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1. Studies On The Prevalence And Taxonomy Of Paramphistomes In Sheep And Their Effects On Various Blood Parameters

by Gohar Zaman Khattak | Dr. Mubashar Saeed | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Sagheer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Paramphistomes in sheep, taxonomy of the species of the genus Paramphistomum, and their effects on various blood parameters of the infected animals. For this purpose Municipal Corporation Abattoir, Peshawar was visited regularly during the months of May, June and July,1990. A total of 300 sheep were examined for the study purpose. These animals were divided into two age groups each comprising of 150 sheep. Group-I comprised of sheep below one year of age, while Group-II had sheep of more than one year age. Fifty sheep, each from Group-I and Group-II, were examined each month during the course of study. Five ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein of the sheep, prior to slaughter, in a test tube having a few drops of 0.1% EDTA. After its slaughter the compound stomach of the animal was obtained and put into a polythene bag, which was then brought to parasitology Section, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar for further investigations. After opening of the compound stomach, each compartment was searched for paramphistomes. Helminths so collected were put into glass jars. Preservation and staining of Paramphistomes was carried out by adopting the prescribed methods. Complete record of worms collected, regarding their number and site of predilection was maintained. The taxonomy of the species of the genus Paramphistomum was studied with the help of keys. All the parasites of the genus Paramphistomum were recovered from the rumen of the infected sheep identified as Paramphistomum cervi. A total of 2,329 helminths (Paramphistomum cervi) were recovered from infected sheep of both the age groups.Average infection rate in these animals was recorded as 7.00%, with an average worm burden of 111 helminths per animal. Out of 150 below one year of age sheep examined, 8 were found infected with Paramphistomum cervi with an infection rate of 5.33%. Three sheep from Group-I were found infected with Paramphistomum Cervi in each of the month of May and June, while in July only two animals were found infected with these parasites. The highest rate of infection with these parasites was observed in May and June, and the lowest infection rate was recorded in the month of July. A total of 727 helminths were recovered from the infected animals of Group-I with a range of 73 to 112, and the average parasitic load being 91 per animal. 150 sheep of above one year age were examined,out of which 13 were found infected with Paramphistomum cervi, with an infection rate of 8.66%. Six animals of Group-II were found infected in May, for in June and three in the month of July. A total of 1,602 parasites were recovered from these animals, ranging from 96 to 140, with an average worm burden of 123 helminths per animal. Blood of infected sheep was exposed to various haematological studies including total erythrocyte count (TEC), Hb estimation, packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).These tests were also carried out for worm-free (control) sheep, 10 each from Group-I and Group-II. A decrease of 8.39% and 14.20% was noticed in total erythrocyte count (TEC) of the infected sheep of Group-I and Group-II, respectively. The results revealed that a highly significant decrease in the TEC of these animals had occurred due to Paramphistomum cervi infection. Haemoglobin contents of blood were determined. The results showed a fall in the Hb contents of blood. The results of the study revealed that a non-significant decrease resulted due to paramphistomiasis in the Hb contents of blood of animals with below one year age, while a highly significant decrease occurred in the haemoglobin contents of blood of animals with above year of age. A decrease of 3.35% and 12.25% was recorded in the packed cell volume (PCV) of the infected sheep of Group-I and Group-II, respectively. The results showed that a non-significant decrease occurred in the PCV of infected animals of Group-I, while a highly significant decrease was caused by paramphistomiasis in Group-II animals. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of worm free (control) as well as sheep infected with Paramphistomum cervi was determined. The results showed a 14.0% and 141.42% increase in the ESR after one hour in the infected animals of Group-I and Group-II, Respectively, while the increase in ESR after 24 hours was recorded as 120.5% and 196% for these groups, respectively. The results revealed that a significant increase occurred in ESR of infected sheep of Group-I, after one hour as well as 24 hours, a highly significant increase was observed. Statistical analysis of the results of the study also revealed that there existed a negative correlation between age of the animal and total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume of blood. A positive correlation existed between age of animals and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0004,T] (1).

2. Study On Hydatidosis And Chemical Characterization Of Cyst Fluid In Camels Slaughtered At Lahore Abattoir

by Tajammal Hussain | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Iqbal Ahmad | Dr. Mubbasher Saeed Mian | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0137,T] (1).

3. A Comparative Study Of Gastro-Intestinal Helminths In Desi (Indjegenous) & Commercial Layers With Taxonomy Of The Isolates

by Saleem Khan, M | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. M. Sarwar | Dr. Mubashar Saeed Mian | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The present project was designed to estimate and compare the extent of helminth infestation in Desi (indigenous) and commercial (W.L.H) poultry layers along with taxonomi study of the isolated species. A total number of six hundred (600) gut samples of adult layers i.e. three hundred (300) each of desi (indigenous) and commercial (W.L.H) were collected from June through october 1991. The parasites were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of birds by adopting described method at the Parasitology Laboratory College of Veterinary Sciences Lahore. The overall prevalence of helminth parasites (netnatodes and cestodes) was 80.3% in desi and 32.6% in commercial (W.L.H) birds. The nematodes were found in 210(70%) in desi (indigenous) and in 62 (20.6%) of commercial (W.L.H) guts. Among the nematodes different species were identified and their infection rate on single and/or multiple basis was established. Ascaridia galli was the most prevailing species 167 (55.6%) followed by Heterakis allinae 38(12.6%), Subulura bruinpti 45 (1b.k) wniie iiojua trachea was very rare and was present only in 5 (1.6%) of desi (indigenous) birds. In commercial (W.L.H) layers the nematodes singly and/or on multiple basis were recorded in 98(32.61) of birds Ascaridia alli alone infected 49(16.3%), HtrJd. gallinae 7 (2.3%) and Subulura brunipti 8 (2.6%) of birds while Svnainus trachea was very rare and present only in 2 (0.6%) of the tracheas. The overall incidence of cestodes was slightly higher than those of nematode parasites. It was found to be 65.0% and 22.6% in desi (indigenous) and commercial (W.L.H) layers respectively. The species of cestode with percentage of infection recovered from the small intestine of desi (indigenous) birds were: Raillietina tetraona 58.0% (174/300) Raillietina cesticillus 12.6% (38/300) Raillietina echinobothrida 14.0% (42/300) Cotugnia digonoora 10.8% (32/300) Choanotaenia infundibulumn 20.0% (60/300) Amoebotaenia sphenoides 3.3% (10/300) While in conimercial (W.L.H) layers Raillietina tetraona Raillietina cesticillus Raillietina echinobothrida Cotunia dionopora Choanotaenia infundibuluni Anioebotaenia sphenoides they were: 22.0% (66/300) 1.0% (3/300) 3.0% (9/300) 1.0% (3/300) 4.3% (13/300) 2.0% (6/300) No trematode parasites was however recovered both in desi (indigenous) and commercial (W.L.H.) birds during the present study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0356,T] (1).

4. Serodiagnosis Of Ovine Hydatidosis

by Javaid, M | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: A study was under taken to find out the incidence of hydatidosis and to evaluate the efficacy of indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test for the confirmation of natural hydatidosis in sheep slaughtered at Lahore municipal abattoir. Blood samples from 200 sheep (50 each from hydatidosis affected and free sheep on the basis of postmortem findings and 100 blood samples Elected randomly without considering postmortem finding). The serum from each sample was separated, properly labelled and stored at -20°C. For the preparation of antigen, crude cyst fluid was aspirated aseptically from hydatid cysts. Blood from healthy sheep was collected in 3.8% sodium citrate solution and red blood cells were separated by centrifugation. A 2.5% red cell suspension was prepared in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS). The sheep erythrocytes were sensitized by Hydatid fluid antigen. Optimal dilution of antigen 1:16 was used in Phosphate Buffered Saline (p11 6.4) for sensitizing the sheep erythrocytes. All the sera were inactivated at 56°C for half an hour and serial two f1d serum dilutions were prepared by micropipettes in microtitre U plates and sensitized erythrocytes were added to the plates and incubated at room temperature in a humid chamber for 3 hours. A titre of 1:32 and above was considered as positive. In positive reactions, the cells agglutinated like a carpet at the bottom of the wells where as in negative cases the cells settled as a compact mass in the centre of the wells. By the indirect haemagglutination test Ninety-two percent sheep were found positive for hydatidosis. (Table-4.2). Out of 50 serum samples (Group A2), 46 (92%) were confirmed positive on postmortem while 3 out of 50 (6%) hydatid free samples (Group A3), gave false positive results with IHA test. It was concluded that indirect haemagglutination test is an accurate, reliable and sensitive test (92%) for the diagnosis of hydatidosis in sheep. The blood cell counts (TLC, DLC) and blood chemistry (Total protein, A/G ratio) of the samples under investigation were also carried out. From the results it was evident that the hydatid cysts did not affect the blood values of the host significantly. However, only 28% of hydatid positive animals showed eosinophilia ranging from 7 to 23% which was non pathognomonic. It was thus inferred that blood cell counts and blood c1vmistry of the hydatid cyst patients was of no diagnostic value. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0359,T] (1).

5. Effect Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis On Some Blood Parameters And Its Treatment With Embazin & Coxistac In Quails

by Anwaar Hussain, Syed | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effects of experimentally induced coccidisis on some blood parameters and its treatment with Embazin and coxistac in Quails. For this purpose 300 day old quail chicks were obtained from a local hactchery and raised under standard, controlled coccidia free conditions. A commercial coccidiostat free feed was provide. At the age of 21 days. birds were divided into 4 groups comprising 60 birds each and shifted from brooder into a multistorey cage and grouped as tinder:Group A (60 quails) Infected and medicated with Embazin. Group B (60 quails) Infected and medicated with Coxistac. Group C (60 quails) Infected and non-medicated. Group D (60 quails) Non-infected-Non-medicated. Birds of group A, B and C were infected with 1 ml of coccidial inoculum having 50,000 sporulated oocysts given directly into crop. Group D was kept as control group. On fourth day post infection birds of all infected groups showed disease symptoms and at that time groups A and B was medicated with Embazin and Coxistac respectively. Four samples of blood and faeces were collected from each group on zero day, 5th day and 9th day of medication. In groups A and B Haemoglobin and Total Erythrocytic Count was lowered on 5th day and then increased on 9th day of medication oocyst count was Nil on 9th day of medication in group A and 92.30% reduction percentage was there is in group B. Haemoglobin and Total Erythrocytic Count decreased in group C upto 9th day ofmedication but oocyst count increased in this group. Increase percentage was 7.14% on 5th day and 14.28% on 9th day of medication. In group D Haemoglobin andTotal Erythrocytic Count remained almost constant and oocyst count was found Nil throughout the experimental period. The best feed conversion Ratio of 3 was recorded in group D whereas group "C" which was infected but not treated showed worst feed conversion ratio i.e. 4. Group A & B revealed intermediate F.C.R. of 3.6 and 3.8 respectively. Hishest mortality of 33.33% was recorded in group C, 13% in group B and 11.66% in group A. In group D mortality was Nil. From the findings of study it was concluded that Embazin was drug of choice for the treatment of coccidiosis in quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0372,T] (1).

6. A Study On The Prevalance Of Ascaridia Galli And The Effects Of Experimental Infection On Various Blood Parameters

by Rubina Rehman | Dr. Mubashir Saeed Mian | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. M. Athar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Ascaridia galli is the common intestinal nematode of poultry that causes severe losses in birds resulting in decreased weight gain and fall in egg production. These symptoms show that parasitic diseases are the constraints in the development of profitable poultry industry. To find out the prevalence 300 chicken guts were obtained from different poultry meat shops in Lahore from May to August, 1993. An overall prevalence of 60 percent was recorded in chicks. The incidence of infection was highest (73.3 percent) in the month of July and lowest (42.6 percent) in the month of May. For conducting haematological examination one hundred and thirty-five chicks were purchased and reared under good hygienic conditions. At the age of 15 days chicks were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). Chicks of groups A and B were infected with 50 and 100 eggs, respectively, while group C was taken as control. After 35 days of inducing experimental infection blood samples from all the three groups were taken at an interval of 5 days i.e., 35, 40 and 45 days postinfection to examine erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin level, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Significantly lower values of erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin were estimated in infected groups A and B as compared to control group C, while higher values were obtained for heterophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil in infected chicks resulting in an overall increase in total leukocyte count. It was also estimated that A. gal/i produced no significant change in monocyte count. Chicks from group A, B and C were weighed every week after infection to see the effect of A. gaili infection on body weight. Results regarding body weight showed that there was significant decrease in weight in group A and B as compared to control group C and there was also significant decrease in group B as compared to group A. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0378,T] (1).

7. A Study On The Taxonomy Of Sheep Cestodes And The Efficacy Of Albendazole And Miclosamide Against Natural Infections

by Ashraf, M | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Mubashar Saeed Mian | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Pakistan has a large population of live stock, which plays an important role in the economy of the country. Parasitism adversally effects the growth and production of livestock. Great economic losses have been attributed to the sheep population in our country due to the parasitic infections including cestodes. A study of cestodal infections with taxonomy of the prevalent cestoctes species affecting sheep at different age groups in and around Lahore was conducted. The taxonomical study was conducted in the month of August, September and October, 1993. For this purpose 200 guts (one hurtdered each from below six month and above six month of sheep) were collected from Lahore Abattoir. Parasites were identitied under the microscope by preparing permanent mounts. The over all incidence of cestodes infection in sheep was 65.5%. The species of various genera of cestodes observed during the present study were: Moniezia pansa (64%), Moniezia benedeni (60%), Avitellina cjj[iur1ctta (49.50%), Avitellina lahorea (40%), Avitellina sudanea (30%), Stilesia vittata (30%), Stilesia globiounctata (50%) and Thvsanosoma actinioides (6%). Monthwise prevalence of cestodes infection was also carried out and it was observed that the highest infection rate was (76%) during the month of August and (66.25%) during the month of September. While the lowest incidence was recorded as (57.14%) during the month of october, 1993. The taxonomy of the prevalent cestode species was carried out. The effect of age of the animals on the intensity of cestodal infection was also studied. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of cestode infections among the two groups. The present work was also aimed to verify the efficacy of two commonly available anthelmintics namely albendazole (valbazen) and niclosarnide (mansonil), in naturally infected stceep with Gastrointestinal cestocJes. Fifty sheep positive for cestods infections were randomly divided into two groups A and B, each group comprising of 25 animals. Group. A was given albendazole (valbazen) at a dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight orally while the group B was administered niclosamide (mansonil) at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight orally. The efficacy of both the drugs was evaluated on the bases of reduction of segments and number of eggs per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made on zero, 3rd and 21st day. Both the drugs revealed a progressive decrease in the faccal egg/segment counts. The efficacy of albenclazole on 3rd and 21st day was 96.02 and 99.23% repectively while the efficacy of niclosamide (mansonil) was 100% on 3rd and 21st day. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0387,T] (1).

8. An Epidemiological & Haematological Correlation Between Healthy & Tuberculous Indigenous Birds

by Azeem Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A total of 250 desi birds, selected randomly, from different villages of district Lahore, were divided into two groups. The group-I composed of 125 apparently healthy birds whereas 125 apparently weak and emaciated birds were present in group-IT. Avian tuberculin test was employed to diagnose the tuberculosis. A 0.1 ml of avian tuberculin (MCSM) procured from VRI, Lahore, was injected into left wattle whereas right wattle was kept as uninjected control and test was read after 48 hours. Only 6 birds (2.4%), all belonged to group-IT, were found tuberculin positive. Haematological studies of these six tuberculin positive birds were carried out along with 10 healthy desi birds for comparison. There was decrease in erythrocytic count (EC), haemoglobin value (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV). The average values of EC, Hb and PCV of infected birds were 1.94x106/µ1, 8.86 g/dl and 22.69% respectively. On the other hand, leukocytic count (LC) was increased and found to be 37.33x10/il on average. A significant change in differential leukocytic count (DLC) was also observed with an increase in the proportion of polymorphs and monocytes and fall in lymphocytes. The lymphocyte to heterophils ratio was the inverse of that in healthy birds. On post-mortem, a large number of tubercles of varying size were noticed on liver, spleen and intestines. No birds showed lung lesion except one. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0389,T] (1).

9. Studies On Blood Chemistry And Histopathological Alteration Induced By Mycoplasma Gallisepticum In Broiler

by Shahida Parveen | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Shahzada Khurram Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: For this project 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into two equal groups i.e. A and B. The birds in group B were challenged with Mycoplasma gallisepticum at 7 days of age, whereas those in group A were dealt with as control birds. After 21 days of post infection serum samples were obtained from the diseased as well as control birds during slaughtering. Tissue samples from lungs, liver and trachea were collected and processed for histopathological examination. The postmortem findings revealed catarrhal exudate in the flares, sinuses, trachea, lungs and oedema of airsacs wall. The lungs were congested, dark in colour and inflammed. Liver showed fibri nopurulent perihepatitis, haemorrhages and congestion. Trachea was found to have a tenacious viscous cloudy exudate which was adherent to the tracheal wall. The histopathological sections showed oedema, haemorrhages, congestion, massive infiltration of monocytes and heterophils in the lungs. The liver showed evidence of necrosis, haemorrhages and infiltration of heterophils, lymphocytes in interlobular spaces around portal vessels. The trachea showed epithelial and submucosal infiltration with lymphocytes, hypertrophy of epithelial mucous glands' and some catarrhal exudate on the mucosal surface. Sloughing of mucosa with variable degree was noted. The data, obtained by the analysis of serum, statistically indicated that the concentration of serum uric acid, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase and serum lactic dehydrogenase was increased significantly in infected birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0396,T] (1).

10. Prevalence Of Lungworm Infestation (Dictycaulus Spp.) And Its Effect On Some Blood Parameters Of Camels During Months Of October December.

by Aslam, M | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Camel is a versatile creature of the nature. Its population in Pakistan is 9,58,047 heads. Its importance is obvious from the facilities which it provides to the mankind e.g. transportation and ploughing facilities, lifting of water and pulling of carts, provision of milk meat and earning of foreign exchange. But on the other hand, camel is ignored in provision of better managemental facilities due to which it is facing many disease problems. Similarly, camel is also ignored by our scientists and a little research work has been done on camel in the world. Keeping in view all these factors, this project was designed to see the prevalence of lungworm infection in camel. This study also included haematological changes in camel blood suffering from lungworm infection. This study was conducted during the months of OctoberDecember, 1993 at Lahore abattoir. For the prevalence of lungworm infection, 150 camels suspected for lungworm infection were selected and their faecal and blood samples were collected. Regarding the prevalence of lungworm infection through faecal examination the results of present investigation show that occurrence of lungworm infection in camels is 6.00%, i.e. 9 camels out of 150 suspected were found positive. The mean values of haematological examination were observed i.e. Total leukocytic count (31.62 thousand/cm.mm), Differential leukocytic count - Neutrophils 67.88%, Eosinophils 28.77%, Basophils 3.66%, Lymphocytes 65.88%, Monocytes 5.55%, and ESR 12.20 mm/hour. Blood of camels negative to lungworm infection showed total leukocytic count mean value 19.30 thousand/cu.mm, Differential leukocytic count - Neutrophils 47.00%, Eosinophils 8.88%, Basophils 1.88%, Lymphocytes 38.55%, Monocytes 4.22% and ESR 1.85 mm/hour. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0405,T] (1).

11. A Comparative Study Of Helminth And Haemoparasites Of Domestic And Wild Pigeons

by Asma Hussain | Dr. Mubashir Saeed Mian | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: There is an increasing interest in pigeons and other game and ornamental birds. These birds are generally kept either free roaming or confined in outdoor pens and hence are vulnerable to various parasitic infectious, which greatly effects the productivity of these birds. The meat production of the pigeons can be improved by controlling disease problems particularly helrninths and blood protozoan infections, so that in near future they may contribute towards narrowing down the animal protein supply gap by substituting poultry meat with squabs. The present work was planned for the comparative study of helminths and heemoparasites of domestic and wild pigeons. For this purpose 300 each of guts and blood smears were studied. The overall incidence of gastrointestinal helminths and blood protozoans was 77.33% and 31.99% respectively, while 36% of birds had mixed infection. The incidence of gastro-intestinal helminths and blood protozoa in wild pigeons was 89.33 and 20.66 percent respectively and in domestic pigeons it was 65.33% and 11.33% respectively. Whereas mixed infections were 22% and 14% respectively. The following species of helmitiths and blood protozoa were recorded and identified. 1. Raillietina tetragona 2. Raillietiiia cesticillus 3. Choanolaenia infundibulum 4. Ascaridia colurnbae and 5. Cap illaria obgnata The two species of blood protozoa recovered were: 1. Aegypanella pullorum and 2. Haeiçotuscumbae Among the helrninths recorded, cestodes were found predominating as compared with nernatodes in both wild and domestic pigeons. Raillietina cesticillus was the most common cestode species in both Wild and domestic pigeons i.e. 51 and 33 percent respectively while Asci colurnbae predominated the nernatode species i.e. 18 and 15 percent respectively. The Incidence was higher in wild pigeons. Aegyptianella pullorum was more common blood protozoan i.e. 22 and 11 percent respectively in wild and domestic pigeons. The incidence of Haemoproteus clumbae was 9 and 11 percent respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0410,T] (1).

12. Comparative Meat Production Potentials And Carcass Evaluation Of Buffalo And Different Breeds Of Cattle Calves

by Syed Ahmed | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Asif | Dr. Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: The most urgent need at present is to derive the maximum beef production from our existing livestock and agricultural byproducts. The present study will help us to select the most suitable livestock breed for beef production. This will further provide information to the persons interested for developing a feed lot industry in the country. In the present study the meat production potential and carcass composition of buffalo and cattle (Sahiwal, crossbred, nondescript, cholistani and dajal) was evaluted. The breeds were assigned six group I, II, III, IV, V and YI for Sahiwal, crossbred, non-descript, buffalo, Cholistani and Dajal respectively. Ten calves from each group was fattened with a control ration containing CP with a range of 10.91 to 11.23 percent and TND ranging from 66.61 to 68.70 percent, for a period of 91 days. The feed efficiency of group I-VT were 5.73, 5.98, 8.38, 7.47, 6.09 and 7.47 with an average daily weight gain of 0.796, 0.856, 0.746, 0.822, 0.840 and 0.753 kg respectively. The dressing percentage were 49.37, 49.19, 52.06, 48.54, 51.83 and 52.27 for group I to VI respectively and the difference were non significant. The percentage of blood, heart and lungs were 2.54, 2.61, 2.61, 3.06, 2.71, 2.46 percent and 0.34, 0.99, 0.39, 0.55, 0.33, 0.43 percent and 1.10, 1.12, 1.03, 1.05, 1.01 and 0.97 for group I to VI, respectively. Statistically non significant difference were found in these parameters. The percentage of liver spleen and kidneys were 1.55, 1.41, 1.52, 1.32, 1.40, 1.33 percent and 0.32, 0.38, 0.39, 0.26, 0.29, 0.30 percent and 0.28, 0.30, 0.29, 0.32,0.25 and 0.20 percent for group I to VI respectively. The only significant difference (P<0.05) between the value of kidneys. The value for other components like mesenteric fat, feet, head and skin were 0.43, 0.56, 0.54, 0.78, 0.58, 0.57 percent for mesenteric fat and 2.26, 2.29, 2.09, 2.53, 2.07 and 2.04 percent for feet 4.27, 4.10, 4.06, 4.80, 4.38 and 4.24 percent for head 10.27, 9.06, 19.10, 9.33, 10.67 and 8.70 for skin of group I to VI, respectively. The difference among all these values were non significant. The percentage ratio of meat, bone, fat and other tissue were 48.38, 52.33,54.13, 49.36, 51.39 and 53.91 percent, 33.14, 32.87, 32.61, 31.79, 36.11, 31.83 percent, 7.04, 6.05, 8.43, 12.96, 7.22, 9.19, percent and 4.83, 5.13, 4.38, 4.01, 4.61 and 3.73 for group I to VI, respectively. Only highly significant difference (P<0.01) was observed in fat component. The chemical composition of the meat revealed 77.78, 76.86, 75.75, 73.34, 76.53 and 75.90 percent moisture, 20.55, 20.12, 20.91, 21.00, 20.56 and 20.64 percent crude protein, 9.90, 7.76, 8.71, 9.71, 8.16 and 8.54 percent ether extract, 5.18, 5.47, 6.03, 6.18, 6.39 and 6.71 percent ash in group I to VI, respectively. Non significant difference were observed in chemical composition. The cost of one kg meat production (feed cost + cost of animal) from group I to VI, 13.92, 14.13, 17.57, 14.59, 17.50 and 20.25 rupees respectively. This revealed that minimum cost of meat production was in Sahiwal calves, whereas Dajal calves proved most expensive meat producer among the different groups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0416,T] (1).

13. The Effects Of Piroplasmosis On Hematology In Equines

by Salva | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Shakeel | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Piroplasmosis is a serious disease of the domestic animals including horses. It is caused by species of the genus Babesia i.e. . egui and B. caballi resulting in death due to excessive loss of blood. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of natural Piroplasmosis on various blood parameters, viz, total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin estimation (Jib), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocytes count (TLC) and differential leukocytes count (DLC) in horses. A total of forty horses (Group A including 20 uninfected horses and Group B included 20 horses showing clinical symptoms of the disease and confirmed positive for piroplasmosis through blood examination were used in the study and found to cause the infection although . caballi infection was more predominant. Heamatological examination revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the erythrocyte count, hemoglobin level and packed cell volume of the infected horses. Normocytic and hypochromic type of anemia was observed. Total leukocyte count was also decreased. A decrease in the number of rieutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes was also observed in the infected horses. Out of the 20 infected horses, 4 had B. equi and sixteen had B. caballi infection indicating that . caballi was more prevalent. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0432,T] (1).

14. A Study Of Gastro Intestinal Parasitism And Haematological Disturbances Associated With Single Or Multiple Infection In Sheep

by Hafeez, M | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Mubashar Saeed Mian | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Nature has blessed Pakistan with a large population of livestock which play an important role in the economy of the country. Parasitism adversely effects the growth and production of livestock. Great economic losses have been attributed to the sheep population in our country due to parasitic infections including gastro-intestinal parasitism. A study of gastro-intestinal parasitism with isolation and identification of the parasite species affecting sheep at different age groups in and around Lahore was conducted in the months of July, August, September and October, 1994. For this purpose 200 G.I. tracts of sheep (One hundred each from below six months and above six months of age) were collected from Lahore Metropolitan Corporation, Abattoir. The overall incidence of gastro-itestinal parasitism in sheep was found to be 68.5%. Age group wise incidence was found to be 71% and 66% in sheep below and above six months of age respectively. Classwise overall incidence was found to be Sporozoan (51%), Trematodes (21%), Cestodes (62%) and Nematodes (68%). Age group wise incidence of Sporozoan, Trematodes, Cestodes and Nematodes was found to be 60% and 42%, 12% and 30%, 71% and 53%, 73% and 63% in sheep below and above six months of age. Month-wise prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitism was also carried out which was higher in the month of August and lowest in the month of October. Nineteen different species of Parasites were recorded which are detailed as under: 1. Eimeria arloingi 2. Eimeria ninakohlvakimovae 3. Eimerla parva 4. Elmerla intricata 5. Eimeria faurei 6. Paramphistomum cervi 7. Cotylophoron cotvlophorum 8. Moniezia. expansa 9. Moniezia benedeni 10. Avitellina centripunctata 11. Haemonchus contortus 12. Oesophagostomum colunThianum 13. Oesophagostonim venulosum 14. Trichuri 15. Ostertagia circumcincta 16. Ostertagia ostertagi 17. Chabertia ovina 18. Trichostrongvlus colubriformis 19. Nematodirus spathiger The isolation and identification of various collected parasites was carried out. The relationship between the age of sheep and the occurrence of gestro-Intestinal parasitism was also studied. There was a Non Significant difference in the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites among the two groups. The present project was also aimed to observe the effect of single or multiple parasitism on certain haematological parameters like, estimation of haemoglobin contents, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count, erythrocyte sedimentation Rate, packed cell volume and differential leukocytic count. These heamatological studies were carried out on control (parasitic free) and parasitised sheep of below and above six months of age. The findings of haematological studies showed that there was decrease in haemoglobin contents. total erythrocytic count, packed cell volume, total leukocytic count and increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate in both sheep below and above six months of age under the effect of single or multiple gastrointestinal parasitism. The values of differential leukocytic count were variable in both age groups. Most of the haematological disturbances on various blood parameters in both age group of sheep were proved to be statistically significant. From the results of the presents study, it has been concluded that the incidence of gastro-intestinal parasitism in sheep below and above six months of age is on the higher side which warrants that certain essential preventive measures must be adopted to safeguard our valuable livestockfrom these serious parasitic infestations. It is also evident from the results that gastro-intestinal parasitism adversely affects the blood components in sheep which may lead to anaemia, loss of growth and loss of production. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0433,T] (1).

15. A Study Of Gastro Intestinal Helminthiasis And The Effects Of Natural Infection On Various Blood Parameters In The Buffaloes

by Ishtiaq Ahmad | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 76 buffaloes brought to the Lahore Metropolitan Slaughter house were studied for helminthiasis. Out of which 50 (65.79%) were found positive. The helminthiasis positive guts were examined for the presence of helminths and the following species were identified Haemonchus contortus (11.84%), Haemonchus placei (10.53%), Ostertagia ostertagi (7.89%), Trichostrongylus axei (3.95%), Mecistocirrus digitatus (2.63%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (7.89%), Cooperia oncophora (9.21%), Cooperia punctata (5.26%), Cooperia pectinata (6.58%) , Nematodirus helvetianus (2.63%), Bunostomum phiebotomum (2.63%), Strongyloides papillosus (2.63%), Oesophagostornum radiatum (3.95%), Trichuris globulosa (1.32%), Paramphistomum cervi (3.95%), Paramphistomum microbothrium (2.63%) and Monezia benedeni (2.63%) The effect of helminthiasis on blood parameters like, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count, packed cell volume, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, haemoglobin concentration was investigated and the values recorded were 5.840±0.110x106 Cimm, 5.447±0.074x103 Cumm, 32,858±0.230%, 38.004±0.217 mm/hr. and 10.368±0.096 gm/lOOml respectively. The differential leucocytic count values for neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils were 43.16±0.531%, 43.82±0.718%, 6.40±0.187%, 5.620±0.241% and 1.040±0.124% respectively. Similarly the helminth free (control> animals studied for their total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count, packed cell volume, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, haemoglobin concentration, gave their averages as 7.382±0.068x106 Cmm, 6.321±0.084x103 Cimm, 38.927±0.286%, 28.213±0.148 mm/hr. and 11.892±0.286 gm/lOOml respectively. The differential leukocytic count values for neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils were 29.15±0.365%, 56.0±0.513%, 8.12410.28%, 5. 852410 .264% and 0.90±0.191% respectively. The average values for helminth infected and helminth free animals were analysed statistically. The infected animals had a significantly decreased total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, lymphocytes and eosinophils with increased erythrocytic sedimentation rate and neutrophils, while no significant difference was seen in monocytes and basophils. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0445,T] (1).

16. The Effects Of Induced Coccidiosis On Growth And Blood Parameters In Commercial Quails (Coturnix Coturnix

by Ashraf, M | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Mubashar Saeed | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The study was designed to see the effects of experimentally induced coccidiosis op growth and blood parameters in commercial quails (coturnix coturnix japonica). For this purpose 200 day old quail chicks were obtained from a local hatchery and raised under standard, controlled coccidia free conditions. A commercial coccidiostat free feed was provided. At the age of 21 days, birds were divided into 2 groups A and B each comprising 100 birds. Birds of group 'A' were kept as non infected control and birds of group 'B' were infected with I ml of coccidial inoculum having 50,000 sporulated oocysts given directly into crop. After the infection, the OPG of the both groups was recorded. Weekly weight gain/bird of both A and B group was recorded. Meanwhile the morbidity, mortality, clinical finding and post-mortem finding were also observed. At the end of experimental period of 42 day, 20 birds from each group were slaughtered and blood sample were collected for haematology. The weight of birds in group 'B' was significantly lower than that of group 'A' birds. The morbidity and mortality rate in group B were 100% and 38% respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0451,T] (1).

17. A Study On Gastro Intestinal Nematodes Of Camels Slaughtered At Metropolitan Corporation Abattoir Lahore With Taxonomy Of The Isolated Species

by Abbas Ali, Syed | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to determine the incidence of gastro-intestinal nematodes of camels, with the taxonomy of the isolated species. Sixty guts were examined rendomly at the rate of 15 guts per month from August to November, 1993. The adult parasites were collected, fixed and preserved. The whole mounts were prepared. The faecal samples were examined and the EPG was estimated using McMaster egg counting technique. The taxonomy of the isolated species was determined by examing the whole mounts, according to the morphological characters given in the keys. The five species of nematodes representing different genera were isloated and identifed as Haenionchus ion gistipes, Izlaemonchus contortus, C'ainelostrongy!us mentulatus, Neniatodirus spathiger and Trichuris giobulosa. The overall incidence recorded from camels during the present study was 65 percent. The morphological characters were studied by preparing permanent mounts and were described. The findings of the present study will help in planning programme for the control of parasitic disease, especially caused by the above mentioned species of nematodes of camels in Pakistan, which will contribute to the development of animal industry by providing much effective coverage for the devastating effects of the parasites and will ultimately enchance the production of milk, meat and hides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0463,T] (1).

18. Efficacy Of Various Chemotherapeutic Agents Against Experimentally Induced Avian Mycoplasmosis In Broiler Chicks

by Naveed Ahmad Khan Niazi | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A total number of 200 day old broiler chicks were procured to determine the drug efficacy of tiamulin, tylosin and oxytetracycline against jylycoplasma gallisepticum infection in-vivo. The organism prior to its use was verified on the basis of morphology, staining reaction, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. These birds were divided into 5 groups each having 40 birds. The birds of all groups were infected experimentally except group A birds. On the appearance of symptoms of CRD, group C, D and E were treated with tiamulin, tylosin and oxytetracycline respectively at the recommended doses of manufacturers for three consecutive days. The birds of group B were kept as untreated control. The efficacy of each drug was based upon morbidity percentage, mortality percentage, case fatality, clinical symptoms, feed-intake and necropsy lesions on postmortem. The tiamulin proved superior over other two drugs as only one bird died unlike tylosin-treated group D which recorded 2.5% mortality. The oxytetracycline treated group E showed 7.5% mortality with the death of 2 birds. A total of 29 birds revealed no pathological lesion at necropsy in contrast to group E birds showing only 27 birds without necropsy lesions of CRD. The feed-intake was poorest in group E and was remained normal in both group C and D. After 144 hours post medication, the clearance of lesions were 96.6%, 90% and 76.6% for group C, D and E respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0469,T] (1).

19. A Study On The Epidemiological Aspects Of Fascioliasis In Buffaloes In Lahore District

by Rabbia Sahar | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Haji Ahmed Hashmi | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The study was designed to find the prevalence and intensity of liver fluke infection in buffaloes in Lahore District. The study period was from April 1995 to July 1995. The data was based on: Data collected from four Veterinary Hospitals in Lahore District namely, Herbenspura, R.A. Bazar, Shamkey Bhattian and Rukh Chandra indicated that during the study period from 1 April, 1995 to 31 July, 1995, a total of 2184 buffaloes were treated for different diseases in these hospitals. Based on history, clinical symptoms and response to treatment 229 (10.48%) buffaloes were positive for fascioliasis. Information collected from Municipal Corporation, Lahore abattoirs regarding economical losses revealed that one hundred eight million rupees were lost annually due to damage and condemnation of liver fluke infected livers. Two hundred faecal samples collected directly from the rectum of buffaloes from various localities at Lahore were examined microscopically by fresh smear and sedimentation methods, which revealed that 75 (37.5%) buffaloes were suffering from fascioliasis. In order to determine the intensity of Fascioliasis in infected animals, quantitative faecal examination was done (and it ranged from 32.6 to 45.6 EPG indicating that the disease is likely to be pathogenic). Overall liver fluke infection was recorded by examining forty livers along with their bile ducts collected from slaughtered buffaloes and it was found that 16 (40%) had liver fluke infection. Identification of live flukes from the infected flukes revealed that 8 (50%) had mixed infection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, 5 (31.25%) had only Fasciola gigantica infection while 3 (18.75%) had only Fasciola hepatica infection. It was concluded from the above studies that Fascioliasis in buffaloes in Lahore district is quite prevalent, and it needs to adopt appropriate measures to control the infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0485,T] (1).

20. A Study On Clinico Serilogical Observations By Experimental Aflatoxicosis In Quails

by Mahmood Farooq Qureshi | Dr. Muhammed Athar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the effect of orally administered aflatoxin in feed was observed in quails. Clinicopathological picture was recorded and serum levels in tile liver and intestines of the quails were tested. At the fifth week of age healthy quails in groups A, B, C and D were given feed containing aflatoxin at a rate of 20 PPM, 40 PPM, 60 PPM and zero PPM (control group) respectively. The average (four weeks) mortality rate for groups A, B, C, and D was 21.53%, 44.80%, 54.03% and 0.07% respectively. The average four weeks case fatality rate for group A, B, C and 0 was 82.15%, 90%, 70.33% and 87.50% respectively. The average four weeks aflatoxin level in the intestinal contents was 9.09 PPM, 10.02 PPM, 11.31 PPM and 3.67 PPM in group A, B, C, and 0 respectively. The various levels of aflatoxin in the liver during the four week averaged 0.06 PPM, 5.19 PPM, 16.57 PPM and 0.05 PPM in group A, B, C and O respectively. The various levels of aflatoxin in the serum, were a four week average of 0.11 PPM, 3.69 PPM, 12.44 PPM and zero PPM in group A, B, C, and 0 respectively. The clinical signs mainifested the birds were ruffled feathers, gathering in the corners of the case, drowsiness, whitish to yellow dilcoloration of eyes, cynchitis, watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils, loose yellowish-white faeces. irregular movement with nervous signs, stiffness of the joints and dehydration. The necropsy findings were enlarged liver, gastro-entertis and petechial haemorrhages on the amasal ad serosal part of the body, deposition of a yellowish white fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavity. There wa also pen cardial fluId and asciise in the body. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0495,T] (1).

21. Haematological Studies And Estimation Of Electrolytes In Dogs Exhibiting Diarrhoeal Signs

by Shuaib Zaffer, M | Dr. shakeel Akhtar khan | Dr. ahmed Raza | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the haematological values and the serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride) levels in the dogs exhibiting diarrhoeal signs. For this purpose one hundred dogs showing diarrhoeal signs were selected from Dog Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore while ten healthy dogs were also used as control group. Tentative diagnosis was tried to establish in each animal of experimental group. Blood samples were collected from the all the animals of both groups. The aematological parameters (TEC, PCV, ESR and Hb) and serum biochemical analysis (sodium, potassium and chloride) were conducted on all blood samples. The changes in blood values of each case was tried to correlate with its tentative diagnosis. On the basis of tentative diagnosis conditions observed were: parvovirus infection, parasitic infestation, mixed infection, canine distemper and dietary disturbances. These conditions of experimental dogs were named as groups A, B, C, D and E. Haematological values (TEC, PCV, ESR and Hb) in group A were decreased considerably as compared to the control group. In group B the values of (TEC, PCV and ESR) were decreased while the values of Hb was normal as compared to the control group. Group C also showed considerable decrease in the values of haematological parameters. In group D the change in haematological parameters showed that the values of TEC, Hb and PCV were decreased considerably while the value of ESR was increased considerably. The haematological changes in group E were similar to the changes recorded in group E. The changes in biochemical substances revealed that in groups A, B, C and D the mean values of biochemical substances (sodium, potassium and chloride) were decreased as compared to the control group, in group E values of sodium and chloride were decreased slightly while the value of potassium was within the normal range. All the dogs of experimental groups exhibited macrocytic normochromic anaemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0497,T] (1).

22. Taxonomical Study Of Treatment Infections And Their Effect On Blood Picture In Sheep And Goats

by Sulman Hameed | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Dr. M. Sarwar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In the present study two hundred sheep and two hundred goats both above one year of age and below one year age were examined after their slaughtering at abattoirs of Lahore for the presence of Gastrointestinal trernatodes during the month of May to August, 1995. Monthwise prevalence of p. Cervi, f... hepatica a6% D. dendriticum and D. dendriticurn during the month of May to august, 1995, was as under: May 1995 15% cervi, 20% f hepatica 6% D. dendriticum June // 19% P.cervi 27% f. hepatica 8% D. dendriticum July // 33% P.cervi 40% hepatica 16% D. dendriticum August // 28%P.cervi 32% f hepatica 13% D. dendriticurn It was observed that the infection increased gradually and reached at peak in the month of July and then declined. An overall incidence of 64.25% of trematodes was recorded in both the species. The parasitic incidence was as . cervi 23.75%, .J hepatica (29.75%) and .. dendriticum (1 0.75). So the rate of infection was on the peak in the month of July in P.cervi, E. hepatica and . dendriticurn as shown in Figure 1. The hernatological values of sheep and goats infected with trernatodes were :total Erythrocytic count 1 2.01 3 ± 0.096 million/cubic microliter, Haemoglobin level 8.037±0.160 g/l00rnl, Packed cell volume 30.10 ± 0.326%, IErythrocytic sedimentation rate 2.71 ± 0.242 mrn/24 hours and Total Erythrocytic count 10.973 ± 0.094 million/ microliter, Haemoglobin 7.637±0.128 g/1 OOml, Packed cell volume 28.15 ± 0.316% and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 1.94±0.246 rnm/24 hour respectively for sheep and goats. It was observed that the infection with trernatode had an adverse effect on total erylhrocyte count, haemoglobin level and packed cell volume. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0509,T] (1).

23. Physicochemical Factors Effecting The Survival Of Newcastle Disease Virus

by Rizwan Qayyum | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. asif Rabbani | Prof. Dr. S.A.R. Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: For this research project, about 305 fresh fertile hen eggs were obtained from Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore. These eggs after cleaning were incubated at 37°C in automatic incubator for 11 days. At the 11th day, candling was done to confirm the fertility of eggs, either they are embryonated or not,. Eggs found dead at the time of candling were discarded. Fertile eggs 305 in number were inoculated with physically and chemically treated mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus which had already been treated and stored in plastic vials at -20°C. Each egg was inoculated with about 0.lnil of the treated viral sample. Four eggs were set for each of the factor for each time period. Four eggs were kept control in each factor in which viral suspension without physical or chemical treatment was inoculated. The project was designed to study the effect of physical and chemical factors on the survival of Newcastle disease virus. The physical factors were temperature, p11 and UV light and chemical factors included five disinfectants like Formaline, Iosan, Phenol Aldekol and Bromosept (QAC). It was noted that at 56°C temperature virus lost its haemagglutinating activity after 45 minutes, but survived this temperature at 15 and 30 minutes exposure. It was observed that virus survived at pH 4 and 9 for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hrs but was killed at pH 1 and 13 for all the said time periods. After exposing virus to UV light, it was examined that Newcastle disease virus survived at UV light exposure for 45 minutes. As far as the chemical factors were concerned, the results showed that 0.48% concentration of formalin inactivated virus in 30 minutes but not in 15 minutes. Other two concentrations i.e. 0.12% and 0.24% could not inactivate the virus. Phenol and Bromosept showed good antiviral activity against ND virus. 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations of Phenol inactivated the virus within 15 minutes but virus retained its HA activity at 0.2% phenol concentrations for 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The virus survived at 0.1% Bromosept concentration for 45 minutes and at 0.5% concentration for 15 minutes time but its haemagglutinating property was lost at 0.5% concentration in 30 minutes and at 1% concentration, the virus was killed within 15 minutes time. 0.1% concentration of Aldekol could not inactivate the virus in 15, 30 or 45 minutes. At its 0.5% concentration virus was inactivated after 45 minutes exposure but not at 15 and 30 minutes. However 1% Aldekol inactivated virus after 30 minutes but not within 15 minutes time. losan with 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations killed the mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus in 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively. So the results of this study show that losan shows excellent antiviral activity against ND virus and is the best for disinfection of this virus at the farm. Bromosept (QAC) and Phenol should be the other two options for farmers to disinfect their sheds and hatcheries to minimize the chances of infection from Newcastle disease virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0519,T] (1).

24. Effects Of A Live Coccidial Vaccine On Browth Traits And Immune Response In Broiler Chickens

by Azam Ali Nasir | Dr. Javed Rashed | Dr. Asif | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: One hundred day old broiler chicks at the age of two days were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D. Group B, C and D were vaccinated orally with Cocci-vac on 3rd, 10th and 20th day of age respectively, while group A was kept as non-vaccinated control. At the age of 35 days, all the birds of each group were challenged with coccidial oocysts and the effects of Cocci-vac in controlling coccidiosis in broiler chicks as well as its effects on immune response and growth traits were studied. The immunogenic effects of Cocci-vac were recorded by challenging the birds with sporulated oocysts. In vaccinated groups (B, C and D) the immunity was better than non-vaccinated control group (A), as there were reduced or no signs of coccidiosis in vaccinated groups. The data obtained from oocysts count per gram of feces showed that the number of oocysts was 28290 and 33830 in group A (control) and 14685 and 16480 in group B (vaccinated) on 7th and 10th day post challenge, while group C had not shown any oocysts count throughout the experimental period. However, group D had shown oocysts count 3240 on 10th day post challenge but not on 7th day. The data obtained from analysis of antibody titers against Newcastle disease on 14th, 28th and 42nd day of experiment, revealed that the GM HI titers of group A (control) was slightly better (181 and 119.4) than other groups B (168.9 and 104), C (104 and 78.8) and group D (168.9 and 55.7) on 14th and 28th day but the lowest (9.8) in group A on 42nd day than other groups B (14.9), C (19.7) and D (13.9). The gross pathological study of intestine showed serosal changes (inflammation and haemorrhages) and mucosal changes (thickened wall, haemorrhages and blood tinged contents), while liver showed discolouration. These changes were much prominent in group A as compared to group B. Spleen and bursa of Fabricius represented no lesions. The data obtained by analysis of weight gain and FCR showed better weight gain (1614, 1783 and 1720) in groups B, C and D respectively and FCR 2.35, 2.24 and 2.26 in groups B, C and D respectively, in vaccinated groups as compared to control .group 'A' (Weight gain 1301 and FCR 2.45). However, within the vaccinated group C showed the best results. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0538,T] (1).

25. Diagnosis And Treatment Trials Of Simple Indigestion In Sheep And Goat

by Basharat Ali | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. M. Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: This research project was conducted at Outdoor 1-Jospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. Forty animals i.e. sheep and goats suffering from simple indigestion were selected, the diagnosis was based on history clinical signs and physical examination Laboratory examination including rumen pH, serum pH, Ketone bodies estimation, protozoa motility test and cellulose digestion test were also performed to confirm the diagnosis, Animals were divided into four groups A,B,C, and D comprising 10 animals each. Animals of group A.B and, C were treated with Magnesium sulphate 50 gm. Magnesium hydro-oxide 50 gm and 1-1/2 liter normal saline once orally respectively while group D was kept as untreated control. Before treatment, rurnen pH, values 5.702±0.195, 5.681±0.180,5.466±0.074,5.813±0.276 and cellulose digestion test time values 31.3±2.4,31.3±2.3,33.6±0.7, 30.1±3.1 hours in the four groups respectively. Minor protozoa! motility was observed alongwith no serious changes in serum pH and absence of ketone bodies in all the groups. few cases of increased rumen pH were due to ingestion of legumes or urea. After treatment in group A protozoa motility was moderat while Rumen pH, cellulose digestion test time was 6.248±0.127 and 23.7±0.7 hours respectively. In group B which was treated with magnesium hydro-oxide normal rumen pH value was 6.981±0.034 and cellulose digestion test time 12.6±0.6 hours. In group C little protozoal movements were observed with minor improvement in rumen pH and cellulose digestion test time while in group D, the health of the animals further deteriorated with more disturbance in rumen pH and cellulose digestion test time values. Magnesium hydro-oxide emerged as effective and economical drug for the treatment of this condition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0553,T] (1).

26. Studies On The Incidence Of Gastro Intestinal Helminths And Their Economic Impact On Production Potential Of Sheep

by Zia ur Rehman, Qazi | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Afzal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: A study of gastro intestinal helminth parasites of sheep and goats of District Peshawar has been conducted, covering a period of 4 months (May to August, 1998). During this study incidence of GIT. helminths and their impact on production potential (weight gain) of sheep and goats was studied. Random collection of samples were made from Peshawar slaughter house and a total of 40 guts each in sheep and goats were examined and following species of helminths were recovered and identified. Oesophagostomum columbianum, 0. venulosum, Trichuris parvespiculum, Haemonchus contortus, Chabertia ovina, Bunostornum trigonocephalum, Nematodirus spathiger, Moniezia benedeni, Moniezia expansa, Trichuris lani, T. globulosa, Cysticercus tenuicollis. Only two species of cestodes and nine species of nematodes were recorded during the study. However no trematode specie was recorded. Amongst the nematodes Trichiurisparuespiculum infection was recorded to be the highest in sheep and goats with an incidence of 64.70% and 73.33% respectively. The incidence of Haemonchus contortus was 24.19 and 53.33% in sheep and goats respectively. The worm burden ranged from 1-470 in sheep and 3-141 in goats respectively. Out of total gastro intestinal tracts examined (40 each in sheep and goats), 73.33% and 60.29% were found positive for mixed infection in sheep and goats respectively. In order to assess the effect of GIT helminths on live weight gain and its measurement in terms of economics of the above mentioned animals, 0 Hasthnagri sheep and 30 beetal goats were divided into two groups (control vs. treated by Nilzan Plus of ICI). The average daily weight gain in sheep group was 83.78 gms while in goats it. was 85.26 gms per animal. On comparison with treated group, the increase weight gain was 3.03 kg and 2.56 kg in sheep and goats respectively at the end of the experiment. Calculating the increase on live weight basis Rs.234.5 and 158 per animal were earned more in sheep and goats respectively. After deducting the cost of anthelmintic treatment the net gain Rs.222.5 and Rs.146 per animal in sheep and goats. During this study a progressive decrease in faecal egg counts with increasing age was observed both in sheep and goats. Statistical analysis by using un-paired "t" test confirmed that there was significant differences in weight gain and faecal egg counts, between control and treated groups of sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0563,T] (1).

27. Study On The Prevalence Of Genus Trypanosoma And Effects Of Natural Infection On Various Blood Parameters In Dogs

by Afzal, M | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr. M. sarwar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of genus trypanosome and the effects of natural infection on some blood parameters in dogs. For this purpose blood samples of 500 pet dogs (250 adult dogs and 250 pups) were examined at Dog Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. Giemsa staining procedure was admpted to stain glass slides having blood smears made from blood samples. Out of 500 ogs, 30 dog were found positive for tryponosomiasis. It revealed that only 6% prevalence of trypanosomiasis in dogs was estimated. In case of adult dogs out of 250 dogs, 13 dogs (5.2%) and in pups out of 250 dogs, 17 dog (6.2%) were found trypanosome infected. So pups were found more susceptible as compared to adult dogs. During research it was also noticed that mot of the dogs which were found positive being kept with horses. Then blood samples of 10 adult dogs and pups each which wre positive for trypanosomiasis and 10 adult dogs and pups each which were healty (as control) were further examined for the estimation of haemoglobin paced cell volum, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and total serum protein to check the effects of natural infection on mentioned blood parameters. The blood parameters of trypanosome infected and healthy adult dogs were compared and similarly blood parameters of trypanosome infected and healthy pups were compared. For this comparison unpaired 't' test was applied. By calculation it was found that haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total serum protein of trypanosome infected adult dogs and pups were significantly decreased as compared to healthy adult dogs and pups, respectively. But the erythrocytes sedimentation rate was found significlantly increased in case of trypanosome infected adult dogs and pups as compared to healty, adult dogs and pups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0564,T] (1).

28. A Study On The Effect Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis On Weight Gain And Haematological Parameters And Its Control In Qualis

by Abdul Razzaq | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Dr | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to see the effects of the experimentally induced coccidiosis on weight gain and some blood parameters and its control with medication and vaccination. For this purpose, 150 day-old quail chicks were purchased from the local hatchery and were reared under control managemental and coccidiosis free condition upto the 42 days of experiment. A commercial coccidiostat free feed and drinking water were provided ci libitum throughout the experiment. The birds were divided in five separate groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E, each comprising of 30 birds. Group A was kept as a non-infected, non-medicated and non- vaccinated. The chicks of groups B, C, D and E, were administered 50,000 oocysts of. tenella directly into the crop at the 18 days of age, the chicks in group C were immunized against coccidiosis with a locally prepared vaccine on 3rd and 10th day of age, while those of group D with an imported coccidiosis vaccine (Coccivac) on 7th day of age. The chicks of group E were medicated with Salinomycin on the appearance of clinical symptoms and OPG of the infected birds. No oocysts were seen in the droppings of group A chicks, throughout the experiment, while group B, chicks had the highest OPG count after induction of infection, the highest peak being in the 3rd week post-infection. The highest mortality recorded in the infected B group and low in other infected C, D and E groups and highest mortality in 3rd week of induced infection in all infected groups. The birds in groups A and E attained highest weight gain as compared with groups B, C and D but the difference was non significant. The lowest Hb and TEC values were recorded in infected group B, while in other infected groups C, D and E both these values were also decreased but comparatively lesser than B group. Similarly, values of TLC were increased in infected group B as compared with other infected groups i.e. C, D and E and the difference was statistically significant. In case of differential leukocyte counts there were increased heterophil and monocytes values in group B, while decreased values lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils were recorded in other infected groups than the other i.e. C, D and E. The postmortem lesions observed were swollen intestines petechial haemorrhages on the wall of the intestine and dehydrated liver and lungs in infected carcasses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0590,T] (1).

29. Treatment Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis And Its Effect On Various Blood Components In Quails

by Hameed, A | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effect of experimentally induced coccidiosis on some blood parameters and its treatment with Amprolium 20% and Suiphadimidine alone and with Vitamin A and Vitamin K supplementation in quails. For this purpose one hundred and eighty (180) quails of two weeks old were obtained and reared controlled coccidia free conditions and provided coccidiostat free feed. At the age of 3 weeks birds were divided into 6 groups (i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F) comprising 30 birds in each groups. Group-A: Infected and medicated with Amprolium. Group-B: Infected and medicated with Sulphadimidine sodium. Group-C: Infected and medicated with Amprolium and Vitamins A&K. Group-D: Infected and medicated with Suiphadimidine sodium and Vitamins A&K. Group-E: Infected and non medicated. Group-F: Non infected non-medicated (Control). The clinical symptoms were more pronounced in those birds which were treated with Suiphadimidine and Amprolium without any supplementation of Vitamins A and K. The mortality rate lower and OPG was nil at 12th day of medication in the group which was treated with Amprolium and Vitamins A&K supplementation than the other groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and average weight gain of the birds was significantly improved by the addition of Vitamins A and K supplementation with Sulphadimidine and Amprolium than of the birds which were medicated without any vitamin supplementation. The average FCR of those groups which were medicated without vitamin supplementation and with vitamin supplementation were calculated as 3.9, 4.2, 3.7 and 3.9, respectively. Haemoglobin estimation was also improved in the groups which were treated with the supplementation of vitamin A and vitamin K. And highest haemoglobin value was estimated in group C (9.8 gm/100 ml at 12th day of medication), which was medicated with Amprolium and vitamin A and vitamin K supplementation. The study showed efficacy of Amproliurn and Suiphadimidine with Supplementation for vitamins A and K in descending order. Amprolium with supplementation of vitamins A and K was proved to be best drug against coccidiosis in quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0598,T] (1).

30. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Used Against Naturally Infected Horsed With Babesiosis

by Mamoona Ali | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0600,T] (1).

31. Taxonomy & Chemotherapeutic Control Of Prevalent Helminth Species In Indigenous Poultry

by Abid Farid | Dr.Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asif Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to identify the helminth infestations, compare the drug efficacy percentage of I vermectin and Albandazole, effect of chemotherapy on haematology in indigenous poultry. For this purpose, one hundred and sixty (160) positive birds were purchased from market and backyard farms, divided in four groups A, il, C, and D, kept in experimental rooms of College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. Eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces of all the four groups was done at zero day of the experiment which were, 2307, 2000, 2050, 2325, in groups A , B, C, D, respectively. Groups A, Band C, were treated with Ivermectin and Albandazole (using 1% Ivomec Injection and Farbenda 10% solution). After medication EPG was carried out of all four groups (A, D, C, D) at different days of experiment. The results were as, the EPG at 7th day 825, 667, 700, 2750, at 14th day 100, 250, 325, 3000, on 21st day. It was 70, 155, 237, 3500, and at 28th day the EPG. recorded was 45, 120, 185, 3600 respectively. At end of the experiment, the drug efficacies were recorded, for group A, "it was 98%. In group B,94%, and for group C, it was 90% while group D, was untreated control. The taxonomy of the slaughtered birds of group D, was done at the end of the experiment. By collecting GIT, and trachea of all the forty birds of the group D. Identifications were made after making permanent mounts of recovered helminths. Four species of nematodes were recovered from indigenous poul try. Ascaridia galli was the most common species of nematodes recovered from small intestine, while Heterikis gallinae and Subulura brumpti were isolated from the caeca of the birds. Syngamus trachea was the only respiratory tract nematode species which was recovered from trachea of the fowls. The incidence of Ascaridia gglli, Heterikis lZallinae, Subulura brumpti, Syngamus trachea were 57.5, 40, 20 and 2.5 percent respectively. Six species of Cestode parasites were isolated from the small intesliine of Desi fowl, Raillictina tetragona, Raillictinna costcillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, Cotugnia dignopora, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Amoebotaenia sphenoides and the incidence recorded, 5235, 37.5, 20, 27.5, 22.5 and 2.5 percent, respectively Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0638,T] (1).

32. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Drugs Used Against Mange Mite Infestation In Sheep

by Zafar Iqbal, Syed | Dr . Lftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr . Asif | Dr . Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Parasitic inFestation arc the major problem that hinder in the smooth rearing of sheep. Among the parasitic infestations ecto parasites are of major importance. Among the ecto-parasites mange mites are of prime importance as they damage skin, hide, wool etc. Mange mile infestation is considered to be highly responsible for substantial economic losses in the livestock industry (Hourrign, 1979). The present study was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of different drugs used against mange mites in sheep. For this purpose a total of 60 animals diagnosed positive by skin scraping technique (Tarry, 1991) were randomly divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) each group comprising of 20 animals. Group A was treated with Ivojec (Ivernwctin 1%) at a dose rate of lml/50 kg body weight. Group B was treated with Seguvon (Trichiorphon) at a dose rate of 10gm/lit/animal. Group C was kept as positive untreated control. Observations were made at one week intervals for 3 weeks. The overall efficacy of Ivermectin and Seguvon at the end of study was 90% and 80% respectively. Animals were also observed for any side effect of the product. No side effect was observed during and after the study completion in both groups i.e. A and B group. No spontaneous recovery was noted in control group. From the present study it is concluded that Ivojec (Ivermectin) is the drug of choice for the treatment of mange mite infestation in sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0677,T] (1).

33. Immuno Prophylaxis Of Entrerotoxaemia In Sheep And Goats

by Shahzad Jawed | Dr . Muhammad Naeem | Dr . Asif | Dr . Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of three different adjuvant (Potassium aluminium sulphate, Aluminium hydroxide gel and mineral oil) for enhancing the immune potential of enterotoxaemia (combined) vaccine. T)ifferent standard biological media alongwith the supplementation of amino acids, minerals, plants and animal extracts and special modified formulated media were used for the production of alam precipitated vaccine, aluminium hydroxide gel adsorbed vaccine and oil adjuvant vaccine. It was concluded that addition of various ingredients, including yeast extracts, trace elements, amino acids, plants and animal extract, and cystine hydrochloride in proper concentration, increased the level of prototoxin and toxin in culture media due to the availability of essential required nutrients. Mouse model was chosen to study the safety and potency test of all the vaccines. The potency of all three vaccines was compared. In this experiment alam precipitated vaccine proved inferior to aluminium hydroxide gel adsorbed and oil adjuvant vaccine. In case of oil based vaccine especially in sheep the IHA antibody was significant in vaccine having potency of 750 HU/ml but on the other hand vaccine have potency 250 and 500 HU/ml were proved non significant, and the day 45 was proved significant in developing the antibody titre than that of 15 and 30 days. Same the picture was observed in case of goals that oil adjuvant vaccine was significant that of aluminized and toxoid adsorbed vaccine. It was observed that the protection afforded to goats by multivalent clostridial vaccine was higher than afforded to sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0683,T] (1).

34. Epidemiological Studies On The Prevalence Of Coccidiosis In Commercial Broilers And Its Relationship With Other Diseases

by Umber Rauf | Dr . Asif Rabbani | Dr . Khalid Saeed | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: In this epidemiological study 26.48% birds of 26.82% farms were found affected with coccidiosis. Six species of Eimeria, E. acervulina. E. mitis, E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. praecox and E. mivati were observed. Number of oocysts in litter varied with the age of birds. Concurrent infections were detected in 80.68% cases, which included infectious coryza 21.95%, aflatoxicosis 27.45%, infectious bursal disease 16.94%, chronic respiratory disease 12.54%, Newcastle disease 10.16%, hydropericardium syndrome 9.83%, Escherichia coli 9.15% and Salmonella 8.13% infections. In the month of July and August , incidence of coccidiosis was high. Maximum incidence of disease was observed from 4th to 6th week while no disease incidence was noted during 1st and 8th week. It was also noted that the disease had drastic effects on Newcastle disease antibody titer. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0691,T] (1).

35. Preparation & Evaluation Of Alum Precipitated & Oil Based Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Vaccines

by Dr . Khushi Muhammad Zulfiqar Ali | Dr . Khushi Muhammad | Dr . Asif | Dr . Lrshad Hussain | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Pasteurcila multocida was isolated and characterised on the basis of cultural biochemical serological and pathogenicitytests.The dense culture of the organism was achieved in a fermenter that was provided sterilized air during incubation. Two types of the formalin inactivated Pastcurclla multocida vaccines (oil-based and alum precipitated) were prepared and their efficacy was evaluated in bovine. It was observed that oil-based haemorrhagic septicacmia (HS) vaccine induced high level of indirect haemalutiiiating (IHA) antibodies in the vaccinated cattle which persisted for more than 6 months. In contrast, alum precipitated HS vaccine induced immunity breakdown in the cattle with high titres of IHA antibodies while induced mw level of IHA antibodies, which persisted for 4 months. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0694,T] (1).

36. A Comparative Evaluation Of Sodium Alginate, Potasium Aluminium For Enhancing The Immunogenic Response Of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Vaccine

by Tariq Mahmood Khan, Major | Dr . Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr . Asif | Dr . Sameera Akhtar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of three different adjuvants (Potassium aluminum sulphate, mineral oil and sodium alginate) for enhancing the immune potential of haemorrhagic septicemia vaccines. A special media was prepared for the production of alum precipitated vaccine, sodium alginate vaccine and oil adjuvant vaccine. It was concluded that addition of various ingredients, including yeast extracts, cane sugar, sodium chloride and casein hydrolysate in proper concentration, increased the number of bacterial population in culture media and HS organism developed its full antigenic characteristics due to availability of essential required nutrients. Mouse model was chosen to study the safety and potency test of all the three vaccines. The potency of all three vaccines was compared and calculated by a standard method of Ose and Muenstar (1968). In this experiment APV proved inferior to SAV and OAV with the log protection value of 3.2 and 3.6. Sodium alginate vaccine gave better results with log protection value of 3.9 and 4, but slightly inferior to that of oil adjuvant vaccine. However, a plus point of this vaccine is that it is easy to prepare and simple to administer. The alginate alone is non immunogenic, it forms a stable, colloidal transparent solution in water and is devoid of disadvantages in commonly used chemical oil adjuvant. Oil adjuvant vaccine provides much better results with log protection value of 5.2 and 5.8 as compared to APV and SAV. After storage at room temperature, only 1.2 % separation of oil phase occurred being for less than the tolerable limit of 5%. The final product formed was creamy and whitish in colour and evenly adhered to the surface of glass bottle. Undoubtedly advantages of alginate vaccine lie in the simplicity and easy administration but the immunity conferred by oil adjuvant vaccine is of longer duration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0695,T] (1).

37. Estimation Of Blood Haemoglobin, Serum Iron And Magnesium Level In Clinical Cases Of Ovine Haemonchosis

by Haneef ur Rehman | Dr . Asif Rabbani | Dr . Mubashar Saeed Mian | Dr . Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: Haemonchosis is a serious helminthic infection of sheep and goats resulting in the mortality due to excessive blood loss and causes great economic losses. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of natural infection of Haemonchus contortus in sheep upon blood haemo- globin, serum iron and magnesium level so that it could aid in accurate diagnosis and effective therapeutic measures. Infection was confirmed through faecal examination. Eggs per gram of faeces were calculated by McMaster egg counting technique. To see the effect of severity of infection on these blood components, blood samples of positive cases were taken from jugular vein. Blood haemoglobin, serum iron and magnesium were estimated by using standard diagnostic kits with spectrophotometer. A decreased level of haemoglobin and serum iron was directly proportional to the severity of infection. However, no alteration in serum magnesium level was observed in infected and non-infected animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0701,T] (1).

38. To Study The Comparative Efficacy Of Cloprostenol And Estradio For The Treatment Of Endometritis In Cross Bred

by Saeed Ahmad Barvi | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Rashid Ahmad Ch | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of cioprostenol and estradiol for the treatment of 1st degree endornetrët:is in cross bred dairy cows. One hundred and sixty cross bred cows suffering from 1st degree endometrétis were selected amongst the animals brought for A.I. or repeat breeding at different A.I.Centres/Sub-centres in Lahore city. After detailed gynaecological examination animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups. Forty cross bred cows in group 'A' were injected cloprostenol on day 10 of oestrous cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the end of induced oestrus. Similarly were in group 'B' 40 cross bred cows were injected cloprostenol on day 10 of oestrous cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the end of oestrus that followed the induced one. in group 'C' endometretic bred cows were treated with estradiol intrauterinally for 3 alternate days of oestrous cycle and the cured animals were inseminated on next oestrus, Group 'D' comprised forty cross bred cows. This group served for all other groups as control. All the animals were inseminated without any treatment. After two months all the animals were palpated rectaly for pregnancy diagnosis. Only 144 animals could he traced for pregnancy diagnosis. While others died or were sold and transferred to untraceable places. The percent curative and conception rate observed in cloprostenol treated group 'A' (ind-oestus) were 75, 66.66, respectively. Similarly in group 'B' the percent curative and conception rate in cloprostenol treated (followed lind - oestrus) aimais were 87.50, 76.47. In estradiol treated animals the curative rate was 62.50% while conception rate observed was 60.86%. In control group only 40% animals conceived after insemination. On the basis of curative and conception rates cloprostenol was found better than stilboestrol for the treatment of 1st degree endometrtis. Moreover, in cloprostenol trente(1 group resti tt of inseminat ions in Tind oestrus was found better than induced one. Therefore, cloprostenol treatment is recommended as a drug of first choice for the treatment of 1st degree endometritis in cross bred diary cows. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1121,T] (1).

39. Investigation On Epidemiology And Economics Imporatanc Eof Major And Common Livestock Diseases In Distt. Gujrat

by Mohammad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: Livestock sector has faced great set back in its development programmes because of the economic losses resulting from various animals diseases. Such losses, though highly colosol in nature, had never been determined precisely in the past, hence, it became a dire necessity, the present study aimed at estimating the losses caused by various animal diseases in District Gujrat and to find out the possible contributory factors. An active surveillance was conducted, in Tehsil Gujrat. The data was collected by a survey on the basis of a comprehensive questionnaire through personnel interview of livestock owners at their places. The blood samples were collected of aborted animals and serum samples were submitted to College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, Laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis. In pursuance of the present study the data was analyzed statistically and the main conclusions drawn were as under. The incidence, mortality rate and fatality rate due to H.S. were in young buffalo 14.64%, 12.40% and 84.69%. In adult buffaloes were 2.36%, 1.01% and 42.79% respectively. Diseases of various categories have been given below in order of their respective rate of mortality such as abortion 0.29% in buffalo, 0.44% in cattle and 0.08% in goat. Mastitis in buffalo 0.04%, Haeinoglobinurea in buffalo 0.46% and in cows 0.44%. Milk fever in buffalo 0.17% post parturient prolapse in buffalo 0.25%, Metritis in buffalo 0.17% and in cattle 0.22%. In case of foot and mouth disease in young buffalo incidence 5.75% and in adult 11.72%. In cattle incidence was 9.01% in young and in adult 15.11%. In case of enterotoxaeinia disease in young goat, the morbidity, mortality and fatality 0.75%, 0.75% and 100% respectively. In adult goat 10.60%, 9.83% and 92.73% respectively. In case of young sheep incidence, mortality and fatality rate were 10.08%, 9.24% and 91.66% in adult sheep 10.89%, 7.26% and 66.66% respectively. A monetary loss of Rs.1.33 million was estimated annually in buffalo and cattle, sheep and goat, due to various diseases in surveyed area in District Gujrat. It is evident from the informations gathered from the respondents that the livestock owners residing at distant places from a veterinary hospital may not comfortably utilize the hospital facilities. The village ponds as the important disease spreading factor among the livestock (Nazir al. 1978) poisonous plants and entry of new animals to herd flock with out adopting precautionary measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1139,T] (1).

40. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Pouifi Gene And Its Association With Milk Production Traits In Pakistani Cattle

by Sadia Munir | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Abu Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: In farm animals, the primary focus of selection has been to improve milk yield. Milk field is a polygenic trait and a few potential candidate genes have been recognized. Association studies have shown that POUlFl is related to many production traits in domestic animals and is one of those candidate genes that are involved in milk production. POUl F 1 encodes a pituitary-specific transcription factor. It is well established that growth hormone (GH) released from pituitary gland plays an essential role in growth, mammary gland development and lactation process. The bovine POUlFl gene is of 15952 bp length having 6 exons. The genetic characterization of the POUlFl gene to identify the SNPs as genetic markers and validation of these potential markers by associating them with milk production traits has been performed. A total 35 samples from Sahiwal and 30 from Holstein-Friesian cattle breeds were sequenced for all 6 exonic portions of the POUlFl by using 6 sets of primers. A total 15 polymorphic sites in Sahiwal and 14 in Holstein-Friesian were identified from these sequences. Out of total 15 SNPs identified in Sahiwal, 12 were in intronic region and 3 were in exonic. Out of 14 SNPs identified in Holstein-Friesian, 10 were in intronic and 4 were in exonic region. The sequences of the amplified POUl F 1 gene fragments were aligned with the help of BLAST for SNPs identification. This study is first step in finding some confirmed markers for milk yield in Sahiwal and Holstein- Friesian cattle breed that can be used in future for selection and breeding programmes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1373,T] (1).

41. Srudy Of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid A Receptor Delta Subnuit Gene Mutations Involved In Generalized Epilepsy With Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+) Patients in Punjab

by Iram Javed | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: World health organization (WHO) reports that neurological disorders affect one billion people worldwide, including 50 million affected by epilepsy. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, periodic, spontaneous and unprovoked seizures. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (GEFS+) is an autosomal dominant disorder and a heterogeneous familial condition in which family members express febrile seizures initially, and then show multiple phenotypes of myoclonic epilepsy including partial or absence seizures and generalized tonic conic seizures. Molecular genetics techniques have identified various GEFS+ associated mutations in many genes i.e. sodium channel genes (SCN2A, SCN1A, and SCN1B) and some GABA receptor genes (GABRG2 and GABRD). GABAA receptors are the principal intermediaries of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the eNS and have been frequently reported to playa significant role in a number of seizures. GABRD gene encodes the delta (8) subunit and is usually located in extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. The present study was aimed to investigate coding regions of GABRD gene for analyzing the mutations involved in epilepsy. Blood samples of unrelated true representative ofGEFS+ were collected from psychiatry departments of different hospitals of Lahore. DNA were extracted with the standard protocol and amplifications of the GABRD regions were done with specially designed primers. Later on, sequencing of target fragments was carried out. Sequences were analyzed through BioEdit software and then aligned with the help of custalW2 software. Out of 14 GEFS+ patients, only 3 were identified with a novel heterozygous transition mutation in intron 5. Further study, with much larger sample number, is required to revise the effects of this polymorphism and accurately identifying the associated factors. There is a need to explore the other gene mutations causing epilepsy in local population of Punjab and Pakistan that will ultimately help to develop genetic counseling strategies, gene therapies and prenatal diagnostic procedures for the population of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1394,T] (1).

42. Molecular Approach For Sex Determination In Avian Species

by Sehrish Basheer | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Madam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: To tell the difference between male and female birds takes keen observation. While not all bird species have easily visible gender differences. Almost all birds' species are sexually monomorphic so it is difficult to distinguish between male and female characters. There are some techniques for bird's sex identification. Surgical Sexing, in this an endoscope is passed into the body cavity and ovaries or testis can be observed. It is available for all types of birds. Surgical sexing is oldest and quickest method. But it cause stress to the bird and expensive technique. Fecal steroid analysis is another technique in which stool sample is analyzed for reproductive hormone presence. In this technique bird should be sexually mature for analysis. Bload Sexing is used to determine the male or female bird. This can be done at any age. Feather exing is very useful and economical method. Retrieve a feather pulp from growing feather and analyze the presence of male and female chromosome. Two chromosomes Z and Ware present in birds. ZZ in male and ZW in female. The method used in this study was based on the chromosome differences. Nine different species of birds which includes green parrot, budgerigar, .pigeon, quail, sparrow, chicken, peacock, duck and pheasants were analyzed and their sex is determined by molecular methods. DNA will be extracted from feathers and blood. The intronic egion of CHD 1- Wand CHD l-Z gene will be amplified by sex specific primer. PCR products were screened by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR products were show double and single bands on the agarose gel. The double bands indicate female bird because of ZW chromosome is present in females and single band indicates the male bird because of ZZ chromosomes in males. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1400,T] (1).

43. Identification Of Polymorphism In Cytochrome P45011B1 (Cyp11B1) Gene And Its Relation To Milk Yield In Sahiwal

by Sidra Manzoor | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1455,T] (1).

44. Paternal Lineage Analysis In Sahiwal, Cholistani And Dajal Breeds Of Cattle Through Sry And Zfy Genes Analysis.

by Anwar Saeed | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Livestock sector plays a vital role in the economy of Pakistan. Main contribution of milk comes from buffaloes and cattle. Cattle are the major elements of livestock in the country and possess great importance for economy in the form of milk and meat production. Cholistani, Sahiwal and Dajal are the major cattle breeds of Pakistan. Conventional classification of breeds was based on phenotypic traits. In some cases, recent genetic studies have found differences in the structure proposed. In cattle ,one has to bear in mind that morphological changes were not the result of adaptation to the environment, but have a social significance thus may not be indicative of the genetic relationship. In recent years Y chromosomal genes have proved to be very useful for the determination of genetic relationship among population. Comparative studies have highlighted the advantages of the SRY and ZFY genes of Y chromosome. These genes have been considered as competent and powerful tool for the purpose of breed characterization and species identification of cattle. Blood samples from true representative animals of each of the three cattle breeds (Cholistani, Sahiwal and Dajal) were collected from different Government livestock farms and their respective home tracts in Punjab. DNA was extracted by inorganic method and amplification of the SRY and ZFY (exon 5) genes of Y chromosome was done with especially designed primers using Primer3 software in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory at Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Specific primers are designed for these genes amplification. Then primers were optimized for successful amplification with minimum reagent concentration. PCR was 58 performed for amplification of SRY and ZFY (exon 5) genes on each sample. Sequencing was conducted on amplicons to find out the different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to make haplotypes with the help of bioinformatics software like Blast 2sequence and Neighbor Joining phylogenetic tree was constructed by using MEGA version 5. The results obtained from this study now can contribute to the establishment of routine DNA typing service to the advantages of the cattle in livestock industry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1459,T] (1).

45. Variation In The Non Structural Nd3 Gene Of Hepatitis C Viruses Isolated From Local Hospital Samples

by Muzna Rana | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Abu Saeed | Mrs. Saeeda Awais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Hepatic C virus (HCV) infects approximately 4% of the population worldwide. HCV establishes a chronic infection of the liver that causes cirrhosis and can lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is transmitted exclusively through direct blood-to-blood contacts between humans. Current drug therapies for HCV infection often fail to resolve viral infection; therefore, new approaches for treating HCV infection are crucial in controlling chronic HCV infection. The viral protease NS3 has been identified as an attractive target for anti-HCV drugs, because its activity is indispensable for processing many of the NS proteins of HCV. Although the NS3 helicase is a potentially attractive target for anti-HCV drugs, no helicase inhibitors have yet entered clinical trials. In this research we are going to isolate the NS3 region of HCV genome, from different HCV positive patients with the help of RT PCR. Then sequence these, and observe similarities in these sequences. The main objective of the present study is to determine variation in the non structural gene NS3 of hepatitis C viruses isolated from patients suffering from hepatitis and reporting to local hospitals. The ultimate objective would be to utilize this data generated in this study attempting to prepare vaccine against this virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1507,T] (1).

46. Bioconversion Of Wheatbran To Glucose By Gluoamylase From Aspergillus Fumigatus

by Hassan Ali | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background: Glucose is produced by hydrolysis of starch. Many crops like maize, rice and wheat can be used as the source of starch. Wheat bran is an agricultural waste byproduct which can be converted to glucose using glucoamylase. Wheat bran is very cheap source for carbohydrates. It is mainly composed of carbohydrates; hemicelluloses, cellulose and starch. Glucoamylase is an enzyme that yields glucose from the nonreducing chain of amylose and amylopectin by hydrolyzing ? -1,3, ?-1, 4 and ?-1,6 linkages of starch. Glucoamylases are produced by plants, animals and microorganism. Microbes, including bacteria, yeast and fungi are major source for the production of glucoamylases. Aspergillus fumigatus is found in soil and in decaying organic matter and it has an essential role in carbon and nitrogen recycling. Hypothesis: A. fumgiatus might be a good source for the production of glucoamylase through submerged fermentation conditions. Parameters/Methodlogy: Aspergillus fumigatus was identified macro and microscopically. Enzyme production was measured by DNS method. The effects of different sources of carbon, phosphorous and nitrogen on glucoamylase production were also examined. In order to get the optimum production of glucoamylase, the effect of temperature, pH and incubation period was analysed separately. Methodology: Initially the A. fumigatus was isolated and conditions were optimized for the growth and production of glucoamylase. Production of enzyme was examined by DNS method. The effects of various carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous sources were examined on the production of glucoamylase. From the present study it was concluded that maximum production of glucoamylase can be obtained from A. fumigatus using wheat bran as the substrate at pH of 4.8, temperature of 40oC with an incubation time of three days.The use of wheat bran as substrate wheat bran for the production of glucoamylase will reduce the cost for the production of glucoamylase. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1509,T] (1).

47. Bioconversion of Agriculture Waste to Lysine with UV Mutated Strain of Brevibacterium Flavum and ItsBiological Evaluation in Broiler Chicks.

by Alia Tabassum | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1530,T] (1).

48. Identification Of Polymorphism In Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Co-Activator Alpha And its Effect on Milk Yied in Sahiwal Cattle

by Farheen Iqbal | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Maryam Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Background: PPARGC1A is also known as PCG1A gene. PPARGC1A has a key function in activating a variety of nuclear hormone receptors and transcription factors regulating energy homeostasis. It is also involved in adaptive thermogenesis, oxidative metabolism, adipogenesis, and gluconeogenesis. The bovine peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-? co activator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A) gene is associated with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for milk fat yield. Hypothesis: It is hypothesized that PPARGC1A gene has genetic association with milk production traits and can be used as molecular marker. Parameters/ Methodology: 50 Blood samples of unrelated true representative were collected from two Government livestock farms. DNA will be extracted and amplification of the PPARGC1A exonic region was performed with specially designed primers. Sequencing of the PCR products was performed on ABI genetic analyzer. Statistical Design: Analysis of the sequences was done with the help of various bioinformatics software such as Chromas (2.1), Clustal W and MEGA (4.1) to identify the polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done by using SNPator software to find the relation of identified polymorphism with milk yield. Conclusion: This study helped in contributing the more milk yield in cattle breeds. Furthermore it will improve the understanding about polymorphism association with milk yield of the cattle. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1584,T] (1).

49. Decolorization And Degradation Of Azo Dyes In Textile Effluent By Candida Tropicalis

by Urooj Chaudhry | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Ms. Asma Waris.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Azo dyes are synthetic organic compounds widely used in the textile, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industries. It consist of one or more azo bonds (-N=N-) associated with one or more aromatic systems. Studies indicate that these dyes are toxic, harmful to the environment and form carcinogenic and/or mutagenic aromatic amines. These are not readily biodegradable in textile effluent treatment. To decolorize and degrade the textile industry dye effluents by treatment with microorganism Candida tropicalis (yeast) to an extent to make it least harmful to the water habitat and also to make fit for irrigation purposes. The influencing parameters that affect the percentage of decolorization rates are optimized in still culture fermentation. Spectrophotometric analysis method was used to estimate decolorization of textile effluent at its?max 390 nm. The optimal values of parameters such as effluent to water ratio, fermentation time and pH and carbon to nitrogen ratio are found to be 1:5, 72 hours, 6.0and 1:1.72 respectively. The concentration of ionic saltof CaCl2 was also optimized for maximum decolorizationand optimized concentration was 0.15% for Candida tropicalisrespectively. The decolorization of effluent was carried out on large scale in a flask of 2.5 L by applying the predetermined optimum levels. In this case the maximum percent of decolorization of the effluent was found to 80.34% with Candida tropicalis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1629,T] (1).

50. Molecular Study Of Apolipoprotein E Gene In Hypercholesterolemic Families

by Nasir Ali | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1630,T] (1).



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