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1. Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs

by Hafiz Kashif Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1533,T] (1).

2. Clinico-Biochemical Study On Xylazine Ketamine And Isoflurane Anesthesia In Rabbits Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

by Muhammad Kashif maan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla gul bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1902,T] (1).

3. Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials Against Bovine Fasciolosis In And Around Okara

by Hafiz Farooq Ahmad (2008-VA-93) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Waseem Shahzad | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Agriculture sector plays a pivotal role in the economy of Pakistan. At present it participates 11.4% to GDP. Agriculture provides 45% employment to labour of our country and contributes in the development of other sectors of the economy. The livestock sector occupies a distinguishing position in the National Agenda of economic development. It provides net source of foreign income. In the history livestock has been dominated by small holders to meet their needs of milk, food safety and cash earnings on daily basis. Besides, livestock is considered a source of employment generation at rural level. It plays an important role in poverty mitigation and keeps in elevating the socio-economic situation of our rural commonalities. Livestock share approximately 55.4 percent to the agricultural value added and 11.9 percent to national GDP during 2013-14. Anonymous (2013-14). Parasitism is one of the major problems lowering livestock productivity round the earth Vercruysse and Claerebout et al. (2001). The significance of helminthes infections is increased manifold in developing countries like Pakistan where 65.2% population is rural (Population Census Organization (2007) depending upon livestock for their incomes and where parasitism acts as a serious trouble for livestock economy Chaudhry et al. (1984). Among helminthes infections, fasciolosis commonly called as liver fluke disease is of vital importance due to its wider spectrum of ultimate hosts Rondelaud et al. (2001) causing acute and chronic infections Sampaio-Silva et al. (1996). The disease is primarily caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica Soulsby et al. (1987). Fasciolosis is a parasitic liver infection of wild and domestic ruminants caused by genus Fasciola, which has worldwide distribution Soulsby et al. (1986). Fasciolosis causes economic losses as a result of mortalities, abortions, retard growth, reduced milk and meat production, condemnation of infected liver and emaciated carcasses and cost of animal treatment Gracey and Collins et al. (1992). Fasciolosis caused by F. hepatica is a cause of important economic losses in ruminants. The disease is widely spread throughout in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Although mostly a problem of young stock, the disease is also found in older animals where it adversely affects health, growth rate and development. Apart from its great veterinary importance throughout the world, fasciolosis caused by both F. hepatica and F. gigantica has recently been shown to be a re-emerging and wide spread zoonosis affecting a number of human populations Mas-Coma and Bargues et al. (1997); Esteban et al. (2003). Prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes is 49.01%. The infestation of fasciolosis was optimal from January to September, while least during October to December. Fecal samples indicated F. hepatica prevalence 65%. Whereas prevalence of F. gigantica was observed higher in adult cattle as compared to cattle calves by fecal egg counts Khalil et al. (2009). 4% Buffalo calves infested with trematodes. Availability of intermediate host and the grazing habits of the final host determines the epidemiology and seasonal pattern of infection with trematodes Pfukenyi et al. (2005); Bhutto et al. (2002). The life cycle of F. hepatica includes many stages which develop in the environment or the intermediate host. Metacercariae which is the infective stage encysted and ingested by grazing herbivores. Temperature and rainfall are the important factors affecting the life cycle and the prevalence of F. hepatica infection McCann et al. (2010). Many studies revealed that F. hepatica is endemic in buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Pakistan Ijaz et al. (2009); Iqbal et al. (2007); Khan et al. (2010) and Qureshi et al. (2005). Fasciolosis is the disease by which about 250 million sheep and 300 million cattle are potentially affected worldwide Boray et al. (2005), and more significantly infects all ruminants Iqbal et al. (2007). F. hepatica and F. gigantica are the two liver flukes commonly reported to cause fasciolosis in ruminants Walker et al. (2008). Infected cattle can exhibit Introduction 3 poor weight gain and dairy cattle have lower milk yield, and possibly metabolic diseases Mason et al. (2004). Losses due to fasciolosis in the United Kingdom and Ireland alone are more than £18 million a year Mulcahy and Dalton et al. (2001); €52 million a year or €299 per infected animal in Sweden Schweitzer et al. (2005); 0.26 million USD annual due to fasciolosis associated liver condemnations in cattle slaughtered in Kenya Kithuka et al. (2002). In Pakistan, 35697 USD (3141360 PKR) are reported in only one tehsil of Punjab province, the Sargodha T.U. Rehman et al. (2013). While Fasciolosis is prevalent in whole Punjab province of Pakistan but the marshy areas such as regions of Gujranwala, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Sheikhupura, and Sargodha are of major concern. Fascioliasis in ruminants causes substantial economic losses, estimated at US$ 2 billion per annum worldwide, to rural agricultural communities and commercial animal producers due to death of infected animals, condemnation of affected livers and production losses associated with reduced feed conversion efficiency Urquhart et al. (1996); Spithill and Dalton et al. (1998). In tropical countries, fascioliasis is prevalent up to 90% and is considered the most important helminthes infection of cattle Spithill and Dalton et al. (1998). Most important, human can also become infected with Fasciola spp. and the disease is referred to as human fasciolosis. It is estimated that 2.4 million people in more than 60 countries are infected and the number of people at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world Haseeb et al. (2002); Mas-Coma et al. (1999); Ishii et al. (2002). Khalil et al. (2009) recorded 49.01% prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes. He also observed that optimum infestation was seen from January to September, while minimum during October to December. Whereas Bhutto et al. (2002) recorded 4% buffalo calves infested with trematodes. Introduction 4 Morphological identification of Fasciola species requires significant parasitological skills and is not an accurate method of characterization, especially for the ‘intermediate’ form Kendall et al. (1965); Lin et al. (2007); Le et al. (2008). Hence, different molecular tools have been developed during the last decade for the accurate identification of Fasciola spp. Marcilla et al. (2002); Velusamy et al. (2004); Cucher et al. (2006); Magalhaes et al. (2008); Ai et al. (2010). Conventional techniques like fecal examination used for its diagnosis are not comprehensive because of Species similarity in distribution in many countries of East and North Africa, and Southeast and Central Asia, and are similar in egg morphology. Coprological methods continue to be the most widely used approach for the detection and quantification of Fasciola and other helminth eggs in laboratory animals, domestic and sylvatic animals and humans Cringoli et al. (2004, 2010); Bergquist et al. (2009), with a more recently developed method that is currently undergoing broad-scale validation the FLOTAC techniques Cringoli et al. (2010) for the detection and quantification of F. hepatica eggs in feces obtained from experimentally-infected rats before and after drug administration. FLOTAC has been used successfully in the diagnosis of F. hepatica infections in naturallyinfected sheep, which underwent treatment with standard Cringoli et al. (2006). However PCR based diagnosis using specie-specific primers has been proved more accurate and successful in diagnosis and distinction of Fasciola species Le TH et al. (2012). The molecular technique such as PCR is used for the recognition of parasite. These molecular techniques are largely accepted all over the world. These are more exact methods than traditional in epidemiological studies Heckeroth and Tenter et al. (1999). Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases and medicinal plants have been used to treat fasciolosis among these Nigella sativa and Allium sativum have been used to treat the worm infestation. No report of resistance development to plant anthelmintic although many have been used in veterinary medicine for many years Ashaal et al. (2010); Introduction 5 Waller et al. (1995); Koko et al.(2000); Thienpont et al. (1979); Keiser et al. (2011). Herbal (indigenous) drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases, and several medicinal plants have been used to treat fasciolosis Satyavati et al. (1987). Among these, Nigella sativa has been used to treat worm infestation Nadkrani et al. (1954; Said et al. (1969); Akhtar et al. (1988). N. sativa can be used as a therapeutic agent against helminthes Khan et al. (2013). Neem leaf powder can be used as therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal parasites of camel, equine, cattle, buffalo and small ruminants Mehmood et al. (2013). Garlic powder can also be used as herbal product against the gastrointestinal helminthes of livestock Ijaz et al. (2008). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2256-T] (1).

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