68%) followed by mice (57%) at 37oC. It was also recorded that a significant increase was found at 37oC as compared to25oC except for dog and rabbits where no significant difference was observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1596,T] (1).

6. Cytotoxic Efects Of Saw-Scaled Viper Snake Venom On Brain, Heart, Liver And Hematological Parameters Of Albino

by Amara Mushtaq | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1783,T] (1).

7. A Study On Immunomodulatory Effect Of Nigella Sativa And Allium Sativum Against Escherichia Coli Infection In Broiler Birds

by Fiza Ahmad | Dr Muhammad yasin tipu | Dr. Muti-ur- rehman khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2022,T] (1).

8. Esponse Of Lymphatic Tissues To Dietary Supplementation Of Nigella Sativa And Curcuma Longa In Broilers Challenged With Pasteurella Multocida (strain A)

by Muhammad Akmal raheem | DR. Muhammad Yasin tipu | Dr. Muti ur rehman khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2050,T] (1).

9. Study On The Pathogenesis Of Co-Infection Of Infectious Bronchitis (Ibv) And Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) In Experimental Chickens

by Sohail Khan (2013-VA-606) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Infectious bronchitis and colibacillosis are infectious diseases affecting chicken of all ages and breeds. They are of major economic importance in commercial chicken flocks, causing huge losses. As both in humans and animals it is well documented that preceding respiratory infection of virus predispose individual to bacterial infection. Moreover, mix infection in poultry which occur when different organisms simultaneously invade birds is a major threat to poultry industry causes highly epidemic debilitating disease with high mortality which eventually leads to economic catastrophe. In recent past prevalence studies of field, E. coli had been reported with high prevalence and exaggerated disease along with other respiratory pathogens, additionally IBV had also isolated from same flocks in same season. Although a plethora of pioneering work had been done on IBV and E. coli in the previous decades but still a window in time exist in revealing there co-infection. Looking to field scenario in our country, the present study was designed to study an ideal challenge model for IBV and E. coli, by reproducing the natural infection. 80 SPF day old broiler birds were arranged into four groups, (A, B, C and D). Each group was comprised of 20 birds. Group D served as uninoculated control while, Group A and B were challenged with IBV on 23rd day of trails, and Group B and C were inoculated with E. coli infection on day 26th. Birds, (n=3) from each group were slaughtered on various days post infection, gross and histopathological lesions were observed and serum samples for HI were taken, throughout experiment. Variable clinical signs were recorded in various groups. In IBV infected group, respiratory distress i.e., tracheal rales, coughing, sneezing and gasping were noted during early stages, later up to 10 days post infection watery diarrhea with ruffled feathers were observed. In mix infected group clinical signs manifested rapidly and were persistent with high severity. Gross lesions in mixed infection were more profound, Summary 56 including; airsacullitis, tracheitis with catarrhal exudation throughout respiratory tract; severe sepicemic lesions i.e. perihepaitis, pericarditis, pneumonia and polyserositis with swollen and pale kidneys distended by urates. 5 birds died in mix infected group revealed ascites with asphyxiation of trachea with caseous exudate. While in IBV infected group lesions were mild and confined to trachea, airsac and kidneys. Mortality was high in mix infected followed by IBV in which two birds died. While in E. coli and control group mortality were not noted. Histopathological lesions in mix infected group were aggravated markedly tracheal epithelium degeneration, deciliation and sloughing; congestion, interstitial nephritis, leukocytes infiltration, tubular degeneration and necrosis while were observed. In lungs, pneumonia of peribronchiolar area and interstitium with lymphocyte and macrophages infiltration, additionally degeneration and vacuolization of hepatocytes with focal necrotic areas were also noted. In IBV and E. coli group microscopic lesions were of mild degree. GMT of both IBV and mix infected birds were high but were not significant different (P>0.05). Among the groups, statistically significant increase in FCR of birds in mix infected group was observed followed by E. coli, with IBV infected came third in the row. On the bases of these findings we might conclude that mix infection of IBV and E. coli causes severe lesions with high morbidity and mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2306-T] (1).

10. Pathological Investigation And Molecular Detection Of Avian Pathogenic E.Coli Serogroups In Broiler Birds

by Muhammad Azeem Riaz (2008-VA-132) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was designed to identify the serogroups present in field and to study their pathological effects in experimentally infected broiler chicks. The present study was attempted to scan the rfb gene clusters in APEC predominant serotypes O1, O2 and O78 strains and to develop Multiplex PCR method for serotyping of the O-antigens. The Multiplex PCR method was used for the identification of serotypes of APEC. The second part of the study was to study the pathological lesions caused by most prevalent serogroup in experimentally infected broiler chicks. A total of 100 tissue samples (lungs and livers) were collected from colibacillosis suspected broiler birds. Streaking was done from these samples on three different media and it was found that 80% isolates were positive on MacConkey media, 60% were positive on EMB media and 40% were found pathogenic for E.coli on Congo red media. The colonies which were of pink color on congo red media were considered as pathogenic. DNA was extracted from these colonies by boiling method by picking single colony from each petri plate. Extracted DNA was further used for PCR to confirm the three serogroups i.e O1, O2 and O78. The PCR results showed that 8% isolated samples were found as pathogenic as O2 strain was found dominant among all. Only two genomic DNA samples were found of O1 serogroup After confirmation of serogroups inoculum of Avian pathogenic E.coli O2 strain was prepared to experimentally infect the broiler birds. Birds were infected at the age of day 7 via intratracheal route. Following the experimental infection of birds, they were monitored for any pathological lesions which were not present significantly while some birds were off feed, reluctant to move, head down posture and were keeping themselves in isolation. Summary 46 Postmortem of dead birds was performed and pathological lesions were noted. Livers were found to be congested, enlarged and white fibrinous layer over liver was present. Lungs were also affected with the disease and white layer was present on lungs too. Lungs were consolidated and congested. Histopathology of lungs and livers was performed. It was noted that there was mononuclear cells infiltration and thin fibrinous layer over liver. Thickening of the liver capsule was noted due to infiltration of mononuclear cells and there was marked congestion in hepatic portal areas and the central vein. There was atrophy of adjoining hepatic cords due to greatly distended and congested sinusoids. Besides these changes, hepatocytes in various stages of degeneration along with hemorrhages, areas of congestion and fatty changes in a few places could be seen. There was infiltration of heterophils, severe congestion, lymphocytes and macrophages in the wall of the bronchus as well as in the peribronchial alveoli. There was marked presence of granuloma in lungs. Some birds displayed thickening of the pleura and consolidated areas covered with yellowish fibrin in lungs. The experimental infection of avian pathogenic E.coli confirmed the hypothesis that it causes pronounced histopathological lesions in broiler birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2591-T] (1).

11. Comparative Efficacy Of Advanced Surgical Hemostats In The Canine Hepatotomy

by Syed Waseem Abbas Ali Shah (2009-VA-168) | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Prof. Dr. M.Arif Khan | Dr. Muti -ur- Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The liver is a very complex and largest organ of the body. It has role in body metabolism, filtration of blood, synthesis of plasma protein, hormone production, and it is most vital organ of body. The liver has an excellent ability to recover from injury and regenerate new tissues. Liver is a highly vascularized organ and chances of bleeding are very high in hepatic surgeries. Liver is directly supplied by hepatic artery and drained by portal vein. We often come across certain problems in liver which require surgery. When an incision is given in liver there is a high risk of bleeding. In severe cases animal can lead to death due to hypovolemic shock. In this study we used latest and most advanced hemostatic agents by using Surgicel Snow and Surgicel Fibrillar to control bleeding during hepatotomy in dogs. These hemostats are affordable, safe, reliable and convenient. Considering the significance of hemostasis in surgical interventions, this project was designed to compare the advance hemostatic agents e.g. Surgicel Snow, Surgicel Fibrillar and sterile Surgical Gauzes. This study helped us to identify the best method that can be used for future surgical interventions in dogs, with the aim to minimize surgical bleeding in liver surgeries to accentuate early recovery. Conclusion On the basis of findings of this study: it was concluded Surgicel Snow is best hemostat than Surgical Fibrillar. It is the best hemostat with minimum blood loss and least effects on liver function. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2658-T] (1).

12. Effect Of Unilateral And Bilateral Thyroidectomy On Hormonal And Biochemical Parameters In Dogs

by Mehmood Ur Rehman (2009-VA-177) | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Prof. Dr.M.Arif Khan | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Thyroid gland is one of the most important endocrine gland of animal body. T3 and T4 are two major hormones secreted by thyroid gland. These hormones have a major role in metabolism of cells and organs. In normal thyroid both these hormones have anabolic effect. Thyroid tumors account for 1.2-3.8 % of all types of tumors in dogs. Unilateral, bilateral or subtotal thyroidectomies are practiced to remove benign or malignant thyroid carcinomas. The present study was conducted on 12 mongrel dogs. These dogs were rendered to 3 groups with 4 dogs in each group. One group acted as control, in which no surgery was performed, second group underwent unilateral removal of thyroid gland while the third group underwent bilateral removal of thyroid gland. Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone level, calcium, W.B.Cs, R.B.Cs and haemoglobin concentration were monitored for 21 days post-operatively. The data was expressed as mean and standard deviation. Results of the study were analysed by 2 samples T-test, one way ANOVA using multiple comparison test on SPSS version 16.0. Based on these results it was concluded that bilateral thyroidectomy was effective in relieving hyperthyroidism but there is a need to immediately initiate levothyroxine therapy. Free T4 level drops near to zero by day 21 and TSH level rises by many folds. On the other hand, in unilateral procedure Free T4 level remain in normal range and 75% of dogs require no levothyroxine therapy. Level of calcium in unilateral and bilateral thyroid removal remains within normal range provided parathyroid glands are preserved properly. Haemoglobin concentration in both the procedures is reduced significantly postoperatively. There is a need to monitor blood parameters postoperatively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2657-T] (1).

13. Use Of Xylazine And Detomidine Alone And With Ketamine Anesthesia For Caponization In Pigeons

by Ahtzaz Haider (2009-VA-413) | Prof. Dr. M.Arif Khan | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Dr. Muti -ur- Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: For this study, (16) sixteen pigeons were selected, the birds were allocated into four treatment groups i.e. Group A, Group B, Group C and Group D, with 4 birds each. In group A, after surgical preparation, birds were given xylazine injection intramuscularly at dose rate of 16mg per kg body weight. In group B, birds were given detomidine injection intramuscularly at dose rate of 1.4mg per kg body weight. In group C, birds were given ketamine-xylazine injection intramuscularly at the dose rate of 30mg and 8mg per kg body weight respectively. In group D, birds were given ketamine-detomidine injection with the dose rate of 30mg and 0.7mg per kg body weight respectively. While regularly checking reflexes after short intervals of time. After achieving of the surgical stage of anesthesia, the surgical operation was beginning. The data was analyzed by One Way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The purpose of designed research was to compare the efficacy of anaesthesia alone and with the combination of the other anaesthesia during the surgery of the pigeons. Different parameters were used to check the efficiency of the anaesthesia. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months’ duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Conclusion The verdict based explanations for better and reliable anaesthetic combination used in pigeons and to evaluate safe anaesthetic combination and to find ideal pre anaesthetic with minimum effects. We concluded that detomidine alone can be used just for non-surgical 40 procedures because it produces the light sedation but superficial analgesia with smooth induction and recovery but xylazine can also be used if detomidine is not available. Xylazine produces superficial analgesia and light sedation but for the short time comparatively. For major and minor surgeries both combinations of ketamine i.e. (K-Xp) and (K-Dp) are more reliable and safe. Both cocktails produce the deep analgesia and anaesthesia as well, with rapid and smooth induction and recovery. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2684-T] (1).

14. Pathological Effects Of Natural And Experimental Lead (Pb) Toxicity In Lohi Sheep At Jhang, Pakistan

by Muhammad Sajid (2010VA-61) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Heavy metal toxicity is increasing due to increasing trends of urbanization and industrialization. Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. It is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic for animals and human. Sewerage water, fertilizers, leaded-gasoline and lead based batteries are the sources of lead contamination in soil and forage. The lead particles are taken up by animals from contaminated forages and excreted in animal products like milk and meat. The presence of Pb in drinking water, waste water, plant products and animal products has been studied which is a serious risk for animal and public health. The legislations for the disposal of household wastes and industrial effluents are very poor in Pakistan. The calculation of safe Pb levels in different products is still to be needed. Pathological effects of higher Pb levels have not been studied in Pakistan. The present study was aimed to unveil the toxic effects at constant dose of Pb over a period of three months in a local sheep breed of Pakistan. The status of Pb toxicity was also investigated in a polluted area around sewage drain and mutton slaughter house at District Jhang, Pakistan. The Pb concentration in soil, forage and irrigating water was found to be below the permissible limits and was safe for agriculture but long-term ingestion of low Pb concentration may have cumulative effect. The serum Pb concentration was found to be above the recommended safe limits for producing Pb toxicity in animals. The different tissues like kidney, liver and skeletal muscles also contained higher Pb level from the permissible limits and found to be unsafe for public use. Kidney showed the highest Pb concentration and the muscle contained the least Pb level in the present study. Summary 142 The erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume showed inverse correlation with Pb concentration and mean values were below the normal range in Pb treated sheep but anemia was not developed. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was also influenced by given dose of lead acetate during third month of treatment. The white blood cells also revealed no effect on given dose of lead acetate in Lohi sheep in this study. The biochemical parameters of field and treatment group showed higher concentration as compared to control group of Lohi sheep but their means were falling within the normal range of reference values. The disturbed biochemical parameters in apparently healthy sheep with higher serum Pb concentration were indicative for liver and kidney damage. Lohi sheep exhibited less effect on given dose of lead acetate during first two months but more pronounced changes of chronic Pb toxicity were observed during last month of trial. The histological changes were not observed on early period in lead acetated treated sheep. The characteristic histological changes were observed on last slaughtering at day 90 in kidney and liver including degeneration and focal areas of necrosis, dilatation of blood vessels with accumulation of red blood cells and fibrosis in some areas. The nuclear changes were more typical with intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal tubular epithelial cells but less distinguishable in hepatocytes. It was concluded that soil, forage and water contained low Pb levels in the study area. The ingestion of low Pb level for longer period had cumulative effect in animals. The animals might be resistant to low Pb level but their products are a severe risk for public health. So the necessary measures should be adopted to minimize the heavy metal contamination in animal products. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2820-T] (1).

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