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Prevalence Of Tick Borne Hemoparasites And Identification Of Ticks With Their Treatment In Dogs

by Muhammad Shehriyar Khan (2013-VA-438) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dogs are one of the most commonly owned companion pets worldwide. They are kept for various factors such as hunting, guarding, and amusement or for animal assisted therapy. Tick infestation is a common problem in dogs and its transmitted infections usually tick borne hemoparasitic diseases are emerging as a worldwide problem not just for animals but also for humans. Due to this phenomenon, ticks are now recognized as a major cause of various diseases in of urban environments. The current research has been conducted to study the prevalence of tick infestation, associated risk factors and chemotherapeutic trials of topical acaricides were used in order to study comparative efficacy, were conducted in dogs. Furthermore, prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was also observed by performing microscopic blood smear examination in dogs of Lahore district. A total of 300 dogs (n= 200 positive for tick infestation; n= 100 negative for tick infestation) having tick infestation were included in the present study. Dogs of different sex, age and breed were selected for tick collection. The ticks were collected with the help of forceps from the target sites of each dog, while adopting all necessary measures to avoid damage to the mouth parts of the ticks and skin of the host. The collected ticks were preserved in plastic containers containing 70% ethanol, which was separate for each specimen. Ticks were identified under stereoscope by observing morphological characteristics of each tick, according to the key. Blood sample for tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was drawn from cephalic vein of each dog using disposable syringe and was poured into EDTA vacutainer. Thin blood smear slide was then prepared from the blood of the animal, dried in air and was stained using Geimsa’s staining method. The hemoparasites observed in the blood of the dogs were then characterized and Summary 51 identified by their morphological characteristics. For chemotherapy, a total of 30 tick infested dogs of different breeds viz. Rottweiler, German shepherd and Labrador was used in therapeutic trials. Each breed of dog was divided into 2 subgroups which were then treated with topical ivermectin and fipronil 1500μg/kg b.w and 15mg/kg b.w respectively. Efficacy of the drugs was then measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and reversal of tick infestation at day 2, 4 and 6 of post-medication. Data regarding the prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases and tick infestation was analyzed by using Non-parametric, Chi-square test whereas data on therapeutic trials was analyzed by Z-test, using statistical package for social science (SPSS). P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results obtained showed us that the study area is at a risk of tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases. In dogs, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) species was observed and identified as a major tick infesting dogs of the study area during the course of study. Various determinants including tick density and its genus, host age, sex, predilection site host breed and season significantly affected the tick infestation in the study area. The prevalence for tick infestation was found highest in Pastoral dogs as compared to other breed types found in dogs. Among breeds German shepherd showed highest prevalence for tick infestation. Adolescence age group among dogs was more prone to tick infestation. The number of males affected by ticks was highest as compared to females in dog population. Among the dog population, majority of the animals infested by ticks were categorized under mild infestation. The most favorable predilection site for tick infestation in dogs was ear pinnae, followed by head and then neck. Monsoon was the most favorable season for tick infestation in dogs. September was found to be highest favorable month for tick infestation in dogs. Summary 52 In tick borne hemoparasitic diseases, babesiosis was the highest prevalent disease in dogs (63.33%), followed by trypanosomiasis (0.66%) and mixed infection (0.33%). Age group among dogs showed non-significant factor affecting prevalence for TBHD’s. The number of affected dogs for babesiosis was greater in adolescence age group as compared to other age groups. On the other hand, trypanosomiasis and mixed infection adult age group was found highly susceptible. Males of canine group were slightly more susceptible than females in case of babesiosis. Similarly for trypanosoniasis and mixed infection males were more prone than females. For babesiosis, monsoon was the most favorable season in dogs. Whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, post monsoon was found to be favorable season in dogs. In breed type of dogs, prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in Pastoral dogs. In dogs the prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in German shepherd breed, whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed type. The prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in the month of September. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, the month of October was found to be highest susceptible month for dogs. Chemotherapeutic trial of topical acaricides against tick infestation in dogs revealed that Fipronil was more efficacious drug as compared to Ivermectin. Such type of epidemiological data of tick infestation, TBHDs and its chemotherapeutic trial will help to control tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases to save the life of companion animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2303-T] (1). Place hold
Identification Of Ticks And Tick-Borne Hemo-Parasitic Diseases Along With Therapeutic Trial Of Tick Infestation

by Sadaqat Ali | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1601,T] (1). Place hold
Incidence Of Ecto Parasites &Therapy Of Tick Infestation In Cattle Of District Dera Ghazikhan

by Muhammed Ramzan | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Allah Devyia Khan Khosa | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The project was designed to find out the prevalence of ecto-parasites and to evaluate and compare the efficacy of Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadirachta Indica (Neem) against tick infested cattle. These animal were randomly divided in groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having ten animal in each group. Animal in group A, B, C were treated with Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadirachta Indica (Neem). Animals in group D served as infected non-treated whereas animals in group E served as healthy and un-treated control. The efficacy of Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadiracht Indica (Neem) on 14thi day post-treatment 100%, 60% and 0% respectively. Whereas animals in group D remained positive throughout the course of treatment whereas healthy animals in group E remained negative throughout the course of treatment from this result it was noted that Ivermectin is the drug of choice in the treatment of tick infestation. No side effect were observed with this drug. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0914,T] (1). Place hold
Large Animal Internal Medicine / 4th ed

by Smith, Bradford P.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Mosby, 2009Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Smith 4th 2009 23830 CMS] (3). Place hold
Large Animal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians

by Lien, Laura | Loly, Sue | Ferguson, Sheryl.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK : Wiley-Blackwell, 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Laura 1st 2014 30008 CMS] (1). Place hold
Prevalence And Therapeutic Trials On Ticks And Mites In Sheep In And Around Lahore City

by Hafsa Maqsood Sana | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Ayesha | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Sheep and goats sustain an expensive profitable and environmental position in Asian agriculture (Devendra 1996). Majority of the livestock owners earn their income through sale of additional animals and their by-products. There are several factors affecting the production potential of livestock. Among these, parasitic infestations are prevalent, affecting different livestock species all over the world. Parasitic infestation especially ecto-parasites are the major veterinary problems in most of the developing and under developed countries of the world. The physical condition and production in animals is severely affected by tick and mite infestation. It is one of the most common problem of sheep characterized by anemia, poor physical condition, decreased milk quality and poor meat production.. The present study was conducted on ticks and mites to study their prevalence, their effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of Ivermectin and Azadirchta indica (neem oil) on sheep in and around Lahore, Pakistan. In this study 300 sheep suspected for tick and mite infestation on the basis of clinical signs were collected from outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Outreach hospital Sitar wala and Civil Veterinary Hospital Thokar Niaz Biag. The tick sample were collected with the help of foreceps and mites sample through skin scraping. Out of this 300, 198 samples were collected from outdoor hospital UVAS Lahore, from which 84 were positive with prevalence of 42.42% for tick and mite infestation, and 62 samples were collected from outreach hospital Sitarwala from which 24 were positive giving prevalence of 38.70% and 40 samples were collected from CVH Thokar Niaz Biag, out of which 17 samples were positive with prevalence of 42.5%. All the collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory, UVAS, Lhr. Whereas in the third part therapeutic trials on 20 sheep (n=15 tick and mite infested and n=5 healthy sheep) was done and divided into four groups A, B, C&D. Each group was comprised of 5 sheep .In group A, the infested sheep were treated with two doses of ivermectin 0.2mg/kgS/C 7 days apart, on 7th day its efficacy was 40%and on 14th day it gave 100% efficacy. In group B the infested sheep were treated with neem oil (Azadirachta indica) @1 table spoon, its efficacy was 20% on 7th day and on 14th its gave 40% efficacy, in group C infested sheep were kept as positive control, whereas healthy sheep were included in group D. In the second part of present project haematological studies on 10 sheep (n=5 tick and mite infested sheep, n=5 healthy sheep) were performed to see the effect of tick and mite infestation on various blood parameters (Hb, PCV,TLC) and it was fsound that Hb and PCV values were decreased whereas TLC was increased in infested sheep. The therapeutic trials of this study concluded that the Ivermectin was most effective drug against ticks and mites in sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1492,T] (1). Place hold
Studies On The Babesia Canis And Ticks Of Dogs

by Abdul Haseeb Khan | Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Khalid Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from September to November, 2000 to find out the prevalence and taxonomy of ticks and Babesia canis of dogs. In addition, their effect on haematological parameters was also studied. To find out the prevalence, 759 dogs were included in the study. The samples were collected from the dogs brought to Dog Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, Private Veterinary clinics and from different Private Kennels present in and around Lahore. Out of the total 759 dogs, 205 (27 %) dogs were found positive for single species of ticks i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineous and 179 (23.5%) dogs were found positive for Babesia canis. Seventy four (9.7%) dogs were infested with only ticks and 48 (6.3%) dogs were found positive for only Babesia canis. Out of total 205 ticks infested dogs, 131 (63.3%) were found positive for Babesia canis. For haematological study from the total examined dogs 80 (60 infected, 20 healthy) were selected and divided in to four groups A (mixed infection of ticks and Babesia), B (ticks only), C (Babesia only) and D (non-infected). Each group comprising of 20 animals. The total erythrocytic count were 2.5x106±0.28/,il, 3.2x106±0.21/iil, 3.6x106±0.13/id and 4.9x106±0.18/j.d of group A, B, C and ID respectively. There was significant difference amongst group A, B, and C as compared to the control group-D. A significant difference amongst A-B, A-C was also noted. But no significant difference between group B and C could be recorded. Hemoglobin estimation in group A was 7.1±0.33 g %, in B was 9.2±0.30 g % and in group C was 9.8±0.30 g %. It was revealed that there was significant decrease in hemoglobin contents as compared to group 'D' which showed 12.01±0.6 g %. There was significant difference between group A-B and A-C, but no significant difference between group B-C (P<0.05) was noted. The animals belonging to group A, B, C and D had ESR as 40.15±3 mm/hour, 32.25±0.17 mm/hour, 25.2±1.1 mm/hour, and 16.3±1.3 mm/hour respectively. There was significant difference amongst the groups A, B, C as compared to group D. There were also significant difference amongst groups A-B, A-C and B-C (P<0.05). The RBC of the groups A, B, and C were found crenated and macrocytic hypochromic. The overall results showed that effects of mixed infection of ticks and Babesia on haematology were more adverse as compared to the single infections of ticks or Babesia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0712,T] (1). Place hold
Textbook of Clinical Veterinary Medicine / 3rd ed

by Chakrabarti, Amalendu.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0896 Chakrabarti 20321 3rd 2006 CMS] (5), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Chakrabarti 29257 3rd 2006 CMS] (37). Checked out (4). Place hold
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