Effect Of Different Salinity On The Growth And Survival Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Reared in Cemented Tanks
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: The experiment was conducted to study the effect of different salinity levels on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nhloticus) in cemented tanks having dimensions 2.896x0.762x0.914 meters (length x width x depth) or 2.018 cubic meters for three months (thirteen weeks). There were four treatments and a control; each having two replicate and 15 fish was stocked in each replicate. At the time of stocking, the average body weight of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nhloticus) was 23.0±3.51 and 23.2±3.78, 22.2±2.98 and 22.8±416, 22.9±3.69 and 22.9±3.09, 24.7±4.50 and 23.1±4.98, 24.3±4.51 and 25.0±5.36 (g) in control, treatment 1, treatment 2, treatment 3 arid treatment 4 (Tank I and Tank2 of each treatment), respectively. Fish were regularly fed at the rate of 4% of its body weight on daily basis and growth parameters viz., increase in body weight and total length of fish were monitored on weekly basis. After recording data, fishes were released back into their respective tank. At the end of experiment the average body weight of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nhloticus) was 43.2±4.87 and 38.7±5.47, 47.4±5.24 and 44.6±7.24, 48.8±7.33 and 44.4±6.54, 48.4±6.80 and 44.4±8.68, and 48.1±7.87 and 50.4±9.67 (g) in control, treatment 1, treatment 2, treatment 3 and treatment 4 (Tankl and Tank2), respectively. Physico-chemical characteristics viz., water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH electrical conductivity (EC) were also monitored on the daily basis. Better growth performance in terms a average weight gain (g) and average length gain (cm) was seen in treatment containing highest salinity level viz. 4000 ppm. Better food conversion ratio (FCR) was found in 1600 ppm salinity level and increases with increased salinity level. Feed intake was kept lowest at lowest level of salinity i.e. 800 ppm which linearly increases with increasing levels of salinity. It was noted that at high salinity the growth of Nile tilapia showed improved growth potential. This might be due to better ionic balance and improved acid-base balance in the body which leads to better performance. Physico-chemical characteristics viz., temperature, conductivity and pH showed positive and significant correlation but DO showed significant negative correlation on body weight and length, but correlation among both response parameters (weight with length) was significantly positive.
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Determination Of Feed Digestibility And Growth Performance Of Indian Major Carps (Catla Catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala And Labeo Rohita) Reared Under Similar Feeding Conditions
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Artificial feed plays an important role in semi-intensive fish farming, where density of fish is high. Fish feed development is the least developed sector in aquaculture, particularly in third world countries. The formulation of nutritionally balanced and acceptable diet for fish feed is possible only if information regarding its digestibility is available. It is well known that these two parameters, nutritionally balanced diet and its digestibility, play a key role for the development of artificial feed for fish. Determination of nutrient digestibility is the first step in evaluating the potential of an ingredient for use in the diet of reared species. Information on digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients is very useful not only to enable formulation of diets that maximize fish growth by providing appropriate amounts of available nutrients but also to reduce fish wastes.
The present study was therefore, designed to find out the digestibility of nutritionally balanced diet that contains cheap and easily available ingredients. The experimental and reference diets were evaluated for comparative growth and diet utilization efficiency in three Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus rnrigala). The highest weight gain was observed in the Cirrhinus miri gala (20.57 ± 2.8 g & 0.7 ± 0.4 cm) followed by Labeo rohita (19.17 ± 3.02g & 1.1 ± 0.4 cm) and Catla catla (19.23 ± 3.Og & 0.4 ± 0.3cm), with the experimental or test diet (TD). The lowest growth was also observed in the Catla catla (14.6 ± 3.8 g & 0.2 ± 0.1cm) with reference diet (RD). Growth, FCR and digestibility of nutrients (Protein, EE, DE) were assessed. Proximate analysis (i.e., crude protein, gross energy, dry matter and marker estimation) of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. The highest protein digestibility was observed in Labeo rohita (83.4±3.5%) followed by Cirrhinus mn gala (82.2 ± 4.2) and Catla catla (81.8± 4.6%) The over all digestibility's of nutrients was higher for experimental diet in three fish species i.e. crude protein (84.4 ± 2.1), dry matter (33.3 ± 8.4), crude fat (82.1± 3.1) and gross energy (61.0 ± 5.1). Nutrient digestibility of reference diet were lower (crude protein 77.2 ± 1.3, dry matter 53.0 ± 3.0, crude fat 78.7 ± 0.58 and gross energy 58.3 ± 4.5) as compared to the experimental diet.
Similarly the FCR and FCE values for experimental diet (3.1 ± 0.12 and 32.4 ± 0.69) were better than the reference diet (3.8 ± 0.06 and 25.6 ± 0.58). Among three fish species the Cirrlzinus miri gala has better FCR and FCE (3.4 ± 0.57 and 29.6 ± 5.1) followed by Cat/a catla (3.5 ± 0.42 and 29 ±.0 4.2) and Labeo rohita (3.5 ± 0.49 and 28.5 ± 4.95), respectively. FCR and FCE ratios for reference diet was the lowest in the Labeo rohita (3.9 and 25.0), whereas Cirrhinus mrigala and Cat/a cat/a showed similar ratios (3.8 0 and 26.0), respectively.
Key physico-chemical parameters viz, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, were regularly monitored during the study period. All the parameters showed positive significant correlation with each other except DO which showed negative significant correlation. The correlation of physico-chemical parameters with growth was negatively significant whereas positive correlation was observed between DO and growths indicating that DO have a significant effect on the growth.
The over all results showed that the experimental diet (40% protein level) has better growth and nutrient digestibility as compared to the reference diet (24.5% protein level) which resulted poorer growth and digestibility values.
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Prevalence And Effects Of Lernaea Spp. (Anchor Worm) On The Growth, Skin Histopathology And Hematology Of Catla
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The experiment was conducted for the duration of three months in four earthen ponds each having dimension 21 xl 3. 5x2. I m (length x width x depth) to evaluate the prevalence of Lernaea spp. and its effects on the growth of Catla catla (Thaila) and hematology and skin. The data regarding the growth performance, Lernaea and ulceration prevalence of fish was recorded on fortnightly basis. The parasite was individually collected from each fish in all four ponds after fifleen days and a detailed microscopic examination of all individuals was done. The species found in the pond fish was identified as the Lernaea cyprincaea.
Our results show the highest weight gain was observed in the pond 4 (413.7 g) followed by pond 2 (378.7 g) and pond 1 (359.8 g), and pond 3 showed the lowest weight gain (357.8 g). There was no significant difference between weight gains of Catla catla irrespective of the prevalence of lernaea species. The highest length increment was observed in the pond 2 (17.5 cm) followed by pond 1 (14.04 cm) and pond 3 (12.1). The lowcst length increment was in pond 4 (11.89 cm). There was no significant difference between initial and final length gain of Catla caila irrespective of the prevalence of lernaea species infestation in all ponds.
At the start of studies there was no infestation of lernaea on thaila. Fish was healthy and fast growing but after fifteen days of stocking L. cyprincaea infestation was observed. infestation was observed in all ponds. There was gradual increase in the rate of infestation till half of the experimental duration irrespective of the environmental changes in all ponds. Increase in the L. cyprincaea percentage in first half of the study was from 20.51% - 36.25% in pond no.1, 17.75% -25.25% in pond no.2, 6.5% - 10% in pond no.3 and 14.75% - 13.1% in pond no.4. In the second half of the experiment fish was treated with KMnO4 @ 1 ppm and common salt @ 1% of total water volume in the second half of the experiment there was a gradual decrease in the lernaea percentage due to treatment. However, the proliferation of the lernaea remained after some time of the treatment, although the lernaea percentage was decreased at the end of study. Decrease in the second half of the study was from 6.9%-5% in pond no.1, 5% - 6.45% in pond no.2, 10.83% -5% in pond no.3 and 5.7% - 5% in pond no. 4. The percentage of L. cyprinacea infestation was compared and there was significant increase in the percentage of Lernaea with the passage of time. However, after the treatment there was a significant decrease in the Lernaea percentage at the end of study. The ulceration percentage in fish was also studied in relation to the Lernaea prevalence and it showed good correspondence and higher the prevalence with higher the ulceration was observed. The ulceration percentage showed a significant difference with respect to time.
The histopathological studies of thaila showed a vast difference b/w healthy and lernaeid fish skin. Healthy thaila skin has no change and variation in its structure while lernaeid thaila skin showed deep variation and ulceration. Skin burst from epidermis and cutis till lower connective tissues.
Study of hematological parameters of lernaeid and non lernaeid fish blood exhibited a significant decreased in Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Basophils, Monocytes and Thrombocytes count duration of the blood collection was four months. With respect to duration of exposure to parasites significant increase in the Hb and ESR and decrease in TEC, TLC, PCV and DLC show significant severity of parasitic infection.
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Variation Of The Primary And Secondary Productivity In Monoculture And Polyculture System Of Fish Pond
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The present study was planned to check the primary and secondary productivity of fish
ponds. The primary productivity was checked by the estimation of chlorophyll-a and
abundance and diversity of phytoplankton in fish pond, the secondary productivity was
studied by identifying and counting the species of zooplankton. Sample were obtained
from treated and controlled ponds; in treated ponds in addition to periodic fertilization of
ponds, supplementary experimental fish feed was provided but in controlled ponds only
fertilizers (organic and inorganic) was applied to enrich the productivity. This study
provides a comparison of the effect of fish feed on plankton productivity. Data were
obtained on weekly basis during l " September to 31 November and on daily basis from
I st November to is" November. The data were collected weekly for chlorophyll
concentrations in fish ponds and fortnightly for phytoplankton and zooplankton
abundance and diversity and were related with the physico-chemical parameter. The
amount of chlorophyll a pigment and plankton abundance in treated and control pond of
Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita was observed. It was high in pond
containing Cirrhinus mrigala ranging from 2.056-4.421 IJ.g/L in pond containing Catla
catla it was low (ranging from 0.313-0.768 IJ.g/L). It was observed those ponds that were
treated although showed significantly higher chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton and
zooplanktons but fish was keeping the biomass grazed and there were no blooms of
phytoplankton were observed after the application of fertilizer. Data obtained weekly as well as every day showed a decrease in the level of chlorophyll
with the time. It was high in the treated ponds compared to control pond however the decreasing trend remained same. Primary productivity as studied from chlorophyll was
significantly difference in the ponds with Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 40.14**) and was non
significant in ponds with Labeo rohita ( F = 2.9SNS) and Catla catla (0.75NS) when
studied weekly and chlorophyll concentration values when observed daily showed
Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 52.91 **) Labeo rohita ( F = 20.00**) and Catla catla (11.73*)
all were significantly different and were higher in treated ponds in comparison to control
ponds. The diversity indices for phytoplankton and zooplankton distribution abundance
were estimated for treated and control ponds with different species of fish (Cirrhinus
mrigala, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). Higher values of diversity (H' =),
equitability (E =) and Simpson index (D= ) was observed in treated pond of Cirrhinus
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