Prevalence Of Caprine Mycoplasmosis In Different Areas Of Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007. For this purpose a total of 1440 different samples such as nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung piece, synovial fluid, and milk samples (1180), and 260 serum samples were collected from clinically affected goats of different breeds, age and sex. These samples were collected from twelve districts including Mansehra, Peshwar, Swabi, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Pishin, Jhang, Sargodha, Lahore and Faisalabad with 6 union councils (UC) in each district. Twenty samples of different nature were collected from each of union council. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, Growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One twenty one samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth whereas out of these 121 samples 58 grew on PPLO agar. All 58 field isolated organisms showed positive reaction to GIT. None of the serum sample showed a positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five samples out of 1180 prior to culturing were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing, whereas 58 samples were positive with this technique after culturing. Prevalence of mycoplasmosis in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5 % respectively) is not significantly higher as compared to semi desert and sub hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9 % respectively) which may be due to chance alone. Furthermore, the adult group-3 (age > 1 year) has significantly lowest prevalence (2.7 %) of Mmc as compared to age group-1 (age < 181 days) with 5.1 % prevalance and age group-2 (age: 181 to 365 days) with 4.4 % prevalence. This difference may be due to chance but not areal difference. Similarly prevalence (4.7%) of mycoplasmosis in female goats is not significantly higher as compared to males (3.2%). Beetal, Piamiri, Beetal teddy cross, Baltistani and Desi breeds of goats showed higher prevalence only by chance as compared to other breeds in the areas under study. Saponin inactivated vaccine was prepared from this field strain and found to be effective against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goats. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4+, CD8+, and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 ºC, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsintreated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed.
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Study Of Canine Parvovirus In Dogs And Its Chemotherapy
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: There were one hundred cases of dogs showing the clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection like bloody diarrhea, vomiting and emaciationwhich were selected randomly. All the cases were confirmed by HA and HI test. Disease occurrence was found to be 55%. There were 55 samples found to be positive and 45 samples were found to be negative for canine parvovirus. The incidences of the disease in German shepherd was highest (38%) followed by other breeds Labrador, Rottweiler, Pointer, Cross, Russian and Local breeds which were 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4% and 3% respectively. Similarly, disease occurrence in non-vaccinated dogs was higher thanvaccinated.The disease was more prevalent in non-vaccinated dogs as compared to the vaccinated dogs. So, vaccination provides sufficient immunity against canine parvovirus. Male dogs were more affected by canine parvovirus than female dogs. Occurrence of the disease in the age of 1-3 months was the highest. Pups were more affected than the older dogs. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in the male and female were found to 60% and 43.5% respectively. Disease occurrence of canine parvovirus in September, October and November was found to be 55%, 52.5% and 56% respectively. Blood samples were collected at day 0(before the treatment) and on the day 5 (after the treatment) and analysis was done in UDL, Lahore. Four different kinds of treatment protocols were compared on the basis of hematological improvement, days of hospitalization and the cost of treatment. Of the four groups hyperimune serum when used with normal saline was found to be more effective. It was found that improvement in the leucocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocytes and platelets with P <0.05. SAFI syrup with supportive therapy was the second effective treatment with P >0.05. Supportive treatment alone was not effective for hematological recovery P > 0.05. It had also increased the cost of treatment, and duration of treatment for canine parvovirus infection. So, hyper immune serum and normal saline is the effective treatment for canine parvovirus infection.
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Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Trypanasomiasis In Camels In Balochistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Trypanosomiasis (Surra or Rotten disease) is a disease of animals such as cattle, buffalo,
horses and camels caused by protozoan parasite of mammalian blood. In camels, the clinical
manifestations of trypanosomiasis by T. evansi can be acute or chronic. The rypanosomiasis
symptoms include fever, emaciation, anemia, weight loss, edema, lymphadenomegaly,
conjunctivitis and occasionally sudden death of animal. However, the diagnosis of disease
always remains a challenge for veterinarians and animal healthcare professionals, since the
parasitemia is often very low in a majority of infections.
Keeping in view the importance of Trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to
evaluate the present status of Trypanosomiasis in Province Balochistan of Pakistan. The two
districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi with thick populations of camels and have different climate
and geographical distribution were selected. The questionnaire was developed for survey of
Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of
community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment
facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic
losses were collected. A total of one thousands and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents
from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa
khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011.
In first experiment, a total of 1600 blood samples were randomly collected from camel
population of both districts i.e. 800 camels from each districts. Camels were sub-grouped
according to sex (male and female) and age (upto 2 years, 2-3 years and above 4 years). Blood
samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR
for confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The blood samples were also processed for hematological
studies to evaluate the effect of Trypanosomiasis on different blood parameters. The blood smear
examination showed prevalence of 11.87 percent (95 out of 800 samples) in District Musa Khail
and 17.12 percent (137 out of 800 samples) in district Jhal Magsi, indicating higher prevalence in
hot climate when compared with cold climate. However, the higher prevalence in females,
animals aged above 4 years and during summer season in both districts.
In second experiment, the prevalence of trypanosomiasis was recorded through PCR
amplification in 200 samples (100 from each Districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi). The
prevalence was found to be 25 percent in District Musa Khail and 39 percent in District Jhal
Magsi. PCR test proved to be most sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis and
confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The hematological tests including hemogram, lecucogram,
serum protein, and serum electrolyte and serum enzyme showed fluctuation from its normal
ranges. Moreover, hemogram (RBC, PCV and Hb) showed significant decrease than the normal
values while in Leucogram showed significant increase than normal values.
In third experiment chemotherapy trials on 25 camels divided in 5 groups A, B, C, D and E were
conducted. Single dose of anti-trypanosome drug (Samorin) Isometamidium chloride @ dose
0.5mg/kg deep I/M to group A. Dried leaves of Azadirachtaindica (Neem) @ 60 gm/animal, to
group B. Dried and grind fruits of CitrilisColocynthis (L) Schard @ 50gm/animal, to group C.
Group D was control diseased and Group E was control healthy group. Blood samples were
collected post-treatment at 2nd, 7th and 12th day and the changes in blood picture were analyzed.
The efficacy of drug and plant extract was tested after 72 hours of treatment. Blood samples
were collected from group A, B and C and processed for amplification of PCR. Results of
allopathic showed 100 percent efficacy while result of plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed
60 percent t efficacy by amplification of PCR. In group C plant Citrullus Collocynthis showed no
In third experiment, the direct as well as indirect economic losses due to camel Trypanosomiasis
based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the
respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses and
invisible losses include reduced fertility, meat loss, low quality of hide, loss of draught power
and traction force and change in herd. While, indirect losses include additional costs of drugs,
veterinarian fee, preventive medicine and quarantine.
The respondents were grouped according to type of communities as Nomads spend
summer in Afghanistan (uplands) and back to Pakistan (lowland) in winter. Hence, their camels
harbor Trypanosomiasis from one border to another border and present trans-boundary impact of
the disease. The present study demonstrates that the respondents above the age of 50 years were
more experienced in disease diagnosis and use of traditional veterinary practices. The settled and
transhumants communities had easy access to government hospitals and private veterinary
clinics while nomads mostly rely on the use of traditional veterinary practices. The most
common prevailing diseases of camel according to respondents were pneumonia, indigestion,
parasitic infestation, mange, lameness, Trypanosomiasis, vector fly and nervous disorders. The
most common clinical signs of camel Trypanosomiasis hyperthermia, anemia, depression,
dullness, emaciation, edema (in dependent parts of body), abortion, nervous signs, circling
movements, trembling, unusual aggressiveness and aimless running were recorded.
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