A Comparative Study Of Brucellosis In Livestock And Human Beings
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Publisher: 1991 Dissertation note: Seroprevalence of brucellosis in 541 cattle, 708 sheep, 780 goats and 63 human beings of one farm and 189 cattle, 125 buffaloes, 68 goats and 51 human beings of the other farm was studied. The various serologic tests used for this investigation included the slide agglutination test for initial screening, and the standard tube agglutination test (SAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS1) for further processing of the sera i.e. quantitation of Brucella antibodies. The higher prevalence of the disease was observed in cattle than buffaloes while goats outnumbered sheep in this respect. The prevalence of the disease in human beings was found to be related positively with the prevalence of the disease in animals.
The overall prevalence of the disease in sheep of one farm was found to be 35(4.947.), 27(3.817.) and 29(4.097.), respectively, by the slide agglutination, standard tube agglutination test (SPIT) and ELISA. Goats of one farm displayed a prevalence of 202(25.897.), 173(22.187.) and 183(23.467.) and that of the other, 3(4.417.), 2(2.947.) and 2(2.947.), respectively, by the slide agglutination, SPT and ELISA. This remarkable difference in the incidence of the disease in two farms may be attributed to the difference of
A prevalence of 127(23.48%), 87 (16.08%) and 91(16.82%) was recorded in cattle of one farm while 30(15.877.), 19(10.057.) and 20(10.587.) cattle of the other proved positive respectively to the slide agglutination, SpiT and ELIS. In buffaloes, a prevalence of 17(13.67.) and 11(8.87.) and 11(8.97.) was noted by the slide agglutination, ST and ELISA tests, respectively. While interpreting the age-group relationship of the disease, it was found that adult and old animals had a higher prevalence than the young animals. Owing to the small number of male serum samples, the sex- based analysis of the disease could not have been adequately discussed
The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was found to be a sensitive approach in detecting anti-Brucella antibodies than the slide agglutination and standard tube agglutination tests. The ELISA titres were, on average, about 8 times higher than the corresponding SAT titres
The results of this study have revealed an alarming prevalence of brucellosis in animals of farms which calls for an emergent response of experts for reappraisal and reassessment of the present brucellosis control situation, especially when the disease is an important zoonosis and a potential threat to the human health.
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A Metagenomic Analysis Of The Respiratory Microbiota Of Birds
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The respiratory systems of birds are susceptible to and are a reservoir for numerous bacterial species, including those of significance to public health. A number of bacteria, either as primary or secondary infectious agents, have been associated with respiratory outbreaks in poultry and subsequent losses worldwide. A key component of a poultry development policy is the proper diagnosis and control of infectious diseases, which requires substantial knowledge of the microbiome in diseased and healthy birds. Because only a small proportion (< 1%) of organisms are culturable, limited as well as highly variable and time-consuming conventional microbiological procedures have typically excluded the normal flora present in the respiratory tract or have restricted the analysis to potential pulmonary pathogens. This limitation provides only a partial representation of the airway microbiota of birds and has little potential for determining or discovering novel organisms/pathogens and their association with clinical outcomes. Using the hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, culture-independent techniques such as 454-pyrosequencing, can provide species-specific sequences of any bacteria in a given clinical sample. This approach has identified a number of novel bacterial species in recent years.
Based on the quality and quantity of the double-stranded gDNA, a total of 30 T-BAL samples including houbara bustard and ostrich, were collected from equal numbers of clinically diseased and healthy birds originating from flocks within different management systems, including free range, open house, and controlled house. Using 454 bar-coded pyrosequencing, the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene corresponding to V1 - V5 (~ 1,000 bp) were sequenced. Of the high-quality reads obtained (296,811) using the MOTHUR platform, the sequences were processed for sequence alignment with the 16S RDP database via BLASTn, and subsequent taxonomic analysis through MEGAN programs using a homology-based method to bin sequence reads.
Almost all of the read were classified to the bacterial domain and its subsequent descendants. The birds were shown to be susceptible to a diverse microbial community belonging to a variety of phyla, families, genera, and well-characterized bacterial species. The bacterial communities were relatively conserved at the phylum level; however, at lower taxonomic levels, differences were observed in the phylotypes and abundance between the clinically diseased and healthy birds as well as between different management systems. The biodiversity and richness in the taxonomic content was higher in the clinically healthy birds compared with the diseased birds, as indicated by the rarefaction plot and the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson-Reciprocal diversity indices. Regardless of the management type, bird species, and health status, a number of new bacterial species were identified. Although the clinical importance of these bacteria as part of the respiratory microbiome of birds has not been established, a number of these bacterial species have been found to be associated with infectious diseases in humans and other species.
The interactions of bacterial species with one another and, potentially, with the birds themselves provide a fascinating avenue for continued research. Further clinico-pathological studies will be needed to establish the links between causes versus effects. This information may help us gain insight into the ecological roles of these bacterial species and their potential co-evolution with birds.
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Alleviation Of Cyclic Heat Stress In Broilers By Dietary Supplementation Of Mannan-Oligosaccharides And Lactobacillus-based Probiotic
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The antiviral activity of plants Silybum marianum (seeds), Chenopodium album (whole plant) and Nigella sativa (seeds) were evaluated against Peste des petitis ruminants virus (PPRV) and Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) in this study. Methanolic extraction of these plants was done by using Soxhlet apparatus and extracts were dried by using rotary evaporator. Six dilutions of each extracts 100, SO, 2S, 12.S, 6.2S, 3.12~g/ml were made in distilled water. Vero cells were infected by PPRV and BHK-21 by FMDV respectively. The herbal extracts assays of antiviral and cytotoxic were carried out in cell culture plates. Each well of 96 well cell culture plate were seeded with 104cell/ml of cell suspension. Cell counting was performed by hemocytometeric method. Positive and negative controls for antiviral and cytotoxic assay were also used, incubated the 96 well cell culture plates at 37°C for 4 days. After this incubation, MTT [3-(4,S-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,S-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay were used for the determination of their quantification. Endpoint of this assay was considered in terms of cell survival percentage. Results were compared for qualitative variables using Chi-square technique and quantitative variables by linear regression analysis. 1 OO~g/ml and SOIlg/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 87.9% and 86% respectively in PPRV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for Vero cells. IOuug/ml and
SO~g/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 88.5% and 87.2% respectively in FMDV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for BHK-21 cells. Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50!J. glml and 25!J. glml showed prominent cell s urvival of 85% and 84% respectively in PPRV and only one concentrations l Ouug/ml were found cytotoxic.Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50uglml and 25!J.glml showed prominent cell survival of 79% and 77% respectively in FMDV and only one concentrations IOuug/ml were found cytotoxic. Only IOuug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.glml shown prominent antiviral activity 91% and 85% respectively in PPRV. In FMDV l Otlug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.g/ml shown prominent antiviral activity 93% and 91 % respectively. The results of present study are helpful in the treatment of Peste des petitis ruminants and Foot and Mouth Disease.
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An Epidemiological Study Of Nosocomial Infections At Mayo Hospital, Lahore
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Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the Prevalence of Etiological Agents of Nosocomial Infections in Mayo Hospital, Lahore-Pakistan of the 32,620 patients studied during 1997-2001; a total of 4502 (13.80%) patients acquired various types of nosocomial infections during their stay at Hospital. Clinical samples collected from various types of patients consisted of 1040 samples of Pus & Wound Swabs, 109 samples of blood; 115 of Pleural Fluids, 286 of Ascetic Fluids, 37 of Cerebrospinal Fluid, 1398 of Urine, 988 of Sputum; 329 of Burn Swabs, 99 of Patient Body Devices and 101 of Fecal and Drainage Material. The routine techniques for isolation. Identification through Biochemical, Serological and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing were used for studying the Bacteriology of the selected samples. The present findings revealed that from a total of 4502 samples, 1287 Strains of Staphylococci, 429 Strains of Streptococci, 328 Strains of Enterococci, 781 Strains of Pseudomonas, 349 Strains of Enterobacter, 41 Strains of Acinetobacter, 26 Strains of Klebsiella, 140 Strains of Proteus, 1031 Strains of Escherichia, 67 Strains of Serratia, 93 Strains of Haemophilus, 119 Strains of other types of Gram Positive Bacteria, 13 Strains of other types of Gram Negative Bacteria, and 189 Strains of Yeast and Fungi were found as Etiological Agent for Nosocomial Infections.
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Assessment Of Avian And Mammalian Diversity At Selected Sites Along River Chenab
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab province and the tree plantations around the
river are the part of tropical thorn forest. But as a consequence of deforestation much of the
natural forested areas have been turned to agricultural land. The main objective of study was to
assess the avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; to identify and assess anthropogenic
impacts on avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; and to explore the level of humanwildlife
conflict selected sites of river Chenab i.e. district Sialkot, district Gujrat and district
Gujranwala from May, 2013 through April. Surveys were made during dawn (5:00 am to 8:00
am) and dusk (4:00 pm to 7:00 pm).
During the waterfowl study recorded 51 species belonging to 33 genera, 16 families and 8 orders
were recorded from the study area. Throughout the year a total of 2531 birds from recorded from
head Marala, 2026 from the head Khanki and 2230 from head Qadirabad. Diversity indices were
analyzed through statistical software PAST version 2.17 C. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index
at head Marala was 2.62, at head Khanki it was 2.64 while at head Qadirabad it was 2.78. It can
be concluded from the present study that the River Chenab is waterfowl rich and should be
declared as protected site for waterfowls.
The study area was divided into different habitat types on the basis of vegetation and
urbanization and was designated as forest habitat (FH), wetland habitat (WLH), rural forest
habitat (RFH), agriculture habitat (AH), agriculture rural habitat (ARH), urban non vegetative
habitat (UNVH) and urban vegetative habitat (UVH). A linear count method was applied and
data was collected through direct and indirect observations. Habitat preference of the birds varied
f declined from forested habitats to the urban landscapes. It can be concluded from the study that
many of the avian species are habitat specific and the connection/corridors between similar
habitat types might be fruitful for the conservation of avian species.
The anthropogenic impacts and habitat preferences of mammalian species along river Chenab,
Pakistan was also assessed the mammalian diversity was recorded along forested landscapes,
cultivated plantations, semi-urban and urban areas. The data on diversity and distribution of
various mammalian species was collected through point count method viz. direct observation
(personal count and record voices) and indirect observation (presences of carcasses, fecal pellet,
pug marks and meeting with local communities). The habitat preferences of large, medium and
small mammals varied significantly. A decline in mammalian diversity was observed from forest
habitat to urban landscapes. Indian wild boar, Asiatic jackal, Indian fox, jungle cat, Indian
pangolin and long eared desert hedgehog preferred forested areas as well as slightly modified
habitats while Northern palm squirrel, house mouse, house shrew and rat species preferred
human habitations. Similarly, few species such as the small Indian mongoose, Soft-furred field
rat, short tailed mole rat, Asiatic jackal and Indian gerbil preferred cultivated areas. It can be
concluded that many of the mammalian species are habitat specific and corridors and
connections between different landscapes are important for the conservation of mammalian
Medicinal and cultural significance of avian species along the River Chenab were assessed
through Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP). One hundred and nine
persons were interviewed and data regarding socio-economic status of the respondents,
qualitative data on cultural significance from three selected districts. The compiled data are
analyzed using different quantitative tools, such as relative frequency of mention (RFM),
fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level RPL and rank order priority (ROP). Out of total 155
avian species recorded from the study area, 28 have medical importance while local people were
using feathers of almost all the bird species for making different toys. Ten species were most
popular and highest RFM values (0.58) were recorded for house sparrow (Passer domesticus).
Similarly, highest FL values (100%) were recorded for house sparrow (P. domesticus) and
domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). These studies indicated that the area is rich in avian diversity
and many of these species have medical and cultural significance for the locales.
Mammals are source of food and medication for humans from ancient times. A survey was
conducted along the Rver Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan and 109 persons were interviewed to
investigate the extent of human dependency on mammalian species of the area. A total of 30
mammalian species were recorded from the study area. Highest relatively frequency of mention
(RFM) values (0.5) were observed for desert hare, Lepus migricollis dayanus while maximum
(100%) fidelity level (FL) was recorded for cow Bos gaurus, sheep Ovis aries and cat Felis
domesticus. Seven species were most popular. It can be concluded from present survey that local
people have strong association with mammalian species of the study area and dependent for
food and medicines on these species. In depth studies are recommended to explore medicinal
importance of the species.
The study area was part of tropical thorn forest but a larger portion has been changed into
agricultural land or human habitations. Data regarding socio-economic value of area, financial
losses to crops and livestock, peoples’ attitude and tolerance towards wildlife, protection
methods for livestock and crops from predators and profile of 150 respondents were collected
through a questionnaire. The age of the respondents was between 20 to 65 years, out of them
54% were literate, 99% were Muslims and all these respondents were from different professions
viz. farmers (32%), livestock managers (37%) and others (31%). Most of the respondents (52%)
were unaware about the role of wild species in ecosystem, certain respondents (28%) disliked
wild species in their areas and 20% respondents had positive view about wildlife in the area. The
collected data revealed that crops are mostly damaged by the Indian wild boar (42%), Asiatic
jackal (34%), diseases (11%), Indian crested porcupine (6%) and others (7%) including rats,
squirrels, crows and sparrows. Similarly, the livestock animals are affected mostly by diseases
(36%), Asiatic jackal (34%), jungle cat (10%), Indian fox and others (6%) including raptor birds.
Most of the respondents were of the view that wildlife is declining in the area.
The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab, Pakistan. Water of the river is becoming
pollutedt due to anthropogenic impact i.e. industrial waste, urbanization, agriculture
intensification. The main objectives of the study were to know the diversity and distribution of
fish species of river Chenab. Both, direct and indirect methods were applied to find out fish
diversity of the area. The diversity indices were analyzed through statistical software PAST
version 2.17 C. During the sampling 34 species was recorded from the river Chenab. The
diversity indices indicate that higher diversity is present at the head Qadirabad than head Khanki
and Marala. The reason is that there is present large number of natural and manmade ponds;
during the flood these pond fishes move to the river further eggs and fingerlings move to rivers
through birds and fisherman.
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Bat Biodiversity (Vespertilioniformes: Order Chiroptera) In Some Tropical And Arid-Subtropical Regions Of Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from June 2009 to May 2011 in those arid subtropical and tropical regions of Pakistan which included less pronounced monsoon influenced areas of the Salt Range, the Upper Indus Plains and the sand dune areas typified by the Cholistan. Bat surveys were conducted in two protected areas i.e. the Margallah Hills National Park (SA1) and the Chinji National Park (SA2) that were located in the arid subtropical region and in another, the Lal Suhanara National Park (SA3), situated in the tropical sand dune region of the Upper Indus Plains. In addition, bat samples were also collected from Gujranwala, Lahore, Tob Tek Singh and Kasur districts (SA4). These sub-areas were selected to maximize the chances of capture of as many bat species inhabiting arid-subtropical and tropical habitats of Pakistan as possible.
A total of 182 bats belonging to twelve species were recorded. These included R. blasii (Family Rhinolophidae), R. hardwickii (Family Rhinopomatidae), Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus (Family Emballonuridae), Scotoecus pallidus, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, P. javanicus, P. pipistrellus, P. tenuis and Hypsugo savii (Vespertilionidae). Rhinolphous blasii was captured only from SA1, R. hardwickii and S. pallidus from SA3 and P. tenuis from SA1. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured from SA1 and SA3, S. kuhlii and P. ceylonicus from SA1 and SA4, H. savii from SA1 and SA2 and P. javanicus from SA1 and SA2. Scotophilus heathii and P. pipistrellus were recroded throughout the study area.
Maximum bat activity was recorded in spring (n = 65) that was followed by summer ( n = 61), autumn (n = 32) and winter (n = 24). Rhinolophus blasii and S. pallidus were recorded only during winter, R. hardwickii and P. tenuis during autumn, while S. kuhlii was recorded only during summer. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured during summer and autumn. Pipistrellus pipistrellus was recorded during autumn, spring and winter while S. heathii was captured throughout the year.
Although the netting effort was the same, the number of bats captured from the SAs was different. A total of 72 bats were recorded from SA1, 52 from SA4, 43 from Lal SA3 and 15 from SA2. The dominance was highest for SA2 and lowest for SA1. Both Shannon and Simpson indices show that the diversity was the highest at SA1 followed by SA3, SA4 and SA2. Evenness was found to be highest at SA4 followed by SA3, SA2 and SA1.
The mean head and body length of three Rhinolophus blasii was 39.33 mm ± 0.577 (SD) forearm length was 40.17 mm ± 1.155 (SD) and the tail length was 19.23 mm ± 1.940 (SD). The greatest skull length of a single R. blasii was 17.22 mm and mandible length was 11.80 mm. The baculum of a single R. blasii sample was 3.5 mm long.
The mean head and body length of two Rhinopoma hardwickii 66.00 mm ± 5.657 (SD). The mean forearm length was 54.00 mm ± 0.0 (SD). The tail length was 59.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The greatest skull length was 19.68 mm ± 0.108 (SD), and the length of mandible was 11.28 mm ± 1.652. The baculum of single R. hardwickii was 1.1 mm long.
The mean head and body length of twenty six Taphozous nudiventris was 86.87 mm ± 5.556 (SD) and the tail length was 27.57 mm ± 12.187 (SD). The greatest skull length was 26.16 mm ± 0.323 (SD) and the length of mandible was 17.53 mm ± 1.149 (SD). The mean total baculum length of the two specimens was 0.58 mm ± 0.017 (SD).
The head and body length of four T. perforatus was measured as 84.30 mm ± 5.450 (SD) long. The forearm was 64.30 mm ± 3.457 (SD) long and the length of tail was 22.10 mm ± 2.702 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 22.24 mm and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.25 mm. The total length of a single T. perforatus was measured as 0.69 mm. The head and body length of fifty three Scotophilus heathii was 79.46 mm ± 6.941 (SD). The mean forearm length was 58.69 mm ± 2.929 (SD) and the tail length was 55.00 mm ± 7.360 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 21.39 mm ± 1.378 (SD) and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.08 mm ± 0.882 (SD). Mean total bacular length of ten S. heathii was measured 1.76 mm ± 0.150 (SD).
The mean head and body length of five specimens of S. kuhlii was 72.10 mm ± 8.096 (SD). The forearm was 49.40 mm ± 3.03 (SD) long and the length of tail was 42.40 mm ± 4.04 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 18.98 mm ± 0.613 (SD) and the mandible length was 14.41 mm ± 1.173 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. kuhlii was 1.74 mm.
The head and body length of two Scotoecus pallidus was 56.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The forearm was 35.50 mm ± 0.707 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 35.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 15.46 mm ± 0.449 (SD) and mandible length was measured 9.64 mm ± 2.425 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. pallidus captured from SA3 was 5.0 mm.
The mean head and body length of twenty two Pipistrellus ceylonicus was 63.60 mm ± 7.486 (SD). The length of forearm was 29.92 mm ± 2.492 (SD) and tail length was 25.68 mm ± 3.442 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.76 mm ± 0.257 (SD) and the length of mandible was 9.28 mm ± 3.956 (SD), respectively. Mean total length of the bacula of four P. ceylonicus was 3.66 mm ± 1.190 (SD).
Mean head and body length of the ten P. javanicus was 52.00 mm ± 2.712 (SD). The forearm was 35.13 mm ± 1.996 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 30.38 mm ± 5.236 (SD). The greatest skull length was 13.01 mm ± 4.546 (SD) and the length of mandible was 10.29 mm ± 1.679 (SD). The mean total length of the four bacula was 3.57 mm ± 0.860 (SD).
The head and length of fifty two P. pipistrellus was 39.33 mm ± 2.690 (SD). The forearm was 28.23 mm ± 1.264 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 25.86 mm ± 3.396 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 11.04 mm ± 0.342 (SD) and the length of mandible was 7.87 mm ± 0.802 (SD). The mean total length of the eleven bacula of P. pistrellus was 3.19 mm ± 0.421 (SD).
Only two specimens of P. tenuis were captured from SA1. The head and body length of these specimens was 35.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The forearm length was 28.00±0.707 while the length of the tail was 22.25 mm ± 3.182 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.19 mm. and the mandible length was 7.82 mm. The total bacular length was 2.79.
The head and body length of the two Hypsugo savii was 55.50 mm ± 19.092 (SD). The forearm was 36.75 mm ± 3.889 (SD) long while the length of the tail was 33.50 mm ±6.364 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 11.18 mm and the length of mandible was 7.08 mm. The total bacular length of a single H. savii was 2.67 mm.
The echolocation calls of bats of Pakistan have never been recorded and thus the accuracy of species identification on the basis of their calls remains a bit doubtful.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1374,T] (1).
Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) Of Malakand Division, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in three districts (Malakand, Dir and Swat) of Malakand Division. A total of 49 stations were sampled for bats where total 1982 bats were recorded. A total of 21 species of bats belonging to six families, fourteen genera were recorded. These includes the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus), the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx), the fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaultia), the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum), the lesser mouse tailed bat (Rhinopoma hardwickii), the greater false vampire (Megaderma lyra), the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), the Blyth‟s horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus Lepidus), the fulvous leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros fulvus), the Hodgson‟s bat (Myotis formosus), the Asian barbastelle (Barbastella leucomelas), the Asiatic greater yellow house bat (Scotophilus heathii), the Asiatic lesser yellow house bat (Scotophilus kuhlii), the serotine (Eptesicus serotinus), the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), the javan pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus), the coromandel pipistrelle (Pipistrellus coromandra), the least pipistrelle (Pipistrellus tenuis), the Dormer‟s bat (Pipistrellus dormeri), the desert yellow bat (Scotoecus pallidus) and the Schreiber‟s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) were recorded throughout the study area.
M. formosus was common to all the three districts while B. leucomelas and P. pipistrellus were captured only from Dir district. The Hodgson‟s bat (M. formosus) and the Schreiber‟s long-fingered bat (M. fuliginosus) were captured from Malakand and Swat districts. The skeleton of C. sphinx was recorded only from adjacent area of Malakand district. The Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was not previously recorded from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while it has been reported from Punjab and Sindh province of the country. There are only six species which has
previously been reported from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while thirteen bats were newly recorded from the study area. Only two bats were newly recorded for the first time in the country.
The mean forearm length of the three P. giganteus was 152.23 mm ± 3.72 (SD). The mean greatest skull length was 65.96 mm ± 1.42 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 24.91 mm ± 0.84 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 50.78 mm ± 0.87 (SD) and 27.41 mm ± 0.66 (SD), respectively.
The thumb and forearm length of one C. sphinx was 25.80 mm and 65.48 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull was 32.20 mm. The maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 10.86 mm and 12.64 mm. The mandible was 24.75 mm long.
The mean forearm and thumb of R. leschenaultii was 80.23 mm ± 3.26 (SD) and 27.79 mm ± 1.22 (SD), long, respectively. The mean greatest skull length was 36.97 mm ± 1.11 (SD). The mean mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 28.95 mm ± 0.90 (SD), 14.08 mm ± 0.44 (SD) and 15.51 mm ± 0.47 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of three R. microphyllum was 8.80 mm ± 0.95 (SD) and 67.45 mm ± 4.60 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull was 20.15 mm ± 0.64 (SD). The mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 7.30 mm ± 0.18 (SD), 8.11 mm ± 0.11 (SD) and 14.38 mm ± 0.63 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of R. hardwickii was 8.23 mm ± 0.38 (SD) and 59.90 mm ± 1.21 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the four specimens was 18.20 mm ± 0.48 (SD). The maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 6.08 mm ± 0.07 (SD) and 6.72 mm ± 0.13 (SD), respectively. The mandible length was measured as 12.38 mm ± 0.0.23 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. lyra was 11.80 mm ± 0.44 (SD) and 70.06 mm ± 0.69 (SD), respectively. Mean greatest length of skull of the three specimens was 29.60 mm ± 0.46
(SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 11.40 mm ± 0.10 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 11.94 mm ± 0.04 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 20.04 mm ± 0.03 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of R. ferrumequinum was 4.01 mm ± 0.01 (SD) and 60.01 mm ± 1.41 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 23.35 mm ± 0.20 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 9.18 mm ± 0.02 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 9.86 mm ± 0.01 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 16.33 mm ± 0.13 (SD).
The mean thumb and forearm length of R. lepidus was 3.87 mm ±0.13 (SD) and 38.02 mm ± 0.63 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 15.94 mm ± 0.15 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.86 mm ± 0.02 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 6.57 mm ± 0.64 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 10.34 mm ± 0.04 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of H. fulvus was 4.91 mm ± 0.17 (SD) and 41.41 mm ± 0.97 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the thirteen specimens was 18.45 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 6.50 mm ± 0.14 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 6.96 mm ± 0.18 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 11.73 mm ± 0.14 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. formosus was 9.26 mm ± 0.70 (SD) and 48.74 mm ± 2.02 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the three specimens was 17.81 mm ± 0.12 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.15 mm ± 0.05 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 7.80 mm ± 0.05 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 13.85 mm ± 0.07 (SD).
Thumb and forearm length of B. leucomelas was 5.65 mm and 42.88 mm, respectively. The tragus height was 10.32 mm. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 15.87 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.91 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 5.43 mm. The mandible length was measured as 10.02 mm.
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. heathii was 9.06 mm ± 0.41 (SD) and 62.25 mm ± 1.76 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the nine specimens was 23.12 mm ± 0.46 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.87 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 8.93 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 16.62 mm ± 0.19 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. kuhlii was 7.01 mm ± 1.41 (SD) and 50.06 mm ± 7.13 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 19.24 mm ± 0.71 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 6.49 mm ± 0.11 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 7.42 mm ± 0.01 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 13.78 mm ± 0.47 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of E. serotinus was 8.92 mm ± 0.32 (SD) and 53.37 mm ± 1.39 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the fifteen specimens was 21.40 mm ± 0.70 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.84 mm ± 0.21 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 9.28 mm ± 1.95 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 15.51 mm ± 1.94 (SD).
Thumb and forearm length of P. pipistrellus was 4.01 mm and 31.06 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 12.14 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.22 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 4.45 mm. The mandible length was measured as 8.27 mm.
Thumb and forearm length of P. javanicus was 4.02 mm and 32.01 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 13.13 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.60 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 5.20 mm. The mandible length was measured as 9.46 mm.
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. coromandra was 4.70 mm ± 0.45 (SD) and 32.28 mm ± 1.17 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the eight specimens was 12.67 mm
± 0.40 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 4.44 mm ± 0.24 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 4.74 mm ± 0.23 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 9.13 mm ± 0.46 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. tenuis was 4.43 mm ± 0.47 (SD) and 29.24 mm ± 1.03 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the 23 specimens was 11.56 mm ± 0.25 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 3.87 mm ± 0.09 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 4.10 mm ± 0.06 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 7.89 mm ± 0.60 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. dormeri was 5.28 mm ± 0.70 (SD) and 34.30 mm ± 1.25 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of the skull was 13.77 mm ± 0.11 (SD). The mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were measured as 10.53 mm ± 0.09 (SD), 5.33 mm ± 0.02 (SD) and 5.56 mm ± 0.07 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. pallidus was 6.26 mm ± 0.41 (SD) and 36.83 mm ± 0.42 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the twenty two specimens was 15.00 mm ± 0.26 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.66 mm ± 0.10 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 11.35 mm ± 0.23 (SD) and 6.11 mm ± 0.12 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. fuliginosus bat was 6.61 mm ± 0.43 (SD) and 37.59 mm ± 5.37 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the six specimens was 14.48 mm ± 0.58 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.32 mm ± 0.39 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 10.54 mm ± 0.65 (SD) and 5.71 mm ± 0.49 (SD), respectively.
1. Bat surveys. This is the first extensive exploration of that small portion of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which comprises of only three districts of Malakand Division i.e. Malakand, Dir and Swat. Although more focus remained towards Malakand district, six families, fourteen genera, twenty one species were identified. Moreover, two new country
records (Myotis formosus and Miniopterus fuliginosis) were also explored. Further bat surveys in poorly surveyed parts of the country especially in KPK and Baluchistan may result in identification of some other new bat taxa. More bat surveys involving greater field efforts may also confirm the presence or absence of those already described from the country.
2. Distribution ranges and species specific habitat analysis. Presence of thirteen new locality records (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, Rhinopoma hardwickii, Megaderma lyra, Rhinolophus Lepidus, Hipposideros fulvus, Barbastella leucomelas, Scotophilus heathii, Scotophilus kuhlii, Eptesicus serotinus, Pipistrellus javanicus, Pipistrellus dormeri and Scotoecus pallidus) and two new country records (Myotis formosus and Miniopterus fuliginosis) gives credence to the idea that distribution ranges of most of the bat species has change over the past sixty years. Thus serious scientific studies are needed to redefine distribution ranges and identify species specific habitats using global positioning system and radio-telemetric studies.
3. Reconfirmation of bat taxonomy. Genetic analysis of none of the bat species of the country has been made using molecular markers thus leaving behind a chance to doubt identification of cryptic bat species. Thus molecular genetic studies of all the bat species of the country is highly recommended which may also lead to the discovery of such bat taxa which are new to science.
4. Bat call library. The only bat detector (Patterson D 1000X) present in the country fell down from my hand in a water body and became out of order. So none of the bat could be recorded. Bat call analysis has boosted bat identification throughout the world but the
lack of such sophisticated equipment in the country has become a major bottle neck in the establishment of a bat call library.
5. Awareness campaigns. Majority of the countrymen are unaware of the ecological services rendered by bats. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the major fruit growing region of the country. Based on misperceptions, the locals consider all bats as vermin and kill them ruthlessly. Conservation education to highlight the significance of bats must be included in the curriculum of children at primary school level so that they may adopt a pro-conservation attitude in the first few years of their personality building.
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Bioconversion Of Agricultural Waste To Alginate By Azotobacter Vinelandii Using Fermentation
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Alginate is an exopolysaccharide composed of varying ratios of β-D mannuronic acid and its C5 epimer α-L-guluronic acid linked together by β-1,4 - glycosidic bond. It has wide range of industrial applications particularly in food sector as a viscosifier, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, gelling and water binding agent. Commercial alginate is extracted from brown algae but due to variation in composition of biopolymer isolated from species of different locations, there is growing interest in bacterial alginate.
At present two strains of bacteria are reported to produce alginate, Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. Hence present study was designed to produce alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii utilizing cheap substrates to save the foreign exchange. To achieve the goal, different physio-chemical parameters were optimized to have hyper-production of alginate through submerged fermentation. Different agricultural wastes like wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses were utilized as substrates through fermentation with Azotobacter vinelandii.On fermentation of 7.5% (w/v) wheat bran by A.vinelandii, maximum alginate production (5.21 g/L) was observed at 48 hours of incubation time with 6% (v/v) inoculum size, pH 7.0, 300C and agitation speed of 200 rpm. Addition of different optimum levels of ionic salts i.e. 1.5% CaCl2 and 2% MgSO4. 7H2O in the growth medium gave significantly (P< 0.05) higher quantity of alginate (6.08 g/L) where as addition of KH2PO4 and NaCl reduced the yield of alginate. Among different nitrogen sources tested, 2% corn steep liquor resulted significantly (P<0.05) higher yield of alginate (7.46 g/L).
The bacterial strain was improved by exposure to physical (UV irradiation) and chemical mutagens (Nitrous acid and ethidium bromide) to obtain more than 90% killing. The survivors were screened for hyper-production of alginate against the wild strain of A.vinelandii using pre-optimized conditions. The highest alginate production (13.8 g/L) was obtained by the ethidium bromide treated strain (EtBr-02). The mutant strain was used for optimization of fermentation parameters. The maximum concentration of alginate (15.61 g/L) was obtained by utilizing 10% (w/v) wheat bran, 8% (v/v) inoculum at 48 hours of incubation, pH 7.0, 300C and an agitation speed of 200 rpm. Inclusion of 2.5% cornsteep liquor raised the alginate concentration to 15.8 g/L.
Batch fermenter studies were carried out in 2 L fermenter with working volume of 1.5 L using the mutant strain A.vinelandii, EtBr-02. Optimization of process parameters like agitation, aeration and pH in the fermenter showed that maximum alginate (16.8 g/L) was achieved at 300 rpm, 2.5 vvm aeration and controlled pH condition at 32 hours of incubation time.
The alginate produced was identified by FTIR spectrum after precipitation. The purity of alginate was estimated by HPLC against the standard alginic acid from Sigma-Aldrich and was found to be 98% pure. The alginate produced was used at 3% concentration for immobilization of yeast cells. Immobilized and free cells were compared for ethanol production using 10% sucrose as the carbon source in fermentation medium. The maximum amount of ethanol obtained was from free cells i.e. 38 g/L whereas immobilized cells produced 32.5 g/L ethanol. The advantage of immobilization is that beads can be reused in eight sequential fermentation cycles of 10 h each. Thus a cheap and practical bioprocess of alginate production was developed, that can be exploited commercially to save foreign exchange.
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Bioconversion Of Agricultural Wastes To Lysine And Its Biological Evaluation In Broiler Chicks
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Biological Studies on Various Avian Influenza Virus Types In Poultry
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd.
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Biomass Production Of Pasteurella Multocida By Using Biofermentor For Preparation Of Montanoid Based Vaccine
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic septicemia is a contagious bacterial disease of large ruminants principally in cattle and buffalo with high morbidity and mortality. The disease is endemic in nature and outbreaks are common during hot, humid and wet season. The acute and fatal nature and brief duration of the disease limit the antimicrobial therapy. In Pakistan, the disease causes heavy economic losses to dairy industry. Vaccination therefore, is an option for controlling the disease. For a quality vaccine, biomass production of P. multocida along with well developed capsule (immunogen) is necessary. The problem associated with the production of a quality vaccine is poor biomass production of P. multocida when grown in ordinary or routine media.
Present study was designed to isolate P. multocida from sick animals and its molecular characterization in the laboratory and study factors (temperature, media composition, pH incubation time and agitation or shaking) affecting its immunogen production and "in process quality control" factors (biological titer, dry mass, adjuvant and storage time) that affect antibody response. Finally, biomass production of the organism using biofermentor and monitoring of the antibody response of buffaloes to inactivated Montanide ISA-70 based P. multocida vaccine.
Each of the field isolates showed grey, viscous, mucoid, translucent and non hemolytic colonies on blood agar. There was no growth on MacConkey's agar. It was Gram negative coccobacilli or thin rods and bipolar when stained with Leishman's stain. The isolates were positive for Catalase, Oxidase, Hydrogen sulphide and Indole production along with nitrate reduction while it was negative for urease production, citrate utilization and gelatin liquefaction. The bacteria fermented glucose, sucrose, mannitol, mannose, but failed to ferment arabinose, maltose, salicin, lactose, dulcito and inositol.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on isolated colonies by using P. multocida specific and HS causing serotype B specific primers. P. multocida specific PCR gave product of 465 bp while HS causing serotype B specific primers amplified a product of approximately 590 bp.
Growth of the bacteria in casein yeast sucrose broth was optimized under different conditions. CSY broth showed dense growth of P. multocida during incubation for 18 hours. A temperature in between 35°C and 40°C showed its optimum growth. Poor growth was observed below 30°C and no growth was detected at 50°C and above. No growth occurred at pH 0.5 and 10.0 but best growth was obtained at pH 7.0 and 8.0. There was positive correlation between shaking in terms of rpm and growth. There was optimum growth at 500 rpm for 24 hours.
Inactivated HS Vaccine was prepared from dense growth in biofermentor on the basis of dry mass and bacterial count. The effect of biomass, adjuvant, storage of the vaccine, priming alone or with boosting on its potency was also studied along with boosting effect of montanoid ISA 70 oil based vaccine. Dry mass 1.7 mg/dose produced protective antibody titer while bacterial count 10-14/ml was sufficient to produce the protective antibody titer. Montanoid ISA 70 based vaccine provided immunity to buffalo calves better than aluminium hydroxide gel and bacterins. Boosting with oil based vaccine can help to keep the animal immunized for whole year. For better results of vaccine, it can be stored at 4oC for six months.
It is concluded that the proposed study improved quality of the vaccine and reduced volume of the vaccine dose, cost of its production and frequency of vaccination.
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Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study.
The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval.
Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs.
A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively.
A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons.
Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament.
Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09;
udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively.
Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment.
Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament.
Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively.
The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone.
The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone.
Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight.
Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area.
Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low.
Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001.
About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor.
All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats.
Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons.
Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats.
All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor.
Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively.
Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg.
Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes:
" In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding.
" A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament.
" Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed.
" Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study.
" A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature.
" Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped.
" Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00.
" Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield.
" Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves.
" Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves.
" Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential.
" Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording.
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Characterization Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Isolates And Their Use In The Production Of Indigenous
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Chemical Characterizaton And Toxicological Screening Of Auto-Rickshaw Emissions Particulate
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Vehicular air pollution is a mounting health issue of the modern age, particularly in urban populations of the developing nations. Auto rickshaws are not considered eco-friendly as to their inefficient engines producing large amount of particulate matter (PM), which poses a significant environmental threat.
Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and CNG powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA)are major sources of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of PM to the environment. In this study, during the first phase, the PM of TSA and FSA was characterized by using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, Na, S and Si were also observed exceeding the recommended NIES limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but the data obtained from this study clearly shows that emissions from FSA are comprised of potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to the metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system.
The second phase of this study was conducted to ascertain toxic effects on angiogenesis, embryo development, embryonic movement and phytotoxicity of the PM from TSA and CNG powered FSA. Based on high amounts of aluminum quantified during PIXE analysis of PM from TSA and FSA, different concentrations of aluminum sulfate were also tested to determine its eco-toxicological potential. The PM solution from FSA, TSA and Aluminum sulfate exhibited anti-angiogenic potential with reduction in total area of CAM. Morphological evaluation of embryos exhibited varying degrees of hemorrhages in different groups. In case of phytotoxicity screening using Zea mays, the results demonstrated that all three tested materials were equally phytotoxic at higher concentrations in seed germination(p<0.001). Aluminum sulfate proved to be a highly phytotoxic agent even at the lowest concentration examined.
During the last phase, of the study, the MTT assay demonstrated a significant (p<0.001) dose dependent cytotoxic effect for TSA, FSA and aluminum sulfate on the BHK-21 cell line, establishing that the PM from FSA is a highly cytotoxic material. Mutagenicity was assessed by fluctuation Salmonella reverse mutation assay adopting TA100 and TA98 mutant strains with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Despite the fact that different concentrations of PM from both sources i.e. TSA and FSA were highly mutagenic (p<0.001) even at lower concentrations, the mutagenic index was higher in TSA. The chronic toxicity study revealed that chronic exposure to PM emitted from FSA and TSA resulted in peribrochiolitis, emphesema and infilteration of leukocytes in lung tissues. On the other hand liver, cardiac and kidney tissues exhibited degeneration and necrosis. The data shows that all tested materials are equally ecotoxicand if the existing trend of atmospheric pollution by auto-rickshaws is continued, air-borne metals/heavy metals will seriously affect the normal growth of local inhabitants and increased contamination of agricultural products, which will amplify the dietary intake of toxic element and could result in genetic mutation or long-term health implications.
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Chemical Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Pharmaceutical Effluent Wastewater
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Pharmaceutical effluent being a complex mixture of drugs and heavy metals may affect human health exhibiting a strong potential of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induction along with pathological changes in various organs of the body. The current study was focused to quantify the presence of heavy metals, detection of various drugs, determining the bacterial load along with isolation and identification of different bacteria and assessment of the mutagenic and genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress induction of pharmaceutical effluent wastewater when exposed to sheep lymphocytes, Salmonella typhimurium strains, cell lines and rats respectively.
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to quantify heavy metals and showed the presence of arsenic, chromium, lead and iron in concentrations above the normal limits recommended by WHO and EPA. Gas Chromatograph mass spectrophotometer analysis shown the presence of digitoxin, lignocaine, caffeine and trimethoprim and various other organic pollutants.
Microbiological evaluation showed a high bacterial load in the pharmaceutical waste water. Several bacteria were also found in PEW in the presence of different drugs and heavy metals. Aeromonas sobria, Micrococcus varians, Staphyoloccus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium showed tolerance to potassium di chromate and copper sulphate and resistance to various antibiotic discs.
Ames assay revealed a strong mutagenic potential with and without the presence of metabolic activation mixtures. A concentration dependent effect was observed when samples were tested with increasing dilution factor.
MTT assay and comet assay also showed a concentration dependent effect. The BHK-21 cell line was used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cell viability decreased with increasing concentration of PEW. Sheep lymphocytes used in comet assay exhibited a concentration dependent DNA damage.
Different antioxidant enzymes were also evaluated. Rats were exposed to PEW at different concentrations and following 60 days oral exposure, rats were evaluated for the presence of total superoxide dismutase, catalase and hydrogen peroxide in kidney, liver and plasma. Exposure to Pharmaceutical waste water significantly decreased the (TSOD), (CAT) and (H2O2) levels in plasma, liver and kidney. Treatment with Vitamin E significantly ameliorated the levels of enzymes.
Exposed rats were also evaluated for any pathological changes. Coagulative necrosis of renal epithelial cells were observed along with severe degeneration and cellular swelling in hepatocytes of hepatic cord.
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Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Textile Dyeing Industry Wastewater
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity, pathological lesions and oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to quantify metals and identify organic pollutants in untreated textile dyeing industry wastewater, to determine the bacterial load of wastewater, isolate and identify heavy metals tolerant bacteria and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, influence on normal physiology and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats.
Metal analysis through AAS revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Various organic pollutants such as chlorpyrifos, cucurbitacin-b and phthalates were identified by screening through GC-MS.
Microbiological evaluation of textile dyeing industry wastewater revealed a high bacterial load. Different bacteria isolated from wastewater such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphyoloccus epidermidis and Micrococcus varians exhibited resistance to Cr and Cu salts and antibiotics to varying degree.
Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. Bacterial reverse mutation assay revealed that the mutagenicity of textile dyeing industry wastewater decreased with increase in dilution of wastewater.
In-vitro comet assay revealed the evidence of high oxidative DNA damage induced by textile wastewater. Wastewater exhibited concentration dependent genotoxicity in sheep
peripheral lymphocytes. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/ plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C at a dose of 50mg/Kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. Industrial effluents may decrease activities of T-SOD and CAT and concentration of H2O2 in liver, kidney and blood/plasma of Wistar rats. Vitamin C may have a possible ameliorating effect on industrial effluent induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.
Wastewater exposed rats exhibited necrosis of epithelial cells of nephron, pulmonary emphysema, and inflammation of the lungs, degradation and infiltration of cardiac myocytes, fibrosis of the liver, damage to the intestinal mucosa and sloughing off epithelial cells from the intestinal lumen.
This study concludes that untreated textile dyeing wastewater being a complex mixture of inorganic and organic pollutants may be highly eco-toxic and may contaminate of the environment via continuous release of various organic and inorganic pollutants.
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Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Screening Of Tannery Effluent Wastewater
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Over the last decade or so the chromium based tanning industry has shown rapid growth in Pakistan. However the rule and regulations promulgated by the government are not strictly followed for the processing of effluent discharged by the tanneries. Consequently tannery effluents have become a great source of water pollution in surrounding area. This project was designed to evaluate the hazardous effects of tannery effluent wastewater (TEW) through various bioassays.
During the first phase of the project, composition of the TEW samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Besides this, we have also investigated the impact of TEW on trace element content of ground water in Kasur tannery area. The ground water from shallow tubewells (100 to 300 ft) in the area has shown very high content of chromium while the ground water from the deeper tubewells (upto 600 ft) generally does not contain the toxic elements except for one outlet of the water supplied by the Muncipal Corporation. This could be due to corroded pipes in the tannery area.
Microbial load was determined during second phase of this research project by viable count method. The detected viable count was 7.5 X 104 to 3.0 X 107CFU/ml. Various strains of chromium tolerant bacilli were isolated and they were found tolerant up to 2600 µg/ml supplemented chromium sulphate.
During the third phase of this research plan, dilutions of TEW were evaluated for their effects on angiogenesis using CAM assay. TEWD1 and potassium dichromate were found highly anti-angiogenic. Moreover, dilutions of TEW and potassium dichromate have demonstrated significant toxicity when assessed through marine shrimps mortality assay and phytotoxiciy assasy.
Chronic toxicity study on Wistar rats was conducted in the last phase. Chronic exposure of TEW for three months to rats leads to the development of various lesions in lung, liver, kidney and heart of rats.
In short, TEW and contaminated ground water of Kasur is imposing a great threat not only to local inhabitants of the city but also to the population of far distance.
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Clinico Epidemiology of tick Borne Hemoparasitic Diseases Using Single Round And Multiplex PCR Along With their Phylogenetic Analysis In Bovine
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: CD Crupt
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2760-T] (1).
Clinico-Epidemiological And Experimental Observations On Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease Among Domesticated Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Idiopathic Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (iFLUTD) has been known as a major as well as important problem throughout the world especially the veterinary profession. Nicks of this problem also found in Pakistan, however the veterinarians are usually unable to properly diagnose this disease due to lack of knowledge as well as the ancillary diagnostic equipment availability for this disease. Present study was divided into two phases. Phase – 1 included clinico-epidemiological data. To this end, target of more than 502 domesticated client-owned cats of either sex, age, breed, etc showing signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) as per Buffington (1994) were examined accordingly from 3 different cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, and Islamabad) of Pakistan). All data collected was based on a predesigned proforma by using structured interview of the owners. Diagnosis was solely based on serum-cortisol levels, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography. Phase II involved experimental trial. The data obtained from whole of the study was then presented in tabulated form as frequencies and percentages. Treatment and outcome of the disease were also analyzed accordingly.
According to the present study conducted it is proved that iFLUTD is present among the cats in Pakistan. Its proper cognizance among the Pakistani veterinarians is still non-existent and is misdiagnosed as colic or constipation issues in cats. The present study was undertaken to bring iFLUTD into the reportive of small animal practitioners working in Pakistan. The present study debunked various previous notions like iFLUTD is associated with commercial diets and canned foods only if we talk about this region majority of cases were noticed that had home-cooked food given by the owner. Moreover, cases in Siamese breed are larger than Persian breed. It has been strongly associated with Indoor housing management. Additional work is still needed to explore untouched areas of epidemiology including factors other than those being studied in the previous literature. Academicians in veterinary pathology and veterinary medicine of Pakistani universities should embrace this malady in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) curricula.
According to the present study results it is concluded that two factors like stress and pain accelerate the sympathetic nervous system outflow compared to normal felines leading to the inflammatory response. Thus the stress factor must be reduced in the form of making hiding places for cats at home to reduced down the fear factor along with enhancing the feeling of owes for that particular place. Moreover, some more practices should be performed by the owner to reduce down the stress factor like playing with the pet, giving full attention, placing toys and other attractive things like yarn balls at the feline places (where they live/placed). There was no significant difference found between the groups based on the food with health score along with the therapeutic judgment. Hence, it is recommended that more experiments should be performed on larger scale to assess GAG therapy on increased number of felines and need of hour is to conduct more veterinary studies to get information and authenticity for its use against iFLUTD.
From this study conducted, I recommend to the owners that the cats must be provided with the indoor hiding places and play with their pets in order to reduce the stress factor that increases the risk of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease. Moreover, the trend of home-cooked diet should be reduced along with increase in water intake by the cat.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The
results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis.
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Comparative Growth Rate And Body Composittion Of Major Carps (Labio Rohita , Cata Catla And Cirhinus Mrigala )
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Presently fish culture in Pakistan is primarily dependent on natural food produced in pond by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is supplemented with cheaper agriculture by-products to meet the nutrient deficiencies. Artificial feed which is a blend of various plant and animal by-products is rarely used. Development .of appropriate artificial feed now has become mandatory to transform conventional fish culture practices to advanced fish production systems to improve per unit fish production. The present study was therefore signed to formulate a quality supplementary feed from cheap and easily available feed ingredients that contains at least minimum required nutrients for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out). The feeds developed during these studies were evaluated in terms of growth, diet utilizalion efficiency and its effect on the body composition and flesh quality of the three Indian majr carps (Catla cat/a, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala).The study comprised of three trials. Trial I was conducted on fingerlings of individual species under monoculture system using 42% protein diet. Trials II and III were conducted on Grow-out fish using 35% protein diet under monoculture and polyculture systems. The study was conducted in earthen ponds having an area of 0.03 ha with three replicates and a control. After preliminary preparation of ponds, in trial I, fingerlings were stocked at 80 fish per pond. while in trial II at 70 fish of each species and in trial III ratio of 30%, 50% and 20% of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala per pond were maintained. All the ponds received same amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers (cow dung, poultry manure, SSP and urea) thoughout the experimental period. Supplementary feed in trial I was applied at 4% of fish wet body while in trial II and III feed was applied at 3% of fish wet body weight daily. In trial I 42% protein diet was used containing fish meal. soybean meal. maize gluten (60%). rice polish, wheat bran. maize grains. molasses. vitamins and minerals while in trial II and III 3YYo protein diet containing fish meal, soybean meal. canola meal. rice polish. wheat bran, molasses, vitamins and mineral was used. Growth parameters in terms of length and weight gam were regularly monitored fortnightly. Organolept sensory evaluation was done at the termination of each trial. Proximate fish body composition was determined at the start and at the end of the experimental trials. Fatty acid profile of three experiments was performed at the post-trial basis. In addition, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FeR). protein efficiency ratio (PER). protein utilization (PU). gross nitrogen retention efficiency (G RE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %) were also determined. Proximate analysis of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. Key physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), free CO2, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, light penetration. salinity and nitrates, were regularly monitored during the study period. In trial I the highest net weight gain was observed in treatment group (D 1) (Catla calla 9425.83 g and 171.5 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (374.34 g and 178.7 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (288.18 g and 161.9mm). The lowest growth was observed in Cirrhinus mrigala (176.9 g and 116.4 mm) in control (DO). A significant difference was observed regarding net weight gain among three fish species and between different treatments (DO and 0 I). The net weight gain was significantly higher in trial I treated (01) ponds than control (~O). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR %) were also determined. Labeo rohita exhibited higher values (1762.51 % and 3.03%) followed by Catla calla (1341.58% and 2.95%), while Cirrhinus mrigala showed lowest (976.17% and 2.6%) with experimental diet (DI) Again Cirrhinus mrigala exhibited lowest percent weight gain and SGR (300.85% and '1.54%)in control (DO) ponds. In trial II grow-out under monoculture the net weight gain of fish differed significantly among three fish species and between treatments (DO and D2). Calla catla showed highest net weight gain (37\.88 g and 72.2 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (310.18 g and 72.3 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (270.75 g and 57 mm) in experimental unit (02) while a lowest net weight gain of Cirrhinus mrigala (162.15 g and 36.5 mrn ) was observed in control (DO). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita under different treatments were found non-significant. Although Catla catla showed highest percent weight gain and SGR values (109.78% and 0.81 %) followed by Labeo rohita (90.93% and 0.69%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (84.3% and 0.65%), respectively with experimental diet (D2). Lowest values of percent weight gain and SGR (48.54% and 0.43%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala in control ponds (DO). In trial III grow-out under poly culture the average final weight of fish was significantly different in control (~O) and experimental diets (02) while species showed non-significant difference regarding final weight and net weight gain. The highest final and net weight gain of Lobeo rohita (679.46 g and 370.5 g) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (674.52 g and 303.86 g ) and Catla catla (607.2 and 307.06 g), respectively in experimental unit (D2) while Catla catla exhibited lowest final weight and net gain in weight (493 g and 182.3 g) in control (DO). Regarding percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species under polyculture system no significant difference was observed hence, Labeo rohita showed highest percent weight gain and SGR (126.87% and 0.9%) followed by Catla catla (l 02.31 % and 0.76%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (85.15% and 0.63%), respectively with experimental diet, while Cirrhinus mrigala once again showed lowest values (40.12% and 0.37%), respectively in control diet (DO). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein utilization (PU), gross nitrogen retention efficiency (GNRE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %), in all the three experiments under monoculture as well as in polyculture system, for fingerlings and grow-out fish of three species were found non-significantly different. However, in trial I fingerlings better FCR values (1.63, 1.56 and 1.43) were obtained for Catla catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala and Labeo rohita. Regarding gross nitrogen retention efficiency Catla catla showed highest GNRE % value (10.4) followed by Labeo rohita (9.3) and were found significantly different from Cirrhinus mrigala (6.5) in experimental unit. In trial II grow-out monoculture, FCR values 3.7. 4.57 and 4.56 for Calla calla. Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita were pbtained while GNRE % varied 9.5,5.8 and 8.0. respectively. In trial III grow-out poIyculture the FCR values of three species varied from 3.99, 4.72 and 3.61, respectively while GNRE % varied from 10.3, 8.2 and 12.5%, respectively among Calla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo Rohita. The Labeo rohita for GNRE% differed significantly from other two species. No significant difference among species and between diets (DO, D 1 and D2) was observed in proximate composition in all the three experiments. However, in case of fingerlings Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D 1) showed higher protein contents (16.44<Yo) while Catla catla showed the lowest protein content (12.9%). Crude fat contents were found highest (7.28 %) in Labeo rohita with control diet (DO) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (6.96 %) and Labeo rohita (6.S2 %) in experimental diet (01) while lowest values were observed for Calla catla (4.17%) in control (DO). The Ash contents showed minor variations among species and treatments ranged from (4.81 % and 3.S6%) for Catla catla, (4.34% and 4.7S%) for Cirrhinus mrigala and (3.98% and 4.49%) for Labeo rohita in control and treated ponds, respectively. Highest gross energy was found (6.S3MJg'l) for Labeo rohita and lowest (S.OMJg'l) for Catla catla with experimental diet (D 1). In trial II grow-out monoculture the highest crude protein contents (1S .16%) were observed in Labeo rohita followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (14.S3%) with control diet (~O) while lowest for Labeo rohita (12.13%) in (02). Higher contents of crude fat (7.31 %) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla (S.38%) in experimental group and lowest amount 3.18% and 3.19% was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla in control group (~O) . . Higher amount 4.11 % was found in Catla catla under control (~O) while lowest amount 3.1 % was observed in Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D2). Highest gross energy percentage 996.13%) was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala under experimental diet (D2) while lowest 4.91 % was observed for Catla catla in control group (DO). In case of experiment III grow-out polyculture the proximate body composition highest crude protein contents (IS.76% and 10.53%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala followed by catla catla 911.87% and 13.3S%) and Labeo rohita (12.72% and 6.S6%) in treated (D2) and control (DO) group. respectively. Higher crude fat contents (6.S7%) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest (3.13%) in Labeo rohita and (2.9S%) in Catla catla. Ash percentage was found higher in Catla catla and lowest (2.14%) in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (2.87%) under (DO). Gross energy contents were found highest (6.84MJg,l) in catlacalla under (DO) and (6.56MJg,l) Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest amount (3.24MJg.l) were observed in Labeo rohita under (DO). Mineral composition of three fish species under three dfferent experiments showed non- sign ificant differences. Minor variation regarding mineral composition was observed in pre- treatment and post-treatment level. However. Ca and P contents showed relatively higher percentage than Mg and K contents in all the three experiments. A significant difference was observed in Mg contents in experiment III where Catla catla showed significantly higher (0.045%) percentage than Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita each containing 0.02%. A significant difference was observed in fatty acid profile among three fish species and between diets (~O, Oland D2). Among fatty acids, palmitic acid (C 16:0) was found a dominating fatty acids in all the three experiments. In trial I highest concentration (40.59 g 100 g-1 was found in Cirrhinus mrigala under (DO) and 37.19 in (D1) while lowest (30.75 and 30.78 g 100 g.l) in Labeo rohita and Catla catla under (D 1). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids were observed higher and ranged from (40.20 to 53.29 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (29.30 to 37.81 g 100 g-I), w-6 PUFA (7.65 to 14.94 g 100 g') and @-3 PUFA (7.76 to 11.07 g 100 g-I). respectively. In case of trial II significant differences were also found among three fish species and diets (D0 and 02) for different fatty acids composition. Palmitic acid (C 16:0) also showed highest concentration ranged from 28.36 to 29.73 g 100 g-I). Total saturated fatty acids were found higher that varied from (35.90 to 39.41 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.52 to 40.84 g 100 g-I), and l:PUFA (19.02 to 24.40 g 100 g-I), respectively. In trial III once again same pattern of dominance of palmitic acid along with total saturated fatty acids (36.43 to 42.24 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.899 to 43.72 g 100 g-I) and 2:PUFA (14.97 to 23.03 g 100 g-I) were observed. In case of organoleptic evaluation all the species under di Iferent culture system and treatments illustrated non-significant differences. Hence. significant differences were observed among different cooking processes (steamed and fried fish). The physico-chemical parameters of pond water remained within the acceptable limit for Fish gowth. Although comparatively lower values of temperature were found for experiment II and III for grow-out trial that was conducted in fall. The correlation co-efficient studies revealed a positive significant correlation of temperature, TDS, light penetration and salinity with growth of fish species while pH showed positive non-significant correlation with growth of fish. It was concluded from the present study that both the experimental diets D I and 02 for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out) showed significantly higher growth of all the three species in monoculture system. The diet D2 did not showed any significant higher growth in polyculture system but overall growth performance remained high in polyculture than monoculture treated ponds of grow-out fish. Comparison of species indicated that artificial diets (DI and D2) remained much suitable for Catla catla and Labeo rohita than Cirrhinus mrigala under both the culture systems. Non-significant difference was observed in the body composition and flesh quality irrespective of their economic viability. Information derived from the present research experiments will be useful in future research and formulating supplementary feed for Indian major craps for different age groups. It can also be helpful in understanding the mineral and fatty aeid profiles of the Indian major carps cultured under semi-intensive pond culure system whieh is first study of its kind on these species in Pakistan.
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Comparative Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Beetal Goats In Accelerated And Annual Kidding Systems
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Three kiddings in two years or five kiddings in three years refers as accelerated kidding which is helpful to have more kids, helps to fetch higher market prices during off-season. This can also increase life time production in the form of meat, milk and fiber. High reproduction rate is the basiccondition to increase efficiency of production. Most of the goats do not follow seasonal breeding pattern and breed round the year resulting in management problems and high mortality during severe weather conditions. Accelerated kidding strategy is a viable option that affects the health and fertility of the flock. In the present investigation, three experiments were conducted at Small Ruminant Training and Research Centre (SRT&RC) Ravi Campus Pattoki, UVAS, Lahore. The experiment-I was about the initiation of estrus activity in anestrus Beetal goats during low breeding season. Twenty Beetal goats were selected from the existing flock, maintained at SRT&RC. These goats were divided randomly into 4 groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 5 animals in each group. Group A was treated as negative control by offering only green fodder, group B was provided flushing ration along with green fodder (control), group C was kept on green fodder along with hormone therapy of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostagladin (PGF2?) while group D was provided with green fodder, flushing ration (600 gms/animal) and hormone therapy by providing GnRH and PGF2?. Hundred percent estrus induction was achieved in group B, C and D as compared to group A. The results revealed that fertility rate and kidding rate was high i.e. 80 and 60 percent among animals of B group while animals of control group had less fertility, kidding and gestation rate. The shortest gestation length was found in group B and C while triplet births were observed in goats of group D.
The experiment-II was regarding the initiation of estrus through buck effect in Beetal goats. This experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 comprised two groups A and B for which estrus induction was done during pre-breeding (August) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Similarly, Phase 2 comprised two groups C and D in which estrus induction was done during post-breeding (December) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Different reproductive parameters like estrus, fertility percentage, were noted. The data regarding average birth weight (kg) and gestation length (days) were recorded. Estrus signs were maximum in group B while low in group C. However fertility rate was high in group A, instead of group B. Overall kidding percentage was higher in A group but the lowest in group D. The highest gestation length was observed in group D whereas the lowest value was found in group B. Average litter size was higher in group D as compared to A and B group, respectively.
The experiment-III was conducted to compare productive and reproductive performance of Beetal goats in accelerated and annual kidding systems. Total of 50 adult Beetal goats were divided into two groups viz. accelerated kidding and annual kidding having 25 animals each. The does were selected on the basis of their age, body size, weight and parity. Different breeding bucks were used for each group having similar size, weight and age. All the animals included in this study were fed according to national research council (NRC) nutrient requirements for goats (NRC, 1981). Flushing rations and estrus inducing hormones both were provided to the does of respective groups for preparation of breeding activity during out of season breeding. The annual kidding group was considered as the control group, while the does were bred every eight months for accelerated kidding. The offsprings produced by the pregnant does of 1st batch of both the groups were reared under similar managemental conditions up to maturity. Three crops were produced in accelerated kidding system as compared to two crops in annual kidding system. It was observed that more number of animals i.e. 17 out of 25 showed estrus signs as compared to annual kidding system where 15 animals showed estrus signs. There were non significant differences for number of services per conceptionin two crops under annual kidding groups. Higher percentage of estrus was observed in accelerated to annual kidding. Total number of kids produced in accelerated kidding system was 42 with an average 14 kids in three crops while 23 kids were produced in annual kidding system in two years. Average cost of concentrate was observed high in accelerated kidding system as compared to annual kidding system. Birth weight of kids produced in 3 different seasons i.e. March-April, October- November and June-July were found as 2.84, 2.91 and 2.98 kg. The overall results in term of reproductive efficiency, oestrus behavior and kidding percentage were better in accelerated group than annual kidding.
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Comparison Of Diagnostic Approaches For The Detection Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistency In Dairy Herds
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Bovine viral diarrhea is one of the most important diseases of cattle which are causing
continuous economic losses to the cattle industry primarily due to decreased reproductive
I performance. Without doubt, direct contact between BVDV persistently infected, and susceptible animals is the most important transmission route of virus. All control programs which are in use in many countries of the world, mainly depend upon the detection of PI animals, eliminating them and preventing their return into the herds. Therefore, in this study diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsies and serum samples were compared for the detection of PI animals, as well as proficiency of various diagnostic approaches like VI, AC-ELISA, IHC and real time RT-PCR were evaluated using ear notch biopsies. A total of 468 samples were collected from 12 participating dairy cattle farms located at Prince Edward Island, Canada. The samples were divided into two groups on the basis of age, A " 6 months), and B (> 6 months).
PI calves remain immunotolerant to the infecting strain but if exposed to a heterogonous strain postnatally, they may develop low level of antibody. Accordingly, serum neutralization was applied for initial screening of samples for further testing. The samples of animals of group B, having SNT (:S 1 :64) were selected, while all samples of younger aged group A were processed without considering the serum neutralizing titres, because unlike older animals, P.1. animals below 6 months of age can have passive colostral antibodies in the course of persistency. Diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsy and serum sample for confirmation of BVDV
A significant discrepancy was observed between ear notch biopsies (51198 positive) and
serum samples (71198 positive) during first round of testing by real time RT-PCR. However, on
follow up testing, 30 days post first round of testing, a complete agreement between ear notch
biopsies and serum samples was observed. On second round of testing, a total of 4 animals out of
197 (one positive animals died before re-sampling) were confirmed with PI, using both ear notch
biopsies and serum samples. The decrease in the positivity using RT-PCR on serum samples in
the second round of testing reflected the presence of 2 transiently infected animals. Ear notch
biopsy (EN) testing did not detect any transiently infected animal indicating the lack of
delectability of the virus in EN during transient infection under conditions of this study. After
follow up testing, 2 animals in each of group A and B were identified as PI. These findings have
led us to conclude, that either serum or ear notch biopsy can be used for the detection of
persistent infection. Of 468 collected and 197 tested samples, an overall 0.85% and 2.03%
prevalence of PI animals with BVDV was observed respectively. A complete agreement (P value=l) was observed when three diagnostic approaches (Real time RT- PCR, AC-ELISA, and IHC) were compared with standard of VI. A total of 197 ear notch biopsies (145 of group A and 52 of group B) were tested by the four diagnostic tests, four animals (2 from group A and 2 from group B) were found positive by all the tests applied. A complete agreement was observed between the first and the second round of testing. All four assays were found specific but real time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive. Both, VI and IHC were found labour intensive, as diagnosis may take more than one week to be made. Further PI calves remain immunotolerant tothe infecting strain but if exposed to a heterogonous strain postnatally, they may develop low leved
ofantibody. Accordingly, serum neutralization was applied for initial screening of samples for further testing. The samples of animals of group B, having SNT (:S 1 :64) were selected, while all samples of younger aged group A were processed without considering the serum neutralizing titres, because
unlike older animals, P.1. animals below 6 months of age can have passive colostral antibodies in the course of persistency. Diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsy and serum sample for confirmation of BVDV persistent animals were evaluated by real time RT-PCR. TaqMan probes and primers specific for BVDVI and BVDV2 were used. They were found specific and able to detect 10·s and 10-4 TCID50 units ofBVDVI and BVDV2, respectively.
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Comunity Druven Sustainable Management Of Natural Resources Of Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuaty,
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1496,T] (1).
Detection Of Falciparum Malaria And Its Control Under Local Climatic Conditions
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2180,T] (1).
Detection Of Vivax Malaria And Under Local Climatic Conditions
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Develoopment Of A Reliable Microsatellites Maarkers Panel For Parentage Analysis In Cattle Breeds Of Pakistan and Its Validatio Through Cytochrome B Gene Sequencing
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Pakistan posseses enormous Animal Genetic Resource (AnGR) with 36.9 millions of cattle population. The data on genetic fabric of these breed is yet to be documented for their genetic characterization and identification. This work reports first country wide microsatellite markers and cytochrome b gene based genetic characterization of 10 famous cattle breeds of Pakistan. A total of 352 blood samples from unrelated and phenotypically representative of ten native cattle breeds including Bos indicus; Sahiwal, Cholistani, Red Sindhi, Tharparker, Dhanni, Dajal, Lohai, Bhagnari, Achai and Bos indicus x Bos taurus; Nari Master, and an exotic Bos taurus; Holstein Friesian breeds were collected from their respective home tracts, institutional herds and private livestock farms located throughtout the country. These samples were subject to DNA extraction using inorganic method caliberated to same concentration in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Pakistan. A total of 21 microsatellite markers recommended by the programme for the global management of genetic resources (MoDAD) for breed characterization of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) were applied. Multiplex PCR were optimized for amplification and were genotyped using ABI Genetic Analyzer 3130 xl using LIZ as size standard. Genotyping results were analyzed using POPGENE and Arlequin ver 3.5 software. The observed and effective number of alleles ranged from 10 (INRA32) to 43 (TGLA126) and 2.3574 (CSSM66) to 15.0019 (BM6526) respectively in all breeds? The observed and expected heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.0638 (INRA32) to 0.7101 (BM2113) and 0.6510 (INRA32) to 0.9347 (BM6526) respectively in the experimental samples. Mean values for observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.4943 ± 0.1647 and 0.8164 ± 0.0930 respectively. Mean values for Fis, Fit and Fst in all cattle breeds were calculated as 0.2819, 0.3864 and 0.1456 respectively. Average polymorphic information content (PIC) of all microsatellite loci was 0.81 indicating a high degree of informativeness of all microsatellite markers used. It implies that the same set of markers is equally good and could reliably be used for parentage confirmation in Pakistani cattle breeds. The data produced, also showed least degree of genetic difference between Red Sindhi and Tharparker breeds. This may due to mixing of the two breeds for being in close proximity of their home tracts.
Fragment mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was also amplified using specific primers through PCR of 130 individuals representing all selected breeds and sequencing was done using ABI Genetic Analyzer 3130 xl. The sequences were aligned and analyzed with CodonCode Alligner 4.0.4 software. The analysis revealed highly degree of sequence conservation in all the Pakistani cattle while documenting changes in only 9 nucleotides from 26 individuals whereas multiple nucleotide changes in 5 locations were shown by more than one individual in the data presented. One polymorphic site was found in nucleotide 318 (T?C) in several breeds of indicine cattle while 2 Lohani and 5 Nari Master individuals showed nucleotide changes specific to taurine cattle. Of all the changes found, only three of them caused changes in the amino acid sequence. The UPGMA tree using MEGA 5.1 showed a clear differentiation between taurine and indicine cattle, except for Nari Master Pakistani cattle showing mitochondrial taurine sequences because it's a cross between Bhagnari (Bos indicus) and Australian Draught Master (Bos taurrus). The estimates of divergence among breeds were also low for most breed pairs, except for Nari Master and Dhanni whereas the overall divergence within Bos indicus or within Bos taurus were also very low (0.002 and 0.003, respectively) but the differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus were significantly higher (0.014) as should be the case.
These results of microsatellite markers have produced a set of information that can be recommended as a reliable marker panel for studies on genetic diversity analysis, parentage confirmation. The cytochrome b data on the other hand not only substantiated genetic diversity analyses but it also proved to be equally good for comparative Phylogenetic analysis of Pakistani cattle breeds and exotic breeds. This work provides most authenticated data and adds a great deal, to already existing information on Pakistani AnGR. This information coupled with prospective data using next generation genetic technologies will assist designing breed improvement focused breeding policies and conservation activities in future.
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Development And Evaluation Of Vaccines Prepared From Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Of Camel Mastitis
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Development And Evaluation Of Vaccines Prepared From Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Of Camel Mastitis
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Development Of A Suitable Semen Extender For The Cryopreservation Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Presently, buffalo farmers are dissatisfied with fertility rates of the frozen semen used in the field and tend to use bulls. This study was designed to develop a suitable semen extender for cryopreservation of Nili Ravi buffalo semen that can improve conception rate in buffaloes.
Experiment-I, an attempt was made to develop semen extender with optimal osmotic pressure for buffalo semen using tris citric acid (TCAE), skim milk (SME) and coconut water (CWE) extenders (each extender have 260, 270, 280, 290 and 300 mOsm/kg osmotic pressure levels). In Experiment-II, best extender (TCAE: 300 mOsm/kg) of experiment-I was tried to improve post thaw spermatozoa characteristics by supplementing antioxidants [0.0, 1.75, 2.0 and 2.25 mM butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and 0.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mM L-cysteine]. Post thaw spermatozoa motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), DNA damage rate and lipid peroxidation were assessed in first two experiments. In Experiment-III, pregnancy rate assessment of extended semen was carried out by using Trial extender (best of experiment II) or Control extender of Semen Production Unit (SPU), Qadirabad, Pakistan (50 inseminations of each extender).
Higher spermatozoa motility at ≥ 270 mOsm/kg was noted in TCAE than both SME and CWE could be due to less intracellular ice formation in zwitterions extender. Higher spermatozoa viability in TCAE and CWE compared to SME may be attributed to extender effectiveness. Higher acrosomal integrity rate at 300 mOsm/kg in TCAE and SME may be because of less intracellular ice formation in isotonic extenders. At 290 mOsm/kg, higher spermatozoa PMI in SME and lesser DNA damage in three extenders might be due to lesser intracellular ice formation at cryopreservation. Decreased spermatozoa DNA damage in SME might be due to the presence of natural antioxidants i.e., casein. Higher lipid peroxidation in CWE than TCAE and SME may be due to presence of natural antioxidants (in SME) and higher cell dehydration potential of TCAE.
Higher spermatozoa motility recorded at 2.0 mM BHT compared to other BHT groups including DMSO might be due to fact that BHT protects spermatozoa mitochondria by reducing oxidative stress. Lower spermatozoa viability, PMI rates and higher DNA damage at 2.25 mM of BHT may be due to BHT toxic effects. Lower lipid peroxidation in BHT treated groups compared to DMSO and BHT control groups might be related to BHT strong antioxidant properties. L-cysteine caused higher spermatozoa DNA damage at highest level (i.e., 8 mM) that could also be due to antioxidant’s toxic effect.
Pregnancy rate 18 % higher was noted in Trial than Control semen extender; however no significant difference have been noted that might be due to less no of inseminations.
In conclusion, TCA extender (300 mOsm/kg) having BHT (2.0 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and yielded numerically better pregnancy rates. Results of study indicated that osmotic stress damaged the spermatozoa internal structures more severely than injury to plasma membrane.
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Differential Expression And Mutation Analysis Of Heat Shock Proteins (Hsps) And Tumor Suppressor Gene (P53) In Differemt Cancer Types of Pakistani Dogs and Cats
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Documenting Goat Production System In Two Agro-Ecological Regions Of Punjab
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Bacillus Subtilis And Sodium Butyrate On The Morphometry Of The Small Intestine And Immune System In Healthy And Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Supplementation ofBacillus subtilis and microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the feed is being practiced as a substitute for antibiotics growth promoters. An expansive range of encouraging health-related properties exhibited by B. subtilis and SB has been published, but their exact effect on gut and immune system is not completely understood. Consequently, the evaluation of B. subtilis andSB as feed supplements is desired. To achieve this goal, the present study was aimed to investigate the effects of B. subtilis and SB on performance, immune system, gut and lymphoid organs microarchitecture in healthy and Salmonella-challenged broiler chickens.
In the first experiment the research was targeted to investigate the effects of B. subtilis on performance, immune system, gut and lymphoid organ microarchitecture in broilers. A total of 120 d-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four groups, each group with three replicates containing 10 birds per replicate. The birds were fed a corn-soy-based basal diet (BD, control) or BD supplemented with 10% zinc bacitracin (ZnB), and 0.05g/kg or 0.1g/kg of B. subtilis, respectively. On d 21 and 35, six birds from each group were killed to collect blood and visceral organs (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, liver and small intestine). Parameters evaluated included growth performance, immune responses, relative organ weights, lymphoid organs and gut mucosal morphometry, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count and goblet cell histochemistry in mucosa. Results showed that the group fed 0.1g/kg of B. subtilis had superior (P<0.05) mean body weight and weight gain, and lower FCR compared to the non-supplemented or ZnB-fed groups.The BS-0.1 group revealed higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) virus and the supplemented groups against sheep RBCs (SRBCs) on d 35. Cell-mediated immune response post-phytohemagglutinin-P injection was attained (P<0.05) by birds in the BS-0.1 group at 24h, and by both the BS-0.1 and BS-0.05 groups at 48 and 72h compared to the ZnB and control groups. The BS-0.1 group gained higher (P<0.05) relative bursal weight on d 21 compared to the other groups. Compared to the control group, the liver, spleen and thymus weighed more (P<0.05) in the experimental groups on d 35. The histomorphological study revealed increased (P<0.05) thymus cortical width, and cortex/medulla ratio in the BS-0.1 group compared to the control. The area of the bursal follicles and germinal centers of the spleen also improved (P<0.05) in the BS-0.1 group compared to the control. Compared to the ZnB and control, higher (P<0.05) villus height, villus surface area and villus crypt ratio of the duodenum and jejunum were recorded on d 21, and higher (P<0.05) villus heightof the duodenum and ileum was noted on d 35 in the BS-0.1 and BS-0.05 groups. The number of goblet cells having acid mucin was significantly higher in the ileal mucosae of the BS-0.1 group chickens compared to the ZnB and control. In conclusion, B. subtilis type probiotics effectuated better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers.
The second experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on growth performance, immune status, organ weights and the microarchitecture of lymphoid organs and the small intestine compared to the effects brought about by an antibiotic. The cell-mediated immune response at 48 h post-phytohemagglutinin-P injection, and antibody titer against NDV and sheep RBCs on d 35 was higher (P < 0.05) in SB-1 chicks compared to those in the ZnB and control groups. Higher (P < 0.05) weight gain, and lower (P < 0.05) FCR were attained by the supplemented groups compared to the control. The thymus and spleen weighed more (P < 0.05) in the SB-1 group and bursa registered more (P < 0.05) weight in both SB groups compared to the control. On d 21, areas of the thymus medulla and the spleen germinal centers were larger (P < 0.05) in SB-1 chicks compared to ZnB and control chicks. The VH and VSA increased (P < 0.05) in the duodenum and jejunum in both SB groups on d 21, and in SB-1 on d 35 compared to the ZnB and control groups. The villus to crypt ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the duodenum in SB-1 chicks compared to ZnB and control chicks. On d 35, VH in all segments and VSA in the duodenum and jejunum increased (P < 0.05) in SB-1 chicks compared to ZnB and control chicks. Statistically, IEL count was not significant among supplemented groups. On d 21, the number of goblet cells containing acidic mucin increased (P < 0.05) in all the segments of the small intestines in the SB-1 group compared to the control group and on d 35 in the ileum compared to the other groups. In conclusion sodium butyrate elicited better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated the morphology of lymphoid organs and the gut mucosa in broiler chickens.
The third experiment was focused to assess the effect of B. subtilis and SB on gut development, growth performance and immune system in broilers challenged with S. Gallinarum. Better growth performance was reported in the supplemented groups compared to the NC-S group due to better feed efficiency. The B. subtilis-supplemented group exhibited higher (P < 0.05) cellular immunity and antibody titer against NDV compared to the PC-S and NC-S groups. Furthermore, B. subtilis¬- and SB-supplemented groups reflected higher (P < 0.05) relative thymus and bursa weights, and improved microarchitecture of the lymphoid organs compared to the NC-S group. On d 21, villus surface area in the jejunum and ileum increased (P < 0.05) in sodium butyrate-treated birds. The crypt depth of the jejunum decreased (P < 0.05) in B. subtilis and sodium butyrate groups compared to NC-S and PC-S groups. On d 35, the villus height, villus surface area and VH:CD ratio of the duodenum increased (P < 0.05) in the supplemented groups compared to the NC-S group. The FCR, Salmonella population in ceca and mortality were higher (P < 0.05) in the NC-S group. In conclusion, the prophylactic use of the B. subtilis probiotic and SB alleviated stress associated with SalmonellaGallinarum infection and improved performance, immune function, lymphoid organs and gut mucosal development in infected broilers. Further analyses are needed to reveal the mechanism(s) by which B. subtilis and sodium butyrate produce such effects.
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Effect Of Colchicine On Cellular And Humoral Immune Responses In Mice
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Colchicine is a medication that treats gout. It is a natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants Colchicum autumnale .It causes modulation of chemokine and prostanoid production and inhibition of neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecules by which it interferes with the initiation and amplification of the joint inflammation.
The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of colchicine on cellular and humoral immunity in mice. There were five groups for each assay i.e. group I (negative control), positive control and three colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg). The number of mice in each group was five to eight. All these groups were administered doses intraperitoneally. To determine the effect of colchicine on cell mediated immunity , delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay, macrophage engulfment assay, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test and nitric oxide production was performed .DTH was performed by measuring skin thickness. DTH showed significant difference (P<0.001) of negative control to colchicine treated groups 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg. With increasing dose, there was decrease in skin thickness of the mice. Highest reduction of skin was found at 160μg/kg. Macrophage engulfment assay was performed to evaluate the effect of macrophage induced phagocytosis. There was significant ( P <0.001) difference of engulfment of SRBCs by macrophages with negative control to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III(80μg/kg) and group IV(160μg/kg) groups. There was significant difference of engulfment of macrophages at 45 and 90 minutes.
Cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test was performed to assess the effect of colchicine on total leukocyte count (TLC) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). There was
reduction of TLC to about 45.3% in control to 48.3%, 54.68% and 65.42% in group II (40μg/kg), group III (80 μg/ kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) respectively when these were compared with primary values of TLC. There was significant difference of reduction in the neutrophil count of negative control 1057 (±120) to 902 (±67) in group II (40μg/kg), 734(±69) in group III (80 μg/ kg) and 609 (±71) in group IV (160μg/kg) of doses of colchicine. This test showed that with the increasing dose of colchicine, there was significant (P<0.001) difference of TLC count and neutrophil count.
Nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages was performed for measuring different concentrations of nitric oxide produced. There was significant difference (P<0.001) in NO production by macrophages alone and LPS stimulated between negative control to group II (40 μg /kg), group III (80μg/kg), group IV (160μg/kg) of colchicine. With increasing dose, there was significant reduction in production of NO. There was significant P<0.0001 reduction in body weight andspleen weight difference of mice in different groups of colchicine treated 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg from negative control after treatment. There was difference of weight of Thymus of group II (40 μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) but difference was statistically not significant. There were no histopathological changes observed in spleen and Thymus at 40μg/kg and 80μg/kg doses of colchicine. At 160μg/kg dose, increase in thickness of trabecular was seen .due to edema in the spleen. For evaluation of colchicine effect on humoral immunity, haemagglutination assay, mice lethality test and Jerne hemolytic plaque formation were performed. Haemagglutination assay (HA) was performed by using red blood cells injected intraperitoneally in mice to measure antibody titer. There was significant difference of (P >0.001) to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg)with group I (negative control).With the increasing dose, there was reduction in the
HA titer. Mice lethality test was performed by testing immune response of the mice to the challenge infection of P.multocida. It was performed by comparing mortality ratio of mice after administration of drug. There was no death of mice in the negative control group in which there was administration of PBS and vaccine. At 40μg/kg dose of colchicine, there was 50% mortality ratio. At 80μg/kg dose of colchicine 75% mortality ratio was observed. Maximum mortality ratio was observed at the 160μg/kg colchicine dose i.e. 100%.
Jerne plaque formation test was performed and plaques formed was enumerated and recorded as the number of plaque forming cells (PFCs) per million cells. There was significant difference (P<0.001) of reduction in number of plaques from negative control to all doses of colchicine 40 μg/kg, 80 μg/kg and 160μg/kg. Antibody formation was decreased with increasing the dose of colchicine. Therefore, it is concluded that colchicine suppresses the cellular and humoral responses in mice.
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Effect Of Different Dietary Lysine Levels And Feed Restriction Regimes On Growth Performance And Slaughtering Characteristics In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Maintained During Hot Season
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: High prices, global shortage of feed ingredients and less supply of animal protein against great demand as consequence of ever increasing human population needs to enhance protein supply. One way of enhancing protein supply is to expand poultry production along with increasing production of other micro livestock such as Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) having low maintenance cost, short generation intervals, early sexual maturity and better resistance to diseases and its meat being rich in high quality protein having high biological value with low caloric content. Profit can be optimized by minimizing feed cost that accounts for 60-70 % of the total production cost and any improvements in the performance of birds by manipulation of feeding strategies inevitably have a profound effect on profitability. Any effort to improve commercial poultry production and enhance its efficiency needs to emphasize on better utilization of existing resources. Among different feeding management schemes and strategies phase feeding may be employed with the logic seems to feed birds for shorter periods of time to exactly meet but not exceed the amino acids requirements hence improvement in carcass characteristics and reduction of dietary cost. Commercial availability of very vital limiting amino acids (lysine) has set a new tendency of formulation of poultry feeds having low protein level with addition of amino acids. Lysine, being utmost essential amino acid is used as a reference for other essential amino acids. Feed restriction program may be another managemental tool that may elicit compensatory growth, improved feed efficiency, carcass quality and birds are not exposed to sub optimal level of nutrients but the efficiency of utilization of these nutrients may be improved. On the other hand breed, strain, management and sex differences for carcass traits have also been reported. Very little research focus on the subject has necessitated conducting the
present study undertaken in Japanese quails on the similar pattern as adopted in broiler industry to make quail production more cost-effective and commercially viable at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. A series of experiments at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan was run to assess the effect of different management interventions on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical profile in Japanese quail.
The first experiment was aimed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency involving 1440 day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks. Three dietary lysine levels (1.3, 1.4-1.2 & 1.5-1.3-1.1 %) in 3 different phases were allocated to four different close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local-2 and Local-3) of Japanese quails to assess their comparative growth performance by replicating each treatment for three times. The experimental day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 40 chicks each. Quails under 1st treatment were fed a diet with 1.3 percent lysine throughout the grow-out period of 28 days, while, those under 2nd treatment were allotted diet with 1.4 percent lysine up to14 days of age and then subsequently reduced to 1.2 percent lysine up to 28 days. The 3rd treatment was split into 03 different phases. The first phase was up to 9th, 2nd up to 19th and 3rd up to 28th day by allotting diet containing 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1 % lysine, respectively. Weekly data on growth performance were recorded and analyzed through ANOVA technique in CRD under factorial arrangement and the comparison of means was worked out using DMR test by the help of SAS 9.1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins.
In the 2nd experiment same experimental design and phase feeding was practiced to observe organ development. Sexing with in treatment was done at the age of three weeks and quails were maintained separately for one week. At 4 week of age, 3 birds/ replicate from either sex were slaughtered through Halal Muslim method for studying carcass characteristics. Two birds per replicate from either sex were used for serum analysis of glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumen and total protein using standard procedures. The analysis showed three phase dietary lysine regimen than other dietary lysine regimens improved (P≤0.05) slaughter characteristics i.e. post slaughter weight (g), dressing percentage with and without giblets, breast yield (g), thigh yield (g), giblet weight (g), liver weight (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm), weight of visceral organs including intestinal weight (g) and intestinal length (cm). However, heart weight (g), gizzard (empty) weight (g), serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, albumin and total protein were not significantly affected by dietary lysine regimen. While, different close bred stocks did not show any significant differences.
Third experiment was executed to examine the growth performance and economic efficiency of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) subjected to different feed restriction regimes at ART Centre, UVAS, Lahore. For this purpose a total of 3200 quail chicks from four different close-bred stocks were allocated to four different feed restriction regimes comprising four close-bred stocks (Imported, Local-1, Local -2 and Local-3) at the age of 10 days. The experimental quails in group 1 were fed ad-libitum (20.30% CP, 1.3% Lysine, as recommended by NRC) throughout the experimental period to serve as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were provided with 1 hour feed- 3-hour off, 2-hour feed- 2hour off and 3-hour feed-1hour off feeding regimes, respectively. The analysis of data showed that the maximum feed intake was observed in ad-libitum fed group whereas the highest body weight gain was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hour
fed quails. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group. Different close-bred stocks could not express any significant difference in growth parameters.
In the 4th experiment same dietary plan of time restriction as in 3rd experiment was adopted to observe organ development. At the termination of the experiment (at the age of 38 days), 6 birds (3 male and 3 female) from each replicate were randomly picked up and slaughtered (by Halal method) to study different slaughter parameters. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) carcass weight, mean dressing % with and without giblet, mean thigh weight was observed in ad-libitum and 3 hours fed quails while significantly lower mean dressing %, liver weight, gizzard weight, giblet weight, breast weight and mean intestinal length and weight in one hour fed quail.
Blood profile showed significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails. Heart weights (g), keel length (cm), shank length (cm) were not affected significantly among different treatments and close-bred stocks.
Based upon the findings of the present study it may be stated that
1. Maximum (P≤0.05) feed intake; body weight gain and improved FCR were observed in three phase dietary lysine regimen leading to maximum profit margins.
2. Significant improvement in carcass characteristics was recorded in three phase dietary lysine regimen.
3. The best FCR leading to maximum profit margin was observed in 3 hour-fed group in Japanese quails when subjected to different feed restriction regimens.
4. Three hour fed quails showed superior carcass characteristics at par with ad-libitum fed groups especially in terms of carcass weight, dressing percentage and thigh weight.
5. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum glucose, urea, albumin and total protein level were recorded in ad-libitum and 3-hours fed quails while significantly higher (P≤0.05) serum cholesterol level was observed in one hour fed quails.
Suggestions and Recommendations
Four lysine dietary regimens having 1 week each may successfully be employed in Japanese quails in order to get maximum profit. It may further be recommended that Japanese quails may be subjected to feed restriction of 1-hour after 2nd week.
The present series of experimentation is a step towards optimizing the nutritional and managemental strategies in Japanese quails, however, a lot more is still needed to be worked out in this direction.
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Effect Of Different Feed Ingredients On Growth, Hematology And Vital Organs In Juvenile Labeo Rohita
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: This 9-month study extending from March 1, to November, 30, 2012 was conducted to find out the effect of different feed ingredients on growth, haematology and vital organs in juvenile Labeo rohita. The experiment was performed to find out the cost-effective substitutes of fishmeal and their effect on growth, digestive enzymes activity, blood profile, histology of intestine and flesh quality was monitored. To obtain the said objectives the experimental fish, Labeo rohita was subjected through three different research trials. i. A 3-month research trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant/animal origin feed ingredients on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of fingerling Labeo rohita. Fish was fed on fish meal, guar meal, corn gluten meal (30%), soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice polish, cotton seed meal, canola meal and rape seed meal individually. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, average weight gain, average length increase and specific growth rate among various ingredients. The highest average weight gain 27.162±6.950g and average length increase 6.153±0.833cm was observed in fish fed on guar meal while same was lowest 5.327±1.067g and 1.858±0.137cm, respectively in fish fed on corn gluten. However, fish showed better FCR values (2.01±0.08) when fed on guar meal while the FCR was very poor (9.57±48) for corn gluten (30%) fed group. The survival rate was highest (100%) for soybean meal fed group and lowest (70%) in canola and rapeseed meal fed group. ii. During second 3-month feeding trial, the effectiveness of individual feed ingredient from either plant or animal origin on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita was observed. The experiment was conducted in ten fiber glass tanks having size 12 ft x 4ft x 3 ft (length x width x depth). Single ingredient was considered as an independent treatment, hence guar meal, soybean meal, cotton seed meal and canola meal were considered as an independent treatment and fishmeal which was considered as a superior ingredient due to its ideal nutrient balance served as control. Ten juvenile Labeo rohita having an average weight of 200±2.33 g were harvested indiscriminately from the bulk and stocked in each fiberglass tank. Two tanks were randomly allotted to each treatment and control. Each group received uniform ration @ 4% of total fish biomass twice a day. Results revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, FCR and specific growth rates among treatments. Weight gain was the highest in guar meal fed fish while the lowest on fish meal. Body composition of fish showed slight variations in fat contents with no differences in other nutrients though chemical composition of individual ingredient varies a lot. Minerals specifically Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu significantly differed (P?0.05) among treatments which might be linked with their variable release in digestive system of fish in the presence of various anti-nutritional factors. For different feed ingredients protease activity varied significantly (P<0.05) between anterior and posterior part of the intestine and also that of whole intestine when compared among various treatment groups. While amylase activity differed significantly when enzyme activity compared from the homogenate of whole intestine but not when compared partly. WBC, RBC, Hct, HB, PROT, ALB and GLOB showed significant (P<0.05) differences for blood samples of the fish fed with different feed ingredients while values of MCV, MCH, MCHC and ESR remained uniform. The feed ingredients differently affected the liver and intestinal cells. No difference was observed when fried fish fed on different ingredients were compared among each other indicating that ingredients with nominal variations in chemical composition do not leave much after effects on fish flesh. iii. Third 3-month trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant-animal feed and/or plant by-product based feed on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita. Fish fed on rice polish alone served as control (T0). Previously selected potential fish feed ingredients were grouped together with two ingredients in each isocaloric test diet which served as an independent trial during these studies. Group 1(T1) contained guar meal and canola meal, group 2(T2) soybean meal and cotton seed meal, group 3(T3) guar meal and cotton seed meal, group 4(T4) soybean meal and canola meal and group 5(T5) fishmeal and canola meal. Each group including control had two replicates. 12 earthen ponds with uniform area of 0.03 ha each, were randomly stocked with 100 fish (average weight 200±4.43g) in each following standard stocking protocols. All the 12 ponds were then randomly allotted to individual treatment including control group. Experimental fish were fed @ 4% of their wet biomass twice a day except Sundays which was kept open providing fish an opportunity to clean left over feed from the previous day. Better growth rate, food conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in T3 than rest of the treatments including control suggest that guar meal and cotton seed meal is much better option to include in future feed formulations for maximum performance and minimum feed wastage. This preposition will minimize feed providing cleaner and healthy environment to fish ultimately enhancing stocking rate and fish production. Proximate analysis of dried and ground fish samples showed higher protein values in T4, fat in T2, moisture contents in control, dry matter in T1 and ash in T5. Mineral composition of Labeo rohita showed statistically significant (P ? 0.05) differences in Na, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content. Amylase concentration showed non-significant differences in anterior, posterior parts and the whole intestine in all the treatment and control ponds except T5 while protease concentrations were statistically significant (?0.05) in anterior and posterior part within the same group as well as among various groups. Enzymatic activity in whole intestine also varied significantly when compared among groups. Haematological parameters viz. WBC, RBC, ALB, GLOB and PROT differed significantly (?0.05) among all the treatments. Disrupted hepatic cords and hepatocytes showing pyknotic nucleus were observed in T1, moderate infiltration of fat vacuoles in T2 and, T4 caused vacuolar and hepatic cord degeneration while fish from T0 were subjected to severe vacuolation in hepatocytes. Non-significant differences in flavor, juiciness, and oiliness of fried fish from all the treatments and control ponds indicated that the sensory attributes of fish flesh were not affected by feeding fish with blend of various ingredients. It is concluded that the response of body organs varies with varying feed stuffs and the feed items have pronounced effect on enzymatic activities, hematological and histological parameters in juvenile Labeo rohita. During present study fish showed comparatively better growth when fed with guar meal as a single feed ingredient or combined with cotton seed meal than the rest of feed ingredients either offered individually or in combinations. The study provides base line information and will help aquaculture nutritionists to formulate cost-effective feeds.
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Effect Of Different Management Strategies On Growth Performance, Biochemical Profile And Immune
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Feeding Milk Replacer And Diet With Varying Levels Of Concention On Growth Puberty And First Lactation
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Long Term Use Of Bovine Somatotropic Hormone On Milk Production ,Production Nutrient
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Use of bovine somatotropic hormone (bST) for increased milk production has been widely investigated in dairy cattle, whereas very little work has been done in buffaloes. To observe the effect of bST on buffalo for long term duration study was planned with the objectives to investigate the effects of long term use of bST on milk production, milk composition, reproduction, hematological and biochemical parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. For this study 30 lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes with similar milk production and stage of lactation were selected and randomly divided in to two groups A and B with 15 animals in each group. The group A (0 bST) served as control while animals in group B (+bST) were given injection of bST (250 mg Boostin-250/animal) at 14d interval. Nutritional requirements of experimental animals were met through available green fodder (45-50kg/day) supplemented with concentrate ration @ half of milk production. The milk production was significantly (P<0.05) increased by 18.04 % in treated group compared with control. The results showed that there was no significantly variations in parameters like milk composition, dry period and lactation length, calving interval in both the groups. The postpartum estrous period and service period were significantly (P< 0.05) improved which reflected positive effect of bST on reproductive parameters. However, the difference in services per conception was non-significant. Small variations were found in the prevalence of contagious and non contagious diseases in both experimental groups during the study period. The differences among body weights, hematological and biochemical parameters were also non-significant expect blood urea nitrogen (p< 0.05). The proceeds over a lactation period of 305 days was PKR. 4227.0 with the use of bST.
Second trial was conducted to study the effect of dose interval of bST in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. For the proposed study 21 Nili-Ravi lactating buffaloes with similar milk production and stage of lactation were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C with 7 animals in each group. The group A was injected with full dose of bST hormone (250 mg/animal) with trade name of Boostin-250 at an interval of 14 days, while animals in group B were given injection on alternate days with divided dose of 36 mg/animal. Group C was kept as control. Duration of study was 5 months and the animals were kept on green fodder supplemented with concentrate ration half of milk production. The concentrate ration had 17.2% CP and 72.0% TDN. The milk production increased by 18.35% and 15.27% in-group A and B compared with group C (control) but increase was non-significant (P>0.05) . Similarly data revealed that dose interval had no affect on milk contents, reproductive and hematological parameters in all the experimental groups.
In a third trial feed digestibility and efficiency for milk production was studied. For the study fourteen Nili-Ravi buffaloes at their mid lactation with almost same level of milk production were randomly divided into two groups A and B with seven animals in each group. The group A was kept as control, while group B was injected bST hormone (250 mg/animal) at an interval of 14 days and continued for 60 days. The nutritional requirements of animals in both the groups were met through TMR according to NRC recommendations. The milk production was increased by 7.0% in. treated group (B) as compared with control group (A) and the increase was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). However, the feed efficiency for milk production was significantly improved (P< 0.05) in treated group. The differences in milk composition (Fat, SNF, TS and Protein percent) body weight gain digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients in treated and control groups were found non-significant (P>0.05).
The fourth trial was conducted to determine the effect of energy on milk production and its quality under the influence of bST hormone in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Multiparous (n12) buffaloes with mid lactation and similar level of milk yield were selected and randomly divided in to three groups i.e. A, B and C with four animals in each group. All the experimental animals were injected bST with trade name of Boostin - 250. The dose level was 250 mg per animal and injection was given at fortnightly interval during study period. The nutritional requirements of three groups animals were met through TMR with varying levels of energy (15% low and 15% above the recommendations of NRC). The milk yield was significantly higher (p<O.O5) on medium and high energy ration but the difference of milk yield was non significant (p>O.O5) between medium and low energy diets. The milk components and body weight gain were similar on all rations, while feed efficiency and nutrient intake (except ether extract) in low energy diet was significantly higher (p<O.O5) from two other rations. It may be concluded that 15% higher energy than recommended by NRC favoured milk production in Nih Ravi buffaloes when they were injected bST hormone.
On the over all there was consistency of results for milk production and milk composition with reference to available literature. However, some reproductive parameters including postpartum estrus and service period were significantly improved with the use of bST hormone. This effect has not been reported in the previous literature which needs to be further investigated and verified. Similarly the dose level in buffaloes needs to be further studied.
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Effect Of Pre-Weaning Diets And Varying Levels Of Concentrate During Post-Weaning Period On The Performacne Of Female Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves Up To One Year Of Age
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Nili-Ravi buffalo is a well-known buffalo breed in subcontinent Indo-Pakistan region and famous for its high milk production ability. Currently, buffalo calves and growing heifers are fed on deprived quality and quantity roughages with poor nutritive values resulting in reduced growth rate, reproduction with delayed attainment of puberty and high mortality. These constraints can be overcome through nutritional management of buffaloes. There is a need for the development of standards for adequate, cost effective provision of colostrum, whole milk/milk replacer and calf starter ration to neonatal calves up to weaning, establishment of nutrient requirements for growing buffalo heifer with aim of more average daily gain to reduce age at puberty and nutrients requirements for lactating buffalo according to their status and stage of milk production.
The current study comprises of two experiments and was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey, Pattoki, District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. The first experiment was performed with an aim to check the growth performance of female buffalo calves on whole milk & milk replacer and find out the cost effective and growth rate friendly alternate source of liquid diet. The duration of this experiment was 120 days. Thirty six female calves were selected and randomly divided into three (n=12) different treatments A (whole milk), B (50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer) and C (milk replacer). All the calves were given colostrum for first three days, then whole milk up to 15 days of age and transferred into three treatments. In addition to this all the calves were provided calf starter and fresh water ad-libitum. The calves were given
liquid diet @ 10% of their body weight for first two months and then gradually decline of 1% on weekly basis for the subsequent two months. Green fodder was started on three month of age. The average daily total dry matter intake was remained same for all the three treatments but the average daily gain was higher in treatment A (457.38±110.13a) compare to treatment C (362.22±107.83b) but it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. The mean FCR value was also better for treatment A (3.49±0.56b) compare to treatment C (4.30±1.24a) and it was same for treatment A&B and treatment B&C, respectively. The mean cost/kg gain was higher in treatment A (422.72±70.66a) compare to treatment C (352.97±97.49b) and it was same for treatment A&B and B&C, respectively. Animals had performed well on mix liquid (50 % whole milk: 50% milk replacer) diet and it was more cost effective than other two treatments.
The aim in second experiment was to set the standard and cost effective level of concentrate ration for growing female buffalo heifer calves. For second experiment thirty (30) calves were selected from first experiment and were randomly dived into three treatments A, B and C. Treatment A was fed on concentrate ration according to 0.5 % of their body weight, treatment B 1.0 % and treatment C 1.5 % of their body weight. In addition to this all the calves were given ad-libitum green fodder and fresh clean water. All the calves were fed on similar concentrate ration having CP: 17 % and ME: 2.6 Mcal/kg. The duration of this experiment was 8 months. There was significant difference (P<0.05) in mean dry matter intake, protein intake, energy intake and protein per kg gain across all the three treatments and were higher (P<0.05) for treatment C then treatment B and lower (P<0.05) in treatment A, respectively. The average daily gain was remained same (P>0.05) for all the three treatments (497.32±17.92, 503.63±19.09 and 532.77±20.67). The higher feed efficiency was observed in treatment A (0.135±.004a) while it was same for treatment B & C (0.113±.003b & 0.108±.004b), respectively. The average body
condition & score, body mass index and blood constituents (RBCs, WBCs, heamoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, platelets count, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) were unaffected (P>0.05) by different concentrate levels. Concentrate levels had significantly affected some of serum components (total protein and urea) but some components (glucose & cholesterol) were unaffected by dietary treatments. The values of mean serum total protein and serum urea were found lower in treatment A (6.12±0.17b & 42.34±1.59b) compare to treatment B (6.65±0.23a & 50.08±2.05a) and C (6.79±0.23a & 51.41±2.29a), respectively. The higher values of serum total protein and cholesterol in treatment B & C may be attributed to higher concentrate level in these two treatments. Concentrate levels had significantly (P<0.05) affected some of the digestibility parameters (DM %, CP% and NDF%) while other parameters (organic matter, fat, ash, ADF and urine pH) were remained same (P>0.05) on varying concentrate level diet. The mean body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth) were also not affected (P>0.05) by dietary treatments. There was significant difference across all the three treatments in total average daily dry matter intake cost and cost per kg gain. These were lower in treatment A compared to other two treatments B & C. It was observed that mean dry matter, protein and energy intake was lower in treatment A (0.5% of body weight) and weight gain was remained same on all the three dietary treatments. The mean feed efficiency was greater and mean cost per/kg gain was lower in treatment A. So, treatment A was remained more cost effective than other two treatments.
Both experiments were planned by keeping in mind the problems of buffalo farmer. Rearing of calves with improved growth rate on least cost feeding regime is important in dairy farming. Milk replacer is an alternate source of whole milk. Most of the buffalo farmers don’t use milk replacer for rearing of calves because of slower growth rate. Mixing of milk replacer
with whole milk in 50:50 ratio make the consistency of liquid diet near to whole milk. Feeding of whole milk with milk replacer along with calf starter reduces the cost without affecting growth rate. At this stage farmers should keep in mid the cleaning of feeding pans to avoid the risk of diarrhea.
In post weaning period calves’ rumen is fully develop and is completely shifted to solid diet. During this transition phase farmers don’t follow the nutritional requirements of calves, which slow down the growth rate and ultimately increase the age at puberty. As buffalo are efficient converter of low quality diet. If farmers offer concentrate ratio (16-18% CP) to buffalo heifers at the rate of 0.5% of body weight along with ad-libitum green fodder, growth rate can be improved cost effectively.
The findings of first experiment shows that 50% whole milk & 50% milk replacer @ of 10 of body weight along with adlibitum calf starter ration help in early rumen development, improved growth rate and better FCR on economical basis. So, it is recommended that whole milk and milk replacer in 50:50 ratio is growth rate friendly and cost effective for rearing of female buffalo calves up to weaning. The results of second experiment shows that growth rate, body measurements and body condition & score remained the same on all the three dietary concentrate levels but the feed efficiency was improved on lower concentrate level. So, it is recommended that it is cost effective to raise buffalo growing heifers on small amount of concentrate ration (0.5% of body weight) along with ad-libitum green fodder.
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Effect Of Protein Supplements Of Varying Ruminal Degradability On Milk Production, Composition And Nutrients
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: The study on "Effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes" was carried out in three phases at three different experimental locations. The in situ study of animal and vegetable protein sources was conducted at the Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, Lahore while the feeding trials with early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes were carried out Government Livestock Farm, Kalurkot, Bukkar and Livestock Experimental Station, Khushab, respectively.
Different animal (n = 6) and vegetable origin (n = 15) protein sources were subjected to ruminal protein degradability analyses using the in situ technique. All these test feeds collected from ten different locations were subjected to ruminal incubation (in triplicate) for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h to determine the quickly soluble fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction (b), degradation rate (c) and effective degradability at different (2, 5, 8 %) ruminal passage rates. The degradability characteristics in animal protein sources (part 1, phase 1) showed significant differences in degradation kinetics and effective degradability (ED). In crude protein (CP) degradability, the quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in fish meal, PBM and meat meal and lower (P<0.05) in blood meal, feather meal and bone and meat meal. Potentially degradable fraction (b) among test feeds was maximum (P<0.05) in bone and meat meal and PBM and minimum (P<0.05) in blood meal and feather meal. The degradation rate (c) did not differ among the test feeds. Of all the animal protein sources investigated, meat meal showed maximum CP degradability at 0.05 rumen passage rate whilst, minimum (P<0.05) ED of CP was exhibited by blood meal.
Ruminal degradability characteristics in vegetable protein sources (part-2 of phase-1) showed variation in degradation kinetics and ED of CP. The quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, coconut meal and PKC. Potentially degradable fraction (b) was maximum (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, PKC, SBM and guar meal while minimum (P<0.05) in sesame cake and CGM 30%. Protein degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in CSC while lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal, coconut cake and CGM 60%. Effective degradability of CP at 0.05 rumen passage rate was highest in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal.
All vegetable protein sources were treated (part-3 of phase-1) with formaldehyde (1 g/100 g CP) and heat treatment (1 h at 15 lb/100 g CP) to determine their effectiveness in reducing ruminal protein degradability. Both of these treatments decreased (P<0.05) rumen degradability of the vegetable protein sources investigated. Of the formaldehyde treated test feeds, quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lower (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, SBM, CGM 30%, guar meal, canola meal and coconut meal. The highest value of potentially degradable fraction (b) was recorded (P<0.05) in CSC and RSC while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in RSM, RSC, CSC, CSM coconut cake, PKC, sesame cake, SFM and CGM 60% and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 30%, guar meal and canola meal. Effective degradability of CP was maximum in sesame cake at all the rumen passage rates. In contrast, CGM 60% had the lowest (P<0.05) ED at all of the rumen passage rates. Among the heat treated vegetable protein sources, quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60% and SBM. Potentially degradable fraction (b) had the highest (P<0.05) value in almond cake, RSM, RSC, CSC and SFM while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Effective CP degradability of the heat treated test feeds showed that almond cake and sesame cake had the highest (P<0.05) ED whilst CGM 60% had the lowest values (P<0.05). In comparing both treatments, similar influence (P>0.05) of increasing RUP level was recorded in CGM 30%, SFM, RSM, CSM, PKC and coconut meal. Formaldehyde treatment was found more effective (P<0.05) in increasing RUP level in guar meal, canola meal, RSC, CSC, coconut cake, almond cake and sesame cake whilst heat treatment increased (P<0.05) RUP level in SBM and CGM 60% at applied rates in this study.
In phase-2, a feeding trial with early lactating Sahiwal cows was conducted to investigate the effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization. Twenty four early lactating Sahiwal cows were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Four iso- caloric and iso- nitrogenous diets i.e., ration A (30% RUP), ration B (40% RUP), ration C (50% RUP) and ration D (60% RUP) were fed in a completely randomized design. Dry matter and CP intakes were significantly affected by ration composition (P<0.01), whereas NDF and ADF intakes did not vary among the four treatment groups (P>0.05). DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in cows receiving rations B and A than the cows fed rations C and D. There were significant differences in DM (P<0.05), CP (P<0.001) and NDF (P<0.05) digestibility due to the ration; however, ADF digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the rations. DM digestibility was higher (P<0.05) on ration B than rations C and D, but similar to that for ration A. Crude protein was higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on rations C and D. Daily yields of uncorrected milk and protein were highest in early lactating Sahiwal cows fed ration B and lowest when fed ration D. Daily yields of 4% FCM and milk fat were higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on ration D. In milk composition, fat, protein and total solids contents were the same across all diets. Nitrogen intake was highest (P<0.01) for rations B and A and lowest for ration D and C. Nitrogen balance (g/d) and as a percentage of N intake varied; with the cows consuming ration B retaining maximum (P<0.001) N. However, N balance did not vary between rations A, C and D. Nitrogen utilization was highest (P<0.001) in cows fed ration B, but there was no difference among cows fed rations A, C and D. Live weight and body condition score in cows were unaffected by the rations. Cost of milk production was least on ration B and highest on ration D.
In phase-3 a feeding trial using early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was conducted. Twenty four buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into four groups. These groups were fed four experimental diets i.e., rations A, B, C and D having 30, 40, 50 and 60% RUP proportions, respectively in a completely randomized design. Results showed no differences (P>0.05) in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and ADF intake between the rations. Likewise, DM, CP and ADF digestibility were the same (P>0.05) in buffaloes fed rations A, B, C and D; however, NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.01) on ration C and B while lowest on rations A and D. Milk yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C while lowest (P<0.001) on rations D and A. Buffaloes given ration C produced more (P<0.05) FCM than those receiving rations A, B and D. Daily yield of milk fat was greater (P<0.001) on ration C compared to the other three rations. Milk protein yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C and lowest (P<0.001) on rations A and C. Diet had no effect (P>0.05) on milk fat, SNF, lactose, salts and total solids percentages; whilst milk protein percentage varied among all four diets, viz ration C>ration B>ration D>ration A. Nitrogen, intake, nitrogen balance and nitrogen utilization were similar across all the diets. Live weight and body condition score in buffaloes were unaffected by the diet fed. The cost of milk production was highest (P<0.05) with rations D and B whilst lowest (P<0.05) on ration C.
It is concluded that among animal protein sources rumen CP degradability was least in blood meal and maximum in meat meal. In vegetable protein sources, coconut meal showed least ruminal CP degradability while sesame cake recorded with highest ruminal CP degradability. Both formaldehyde and heat treatments protected protein from ruminal degradability with varied levels of effectiveness in different feeds. Production performance improved with the use of RUP sources in early lactating cows and buffaloes. Sahiwal cows showed better yield performance in diets having 40% un-degradable protein in the diet, while Nili-Ravi buffaloes showed high yield performance in diets with 50% un-degradable protein sources.
The use of latest technology and methods needs to be applied for minimizing variations involved in evaluating CP degradability of feeds through in situ procedure. Influence of RDP and RUP based rations in mid and late lactation of Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes are also fertile areas of research. The studies on degradability of amino acids for compiling 'internal standards' of feed resources and production performance of lactating cows/buffaloes based on ruminal degradability of amino acids rather than protein degradability would be better approach for future studies.
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Effect Of Various Stress Factors On The Immune Response(Ph.D)
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Pakistan has vast population of dogs belonging to different breeds. Most of the dogs have no pedigree record which is a great threat to conservation of different breeds. No study on DNA fingerprinting of dogs has been conducted in Pakistan. DNA fingerprinting of dogs is necessary to overcome the problems like forensic cases, sale & purchase, individual identity in case of fertilization by more than one male and ownership disputes. Microsatellite markers have been proved as an efficient and powerful tool for parentage testing and breed characterization of dogs. In this study, a panel of microsatellite markers, having high polymorphism information content (PlC) values, was developed. Blood samples were taken from cephalic vein of two breeds of dogs (German shepherd and Labrador retriever). DNA was extracted by Inorganic method. Primers of microsatellite markers were optimized for successful amplification conditions in the Bio-Rad thermocycler. Multiplex PCR was performed, for amplification of these microsatellite markers on 46 samples belonging to 20 families. Genotyping analysis was performed for the PCR products of microsatellite markers on non denaturing polyacrylamide gel. These results were analyzed statistically software "POPGENE 3.3 and POWER STAT". Allele frequency, heterozygosity, homozygosity, polymorphism information content (PlC), power of discrimination and power of exclusion of all microsatellite markers were calculated. Average power of discrimination among non parents, average hetrozygosity, average observed homozygosity and average polymorphism information content (PlC) value for all alleles was 0.809, 0.6345, 0.29 13 and 0.724 respectively. Moreover combined power of exclusion reached a significant value of 0.9998. Almost all of the microsatellite markers showed significant variations in both German shepherd and Labrador retriever breeds. Microsatellite "REN41D2Ob" showed maximum variation i.e. 17 alleles and microsatellite"REN49F22b" showed the least variation among all microsatellite markers i.e. 4 alleles. Genotyping results of microsatellite markers were clearly different for two different breeds showing a distinct genetic distance between German shepherd and Labrador retriever breeds.
Results of this study lead to development of a panel of microsatellite markers which can be used for parentage analysis and breed characterization of dogs. This was a preliminary study on dogs in Pakistan. This facility can be provided on commercial basis to pet owners and kennel clubs. Moreover this study can become the basis for further research investigations in canines in Pakistan.
To evaluate effects of various stress factors on immune response and growth performance of broiler chicks, a total of five experiments using 2000 broiler chicks were conducted. In each experiment, chicks were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E), and each group consisted of 80 day-old-chicks. In each experiment, the chicks were exposed to stress factors, such as temperature, stocking density, feed deprivation, water restriction and light. Each chick in groups A, B, C, and E was vaccinated against IBV, NDV, IBDV and HPSV, but chicks in group D were kept as unvaccinated controls. Blood samples from each group were collected on 36 day of age, at 18 hrs for determining TLC, DLC and H/L ratio. The antibody titers of chicks in different groups were analyzed using HI test at days 36th and 56. The cellular response was analyzed by injecting PHA-P in the wattles of bird during post stress period. The effects of each stress on lymphoid organs were determined. The potential to resist virulent NDV challenge and effect of stress factors on body weight gains and FCR of chicks was also determined.
In experiment 1, conducted to determine the effect of various temperature ranges on broiler chicks, it was observed that the heat stressed (HS) birds showed non-signilicant dilYerence in TLC values. The HS effect on lymphoid organs indicated that the mean weight of thymus of chicks in group B (0.29±0.02) and C (0.59±0.13) was significantly (P<0.05). lower than those in groups A (4.11±3.26), D (4.50±0.77) and E (4.35±0.21). The mean bursa weight of heat stressed chicks in goups A (0.94±0.59) and B (0.20±0.01) were significantly (P0.05) lower as compared to non- heat stressed chicks in groups D (1.42±0.22) and E (1.33±0.18). The mean spleen weight of groups A (1.21±0.13) and B (1.30±0.11) was significantly (P0.05) lower than groups D (L93±0.16) and E (1.52±0.10) indicating the adverse effect of increased temperature. The FCR valueswere significantly (P0.05) different among groups in 6th1 week and effect of Vitamin C was found significantly (P<0.05) improved than Vitamin E and glucose treatment. At 36 day of age the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group A (GMT 61) than B (GMT 144) and C (GMT 109) groups while group E (GMT 186) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and E at the age of 56 days was 79, 156, 122 and 216, respectively. There was nonsignificant (P>0.05) differences in wattle thickness (cm) among groups A (1.51+0.06), B (1.77±0.26), C (1.2±0.25) and D (1.52±0.22) but increased in group E (1.83+0.08). The mortality was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in groups A (14) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus.
In experiment 2, conducted to determine the effect of various levels of stocking densities on broiler chicks, it was observed that stressed birds had showed non-signilicant (P>0.05) difference in TLC values. The effect on lymphoid organs found that the mean thymLls weight (grn) of chicks in groups A (0.37±0.04) and B (0.74±0.17) were significantly (P<0.05) lower than groups C (1.50±0.35), D (4.43±0.72) and E (4.40±0.23). The mean bursa weight (gm) of groups A (0.33+0.03) and B (0.57+0. 1 7) were significantly (P0.05) lower than those of groups D (1.76±0.05) and 13(1.33±0.08) indicating that less space effect the bursa development in the chicks. The mean spleen weight (gm) of groups A (1.18±0.07) and B (1.52±0.20) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than group D (2.37±0.28). The FCR values were sign ilicantly (P<0.05) different among groups in 6thi week and there was non-signiflcant (P>0.05) difference among groups with treatment of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glucose. At 36th day of age the I-Il titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group A (GMT 67) than groups B (GMT 9.6) and C (GMT 102). The chicks in group D (GMT 07) showed negligible HI titer while group E (GMT 185) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the 1-Il antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease indicating that the titers in the birds were not enough to resist the virulent challenge. The postNDV-challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and Eat the age of 56 days were 86, 121, 132 and 210. There wa non-significant (P0.05) differences in wattle thickness (cm) in groups A (1.44±0.07) and C (1.43±0.10) while group E (1.64±0.31) showed significantly (P0.05) increased wattle thickness. The mortality was found significantly (P0.05) higher in groups A (25) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that less floor space decreased the immune response of the birds which leads to the infection/death.
In experiment 3, effect of feed deprivation at different time intervals on broiler chicks was studied, it was observed that feed deprivation stressed birds had showed non-significant (P>0.05) differences in blood cells population. The effect of feed deprivation on the mean thymus weight (gm) of chicks in group C (0.96±0.29) was adversely affected as the chicks in this group had significantly (P<0.05) lower weight than groups B, 1) and E. The bursa mean weight (gm) of groups A (0.48±0.11) and C (0.52±0.06) was significantly (P0.05) lower than those of groups D (1.40±0.18) and E (1.28±0.11) indicating, that 24 hrs and morning off-feed effect the bursa development in the chicks. The mean splen weight(gm) of groups A (I. 19±0.07) and C (1.21±0.06) vcre significantly (P0.05) lower than groups D and E indicating adverse effect ol24hrs and day off feed on chicks lead to infection. The FCR values were significantly (P0.05) different among groups in 6hhl week and there was significant (P<0.05) differences among groups with treatment of glucose than Vitamin C and Vitamin E treated. groups. At 36th day of age, the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group B (GMT 15) than C (GMT 74) and group D (GMT 07) showed negligible HI titer while group E (GMT 140) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and Eat the age of 56 days were 68, 54, 115 and 165. There was non-significant (P0.05) difference in wattle thickness (cm) among groups while group E (I .78±0.06) showed significantly (P<0.05) increased wattle thickness. The mortality was Found significantly (P<0.05) higher in Groups C (12) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that 24 hrs off feed decreased the immune response of the birds which leads to the infection.
In experiment 4, studied the effect of water restriction at different time intervals on broiler chicks, it was observed that water restricted birds had nonsignificant (P0.05) differences in blood cells population except lymphocytes percentage was found higher in groups A (43.7±2.47), C (43.7±1.16) and D (53 .3±1 .30) than group B (39.1±1.06). The effect of water restriction on the mean thymus weight (gm) of chicks in group C (0.60±0.07) was adversely effected as the chicks in this group had significantly (PO.O5) lower weight than group D (4.09±0.70) indicating that increased in the period of water restriction in chicks adversely affected the mean thymus weight and chicks reared on ad-flbituni water had higher mean thymus weight. The mean bursa weight (gui) of group C (0.07±0.02) was significantly (P<0.05) lower as compared to group D (1.37±0.88) indicating that water restriction of 24 hr had affected the bursa development in the chicks. The mean spleen weight (gm) of group C (2.64±1.49) was significantly (P0.05) higher than groups A, B and E. The FCR values were significantly (P<0.05) different among groups in 6th week and there was non-significant (P0.05) difference among groups with treatment of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glucose treated groups. At 36th day of age the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group D (GMT 09) than A (GMT 54) and group E (GMT 109) showed significantly (P0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and E at the age of 56 clay was 78, 63, 48 and 134. There was non-significant (P0.05) difference in wattle thickness (cm) among groups B and E and group A (1.28±0.08) showed significantly (P0.05) lower wattle thickness. The mortality was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in groups B (14) and C (21) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that 18 and 24 hrs water restriction decreased the immune response of the birds.
In experiment 5, effect of light stress at various time intervals on broiler chicks was studied. It was observed that light stressed birds had showed non-significant (P>0.05) difference on blood cells population except lymphocytes percentage was found higher in groups D (6 1.4±1.16) than group C. The effect on lymphoid organs studied and the mean thymus weight (gin) old chicks in group B (I .90±0.53) was adversely effected as the chicks in this group had significantly (P0.05) lower mean thymus weight than groups D (4.64±0.74) and E (4.34±0.25) indicating that increase in the period of oil-light in chicks adversely effected the mean thymus weight and chicks reared on 24hr light had higher mean thymus weight. The bursa mean weight (gm) 01' group 13(0.43±0.05) was significantly (P0.05) lower as compared to group D (1.59±0.17). The spleen mean weight (gun) of group D (1.88±0.15) was significantly (P<O.05) higher than group B (1.18±0.08). The FCR values were significantly (P().O5) different among groups in 6th week and there was non significant (P0.O5) difference among groups with treatment of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glucose. At 36° day of age the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05 lower in group C (GMJ 83) and group D (GMT 06) showed negligible HI titer while group E (GMT 128) showed significantly (P0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) in HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and B at the age of 56 days was 122, 116. 108 and 133. There was non-significant (P>0.05) difference in wattle thickness (cm) among groups while group B (1.53±0.15) showed significantly (P<0.05) increased wattle thickness. The mortality was found significantly (PO.05) higher in groups A (18) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that 24 hr off-light decreased the immune response of the birds.
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Effect Of Water Restriction On The Conmsistency Of Droppings And On Subsequesnt Performance Of Broilers
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: Spoilage of water and watery droppings are major factors responsible for the accumulation of excessive moisture in the poultry houses. This moisture will be deposited into the litter. Resultantly the litter becomes too wet, which in turn creates managemental problems and economic losses to the industry. Watery droppings are produced, when birds consume water beyond their metabolic requirements, because excretion of water with the faeces is almost directly proportional to the intake of water. The present study was designed to overcome this problem by restricting the water to the birds and to investigate its effects on the consistency of droppings, weight, gain, feed consumption, FCR, water intake, water: feed ratio, mortality and haematologi cal parameters.
The experiment was carried out at Poultry Experimental Station, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore for a period of 6 weeks i.e. from 30-10-1996 to 10-12-1996. One hundred and eighty, one day old "Hubbard" broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 30 chicks in each. Each group was further sub-divided into 3 replicates. These groups were given water in such a way that group NA" was offered full water and the rest of the groups were given 95, 90, 85, 80 and 75% respectively of the requirement. All the groups were reared in battery brooders under optimum environmental and managemental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to them. The source of water was also the same throughout the trial. They were vaccinated according to the recommended standard schedule.
From second week, onwards, moisture contents of the faeces were estimated on weekly basis. It was examined that each increment of water deprivation resulted in drier faeces and lower Water: feed ratio than the control. Statistically differences (P<0.01) of weight gain, moisture contents of the excreta, FCR, water: feed ratio and blood values were recorded among the groups. The best performance was evaluated in group C and the poorest in group F. Waler stresses did not affect mortality, only 3 birds died during the whole study. Feed consumptions was found to be non-significant. Commercially these results will be helpful in controlling watery dropping, without lowering meat production, saving of water, labour and sewerage cost in poultry operations.
Excreta moisture can be minimized from 1.6 to 5.2% without affecting production and economics.
It is recornmenj, that water consumption can be reduced from 5% to 10% in a relatively cooler environment during starter and finisher phase. Reducting the water intake 15% or more had deleterious effect on the performance of broilers.
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Effects And Remedial Measures Of Aflatoxin B1 On Bovine Calves In Punjab
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Aflatoxins B1 are most toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi in/on foods and feeds, probably best known and most intensively researched aflatoxins globally. AFB1 have been associated with several diseases, e.g. aflatoxicosis in livestock, pets including humans throughout the world. Occurrence of AFB1 is influenced by certain environmental factors like geographic location, agro-economic practices and susceptibility of feed commodities to fungal invasion during pre-harvest, storage, and processing periods. AFB1 has grabbed greater attention than any other mycotoxins due to their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As the absolute safety will be never achieved, most of the world struggled to limit aflatoxin exposure by imposing regulations on feed commodities.
So, in this study, we had collected 67 concentrated samples, thirty six samples from Gujranwala and thirty one from Kasur to examine the occurrence of aflatoxin B1. The aims of this study were to investigate the aflatoxin B1 in calf feed, effect of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 on productive performance of calves and determine the comparative efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin binders and liver tonics against AFB1 in bovine calves. Feed samples were obtained from different livestock farms and cattle feed mills, toxin levels in each feed sample were determined by HPLC. AFB1 level was higher at feed mills (40.33±2.21 ppb and 49.0±1.95 ppb) than farms (34.96±2.65 ppb and 44.95±2.41 ppb) both in Gujranwala and Kasur respectively. Fungus was isolated and grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar on the basis of microscopic characters and species within genus characterized by colony characters/macroscopic characters, mostly Aspergillus species was present in the feed samples which produce mycotoxins. The second most prevalent species were the Fusarium. Mucor and the Pencillium were respectively third and fourth in number. Our results have shown that Alternaria was not present in Gujranwala and Rhizopus was absent in the feed samples collected from the Kasur. Out of mycotoxin contaminated concentrate feed samples, the highest frequency of Aspergillus (43.3%) was observed, followed by Fusaram (38.8%), Mucor (8.9%), Penicillium(5.9%), Rhizopus (1.5%) and Alternaria species (1.5%).
Our results also indicated that growth of Aspergillus spp. can be minimized by controlling the different factors like pH, temperature, light and humidity, which are essential for the proper growth and development. The antifungal activity of methanolic extract of clove, neem and garlic was also determined in which maximum MIC showed by garlic.
Thirty six bovine calves of 6 to 12 months of age were kept in UVAS, Pattoki campus (Ravi Campus) .in four different replicates having 9 animals each. Different concentrations, i.e. 0.6 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was administered along with concentrated feed and check out productive performance along with physiological profile. The most pathological concentration of aflatoxin B1 in experiment number 3 was given to the two groups of bovine calves along with two different commercially available mycotoxin binders i.e. Yeast based and second one was clay based HSCAS mycotoxin binder at recommended doses. Efficacy of mycotoxin binders on feed samples was analyzed by using HPLC and also evaluates the productive performance of the animals.Efficacy of two liver tonics i.e.silymarin and choline chloride was observed on CBC, LFT and RFT of bovine calves.
Present study has clearly displayed the adverse effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney in bovine calf. Results indicated that HSCAS mycotoxin adsorbent was able to fully detoxify aflatoxin B1. Silymarin had great impact on the liver to cope the adverse effects of the AFB1 as compared to the choline chloride, which was proved with the help of CBC, LFT and RFT.
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Effects Of Aflatoxin In Poultry
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Publisher: 1988 Dissertation note: A total number of 300 samples of finished commercial poultry feeds, obtained from poultry feed mills (75 samples), wholesale poultry feed dealers (70 samples) and poultry farms (155 samples) were examined for aflatoxin contamination.It was found that 126 (42%) samples, including 18 (24%) from mills, 19 (27.1%) from dealers and 89 (57.42%) from farms were samples was carried out both by the aqueous acetone method, and the chloroform extraction method. The extracts were qualitatively examined by quick screening method, minicolumn chromatography method and thin layer chromatography method. All of three methods gave comparable results.
The quantity of aflatoxin in contaminated samples ranged from 20 microgram/kg to 2000 microgram/kg. The levels of aflatoxin in majorityofthe contaminated samples (90.5%) ranged from 20 microgram/kg to 150 microgram/kg feed and only 9.5% of samples contained higher levels of aflatoxin. Most of the samples containing higher levels of aflatoxin came from commercial poultry farms. These farms had complaints of high mortalities and poor performance in broilers and low production and low mortalities in breeder flocks.
The experimental production of aflatoxin was carried out on long grain rice using a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus parasiticus (FRR-2752). The rice cultures were incubated at 28 degree centigrade in an atmosphere of high humidity. In the present study a maximum yield of 803 microgram aflatoxing rice was obtained.
The determination of LD50 of aflatoxin was carried out in 210 one day old Hy-Bred broiler chicks with an average weight of 38 gram each. The chicks were divided into 21 groups labeled from 1 to 21 with 10 birds in each. A single dose of aflatoxin, ranging from 32.82 mg/kg body weight to 0.33 mg/kg body weight, was inoculated into the crops of chicks in groups 1 to 19, the group 20 acted as solvent control and the group 21 as aflatoxin free control. The birds were observed for 7 days post inoculation. The physical state and mortalities were recorded. The birds which had received higher levels of aflatoxin died within few hours of inoculation showing symptoms and lesions of per acute aflatoxicosis.
The LD50 was calculated by Abbot's probit method and was found to be 9.278 mg/kg body weight.
The pathological effect of a single dose of aflatoxin B1 on the immunocompetent organs was studied in a group of broiler chickens. Day-old 60 Hy-Bred broiler chicks were raised on aflatoxin free feed for 3 weeks and then divided into six groups labeled 1 to 6 with 10 birds in each. A single dose of pure aflatoxin B1 at dose rates of 8, 16, 26, 50 and 100 microgram/birds was given to the birds in groups of 1 to 5 respectively, the sixth group acted as toxin free control. The birds were maintained on aflatoxin free feed and water ad lib and observed for 3 weeks post inoculation.
The bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen of each bird was removed and histologically examined, No appreciable histological changes were seen in the organs of birds which had received 8, 16 and 26 microgram AFB1/bird while reductions in size accompanied with other degenerative changes were seen in the thymus glands, bursa and spleens of birds, which had been injected 50 and 100 microgram AFB1/birds respectively. The normal tissues of these organs were replaced by the inflammatory and fibrous tissues. No changes, gross pathological or histological, were seen in the thymus glands, bursa and spleen of control group birds.
The Immunomodulatory effects of a single dose of 100 microgram aflatoxin B1/bird on the development of immunity against Newcastle disease virus vaccine was studied in broiler and layer chickens. A group of 120 one day-old Hy-Bred broiler chicks were divided ito two groups with 60 birds in each and raised for 3 weeks on an aflatoxin free feed.Three randomly selected chicks were bled on the first 7th, 14th and 21st days of age for the determination of maternal haemagglutinin inhibiting (HI) antibody titers. At 3 weeks of age the broilers of each batch were further subdivided into groups labeled as T, T1,T2, K1 and K2 with 10 birds in each.
A batch of layer chicks was raised for 8 weeks on aflatoxin free feed and then divided into groups T, T1, T2, K1 and K2 with 10 birds in each. Three randomly selected chicks were bled on day one and thereafter weekly for determination of maternal H1 antibody titers till the 7th week of age.
The birds in groups T received vaccine and aflatoxin simultaneously, the birds in groups T1 received vaccine 72 hours before toxin and the birds in groups T2 received toxin followed 72 hours later by vaccine. The birds in group K1 acted as toxin free vaccinated control and the bird in groups k2 acted as toxin free unvaccinated control. The birds were maintained on aflatoxin free feed for further 4 weeks. Three randomly selected birds of each group were bled weekly for the determination of serum H1 antibody titers. At the end of 3rd week post inoculation one batch of broilers and the layer groups were challenged with a virulent strain of Newcastle Disease Virus while the other batch of broilers was given a booster dose of vaccine.
All of the birds in unvaccinated aflatoxin free control groups (k2) died within 72 hours of challenge, while the rest o the birds survived. The survivors were bled and sacrificed one week after challenge/booster vaccination. The Sera of birds were examined for H1 antibody titers. The results showed that the administration of aflatoxin alongwith, immediately before or after vaccination depressed the development of H1 antibodies significantly.
Immunomodulation caused by continued feeding of aflatoxin on the development of immunity against Pasteurella multocida vaccine were studied in layer and broiler chickens. Seventy two one-day old hyline layer chicks were raised for 6 weeks on aflatoxin feed and then divided into groups T, T1, T2, T3, K1 and K2 with 12 birds in the Seventy two Hy-Bred broiler chicks, one-day old were divided into 6 groups T, T1, T2, T3, K1 and K2 with 12 birds in each. A toxic feed containing 2.1 microgram of aflatoxin/gram was prepared. The Birds in groups T were given toxic feed for 42 days (21 days before and 21 days after vaccination). The birds in groups T1 were fed toxic meal for 21 days before vaccination and those in groups T2 were fed toxic meal for 21 days after vaccination. The birds in groups T3 received a single dose of 9.278 mg Aflatoxin/kg body weight on the day of vaccination. The birds in the groups K2 as toxin free vaccine free control. All of the birds, except those in the groups K2, were vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida vaccine at the end of 3rd week of age in the broilers and 9th week of age in the layers and challeneged with a virulent Pasteurella multocida organisms 3 weeks post vaccination. After challenge the birds were shifted to aflatoxin free feed till the termination of the experiment.
In layers one bird each of group T and T3 died. In unvaccinated toxin free control group of layers as well as broilers (K2) 11 out of 12 birds died. Six broilers of group T and 5 broilers of group T3 died after challenge. The experiment was terminated on the 7th post challenge. The survivors were bled and sacrificed. Serum was collected from 4 randomly selected birds on the day of vaccination and thereafter weekly till the termination of the experiment. The antibody titer were determined by IHA and ELISA tests. Continued feeding of aflatoxin depressed the development of humoral immunity against Pasteurella multocida vaccine, the depression being more pronounced in broilers.
The pathological effects of aflatoxin were studied in 3 weeks old broiler chicks. A batch of 36 one day-old broiler chicks was raised on aflatoxin free feed for 3 weeks. On 21 days of age the chicks were divided into 3 groups T, T1 and C with 12 birds in each. A single dose of 9.278 mg/kg body weight was injected into the crop of birds in group T. The birds in group T1 were maintained on a feed containing 9.278 mg aflatoxin/bird (2.1 ug/g feed) for 4 weeks. The third group (k) acted as control. The experiment was terminated on the 49th day of age by sacrificing the survivors.
The liver of birds in group T1 were enlarged, and the heart were atrophied. Regenerative changes, some bile duct hyperplasia and fatty changes were seen in liver of birds in group T. in Birds of group T2 the liver was enlarged and showed nodular hyperplasia. Histologically the liver tissue showed acute necrosis, pericellular fibrosis, nuclear dissolution, bile duct proliferation and lymphoid hyperplasia. Degenerative changes were also seen in the heart and kidneys and other organs. No gross or histological changes were present in the organs of the control group (K) birds.
The effects of aflatoxin on the live weight, dressed weight, the weight of liver, heart and gizzard, some seral enzymes and bilirubin were studied in a group of 165 broiler chicks. Day old Hy-Bred broiler chicks were raised on aflatoxin free feed for 3 weeks and then divided into 3 groups T, T1 and K with 55 birds in each. The birds in group T received a single dose of 9.278 aflatoxin/kg body weight while the birds in the group T1 received 9.278 mg aflatoxin/bird which was mixed in feed and offered ad. Lib. To these birds over the next 4 weeks. The birds in group K acted as the toxin free control. The experiment was terminated on the 28th day post inoculation by sacrificing the survivors. Five chicks from each group were bled through cardiac puncture and sacrificed, daily from day one (21st day age) to the 7th day post inoculation (28th day age) and thereafter weekly till the end of the experiment. Serum of these birds was examined for SGOT, SGPT, LDH, SAP and Bilirubin.
Continued feeding of aflatoxin or administration of a single dose of aflatoxin significantly depressed the live weight, dressed weight and weight of heart, while it significantly increased the weight of liver and gizzard. Administration of a single dose of aflatoxin produced dramatic increase in the volume activity of SGOT, SGPT, LDH,SAP bilirubin within 24 hours of toxin administration, the values remained higher during the first week and thereafter slowly came down. In birds fed on contaminated meals the enzymic activity and bilirubin gradually increased during the first week and remained high till the termination of the experiment. In the birds of control group the activity of these parameters remained on baseline levels.
No Carcinogenicity was seen in any of the internal organs of layer chickens which had been raised for 1 year on feed containing 2 ug aflatoxing.
No aflatoxin or aflatoxin residue could be detected in the liver, kidneys and breast muscles of broilers, which had been fed contaminated meals for various lengths of time, and were shifted to aflatoxin free feed 7 days before slaughter. Aflatoxin was recovered from the liver and kidneys of layers which were feeding a contaminated meals at the time of sacrifice, the rate of recovery being 1 microgram/100 grams liver tissue and less than 1 microgram/100 gram kidney tissue. No aflatoxin could be detected in the breast muscles of these chickens.
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Effects Of Ginkgo Biloba And Panax Ginseng On Metabolism Of Carbohydrate, Lipids And Insulin Receptor Genes In Diabetic Rats
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Diabetes is a major public health issue. As conventional pharmaceutical agents have greater incidences of adverse effects so the interest in the natural remedies has increased greatly in the last few decades. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) and Panax ginseng root extract (PGE) are ancient Chinese herbal drugs that have prominent position in the list of the best-selling natural remedies and are increasingly being used for the treatment of diabetes. The anti-diabetic effect of GBE is attributed to flavonoides while that of PGE is attributed to ginsenosides. In this study, GBE and PGE in combination showed significantly higher anti-diabetic effects than individual extracts in diabetic rats.
Adult Wistar rats were allowed to feed on a high fat diet (HFD: 12.7% maize starch, 6.5% dextrose, 3.9% sunflower oil, 31.3% beef tallow and 28.6% casein by weight) for two weeks. The rats were divided into seven groups (08 rats in each group): Non-diabetic control group, Diabetic group, Diabetic + 100 mg/kg G. biloba leaf extract treated group (GBE), Diabetic + 300 mg/kg, P. ginseng root extract treated group (PGE), mixed 1 group : Diabetic + combination of both GBE and PGE at dose of 200 mg/kg/day (50mg/kg/day of GBE and 150mg/kg/day of PGE), mixed 2 group : Diabetic + combination of both GBE and PGE at dose of 400mg/kg/day (100mg/kg/day of GBE and 300mg/kg/day of PGE), mixed 3 group : Diabetic + combination of both GBE and PGE at dose of 600mg/kg/day (150mg/kg/day of GBE and 450mg/kg/day of PGE). At the end of the 14th day, the rats were kept in fasting condition overnight and then a single intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (Sigma, USA) dissolved in 0.5 ml of saline solution at a dose of 120-130 mg/Kg body weight was injected in all rats except for the non-diabetic group which were injected with an equal volume of normal
saline. Body weight (BW) and blood glucose were measured at week 1 and week 14. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples in fasting/ basal state were collected from heart puncture for the biochemical parameters. Liver, muscles and adipose tissue were also collected for mRNA expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism.
Results were expressed as Means ± S.E.M. Statistical analyses was performed using Statview software (SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, NC, USA). Two-ways repeated measure ANOVA followed by PLSD Fisher's test was performed for BW and blood glucose to assess the effects of time and herbal drugs. For the rest of the parameters, one-way ANOVA followed by PLSD Fisher's test was performed to assess the effect of herbal drugs. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05.
A significant (P < 0.0001) reduction in the BW of the diabetic group was recorded compared to non-diabetic rats and a significant reduction in BW was observed after treatment in all the five treated groups compared to diabetic group. Glycemia was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (P < 0.0001) compared to non-diabetic rats and a significant reduction in the blood glucose level was recorded in all the five treated groups (P < 0.0001) group in comparison to the diabetic group. A significant reduction for fasting serum glucose (FSG) (P < 0.0001) was recorded for all the five treated groups compared to the non-treated diabetic rats. We linked the reduction in hyperglycemia to the mRNA expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. In particular, we studied the gene expressions of GLUT-4, insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphoenolpyrovate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. A significant up-regulation for the mRNA expression of GLUT-4 was observed only in muscle in all the five treated groups, i.e. GBE (P < 0.001), PGE (P < 0.001), mixed 1 (P < 0.0001), mixed 2 (P < 0.0001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001). We found a significant down-
regulation in the mRNA expression of IR in muscle (P < 0.0001) and adipose tissue (P < 0.05) in the diabetic group compared to non-diabetic rats, however, a significant up-regulation was found in mixed 3 group in muscle (P < 0.001) and adipose tissue (P < 0.05). We found a significant down-regulation (P < 0.001) for IRS-1 in liver in diabetic state and a significant up-regulation was recorded in GBE (P < 0.05) and mixed 3 (P < 0.05) groups only. We found a significant down-regulation of IRS-1 in muscle (P < 0.0001) and adipose tissues (P < 0.0001) in the diabetic group. None of the treated group showed significant results in muscles however, a significant up-regulation was found only in PGE (P < 0.001) and in the mixed 3 group (P < 0.0001) in adipose tissue. A significant up-regulation was recorded for PEPCK in GBE (P < 0.05), mixed 1 (P < 0.05), mixed 2 (P < 0.05) and mixed 3 (P < 0.05) groups in liver.
A significant increase of blood cholesterol was found in rats in the diabetic state (P < 0.0001) and a significant reduction was found only in the mixed 3 (P < 0.001) treated group. A significant decrease was found for VLDL-C in mixed 1 (P < 0.05), mixed 2 (P < 0.0001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001) groups. A significant decreased was observed for LDL-C in mixed 1, mixed 2 and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001) groups which previously found to be enhanced in diabetic condition. In case of HDL-c a significant decreased was found for GBE (P < 0.001), PGE (P < 0.05), mixed 1 (P < 0.001), mixed 2 (P < 0.0001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001) which was previously found to be increased in the diabetic group (P < 0.0001). Conversely, a significant increase was seen for TG (P < 0.0001) in the diabetic state and a significant reduction was found in all the five treated groups (P < 0.0001). We further studied genes involved in lipid metabolism. A significant up-regulation was found for SREBP-1c in diabetic group (P < 0.0001) and a significant down-regulation was found to occur in mixed 2 (P < 0.05) and mixed 3 (P < 0.001) treated groups compared to untreated diabetic rats. In the liver, a significant up-regulation
in the mRNA expression of FAS was found only in mixed 2 (P < 0.05) and mixed 3 (P < 0.05) treated groups which found to be down regulated in the untreated diabetic group (P < 0.001). A significant down-regulation in the mRNA expression of PPAR-α was found in diabetic rats skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), however, a significant up-regulation was found in GBE (P < 0.001), PGE (P < 0.05) mixed 1 (P < 0.001), mixed 2 (P < 0.001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.001) treatment groups in comparison to diabetic rats. We studied PPAR-γ in adipose tissue and found a significant up-regulation in PGE (P < 0.05), mixed 1 (P < 0.001), mixed 2 (P < 0.001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001) groups which had previously been found to be down regulated (P < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared to non-diabetic rats.
We found that the body of the diabetic rats suffer with oxidative stress and measured a significant decrease for CAT (P < 0.0001) in diabetic group and significant increase was found in GBE (P < 0.05), PGE (P < 0.05), mixed 1 (P < 0.05), mixed 2 (P < 0.05), mixed 3(P < 0.05) groups compared to diabetic rats. Whereas, a significant decreased was recorded for MDA in GBE (P < 0.05), PGE (P < 0.05), mixed 1 (P < 0.001), mixed 2 (P < 0.001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001) groups, which previously showed a significant increased (P < 0.001) in diabetic group compared to non-diabetic. We linked oxidative stress with TNF- α and found a significant up-regulation (P < 0.0001) for all the three studied organs in diabetic groups compared to the non-diabetic group. In case of liver a significant down-regulation was found for GBE (P < 0.0001), PGE (P < 0.0001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001) groups compared to untreated diabetic rats. A significant down-regulation in the expression of TNF- α in muscle was recorded only in the mixed 2 (P < 0.001) and mixed 3 (P < 0.0001) groups compared to diabetic rats. However, a significant down-regulation in the expression of TNF- α in adipose tissue was observed for all the treated groups (P < 0.0001 for all groups) in comparason to the diabetic group.
For serum creatinine a significant enhancement was observed for PGE (P < 0.05), mixed 1 (P < 0.05) and mixed 3 (P < 0.05) groups which were previously found to be reduced in diabetic rats. A significant increase for AST was found in diabetes (P < 0.0001) compared to non-diabetic rats, while a significant reduction was found to occur only for PGE (P < 0.05), mixed 2 (P < 0.05) and mixed 3 (P < 0.001) treated groups in comparison to the untreated diabetic group. Like AST a significant reduction was recorded for ALT in the diabetic group (P < 0.001) and only GBE (P < 0.001), PGE (P < 0.05) and mixed 3 (P < 0.05) showed a significant decreased in ALT level compared to untreated diabetic rats.
In conclusion, we found that both GBE and PGE have strong individual anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyper-triglyceridemic and anti-oxidative effects in an alloxan monohydrate induced rat model of diabetes. Both also showed strong influence on the activation on the expression of genes involved in the metabolic pathways of glucose and lipid which previously became dysfunctional in diabetic rats. When both these natural remedies were given in combination, synergistic effects were recorded in a dose dependent manner. Further work is needed to evaluate the way by which human beings suffering from diabetes are safely treated with these herbal remedies.
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Effects Of Stair-Step Nutrition Regimen On Growth Rate, Nutrien Utilization And Pubertal Development In Nili-Ravi
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Under this study, effect of stair-step nutritional regimen compared to the standard NRC recommended energy levels on growth rate, nutrient utilization, some selected blood metabolites, pubertal age, conception rate and economic analysis in ili- Ravi buffalo heifers were measured. Study lasted for 18 months during the years 2008- 20 I O. Twenty-two heifers, 6-8 month old, 98.57±5.07 kg average ody weight were divided into two equal groups and randomly assigned either control or stair-step nutritional regimen (SSNR) diets. The SSNR was designed in three phase program each having 6 months duration i.e., postweaning (7 to 13 month age), repubertal (13 to 19 month age) and pubertal/breeding (19 to 25 month age). In each phase, the treatment group during step 1, was fed on low energy diet (80% ME of NRC) for 4 months followed by high energy diet (120% ME ofNRC) for 2 months in step 2. The heifers in ontrol group were fed according to NRC (200 I) requirements of Holstein Friesian heifers continuously for 6 months. For both the groups individual feeding was carried out. Daily feed intake and fortnightly fasting weights were recorded. Nutrients digestibility and N balance trials were conducted during last week of each step during each phase. Blood samples were collected at the end of each low or high energy diets for blood metabolites analysis. Oestrus detection was done with the help of a teaser bull at age of 15-16 months. Transrectal ultrasonography was done to assess uterus and ovarian structures development. Measured blood serum progesterone concentration collected every 10 days interval at 09.00-10.00 hours during 18-20 months age by ELISA using commercial kit. The age and live weight at onset of puberty was recorded when heifer tood to be mounted by the bull first time in her life. The heifers detected in oestrus were bred by natural mating at approximately 12-15 hours of the onset of oestrus activity. Heifers not returning to oestrus were examined for pregnancy diagnosis through rectal alpation of uterus at 70-90 days post breeding. Data of feed onsumption during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertallbreeding phases were used to calculate the feed cost used per kg gain between the SSNR and control heifers.
During postweaning phase, heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (2.03 Meal/kg) ained significantly (P<O.OS) lower daily weights than those fed control diet (2.SS Meal/kg), When heifers fed high energy diet (3.01 Meal/kg), daily weight gain was significantly (P<O.O 1) higher in SSNR compared to control. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was poorer (P<O.OS) in SSNR heifers fed low energy diet compared to those fed control diet. But on high energy diet FCR was better (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group.
During prepubertal phase, there was no difference (P>O.OS) in weight gain between the heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (1.89 Meal/kg) and control diet (2.3S Meal/kg). But on high energy diet (2.80 Meal/kg) weight gain was higher (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. On low energy diet there was no difference (P>O.OS) in FCR between the two groups. But on high energy diet FCR was significantly (P<O.OS) better in SSNR compared to control group. Average DMI in heifers of both groups was similar (P>O.OS). During pubertal/breeding phase, similar trend of weight gain, DMI and FCR was found in SSNR versus control group as reported in prepubertal phase.
Intake of DM, organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) as percent body weight were statistically non-significant (P>O.OS) differet between the SSNR versus ontrol groups during all phases. Metabolizable energy (ME) consumption was significantly P<O.OS) lower in SSNR group fed low energy diet than the heifers fed control diet. But ME consumption was significantly (P<O.O 1) increased in SSNR group fed high energy diet than control group. Similar, trend of ME consumption was observed in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets during prepubertal and pubertal phases. Water to dry matter intake ratio in heifers during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertal phases were statistically similar (P>O.OS).
In all phases, apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility was higher (P<0.05) when SSNR heifers fed low energy diet, but on high energy diet NDF digestibility was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control, respectively, during all phases with the exception of step I in the prepubertal phase and step 2 in pubertal phase where the differences were non-significant (P>0.05) between the groups. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility with SSNR low energy diet was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the heifers fed control diets during three phases. But on high energy diet, ADF digestibility was not different (P>0.05) between the two groups. Also N intake was not different (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) diets and control diets, respectively, with the exception of step 2 in the postweaning phase when the control group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in intake of N compared to the SSNR group. Faecal N as well as Urinary N losses in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) versus control diets did not differ significantly (P>0.05).
All heifers have shown haematological values which are almost similar in heifers of two groups. Except total cholesterol, concentration of urea N, glucose and macro minerals in serum did not differ between the two groups.
There was no significant (P>0.05) differences in age and weight at onset of puberty and number of services per conception between the two groups. Pregnancy rate in heifers fed on SSNR diet was 50% while on control diet was 57%. Fifty percent of heifer fed SSNR and 60% of heifers fed control diet as per NRC requirement had serum progesterone concentrations> 1.0 ng/ml in two samples collected 10 days apart before reaching puberty.
The overall feed costs incurred (42660.88 vs 44509.96 Rs./animal) on SSNR heifers was significantly (P<0.05) less than the control heifers fed according to NRC recommendations from weaning to breeding age.
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Epidemiological And Molecular Profile Of Hepatitis-C Viral Infection Among Different Groups Of Population In And Around Lahore, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices.
The present project was carried out to study the prevalence of laboratory based confirmed patients of Hepatitis-C in various public, private hospitals and in high risk groups among the population of Lahore metropolitan and its distribution and pattern with respect to person, time and place. Second part of the project was designed to study the risk factors of Hepatitis-C patients from out patient departments of various public and private hospitals of Lahore. Individuals at high risk from different organizations and occupations across the city population of Lahore metropolitan were also included in the study. The third part of the project was designed to investigate the distribution of genotypes of Hepatitis-C virus among patients through RT-PCR and theireffect on viral load, various haematological and biochemical parameters.
Study-1: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C in various public and private hospitals of Lahore Metropolitan among different groups a total of 1399 individuals were tested to estimate the hospital based prevalence of HCV. Out of these 233 individuals produced positive result for Hepatitis-C virus infection. The overall hospital based prevalence was estimated to be 16.66% during the year 2009. The current study revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in Dialysis patients and Organ recipients (41.17%) followed by General Patients of age > 12 years (14.60%) and pregnant women (10.84%). It was further observed that the least affected group was the Children of age ? 12 years (3.85%).
Study-2: The results of estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection in high risk groups from the population in and around Lahore revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in patients with HIV/AIDS (36.36%) followed by injecting drug users (36.09%), blood donors (17.78%), long rout truck drivers (14.70%), house hold and direct contact personal (14.6%) and prisoners (14.28%). It was also find out that the less affected groups were police department (10.66%), staff nurses and other health care workers (9.87%) and barbers and beauticians (6.97%) while doctors and dental surgeons were least affected (1.32%) among the high risk groups.
Study-3: To find out the pattern and distribution of HCV patients with respect to person place and time a total of 924 patients were selected from the registry of Provincial Hepatitis Control Cell Lahore through systematic random sampling. Out of these, 154 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 90 were male and 64 were females. Average age of male and female patients was 35.88±10.49 and 37.78±9.12 years, respectively. The age difference between male and female patients was statistically non-significant (P-value>0.05). It was further observed that 147 patients were Punjabi and 7 were from other provinces. Moreover, It was found that the highest number of patients was observed during the month of December (n=18) followed by November, 2008 (n=15), March (n=15) and July, 2009 (n=14) while the least number of patients were observed during the months of September, 2008 and May, 2009 (n=10).
To study the risk factors associated with HCV infection an analytical cross sectional study was conducted.
Study-1: Lower socio economic class, place of birth (hospital), delivery assisted by whom and breast feeding were significantly associated with HCV infection in children of age ? 12 years. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive general patients was significantly associated (P=0.012) with anti-HCV status. Marital status (OR=2.042), socioeconomic status, blood donation (OR=2.15), prescription by doctor or non-doctor (OR=2.664), route of drug administration, relative having hepatitis and towel sharing (OR=1.987) were also significantly associated (P<0.05) risk factors for HCV infection. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive pregnant women was 27.55±3.43 and 25.37±4.24 years, respectively. Educational level (OR=3.093) and occupational status (OR=2.228) were the important risk factors associated with HCV infection. Tattoo on the body (OR=11.833), comb sharing (OR=20.86) and razor sharing (OR=4.786) were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Pregnant women who gave the history of dental procedures and tooth brush sharing were 3.15 and 4.12 times more prone to get HCV infection, respectively. In 205 patients having dialysis and organ recipients 41.17% patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Blood transfusion, glass sharing and qualification of the patients were significant factors in this group.
Study-2: In case of doctors/dental surgeons a significant association was observed with history of blood transfusion and duties in medical and surgical wards. The nurses who worked in surgical wards, visited beauty salons were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Among health care workers age, gender and other factors did not have any significant influence on the reaction of HCV. Among blood donors female to male ratio was 1:16.5. It was found that the occupational status (p=0.002), place of surgical treatment (p=0.035), history of blood transfusion (p=0.000), ever pricked by sharps (p=0.045), habit of injecting drugs (p=0.04) and glass sharing (p=0.017) were significantly associated with occurrence of hepatitis C in blood donors. In long route truck drivers geographical status, surgical procedure, dental treatment and family history were significantly associated (P<0.05). Among the injecting drug users, demographic factors like marital (P=0.007) and educational status (P=0.000) were found to be significantly associated with HCV infection. Furthermore, the behavioral factors; use of injectable drugs with reused syringes (P=0.003), sharing of syringes in groups (P=0.004), place of shaving (P=0.000), use of disinfected ustra (razor) (P=0.003) and razor sharing (P=0.000) were significantly associated with anti-HCV status for IDUs. Among HIV/Aids patients a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was present among the ages of reactive and non reactive patients. Comb sharing has also a positive effect of HCV but all other factors were not contributing in this group. In Police personals odds ratio for married persons was higher (9.57) but statistically insignificant. The mean age for reactive persons was 39.75±8.24 years. A non-sexual contact with HCV patient and spoon sharing were significantly associated. In prison inmates skin infection and sexual involvement were significantly associated (P<0.000) with HCV infection. In the group of 43 barbers/beauticians age, working shift, tattoo on body (OR=19.5), injecting drugs (OR=19.5) and pre-testing for HCV (OR=19.5) were significantly associated with HCV infection. In house hold and direct contact group previous history of accidents and family history of HCV (OR=18.36) were significantly associated with HCV infection.
A molecular epidemiological study was conducted in which the HCV reactive patients as tested by ELISA test were subjected to viral load and genotyping through RT-PCR. The positive cases of Project-I were included in this project. In the present study 558 patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Out of these, 34 (6.09%) patients had Type-1 genotype, 67 (12%) patients were accounted for Type-2 and 410 (73.47%) patients were positive for Type-3. Multiple genotypes were seen in 19 (3.4%) patients, 9 (1.61%) patients had un-type able genotype whereas in 19 (3.4%) patients genotype could not be detected. According to the distribution of genotype-1, 1a was present in 30 (88.23%) while 1b was seen in 4 (11.76%) patients. In patients of Type-2 genotype, 2a and 2b were present in 54 (80.59%) and 13 (19.40%) patients, respectively. In patients having Type-3, 3a and 3b were identified in 353 (86.09%) and 57 (13.90%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, Bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALPT, viral load, Hb, TLC, DLC, Platelet and ESR were statistically same in all genotype.
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Epidemiological Intelligence On Distribution & Dynamics Of Main Transboundary Diseases Of Ruminants In The Central Districts Of Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Epidemiological Studies And Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Resistance Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Balochistan
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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