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1. Bacteriological Examination Of Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Milk With Particular Reference To Public Health

by Muhammad Ishaq | Dr. masood Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. M. Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present research was envisaged to study the bacteriological profile of raw camel's milk. A total of 50 milk samples were collected directly from the udders of healthy she-camels from various areas of Punjab and were examined for total viable counts (TVC), coliform counts (CC), effect of storage period on total viable counts and coliform counts, using milk ring test (MRT) for brucellosis and In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity tests for the isolates. All the samples were found negative for milk ring test (MRT) and hence for Brucella abortus. Standard plate count was in the range of 1 .39x 10 to 2. 13x107 c.f.u./ml. The mean standard plate count remained 2. 1x106 C. f. u. /ml. The coliform count was in the range of 3 . 2x iO to 5 . 9x104 c . f.u.Iml. The overall mean for coliforms count remained 3 . 9x104 c . f.u . /ml. The effect of storage period on standard plate count upto 12 hours was zero. At 24 hours, increase was not very high and it remained in the range of 0.008 % to 1.72% organisms per ml of milk. At 36 hours increase was in the range of 0.008% to 4.95%. Similarly the effect of storage period on coliform count was studied and it showed no increase in the number of organisms per ml upto 12 hours of storage. At 24 hours coliform count increase was in the range of 1.75% to 6.06% organisms/mi. At 36 hours, increase was in the range of 2.38 % to 9.09% organisms/mi. It showed that the storage period had no serious effect on the standard plate count and coliform count. Standard plate count (SPC) showed that 48 % samples gave between 1 .01x105 - 9.5x105 organisms per ml. which was not according to international standard of good quality raw milk. Of the total samples, 42 % gave the coliform count between 3 .2x103 - 6.2x103 organisms per ml which fulfilled the international standard of good quality raw milk. Different types of colonies on milk agar, nutrient agar and MacConkey's agar were purified and identified. The species isolated from all the milk samples included; Staphylococcus aureus (14 strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 strains), Escherichia coli (16 strains), Lactobacillusfermentum (4 strains) , Lactobacillus casei (12 strains), Bacillus cereus (10 strains), Bacillus subtilis (6 strains), Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains) and Neisseria mucosa (4-strains). In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity of different antibiotics with known concentrations was studied. Results showed that all of the isolated organisms were resistant to oxytetracycline, ampicillin and followed by penicillin while most of the organisms were sensitive to gentamycin, followed by chioramphenicol, kanamycin and streptomycin. Escherichia coli was resistant to all the antibiotics used while gave intermediate results by gentamycin and penicillin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0789,T] (1).

2. Haematologial And Immunological Effects Of Naturally Occurring Probiotic (Yogurt) And Garlic Supplementation On Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease

by Muhammad Ishaq | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present project was undertaken to study the various hematological. immunological and gross/histopathological parameters in ND vaccinated chicks with different supplementation of yogurt and garlic. For this purpose one hundred twenty-six day old broiler chicks were divided into three experimental groups A, B and C. each having 42 chicks per group. The group B and C \\ere Further subdivided into 3 groups yl, y2, y3 and gi, g2. g3 respectively comprising of 14 chicks per group having different supplementation of yogurt and garlic respectively, while group A was kept as a control and fed basal diet having no supplementation. Our result showed that yogurt augmented serological response and help in increasing HI antibody titer in which 200 gm yogurt showed immense potential in increasing HI titer until last day of experiment. All levels of Garlic group augmented serological response in term of antibody titer hut remain statistically insigni flcant in increasing HI titer.The heterophil population and I I/L ratio was also improved in both yogurt and garlic groups however 40 grn garlic fed group showed a better response in increasing hctcrophil population. TLC remains insignificant both at treatment and levels throughout the experiment. Body weight gain and FCR was also improved with yogurt and garlic supplementation however 200 gm yogurt showed a curvilinear response over the range of yogurt bd levels. Yogurt and garlic supplementation also showed improvement in the development of immune organ such as spleen, thymus and liver, their I listological examination revealed that an increase in supplementation of yogurt and garlic have no lethal effect upon morphological structure of these organs. In conclusion, yogurt as a probiotic and garlic as a growth promoter agent displayed a greater efficacy in increasing HI titer, heterophils population and improving productive performqnce of broilers in which 200 gm yougurt/kg diet group and 40gm garlic/kg diet showed an immense potential in improving above traits, so their use in broiler diet should be considered instead of using costly commercial probiotics and antibiotics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1229,T] (1).

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