Diagnosis And Treatment Of Strongylosis Using Neem Leaves And Ivermectin In Donkeys
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Donkeys act as draught animals and are used for a variety of purposes. Donkeys are still the "beasts of burden". Helminthes parasites, particularly strongyle nematodes, are the common inhabitants of the gastro-intestinal tracts of equines. Strongylosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases of equines. Diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss and moderate anaemia are the clinical signs in infected animal resulting in heavy mortality. The present project was therefore designed to investigate the infection rate of nematodes in donkeys, to calculate the efficacy of Ivermectin and Neem against strongylosis and to study the effect of strongylosis on various blood parameters (DLC and Hb).
Three hundred donkeys (n=300) were examined coprologically for the presence of nematodes. 167 donkeys were found infected with various parasites with the overall infection rate being 55.66%. Out of 167, 85 donkeys were infected with strongylus, 29 with trichostrongylus, 19 with trichonema, 19 with gastrodiscuss and 15 with mixed infection. So the infection rate for strongylus, trichostrongylus, trichonema, gastrodiscuss and mixed infection was 28.33%, 9.66%, 6.33%, 6.33% and 5% respectively. For drug trails thirty donkeys naturally infected with strongylosis were selected. These animals were divided into three groups A, B and C, comprising of 10 animals each. Another group D comprising of 10 healthy animals was also made. Group A was treated with ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (1 ml/50 kg b w) once. Group B was treated with neem dry leaves at the dose rate of 375 mg/kg body weight mixed with wheat bran for four days. Group C was kept as positive control (Infected-Untreated) and Group D was kept as negative control (Uninfected-Untreated).
The faecal samples were collected on day zero pre-medication and on day 7 and 14 post-medication. The efficacies of ivermectin and neem were calculated on the basis of reduction in number of eggs per gram (EPG) of the faeces. The efficacy of ivermectin was 73.21 and 96.42% on day 7 and 14 respectively. The efficacy of neem was noted to be 22.22 and 33.33% on day 7 and 14 post-medication respectively. It was concluded that ivermectin was most effective. The blood samples were also collected on day zero (pre-medication) and on day 7 and 14 (post-medication) and were examined for hematology. Groups A, B and C had low haemoglobin values. The values get improved in groups A and B after treatments but the value further decreased in group C because this group was kept as infected control. The Hb value remained normal in group D as the animals in this group were healthy. In group C there was significant increase in eosinophils.
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Evaluation Of Different Preparations Of Allium Sativum (Garlic) Against Coccidiosis In Broilers Dr. Muhammad Lateef
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Poultry industry is playing a pivotal role for the prosperity of Pakistan and is growing day
by day. However, this sector is still facing many problems like coccidiosis which are hindering
its progress (Saima et al. 2010). Coccidiosis with the protozoan parasite Eimeria as the
infectious agent causes enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry farms (Dkhil et al.
2011). Eimeria are common parasites in the digestive tract of the hosts causing diarrhea and fluid
loss. Infections begin with oral uptake of Eimerian oocysts which release sporozoites in the
intestine. These in turn invade enterocytes in which they multiply, and finally, oocysts are
released again with the faeces (Renaux et al. 2001). Medicinal plants as natural feed additives
are recently used in poultry diet to enhance the performance and immune response of chicken
(Tanweer et al. 2012). Coccidiosis of chickens is an enteric parasitic disease caused by multiple
species of the protozoan parasite genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eucoccidia: Eimeriidae) and is
one of the commonest and economically most important diseases of poultry world-wide (Shirley
et al. 2005). It causes production losses, and high morbidity (due to acute, bloody enteritis) and
mortality rates. While the control of coccidiosis has relied mainly on the preventive use of anticoccidial
drugs together with the induction of species-specific natural immunity in chicken
flocks (Shirley et al. 2005), this widely used approach is costly and has led to serious problems
with drug resistance in Eimeria populations (Williams, 2006). Levine discovered that
sulphanilamide would cure coccidiosis in chickens, various anticoccidial feed additives have
been developed and added (Levine 1939). Efforts have always been made to add coccidiostats on
regular basis in chicken’s diet. Consistent use of coccidiostats has not only narrowed the gap
between cost of production and returns, it could be a potential threat to human being as a result
of their residual effects. The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs
currently used by poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and antibiotic free
production systems has meant that it is now important to look for new ways to control the
disease. So, research initiated for possible use of herbal (natural) products against avian
coccidiosis. Herbal products in past have been effectively used for the control and treatment of
several ailments in poultry and human beings. Allium sativum a medicinal plant could be an
effective substitute for coccidiostats because of its chemical nature and antimicrobial activities.
Allium sativum (garlic) have been widely used for their broad range of pharmacological
activities, including antiparasitic activities. Avian coccidiosis is one of the most costly and widespread
parasitic diseases in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of
different chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative
control strategies are needed (Elbanna, 2012). Hence, further investigations are required to
understand the exact mechanism underlying the effects of these feed additives, which are still in
use in broiler nutrition as performance enhancers and as agents for controlling coccidiosis.
Garlic (Allium sativum ) has been known as an herbal remedy to prevent and treat a variety
of heart diseases and metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hypertension,
dementia, cancer, and diabetes (Elbanna, 2012). Garlic has rich organosulfur compounds and
precursors (allicin, diallyl sulfide, and diallyl trisulfide). The enzyme allinase that is responsible
for converting alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) to allicin is inactive. When garlic is chopped or
crushed, the allinase enzyme present in garlic is activated and acts on alliin (present in whole
garlic) to produce allicin (Tanweer et al. 2012). Many studies indicate that allicin is the
potentially active component of garlic. These compounds provide garlic its characteristic odor
flavor as well as most of its biological properties and have been identified as having the
hypocholesterolemic effect in human and animal products (Silagy and Neil, 1994; Konjufca et
al., 1997; Chowdhury et al., 2002).
Species of Eimeria in poultry are usually identified by the size and morphology of
different stages of the life cycle of the parasite and the nature and location of lesions in the
intestines. Differentiation of species in mixed infections, however, can be difficult because some
species have similar characteristics (Long and Reid, 1982).
Different workers have investigated the prevalence of eimeriosis in different classes of
poultry birds and in different areas of Pakistan (Dar and Anwar, 1981; Anjum, 1990; Ayaz et al.,
2003). Each Eimeria species has a particular predilection site in the chicken digestive tract; for
example, E. tenella attacks the cecum. However, the most common and pathogenic species that
affects the poultry industry in Pakistan is E. tenella, which results in high mortality (Ayaz et al.,
2003; Abbas et al., 2008).
The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs currently used by
poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and a production systems which should
be antibiotic free, it’s now very much necessary to go for the new and advanced methods to
prevent this disease. Therefore, scientists started to work on medicinal use of herbal products to
control this eimeriosis. In past for treatment of various human and poultry ailments the natural
herbal products have been effectively used several times. Because of the anticoccidial nature and
antibacterial effect, garlic could be served as a valuable alternative for coccidiostats as a
medicinal plant. Previously it has been used for multipurpose like as an antibiotic, for antiinflammatory
effects, for anti- eimerial response and as an anti-ulcer agent. Keeping in view the
importance of poultry industry in Pakistan, the present project has been designed to “Evaluate
different preparations of Allium sativum (Garlic) against coccidiosis in broilers”.
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Comparison of The Effect of Ovsynch and G6G Synchronization Protocols on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Thesis submitted with blank CD
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2267-T] (1).
Study On The Repair Of Long Oblique Mid-Shaft Femoral Fracture In Domestic Fowl, Using Full Cerclage Wires With Or Without Intra-Medullary Pin
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Fracture is a challenging problem in domestic as well as wild birds. Caged birds are
prone to stress and self-injury. Wing and leg fractures in birds are most common problems. The
fracture of bones is common in avian species as a result of impact injuries due to collision with
branches, electric lines or other obstacles, either natural or anthropogenic. The basic principles of
fracture fixation are the same in birds and mammals. Fractures treated with biomechanically
sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional
outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be
major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality.
This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of
three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft femoral fractures in birds,
with minimal side effects and stress to the patient.
The Study was conducted on 12 adult, domestic fowls of either sex. The birds were
received as clinical cases presented with long oblique femoral fracture at Pet Centre, University
of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore. They were individually marked with coloured plastic
rings for the sake of identification. They were divided into three groups i.e. Group A , Group B
and Group C comprising four birds each, which were designated as I, II, III, and IV respectively.
In the birds of Group A long oblique femoral fracture was reduced and immobilized with
intramedullary pinning, with pin size between 2.5mm to 3.0mm. While in Group B, similar
fracture was treated with 2 – 3 full cerclage wiring. And in the final Group C both of the above
techniques were applied simultaneously i.e. IM pin with 2 – 3 cerclage wires. The birds were
maintained in separate cages post-operatively until the completion of the study.
Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination
of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union,
fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters
was illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis
Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.
Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably
threaded) with at least 2 – 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long
oblique mid-shaft femoral fracture in domestic fowl. The combination of both these techniques
together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to
the bone fragments. Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation,
were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average
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Effect Of Different Levels Of Yeast Based Mannan Oligosaccharide (Actigen™) On Growth Perfomance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Biochemistry And Immune Response Of Broilers
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study of 35 days duration was conducted at Poultry Research and Training
Centre (C-Block) Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore to evaluate
the effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics,
blood biochemistry and immune response in broilers. For this, a total of 360 commercial
broiler chickens were purchased from local hatchery and randomly divided into four treatment
groups having six replicated of 15 birds each, according to completely randomized design. Treatment
consisted four levels of MOS (0g/kg, 0.2g/kg, 0.4g/kg and 0.6g/kg). Weekly data were collected
regarding growth performance. At the end of experiment, three birds from each replicate
were randomly selected, after halal slaughtering carcass parameters were recorded. To find out the
effect of MOS on blood biochemistry and antibody titer against ND and IB, 5 ml blood sample
was harvested in marked test tubes from jugular vein of each bird at the time of slaughtering.
Serum samples were harvested by centrifugation (1500RPM) method and were stored at -20oC for
measuring blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Same serum samples were utilized to determine
the ND and IB antibodies titers. Collected data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique
using PROC GLM in SAS software. Supplementation of MOS level 0.6g/kg in the diet
of broilers resulted in improved growth performance, carcass characteristic, blood biochemical
profile and immune response in broilers. With respect to growth performance, significantly
improved body weight, weight gain and FCR were recorded in birds fed with 0.6g/kg
MOS. Regarding production performance indices, significantly better production efficiency
factor, point spread and performance index were recorded in birds having 0.6g/kg inclusion
of MOS in their diet. In the same way, 0.6 g/kg MOS significantly higher dressing, breast,
thigh yield, liver, heart, gizzard and intestinal weight percentage were recorded in birds
having 0.6g/kg MOS in their diet. Regarding morphometric traits, significantly higher
keel length, shank length and intestinal length were recorded in birds supplemented 0.6g/kg
MOS in their diet. Significantly low glucose and cholesterol level were recorded in broilers
having 0.6g/kg MOS supplemented diet. Broilers fed MOS at 0.6/kg in their diet showed
better antibodies titers against ND and IB.
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