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1. Microbial Evaluation Of Raw Meat At Abattoirs And Retail Outlests (Lahore)

by Abid Sarwar | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of meat. The present study was planed to determine the aerobic plate count on meat obtained from the abattoirs and local market. A total of 90 meat samples that were collected for determining the microbiological quality of meat. Half of the meat samples (n=45) were collected from various abattoirs and half of the meat samples (n=45) were collected from retail outlets in Lahore City to get an idea of contamination from slaughtering point to retail outlets. These samples were processed for Aerobic plate counts, E.coli, S.aureus and Salmonella counts. Overall, this study revealed that the level of contamination on meat carcasses was higher in retail meat shops compared to the abattoir. However, the microbial contamination in the abattoir were high if we compare these results to the reports from developing countries like India, Iran and Bangladesh. Bacterial isolates identified and counted from this study were Staphylococcus aureus (44) out of 90 samples was the most abundant as 48.88%, followed by E. coli (43) 47.77% and Salmonella (26) 28.88%. Statistical analysis revealed that analysis of variance between various abattoir and the retail meat shops for E.coli, Salmonella and S.aureus showed significant differences with some exceptions. E.coli counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the meat shops and abattoirs. For E.coli most of the data were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05) with some exception in case of beef and goat samples taken from abattoirs which were non significant because of the unhygienic environments. Analysis of variance for Salmonella between various abattoir and the retail outlets were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05). For S.aureus between various abattoir and the retail outlets showed non significant at 5% level (P > 0.05) with some exceptions in case of beef abattoir and goat retail outlet samples taken which were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of microbial load in fresh meat obtained in this study might be attributed to unhygienic and improper handling of animals during slaughter, dressing, evisceration, transportation and unhygienic environments at the retail shops. The usual practice of washing the carcass with the same water in which intestines and offal had been washed was considered as one of the predominant reasons for increased microbial counts of the carcasses. A complete ignorance on the part of the meat handlers/ butchers in hygienic handling of carcasses during slaughter and retailing processes might be the main factors for producing meat with high microbial load. Levels of microbial contamination in Pakistani abattoirs and traditional retail meat shops reflect the hygiene status of meat production in the developing world. Education of the meat retailers' community which runs the traditional meat shops, in terms of the importance of hygienic and sanitary precautions would go a long way towards providing wholesome and safe meat to the consumers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1196,T] (1).

2. Detection Of Hazardous Organism In Raw And Pasteurized Milk With Particular Reference To 3Enterobacteriaceae

by Ayesha | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to detect the hazardous organisms in raw milk from public health point of view. In total one hundred twenty (120) milk samples were collected from milk retail shops in and around Lahore. Out of these 120, one hundred samples were of raw milk and rests of the twenty samples were of pasteurized milk. Their microbiological quality was studied by performing standard plate count (SPC), coliform count and identification of hazardous bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The micro flora of milk was also studied for the prevalence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Milk supplied in Lahore city was found to have poor microbiological quality. Bacterial load was determined by SPC and coliform count. The standard plate count (S.P.C) of the raw milk ranged from 4.2x106 to 7.7xl07 c.f.u/ml. The coliform counts ranged from 3.4x 104 c.f.u /ml to 6.9x105 /ml. A total of 81 isolates were identified from raw milk samples. These included Yersinia (3 strains), Klebsiella (16 strains), Escherichia coli (14 strains), Enterobacter (11 strains), Shigella (3 strains), Salmonella (19 strains) and' Proteus (15 strains).The standard plate count for pasteurized milk ranged from 1.45x104 c.f.u/ml to 3.8x 105 c.f.u/ml. The minimum and maximum coliform count was 7.2x102 to 8.4xl03 c.f.u/ml respectively for pasteurized. All samples were outside the international standard for coliform bacteria. A total of 13 isolates were identified from pasteurized milk samples. These included Yersinia (2 strains), Klebsiella (1 strains), Escherichia coli (6 strains), Enterobacter (2 strains), Shigella (1 strains) and Proteus (1 strains). All the isolates showed multiple drug resistance to various commonly used antibiotics in veterinary practices. Escherichia coli were resistant to all antibiotics used except Gentamicin (10µg). Enterobacter was sensitive to all the antibiotics used except to Ampicillin (10µg). Shigella was sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg), Kanamycin (30µg), Choloramphenicol( 25µg), but showed resistance to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg)., Salmonella was resistanct to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg). But sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg). .All the isolates showed greatest resistance to Penicillin (10 ug.) whereas, most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentamycin, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol. Finally, it is recommended that the members of the public should always boil raw milk before consumption because of their microbial content. Therefore, it is highly recommended that hygienic practices and regulations, such as on-site pasteurization and implementation of HACCP following established standards, should be introduced to facilitate the production of raw milk of high quality and safety. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1219,T] (1).

3. Epidemiological Trends, Clinical Profile And Risk Factors Associated With Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever In Quetta, Balochistan

by Khushal Khan Kasi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an important disease in suburbs of Quetta in particular, and other cities of Balochistan in general. The cases of this disease are brought to the public hospital for treatment purposes. The study was carried out to understand the descriptive nature of the disease with respect to geographic, temporal and personal distribution. The second part of study comprised of cross sectional as well as case-control study for the identification of different risk factors in patients as compared to their control admitted in the same hospitals. The highest numbers of CCHF cases were from Quetta i.e. 35, 82 cases were male and 19 cases of female, small scale sheep and goat farmer has highest number of cases i.e, 59. Mean age for male patients was 30.82±15.47 years, while for female patients mean age was 29.17±16.40 years with a p-value= 0.685. Mean platelet count for male and female patients was 450n.29±35934.14 and 35388.89±18081.96 respectively with a p-value= 0.270. Mean Hemogobin level for male and female patients was 11.52±2.78 and 9.80±3.23 respectively, and with a p-value=O.023. Among the patients, 5 patients were positive for IgG and IgM antibodies, 9 patients were having A+ blood group, 44 with B+, 16 with 0+, 1 with AB+ and 29 was not reported, 21 patients died and the remaining patients discharged, and the highest number of cases were between April and September. A significant association exist between platelet count with respect to cases who suffered from CCHF (p-value= 0.000), male were 1.157 times more prone to CCHF as compared to female (OR=1.157), (p-value=0.629) and (CI=0.641-2.089), and animals at home have has more susceptibility to CCHF cases (OR=3.538), (p-value=O.OOO) and (CI=2.219-5.642). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1377,T] (1).

4. Epidemiology Of Major Transbuondary Diseases Of Livestock In Nomads Herds Of District Buner

by Farman Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The research project was carried out in the livestock of nomads in District Bunere to study the epidemiology of major trans-boundary livestock diseases including foot and mouth diseases 9FMD) in buffaloes and cattle and Peste des Petite Ruminants (PPR) and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in sheep and goats. A questionnaire was designed for collecting data regarding morbidity, mortality & case fatality rate in different seasons in the animals of nomads migrate from Afghanistan to Pakistan. Serosurveillance was also conducted by collecting 600 blood samples from the apparently healthy sheep and goats, cattle and buffaloes in the summer season. A total number of 100 nomads were interviewed by systematic random sampling method and sera were collected to test the antibodies against FMDV and PPRV. The serum samples in labeled eppendorph tubes were stored in deep freezer till the sent to lab in ice container. These samples were transported to National Veterinary Laboratory Islamabad, where cattle and buffalo's sera were examined by using 3ABC-ELISA & sheep and goat's sera were analyzed by C-ELISA to detect antibody ofPPRV, respectively. Similarly 60 nasal swabs of sheep and goats collected and examined in Veterinary Research Institute Lahore, by culturing method. The data were collected and analyzed statistically by using SPSS (16.00). Means, Chi square values, P-Vlues and percentages were calculated. The overall prevalence of CCPP was 18.3% while individually 3.3% in sheep and 15 % in goats. The prevalence in goat (15%) was higher than that of sheep (3.3%) with insignificant difference and no significant association between CCPP disease and species of sheep/goat of nomads. Similarly age wise prevalence of CCPP in young (sheep and goats) was 10% which was higher than that of adult (8.3%) with significant association between CCPP disease and age of sheep and goat. Similarly gender wise prevalence was 6.66% in male and 11.6% in female (sheep and goats) with no significant association between CCPP disease results and gender of sheep and goats. The peculiar signs of CCPP were recorded retrospectively, including pneumonic coughing, mucopurulent nasal discharges, fever and abortion in sheep and goats in autumn season in Pakistan and in winter season in Afghanistan respectively. The 10.5% mortality rate, 82% morbidity rate and 12.8% case fatality rate of CCPP in autumn season were recorded in sheep respectively. While 92% morbidity, 12.5% mortality and 13.5% case fatality rate were recorded in goats in autumn, respectively. The mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate were 6.5%, 66%, and 9.8% in sheep in winter season. Similarly mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate in goats due to CCPP in winter season were8%, 89.5% and 8.97%, respectively. The prevalence in both the species were higher in autumn season than that of winter season and zero prevalence were recorded in rest of the seasonsretrospectively. The night stay with crowding of livestock near streams and springs, night fog, morning dew, cold seasons and common travelling and grazing premises were recorded as risk factors for CCPP. The serosurveillance for FMD was conducted and overall seroprevalence of FMD was 32% and individually 12% in buffaloes and 20% in cattle respectively with no significant association and both the species were equally susceptible to FMDV. Gender wise seroprevalence in male and female cattle and buffaloes were 12% and 34 % respectively with no significant association between FMDV antibodies and gender of the animals. Age wise seroprevalence of FMD in adult cattle and buffaloes was higher (24%) than that of young (8%) cattle and buffaloes with a significant association between the age of cattle, and buffaloes and FMDV antibodies. The survey results indicated that all the cattle and buffaloes were in mixed herds and the peculiar signs including stomatitis, lameness, abortion, fever and dysphonia were recorded retrospectively. The mortality rate was 0% in cattle herds of all ages and in both the genders while the morbidity rate was 52.5%. The death rate of l.1%, 75.5% attack rate and 1.41% case fatality rate in buffaloes were recorded retrospectively in the humid rainy season of late summer in Shangla, Besham & Chitral districts. The serosurveillance for PPR in sheep and goats was conducted by using competitive ELISA, dand 42% overall seroprevalence while individually 27% in goats and 14.8% in sheep were recorded with a significant association. Gender wise seroprevalence of 38.8% in females and .3.2% in males of sheep and goats with significant difference and with a significant association to PPRVantibodies were recorded. The age wise seroprevalence of37.8% and 4.2% in adult and in young of both the species with a significant association to PPRV antibodies were recorded. No clinieal signs of PPR were observed by nomads because the infection was subclinical and survived previously because they had not practiced vaccines for last many years. Zero % morbidity and mortality rates were therefore recorded retrospectively in sheep and goat flocks. The four routes at the border areas of Khyber Pakhton Khwa were recorded for the seasonal and cyclieal entrance of livestock of nomads, which act as abridge for diseases transmission between Afghanistan & Pakistan. The outbreaks of CCPP occurred in winter season in Afghanistan and in autumn season in Pakistan (Gilgith, Chitral, Kohistan, Besham, Shanglapar and Buner). Also the FMD outbreaks occurred in Buner and Shangla in late summer while the PPR was subclinical and animals survived. Cross borders as well as district wise trade and movement restrictions are of utmost importance for control the diseases. Similarly serosurveillance of the disease in the local and as well as in nomad's livestock's population necessean appropriate scheduled vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1408,T] (1).

5. Assessment Of Knowledge And Practice Of Food Handlers About Food Safety In University Hostel Kitchen Employees

by Qurra-Tul- Ain | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cigarette butts are found at crime scenes as potential evidence. Saliva is present on the cigarette butts that can be detected and DNA can be isolated from nucleated cells present in saliva for quantification and typing. In past, research has declared that cigarette butts are useful source for saliva detection, DNA extraction and profile generation. Difference of saliva accumulation on cigarette butt paper and filter was compared in the present study. On smoked cigarette butts, gender based comparison of saliva detection and DNA quantification was performed. Agarose gel assay was used for amylase enzyme detection. All samples showed positive results for saliva detection. Cigarette butt filter and filter paper were processed separately and analyzed. Results showed more saliva detected at cigarette butt paper. Then gender based comparison on cigarette butt samples smoked by males and females was done for salivary amylase. By using student t-test, no significant difference was found on basis of gender. For extraction of DNA, phenol chloroform extraction method was used. Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit was used through RT-PCR for quantification of DNA isolated from cigarette butt papers. SDS software analyzed the data and gave results of quantified DNA in ng/µL. Gender based comparison in DNA quantity was done by using statistical method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation value was calculated between detected saliva and quantified DNA of samples. Weak positive results of correlation were obtained between saliva and DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1424,T] (1).

6. Clinico-Epidemiological Study Of Toxocariasis In Pet Cats In Lahore

by Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study was conducted at the pet clinic UVAS to check the prevalence of Toxocara Cati in pet cats and awareness of the pet owners about the zoonosis. Prevalence of Toxocara was checked by conventional laboratory techniques. A survey was conducted to check the awareness of zoonotic diseases among the pet owners using a questionnaire. A total of 40% were found to be infected with Toxocara cati. Overall high prevalence was recorded in cats less than one year of age which was significant. There was also significant difference of prevalence among cats in which deworming was not done as compared to the dewormed cats. Prevalence was also high in cats in which the fecal consistency was not normal. There was no significant difference in prevalence of Toxocara between male and female cats. There was also no significant difference of prevalence among the different breeds of cats. The results of the survey revealed that out of the total of 100 pet owners only 39% had idea of pet zoonosis, while the majority of the owners had awareness about rabies. Only 18 % of the owners were informed by the veterinarians. The total of 98% suggested that the vet should inform the owners about pet zoonosis. Among the total 56% replied that they will leave their pet if a zoonotic problem was diagnosed the remaining were not willing to leave their pets even if a zoonotic problem diagnosed. Most cases of human toxocariasis and zoonotic hookworm infections are preventable by simple measure such as careful personal hygiene, eliminating intestinal parasites from pets through regular deworming and not allowing the children to play in potentially contaminated environments. Despite the fact that some of the pet owners dispose of their pet feaces however,, owners should be educated on proper disposal methods of pet feaces. Disposal methods like using pet feaces as garden manure, can predispose children playing in the lawn to infective eggs and larvae. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1428,T] (1).

7. Geographical Distribution Of Dengue Fever Infected Patients And Its Related Risk Factors In And Aroun Lahore.

by Muhammad Usman Zaheer | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Dengue fever is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection of humans worldwide and is a major public health concern, especially in tropical and subtropical regions (Mackenzie et al., 2004). This life threatening disease is caused by a specific virus (ARBO-Flavivirus) transmitted by the bite of a female mosquito (Aedes aegyptii and Aedes albopictus) which is identified by the white bands and scale patterns on its legs and thorax. Trans-ovarial transmission of dengue virus has also been reported in different studies. The mosquito may bite at any time but the probability of bites increase at dusk and dawn (WHO 2009). Dengue fever has emerged as a significant public health problem in Pakistan. In Pakistan, the first epidemic of dengue fever was reported in 1994 in Karachi (Anaari et al., 2001). Several years later, in 2006 another epidemic was reported in the southern part of Pakistan, predominantly caused by DENV-2 that led to 58 deaths (khan et al., 2008). In 2007, 22 people died of disease and in 2008 only five people were reported to die from it. Between October 2006 and January 2008, there were 3,242 laboratory confirmed cases of dengue fever in Pakistan. Since January 2009, 224 suspected cases were reported in Sindh province, of which 135 were the confirmed cases. During the epidemic of dengue fever in 2010 more than seven thousand cases were reported in Pakistan, of which 5 thousand cases were from Punjab and resulted in 63 deaths. The mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic diseases are prevalent throughout the world. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the most important diseases widely distributed in the tropics of South East Asia. It is an infectious malady of human beings characterized by fever and non-specific constitutional symptoms. The virus is transmissible to human beings by the bite of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The disease is spreading like a geometric rise of cases in a wide range of geographical regions. The geographical factors and locality of patients may be a contributing factor to the outbreak of Dengue Fever. Climate change is likely to increase the area of land with a climate suitable for dengue fever transmission, and that if no other contributing factors were to change, a large proportion of the human population would then be put at risk. The data on address of patients were collected from all the patients admitted in tertiary care hospital from August 01, 2011 to November 30, 2011. The geographical risk factors studied in this project were presence or absence of parks, trees, ponds, swimming pool, service station, tyre shop, source of stagnant water, pond and municipality garbage tank in vicinity of house of the cases and controls. For the study of risk factors we made 2 groups i.e. cases and controls; each comprising of 300 subjects and then data on presence or absence of various hypothesized risk factors in the vicinity of house (400 meters) and area (800 meters) were collected through a well structured and pre-tested questionnaire (Harrington et al., 2005; Honório et al., 2003; Schatzmayr 2000; Muir and Kay 1998; Reiter et al., 1995; McDonald 1977; Hausemann 1971 and Bond et al., 1970). The statistical analysis of data was done by using SPSS 16.0. Qualitative data were presented in form of tables, bar charts, column and pie- charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association between dengue fever and various hypothesized risk factors. P-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Odds ratio was calculated at 95% level of confidence (CI) for various hypothesized risk factors of dengue fever. The results of present study revealed that the season of dengue fever in Pakistan is from August to November and the period prevalence of dengue fever to be 0.11%. Males (59%) were mainly the victim of dengue fever. The main affected age groups were 16-30 year (37.33%) and 31-45 years (29.67%). As far as the geographical distribution of dengue fever infected patients is concerned, it was concluded that dengue fever cases were reported from all the ten towns of Lahore metropolitan, however, most of the cases were reported from Ravi town followed by Data Ganj Baksh town and Cantt. The results regarding various hypothesized risk factors are as follows: parks/trees/plants in vicinity of house OR=8.81, p-value <0.05; swimming pool in vicinity of house OR=5.O3, p-value <0.05; source of stagnant water in vicinity of house OR=8.25, p-value <0.05; fogging in your area OR=0.50, p-value <0.05; service station in the area OR=5.98, p-value <0.05; tyre shop in the area OR=6.11, p-value <0.05; municipality garbage tank in the area OR=5.88, p-value <0.05; any pond in the area OR=5.69, p-value <0.05. From the results of this project we concluded that dengue fever is most prevalent from August to November and it is a disease of mainly male gender and mostly affects people of age group 16-45 years. Besides this, dengue fever is almost equally distributed in all the towns of Lahore metropolitan. Also we concluded that presence or absence of parks, trees, plants, swimming pool, stagnant water, pond, service station, tyre shop and municipality garbage tanks in vicinity of house are the risk factors of dengue fever. Fogging proved to be a deterrent to dengue fever. On the basis of results of this project there is need to implement a control program in which vector control and minimizing the exposure of people to risk factors should be the key points that need to be addressed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1444,T] (1).

8. Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Milk, Milk By- Products And Food Handler At Retail

by Kanwal Hafeez | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to check the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk, milk products and food handlers at various dairy retail shops in Lahore. A total of 100 samples, 30 samples of raw milk, 30 samples of pasteurized milk, 20 samples of yogurt, 10 samples of butter and 10 hand swabs samples of dairy handlers were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 54% (54 out of 100) samples. Overall high prevalence was recorded in raw milk, followed by hand swabbing samples of dairy handler, butter, pasteurized milk and yogurt. The results indicated unhygienic practices during milking and handling of milk at different critical control points such as transportation, storage, and post-pasteurization contamination. Overall high prevalence of ampicillin and amoxicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were recorded in all the samples of milk and milk products and the hand swabbing of dairy handlers, followed by resistant against chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin respectively. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by resistance against amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin which were 92.6%, 37%, 33.3%, 24.1% and 22.2% respectively. The antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk and milk products indicated the widespread use of these antibiotics in treating different types of infections associated in either livestock or humans which results in selection pressure of these antimicrobials and results in the emergence of these antibiotic resistant bacteria in different environmental conditions. The risk associated with human health as a result of ingestion of these antibiotic resistant bacteria can be prevented by adopting hygienic measures during milking, transport, storage and hygienic handling by the handlers so the human health can be assured. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1520,T] (1).

9. Sero And Viro Surveillance Of Influenza Virus Sero Types Circulating In Equine Species

by Muhammad Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1526,T] (1).

10. Detection Of Carrier And Subclinical Infection Of Babesia Ovis Trough Pcr At Government Farms Of Punjab

by Haider Noor | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Haemoprotozoan infections in ruminants are of significant importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Diseases are transmitted through ticks thus a number of epidemiological factors/risk factors are involved. Ovine Babesiosis is one such disease posing problems in Pakistan which is an agricultural country and livestock plays an important source of income for farmers. The economic losses in small ruminant production are significant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Carrier sheep infected with Babesiosis are challenge to current diagnostic methods and are difficult to detect because of the low number of parasites in circulation. However diagnosis of carrier animals in herd is important for preventing outbreaks by transmission through vector ticks to healthy animals and for obtaining epidemiological data of disease. The work done on Babesia ovis is negligible. For this purpose a study was conducted at two farms to measure the prevalence and optimization of PCR for Babesia ovis. Blood was collected into an anticoagulant containing vacutainer. First thin smears were formed and stained with Giemsa stain for microscopic examination of Babesia ovis. For DNA extraction Puregene DNA purification system, Gentra, was used. Extracted DNA was amplified in a thermolyser using B. ovis primers and then analyzed using electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel. Microscopic examination demonstrated a prevalence of 16 % while PCR results revealed prevalence of 29% for B. ovis. Results displayed that the efficacy of PCR is more sensitive than Light Microscopy. Data on infection rate between male and female and between different age groups was statistically non-significant. Herd wise prevalence was 36% and 22% in Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadarnagar, Okara and Small Ruminant Training and Research Center,Ravi Campus, Pattoki respectively. Common sites of attachment for the ticks were under the tail, perineal region and underneath ears.The data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1534,T] (1).

11. Epidemiology Of Brucelosis In Sheep And Goat In District Quetta, Balochistan

by Abdul Wahab Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prf. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Brucellosis is one of the chronic infectious bacterial diseases of farm animals and man caused by Brucella specie and has a wide host range including bovine, ovine, caprine, canine, equine and man. It causes heavy economical losses in livestock holdings by resulting abortion and infertility while from public health point it is a bacterial zoonotic diseases causing undulant fever in man. In the modern world it is still a challenging health ailment to livestock and public health. In Pakistan it is prevalent in livestock holdings and human population. Keeping in view the importance of Brucellosis the present study was designed to investigate its status in District Quetta of Balochistan province. In this study sheep, goat and their concerned (farmers, veterinary assistant, veterinarian, butchers) were included. Govt. farms, private farms and slaughter houses were used as a source of samples. Information about risk factors in man and animals were gathered by separate structured questionnaires. To investigate Brucellosis, blood and milk samples were collected and serum from blood samples was isolated. Serum and milk samples were screened with Rose Bengal Plate test and Milk Ring Test respectively, and positive cases from RBPT were further tested on Polymerase chain reaction for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in animals was 2.40 %, 3.80 %, and 2.22 % in sheep, goat and livestock owners respectively by RBPT and this result was confirmed by PCR, while prevalence of brucellosis was 1.6% by MRT achieved. The seroprevalence of brucellosis from Lahore was 3.91% by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed through PCR. Among the risk factors in human significant association was found between the occupations of the person. And brucellosis is a serious threat to man. Therefore, routine surveillance of farm flocks is essential, to know about the brucellosis and local infected areas, before implementing a wide scale national programme of brucella control and eradication. There is an increasing need of educating farmers and farm managers about brucellosis and its public health significance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1535,T] (1).

12. Isolation, Characterization Of Chondroitin Sulphate And Its Efficacy In Osteoarthritis

by Humaira Majeed Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and Glucosamine sulphate (GS) are two main components of articular cartilage. It is believed that these molecules slow down wear and tear of cartilage. Moreover, if administered exogenously as drugs, these may initiate synthesizing capacity of cartilage. Among these, GS promotes the formation and repair of cartilage, whereas CS promotes elasticity and prevent cartilage breakdown by inhibiting degradative enzymes. Concurrent use of both structural units of cartilage as drugs in osteoarthritis (OA) may lessen the progression of disease. The present study was conducted to elucidate the chicken keel cartilage as an alternate and potential source for this endogenous component that may be used exogenously to repair or prevent damage to joints. Chicken keel cartilages were collected from healthy broilers. CS was extracted using MgCl2 solution (3M), dialyzed and digested with papain. The extracted material was purified by ethanol precipitation, centrifugation and then freeze dried. Proximate analysis of semi-purified polysaccharides revealed the presence of carbohydrates (65.49±0.10), crude protein (12.82±0.26), ash (11.12±.56), moisture (9.88±0.32) and fat (0.69±0.14). Fiber contents were found to be nil in the processed samples. Dimethylmethylene blue binding (DMMB) assay was performed for determination of percent contents of CS in extracted semi-purified samples and mean concentration was found to be 70.77±2.35. Semi-purified polysaccharides were further characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer) technique and characteristic Peaks of CS molecules were recorded at 854, 854 and 853 cm-1 and then compared with spectrum of standard CS. Protein content being a major impurity in extracted samples was determined by Bradford method quantitatively (4.64±0.29). Two protein impurities having 77.8 and 50.5 kDa molecular weights were revealed by SDS-PAGE. Efficacy of semi-purified CS from chicken keel cartilage, standard CS from shark source and GS, alone and in combination in experimental OA rat model was evaluated. To develop OA similar to spontaneous OA, 10mg papain/0.5mL (Sigma, Cat # P 3125) in buffered solution of 0.05 M sodium acetate pH 4.5 was injected intra-articularly in each right knee joint of fifty five albino rats (pre-anesthetized with anesthetic ether). Ten rats (n= 10) were injected with 0.5mL of normal saline (0.9%) in right knee joint that served as control group. Then from fifty five papain injected rats, twenty five were divided into five groups (n=5) for development and assessment of OA model (OA groups). Progression of disease was monitored by clinical scores, histopathological scores and concentration of CTX-II as biomarker in sera samples of experimental rats by ELISA using a commercial kit (serum preclinical CartiLaps ® ELISA kit) for control and OA groups (n=5) on day 0 (control group) and days 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post papain injection (OA groups). Highest mean clinical score (10.38±1.1) was observed on 1st day and least on 28th day post papain injection i.e. 5.00±.34. Highest mean histopathological score and CTX-II concentration was recorded on 28th day i.e. 12.82±1.64 and 36.82±3.81. Values of clinical scores, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentration reached to maximum on 21st day and then sustained thereon. Second phase of experiment is comprised of evaluating and comparing the efficacy of extracted CS samples (chicken keel cartilages), standard CS (shark source) alone and in combination with GS. For this purpose, remaining five rats out of ten injected with normal saline intra-articularly served as control groups along with treated and non treated groups of experimental rats. Remaining thirty OA induced rats were divided into six groups (five rats /group). Group 1 (n=5) called non treated group received only placebo till 60th day and served as negative control group. Treated Group 2 received GS alone, Group 3 CS (standard) and Group 4 were given extracted CS. Group 5 was treated with combination of GS plus CS (standard) and Group 6 with GS plus CS (sample). Doses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were administered as 1.2g/kg/day CS and 1.5g/kg/day GS alone and in combinations. Drugs were offered early in the morning in bolus form with feed (10g) after overnight fasting while non-treated group received only placebo (without any drug). Anti-arthritis activities of CS standard and extracted alone and in combination with GS were assessed clinically, analyzed statistically by using one way ANOVA. Level of significance (P<0.05) was recorded by using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Post hoc Test. Mean scores of clinical, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations observed at 60th day in control rats (without OA) were 0.00, 0.00 and 2.55, respectively. OA induced untreated group showed mean score for clinical signs, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations 4.15, 12.24 and 36.70 and GS treated group 3.19, 3.96 and 6.12 at 60th day of treatment, respectively. For CS (standard), mean scores of clinical signs, histopathological lesions and CTX-II concentrations were recorded as 2.64, 2.44 and 4.48 and for CS (extracted) were 2.26, 2.28 and 4.40 in sera correspondingly at 60th day of treatment. The lowest mean values of clinical signs, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations in sera of treated group with standard CS plus GS were found to be 0.94, 0.94 and 2.62 followed by extracted CS plus GS treated groups 01.05, 1.27 and 2.74, respectively. Clinical, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations in group of rats treated with combinations were found to reverse the diseased condition after 60th days of treatment as the values were close to that of normal rats and far away from OA rats. It is concluded that extracted CS from poultry has comparable efficacy with CS standard from shark source alone and in combination with GS. Poultry by-product (keel cartilage) is found to be an alternate and cheap source for CS (chondroprotective agent) as compare to expensive, less available and religiously prohibited source for Islamic countries particularly. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1544,T] (1).

13. Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasmosis In Goats And Their Attendants In Dort Minro (D.G.Khan), Punjab (Pakistan)

by Shams-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease of cats, however all warm blooded animals comprising mammals, birds and human beings can be infected with it. The disease is manifested by abortion, resorption, neonatal loses, birth of weak kids, birth defects and mummification of fetuses in pregnant animals. Global seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis is continuously evolving in animals and human beings. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis, the present study was conducted, in Fort Minro, to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of Toxoplasmosis in goats and their attendants. A total of 52 pastoral goat herds with herd size of "?20 - ?40" animals per herd were selected by convenient sampling technique. Out of these 52 pastoral herds, 237 goats were selected by systematic sampling method i.e each 5th unit was selected for sampling. The goats were sampled if the age of goats was ?6 months. Most common breeds of these herds were, Pahari and Hairy goat breed. A total of 92 herd attendants were also selected to determine the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasmosis in Farm workers / attendants. All serum samples were screened by LAT. For this purpose, the commercial Latex agglutination kit (Wiener Laboratorios S.A.I.C. Riobamba 2944, 2000 Rosario Argentina) was used for detection of specific antibodies of T.gondii in serum of goats and their attendants. A herd was considered as a positive, if at least one goat was found to be positive in that specific herd. Out of total 52 goat herds, 36 herds presented at least one or more than one seropositive animal. The number of positive animals in each herd, ranged from 1-10 animals. Out of 237 goats, 64 goats were positive for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Thus overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats was 27%. The seroprevalence was significantly high in female goats (21.5%) as compared to males (5.5%). Kajli/Pahari goat breed was more positive (14.8%) as compared to Hairy goats (12.2%). An increase trend of seropositivity was observed in goats with increase in age. Age group of "?3 years" of goats had highest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence of Toxoplasmosis, followed by age group "?1-<3 years", while age group "?6 m-<1Year" had lowest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence. Prevalence in males had 5.5% share in overall prevalence (27%) while prevalence in females had 21.5% share in overall prevalence. Data analysis of various risk factors determined that natural reservoirs of water, pastoral grazing and presence of cats and dogs were major risk factor of Toxoplasmosis in goat herds. Access of cats to drinking water and food resources and eating medium cooked meat were major risk factors for goat attendants. High prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats and Farm workers, suggests that Toxoplasmosis is endemic in the study area and further epidemiological studies should be focused on goat meat, milk and milk products. It is concluded that Toxoplasmosis can be reduce in human beings and animals by reducing risk factors and maintaining proper hygienic measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1710,T] (1).

14. Studies On Risk Factors Associated With Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157: H7 In Abattoir Environment

by Samiullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1711,T] (1).

15. Association Of Antimicrobial Resistant Campylobacter With Poultry Meat At Retailer Shops In Lahore Through Cross-Sectional Study

by Abdul Moeed | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: 6.1 Background Antimicrobial resistance is an under-appreciated threat to public health in nations around the globe. With globalization booming, it is important to understand international patterns of resistance. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are considered to be the most frequent cause of human acute bacterial enteritis worldwide, furthermore, numerous transmission vehicles are known, but raw milk, untreated surface water and especially poultry meat are major sources of human infections. In Pakistan studies reveal that among meat samples, the highest prevalence (48%) of Campylobacter was recorded in raw chicken. Therefore, the increasing level of resistance to the antibiotics among Campylobacter spp. is recognized as emerging public health problem. 6.2 Hypothesis " Campylobacter spp. was present in the poultry meat at retailer shops. " Unhygienic measures concerning to meat handling had a considerable effect on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter. 6.3 Methodology A cross sectional study of 3 months duration was carried out in the Lahore city of Punjab, Pakistan. Using the standard microbiological techniques and statistical analysis, the prevalence of Campylobacter and its pattern of antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Furthermore, through premeditated questionnaires, public awareness regarding meat-borne diseases, food safety and inappropriate usage of antibiotics were assessed as well. 6.4 Statistical design Data will be analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Quantitative variable were presented by using mean ± S.D. Qualitative variable were presented with help of frequency tables, pie charts and bar charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association among different variables. P value <0.05 was be taken as significant. 6.5 Outcome Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence and pattern of the antibiotic resistant campylobacter was assessed; moreover public awareness with special reference to food safety, knowledge of meat borne diseases and usage of antibiotics wereevaluated. Furthermore, one could play an influential role in public health by dissemination of awareness among the masses about the proper usage of antibiotics and food safety measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1728,T] (1).

16. Nosocomial Infections At Intensive Care Unit In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore City

by Ajmal Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1729,T] (1).

17. Immunobiological And Molecular Characterization Of Pasteurella Multocida From Buffaloes

by Muhammad Kamran | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute bacterial disease of buffaloes and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida. In the present study, 400 samples (200 from carriers and 200 from sick animals) from Sargodha division were collected. Among four districts of the division, 15 samples were positive by API Kit, 13 by conventional biochemical tests and eleven were found positive for P. multocida through serological and molecular characterization. Biochemical profile index obtained with API kits had lesser accuracy than conventional and serological profiles for the identification of P. multocida. Passive mouse protection test and AGPT were used for serological confirmation. Different molecular techniques like SDS-PAGE, PCR and RFLP were used to investigate variation at the molecular level in field and vaccinal strains. There were no significant variation between field isolates and vaccinal strain in sick animals and carriers, or in isolates of different districts. Five major and three minor polypeptide bands were observed by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relatedness among the isolates was assessed by cluster analysis using Fingerprint Analysis of Missing Data (FAMD) of 12 isolates. The12 isolates clustered into 5 groups namely I, II, III, IV and V. Group I and II consisted of only one isolate in each (8.33%) of the total designated BKC-01 (S5) and KBO-01 (S1), respectively. Group III composed of 2 isolates (16.67%) namely KBC-02 (S4) and MNO-01 (S2). Group IV had the highest numbers of isolates (50%) designated as KBC-02 (S3), MNO-01 (S6), BKO-02 (S7), MNC-02 (S8), SGO-02 (S9) and V. Only two isolates were typed in group V (16.67%) named as SGO-01 (S10) and BKO-01 (S11). The size of amplified gene was 460 bp. HindIII I endonuclease cleaved bacterial genome at four sites as compared to other four enzymes (DNase1, PstlI, EcorI and BamHI) change the writing of these enzymes which cleaved at two sites. The isolates were also subjected to ten routinely used antibiotics for sensitivity testing and found enrofloxacin as drug of choice with 90.91% sensitivity, followed by gentamycine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacine and norfloxacine (72.73%), ampicillin and amoxycillin (45.45%), amikacin (36.36%) and lowest to sulfadiazine and erythromycine (18.18%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1767,T] (1).

18. Risk Factors Associatede With Calf Mortality In Smallholder Dairy Farms In Per-Urban Area Of Lahore

by Muhammad Sohail | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhary | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A case control study was conducted to confirm association of hypothesized risk factors like age, sex, breed, colostrums ingestion time, feeding practices, season, housing, hygiene status of the farms and tick infestation. This study was conducted in Rakh Chandra dairy colony the biggest dairy colony situated in periphery of Lahore, rich with dairy animal. 10% sample size was taken of the total population consisting of young calves' cattle and buffaloes of 90 days age. The overall mortality rate was (31.88%) while the crude mortality rate was found to be higher in the cattle calves that was of (35.76%) than in the buffalo calves (28%). Amongst all risk factors in the form of diseases and other health related conditions point of view calf diarrhea (54.7%; p=0.000) significantly associated with calf mortality and was found to be the leading cause of death followed by the respiratory diseases (28.5%) and other several risk factors were also seen to be associated with calf mortality. Ticks infestation was found to be (p=0.000: OR=13.618) strongly associated with calf mortality rate. While season was found to be associated (p=0.04: OR=1.21) with calf mortality rate in dairy farms. The major cause of death recorded was diarrhea accounted 54.7% of total deaths. The higher mortality rate was recorded in the first month of age mostly in the 3rd week of life. Therefore it was concluded that age, sex, breed, tick infestation and colostrums were all associated with calf mortality. Further research work is needed to identify the individual magnitude of each risk factor associated with mortality in calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1838,T] (1).

19. Identification Of Multiple Drug Resistant (Mrd) Mastitis Causing Bacteria In Dairy Goats

by Muhammad Faisal najees | Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum | Prof. Dr. mansur-ud-Din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1852,T] (1).

20. Prevalence Of Salmonelia Ennteritidis In Hatcheries And Broiler Retail Outlets In Rawalpindi Punjab

by Abdul saeed | Dr. Muhammad Hassan mushtaq | Prof Dr. Mansur-ud-din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1868,T] (1).

21. Seroprevalence Of Brucella Canis In Dogs In Disteict Lahore0

by Muhammad Adnan aslam | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1994,T] (1).

22. Case Control Study For The Quantification Of Risk Factors Associated With Infected Catheter Patients

by Kinza Shabbir | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad | Dr. Muhammad | Muhammad hassan mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1997,T] (1).

23. A Cohort Study On Surgical Site Infectuins (Asnosocomial Infections) In Animal And Human Side

by Atia noreen | Dr. Mamoona chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2021,T] (1).

24. Detection Of Vivax Malaria And Under Local Climatic Conditions

by Sarwat naz | Prof.Dr. Azhar maqbool | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2060,T] (1).

25. Clinico-Epidemiology Of Giardiasis In Children And Their Association With [Et Dogs

by Noor-ul-Ain | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2118,T] (1).

26. Retrospective Study Of Fatal Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever In Lahore City

by Shumaila Abdusattar (2012-VA-523) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dengue fever is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases of human beings. It has become a major reason for public health concern internationally over the recent years because of disease morbidity and mortality. Globally around 2.5 billion people are living in areas where dengue viruses can be transmitted. Spread of mosquito vectors & viruses in geographical distribution are two main reasons of rise in incidence and prevalence of dengue fever & appearance of dengue hemorrhagic cases. Urban areas of the tropics have been identified to be highly endemic. According to estimates made by WHO around 50–100 million infections of dengue are prevalent every year globally. (Deen et al. 2006) In Pakistan first dengue outbreak was reported in Karachi in 1994 as environmental conditions are conducive to Aedes mosquito breeding. Economic and security related migration introduced virus to Lahore as well. According to Punjab Health Department 590339 suspected cases were reported in Lahore & 21685 confirmed by serology. It has been observed that 5-10% of these cases develop DHF.(Mahmood et al. 2013) Dengue is mainly transmitted by mosquito vector i.e. Aedesaegypti and can also be transmitted by A.albopictus to a lesser extent. Virus that causes dengue has four different types that are closely related to each other.Infected female mosquitoes transmit this virus to human beings through bite.An infected mosquito can transmit this virus to humans for the rest of its life. Symptoms of dengue range from very mild fever to very high fever including intense headache, retro-orbital pain, muscular and joint pain, and rashes. There is no vaccine or any specific medicine to treat dengue. Patients having dengue fever are advised to take rest and drink ample fluids. They are advised to use paracetamol in order to reduce high grade fever or visit the physician if fever persists. Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that serotype but confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection by the other three. There have been enough proofs showing that subsequent infection increases the risk of severity of disease which can result in DHF (WHO). Leaking of plasma, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, and intense bleeding and organ impairment makes severe dengue a fatal complication. Warning signs includes decrease in temperature (below 38°C/ 100°F), severe abdominal pain, rapid breathing, bleeding gums, malaise, and restlessness,continuous vomiting and hematemesis. These can occur three to seven days after first symptom recognition. In order to prevent complications and minimize the risk of death adequate and timely health care is required in next 1-2 critical days.(Halstead 1980) In 1950s when dengue epidemics occurred in the Philippines and Thailand then Dengue hemorrhagic fever was first identified. Till 1970 nine countries had encountered epidemic DHF and this number has increased more than four times and keeps on rising. Today rising number of DHF cases are causing increased dengue outbreaks in the Americas, and in Asia, where all four dengue viruses are endemic. DHF has turn out to be a prominent reason of hospitalization and demise among kids in several states.In Asia, widespread DHF has enhanced geologically from Southeast Asian regions to west China. Various regional states of the South and Central Pacific have encountered significant or slight DHF outbreaks.In previous twenty years deterrence and management has come to be more immediate with the escalating geographical spreadof dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever and higher ailment occurrence (Gubler 2002). In the absence of bleeding or organ manifestation, DHF is medically challenging to diagnose, and the numerous etiologic agents can barely be distinguished by clinical tests. The specified diagnosis of DHF depends mainly on laboratory testing.(Drosten et al., 2002) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2211,T] (1).

27. Epidemiological Investigation And Risk Factor Analysis Of Brucellosis In Large Ruminants And Their Attendants At Govt. Livestock Farms In Punjab

by Muhammad Raashid (2007-VA-496) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Pakistan has been renowned as an agricultural country. It is rich in livestock sector having fairly large populations of domestic animals. Among these, populations of cattle and buffalo are 38.3 and 33.7 million respectively. The importance of cattle and buffalo cannot be denied at any level as these are the principal farming animals and milk and beef are widely consumed locally in the country. The estimated annual milk production of cattle and buffalo include 17.372 and 30.462 million tonnes respectively and a combined 1.829 million tonnes beef for human consumption during 2012-2013 (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-2013). Brucellosis, a worldwide bacterial zoonosis, is one of the most serious diseases causing huge loss to national economy and human beings among developing countries (Wu et al. 2013). The disease is endemic in Middle East, Central Asia, Africa, Mediterranean region and parts of Latin America (Gwida et al. 2010). Brucellae are Gram-negative bacteria, facultative anaerobic and intracellular pathogens. These show a wide range of host specificity. These coccobacilli measure from 0.6 to 1.5 µm long and 0.5 to 0.7 µm wide. Eight species have been identified in the genus Brucella such asBrucella abortus(B. abortus affecting cattle and buffalo), B. melitensis (sheep and goats), B. ovis (sheep), B. suis (swine), B. canis (dog), B. neotomae (desert rats), B. ceti (cetaceans) and B. pinnipedialis (pinnipeds) (Blasco 2010). This wide range of species covers almost all domestic animals however cats have found resistant. Generally it is considered as a reproductive problem in both male and female animals (Ficht 2003). Brucellosis has been listed as the second most serious zoonotic disease in the world after rabies by OIE (OIE 2009). B. abortus, the primary cause of Brucellosis in large ruminants, (cattle and buffalo), remains not only a significant threat as a source of human illness but also risks economy of the country (Makita et al. 2011). Present estimates of economic loss in meat and milk production resulting from Brucellosis are $800 million annually in the United States(OIE 2009). The incidence of the disease can be correlated to several factors including demographic and geographic factors(Soomro et al. 2014). Seroprevalence of the disease has been reported in different regions of Pakistan and ranges 3.25 to 4.4%(Naeem et al. 1990). Brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes can be recognized clinically by an abortion usually occurring form 6 months and onwards i.e. last trimester of pregnancy (Soomro et al. 2014). Brucellosis is principally a disease of sexually mature animals as it affects mainly the reproductive system and fertility of the animals. It significantly reduces the survival rate of newborns and also the milk yield (Sikder et al. 2012). Greyish white mucoid or mucopurulent discharges from the vagina, prior to parturition of cow, may show the clinical patterns of disease along withnormal patterns of parturition like swelling of the vulva, relaxation of pelvic ligament, enlargement of udder and discharge from the vulva (Shafee et al. 2012). Human infections as a result of Brucellosis range more than 500,000 annually round the world (Abo-Shehada and Abu-Halaweh 2011). Brucellosis can cause a wide range of symptoms similar to the flu and may also include fever (39-40°C), night sweats, headache, back pain and physical weakness. Severe form of infection may result in involvement of the central nervous system or the lining of the heart (Soomro et al. 2014). It is one of the principal public health problems for an agricultural country like Pakistan, where majority of the population is engaged in livestock farming (Shafee et al. 2012). Brucellosis in humans is a severely debilitating condition that usually requires prolonged treatment involving a combination of strong antibiotics. The treatment results in permanent and disabling sequel, and also in significant medical expenses along with loss of income due to loss of working hours. Brucellosis can be transmitted to humans by ways of inhalation, direct contact with infected animals or contaminated products of conception and ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat or meat products (Gwida et al. 2010; John et al. 2010). Brucellosis can also be transmitted from infected animals to human beings who are in close contact with animal secretions like infected vaginal secretions, blood, urine, feces, aborted fetus, or those who consume unpasteurized milk or other raw milk products. Shepherds, milkmen, butchers, knackers, veterinary assistants, and abattoir workers are at high risk (Agasthya et al. 2007) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2245-T] (1).

28. Prevalence Of Newcastle Disease In Backyard Poultry In District Mardan

by Muhammad Saeed (2013-VA-439) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Abdul Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Newcastle disease (ND) is very important viral diseases of poultry industry in the rural areas of Pakistan It is caused by Avian Paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) of the genus Rubulavirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. The outbreaks of ND are usually associated with various factors e.g. confinement of birds, mode of disposal of diseased birds, cadavers and poultry fecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short irregular temperature changes and the refilling of farms with chickens from the markets. The present study was conducted in randomly picked 30 clusters in three Union councils of Tehsil Takht Bhai District Mardan to investigate the seroprevalence of Newcastle Disease virus and its potential risk factor in non-vaccinated chicken raised under backyard management system. Serum were observed through Haemagglutination inhibition test for the confirmation of prevalence of Newcastle Disease. 165 were found seropositive and 45 were seronegative (antibody titres of 4 or less) for ND out of 210 sera samples. Overall weighted seroprevalence was found as 76.836%, 95% Cl (66.238-87.433) using R software. This means that NDV was circulating in backyard poultry of district Mardan, while data on risk factor were obtained through a detail predesigned questionnaire from the owner in a face to face interview translated into local language (Pushto) after taking written consent from the owner. To identify the risk factors for Newcastle Disease seroprevalence, multivariable logistic regression were performed. The result showed that live birds market stall near houses was strongly associated with NDV seroprevalence. Source of water from both type (public water supply and street channels) were also found strongly associated. A strong association was also observed between NDV seroprevalence and water source of street channels. Result also showed that cleaning of backyard premises was a protective factor against NDV with OR < 1. Another Summary 38 strong risk factor was live birds market stall near houses (OR 33.64, 95 % Cl: 6.49-174.28). The largest confidence interval showed less precision which could be due to less no. of samples. The identified estimate of seroprevalence of ND and its associated potential risk factor will be communicated to concerned persons through publication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2292-T] (1).

29. Isolation And Characterization Of Avian Isolates Of Lactobacilli Species And Their Antisalmonella Activity

by Anum Shaukat (2009-VA-220) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Prof. Dr. Mansur-Ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is second largest industry of Pakistan. Poultry industry is cheaper source of protein and provides jobs for more than 1.5 million people. It is facing several problems due to microbial diseases. Salmonella is one of the leading causes of diseases in poultry. These are being treated with antibiotics but misuse and overuse of antibiotics result in antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms. We need some alternatives for treatments. Lactobacilli are one of the alternatives to antibiotics used as probiotics. It has been found that the Lactobacilli of poultry origin have antimicrobial activity against Salmonella. Lactobacilli was isolated from the droppings, cloaca and caecum of rural poultry birds using deMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium. The isolates were screened for anti-Salmonella activity against S. enterica along with their properties to resist low pH and bile acids, antibiotic sensitivity, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation. The isolates showed anti-salmonella activity were identified using microscopic characters and biochemical profile. The isolates were confirmed by PCR using species specific primers and sequencing 16S rRNA gene. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA at significance level P value <0.05 by using the statistical software Graph Pad Prism version 5.3. The study was conducted on a total of 60 samples including caecal swabs (n=20), cloacal swabs (n=20) and dropping (n=20) of indigenous poultry. From these samples, five isolates were Summary 57 selected based upon the tests performed. Isolates namely CLB-41, CLB-45, PDL-13, PDL-26 and PDL-33 showed best results. Further characterization was done by PCR and sequencing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2313-T] (1).

30. Biological Studies on Various Avian Influenza Virus Types In Poultry

by Tariq Mahmood Shaukat (2003-VA-189) | Prof. Dr. Akram Muneer | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2390-T] (1).

31. Poultry Waste Management And Its Impact on Public Health In Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

by Muhammad Nauman Akhtar (2006-VA-150) | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2383-T] (1).

32. Isolation And Molecular Detection Of Salmonella Species In Milk And Milk Products

by Muhammad Umar Ijaz (2007-VA-040) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din-Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Salmonellosis is one of the emerging zoonotic diseases. Human infections result from contaminated raw or undercooked food. Various sources of contamination in milk are dirty udder, unhygienic handling and utensils, dirty hands of milkmen and poor quality water supply at the farm. To ensure food safety there is a dire need for the availability of valid, rapid and accredited diagnostic system. Conventional culture methods for detecting Salmonella spp. in foods needs 4–5 days. The development in molecular techniques made it possible to cut short the procedure. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the burden of Salmonella spp. in milk and milk products. In total 150 samples were collected, out of which there were 75 milk samples. These samples were collected from farm dairy herds (pooled milk) located in Harbanspura Dairy colony, Lahore. Salmonella was detected in 8 samples (11%) by conventional method. In addition to milk samples, 75 samples of milk products were also collected from retail shops. These include 50 samples of Yogurt and 25 samples of Yogurt milk. Milk products had 6 positive samples (8%). No sample of Yogurt was detected positive for Salmonella. The reason for this is that Yogurt had only Salmonella if it is present in starter culture. Furthermore yogurt is made after frequent heating. Salmonella is killed by such continuous and vigorous heating. Yogurt milk is prepared from Yogurt along with raw milk in a separate utensil. There are chances of contamination there so it had 6 positive samples. Total 14 (9%) samples were detected in 150 samples by conventional method. It was found that Salmonella was present in raw milk samples and milk products at places where either cleanliness was not proper, milk handling practices Summary 53 were not up to the mark, udder was not washed before milking or overall management practices were poor. Positive samples obtained by conventional method were further analyzed by PCR for Salmonella genus confirmation. Out of total 8 positive milk samples by conventional method, 5(62%) were confirmed as Salmonella genus. Similarly from 6 positive samples of milk products by conventional method, only 2(33%) were confirmed as of Salmonella genus. Further PCR was conducted for Salmonella typhimurium detection. Milk samples were containing 3(60%) positive samples while no positive sample was detected in milk products. On the basis of the results of present study, it is recommended that milk should always be boiled before use. Further Hygienic measures should be adopted during milking. Proper handling of milk and milk products is also important to limit the cross contamination. It is also advised that standards such as pasteurization and HACCP should be introduced to facilitate production of good quality milk. Electronic and print media should also create awareness among people about food safety. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2408-T] (1).

33. Effect Of EDTA As Chelating Agent In Extender On Post Thaw Quality Of Buffalo Bull Spermatozoa

by Nadir Hussain (2009-VA-128) | Dr. M. Usman Mehmood | Dr. Syed Murtaza Hassan Andrabi | Dr. M. Irfan-ur-Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pakistan is an agricultural country where livestock has main contribution in the agriculture. Livestock fulfils the demands of milk, meat and hides. Nili-Ravi is the most important and well developed breed of buffalo and also the highest milk producer among buffalo breeds. Artificial insemination (AI) is the main genetic improvement tool in domestic animals. Spermatozao is cryopreserved for A.I. but is prone to mechanical and biochemical damages during cryopreservation. Numerous strategies have been implemented to overcome this problem which include supplementation of different additives in semen extender to avoid the damages and improve post thaw quality. One of the reason for poor fertility with cryopreserved semen is early capacitation and acrosome reaction signaled by calcium. Early capacitation and acrosome reaction be suppressed by adding calcium chelators. Therefore, present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of EDTA as a calcium chelator in semen extender. The study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. Semen was collected twice in a week from 4 mature semen donor Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls maintained at same management conditions. Total of 4 ejaculates were collected and each ejaculate was further divided into 4 aliquots on the basis of EDTA concentration. Group I (0% EDTA), group II (0.1% EDTA), group III (0.2% EDTA) and group IV (0.3% EDTA). Semen was cryopreserved and on post thaw visual motility, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity and chromatin integrity were assessed. Sperm motility and motion characters were assessed through computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Through CASA, total motility %, VSL μm/sec (straight line velocity), VCL μm/sec (curve line velocity), VAP μm/sec (average path velocity), BCF (beat cross frequency), LIN % (linearity) and STR % (staginess) were observed. Observations of CASA was were taken at 2 different time intervals i.e. 30 and 60 minutes after post thaw. Data was analyzed by statistical Summary 31 software one way ANOVA (MINITAB v 12.22, State College, Pennsylvania, USA) and was presented as (mean ± SEM). Significant level was set to be (p<0.05). Group III improved visual motility, progressive motility %, plasma membrane integrity significantly (p<0.05). Results of BCF, VCL, VSL and VAP were highest in group III which differed with other three groups significantly (p<0.05). 0.3% EDTA deteriorated most of the parameters of semen observed. Control group and 0.1% behaved almost in similar pattern and no significant different was observed between these two groups but they did not improved all the parameters like group III. hence it can be concluded that 0.2% EDTA improves most of the semen parameters observed so it should be included in semen extender to have better post thaw quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2506-T] (1).

34. Epidemiology Of Bovine Tuberculosis And Its Public Health Significance In Peshawar

by Irfan Khatak (2011-VA-562) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Umer Sadique | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and associated risk factors in cattle and buffalo in Peshawar, Pakistan. Cattle and buffalo, randomly selected from all four towns of District Peshawar were screened for bovine tuberculosis using comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT). For obtaining data on risk factors, socio-demographic condition, animal characteristics and management, interviewer administered pretested questionnaire to animal owners. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to measure association between risk factors and comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin reactors. A total of 556 cattle and buffalo were screened for bovine tuberculosis. Out of 556 animals screened, 5.75% (3.9-8.0%) were found positive. The prevalence was higher in old animals (P= 0.001) as compared to younger animals. Prevalence also varied with source of animal (either raised on farm or purchased), stay of animals at night (indoor or outdoor) and herd size. Farmer’s knowledge about transmission of TB from animals to human as well as signs and symptoms of TB was extremely low. Only 3.6% farmers correctly stated the combination of three major symptoms of TB. Results of the study call for immediate intervention to control bTB in animals as well as its transmission to human population. Furthermore, it is suggested to emphasize on local epidemiology of bTB and husbandry practices of cattle and buffalo during the control program. To assess the presence of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in milk sold at retail shops and find the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about tuberculosis (TB) in the high risk M. bovis contaminated milk consumers, milk samples were obtained from 92 milk shops and analysed for presence of M. bovis. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and KAP about TB was Summary 152 obtained from 800 M. bovis contaminated milk consumers. Mycobacterium bovis was detected in 8.7% (8/92) milk samples. Although 97.4% of the participants had heard of TB but only 39.6% knew that cough lasts for more than 3 weeks was one symptom. Only 79.2% have awareness that TB can be prevented and the most frequently stated (48.4%) method of TB prevention was good nutrition. Participants believed that TB can be cured by prayers/ eating well (41.8%) and also by herbal cures/ consulting Hakeem (35.7%). Mean knowledge score for the participants was 12.1± 2.47 out of maximum 22. Mean knowledge score varied significantly with ethnicity, level of education and residential status (Urban vs rural). Overall knowledge about TB was low. Therefore community’s health education focused on increasing knowledge of TB must be initiated. This part of study was conducted to determine the occurrence of active pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. bovis in abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers and veterinarians and to document the Knowledge and practices of these professional regarding bTB. The cross sectional study included 141 abattoir workers, 317 butchers, 50 livestock farmers, 5 veterinary doctors and 3 veterinary assistants. Sputum samples were collected from those respondents who had chronic cough that last for more than 2 weeks. Four out of 16 suspected abattoir workers and 1 out of 50 livestock farmers were found positive for M. bovis by Polymerase chain reaction analysis. Duration of work as abattoir worker was found significantly associated (p<0.05) with occurrence of zoonotic TB. The knowledge of abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers and veterinary assistants regarding transmission of bTB from animal to human and symptoms of TB in human was very low. Most of these professional did not use protective material/ techniques and are considered at high risk of acquiring zoonotic tuberculosis. This study declares zoonotic tuberculosis a critical public health issue especially for professionally exposed groups in Summary 153 Peshawar, Pakistan and warrant immediate intervention for control of bovine and zoonotic tuberculosis. The last part of study aims to determine the proportion of zoonotic TB cases out of overall human TB patients and school children, drug resistance of M. bovis isolates and knowledge, attitude and practices about TB. Total 300 human TB patients and 100 school children were included in the study. Sputum samples were processed by PCR for presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis. Sputum samples from TB patients were cultured and M. bovis isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. Data on knowledge, attitude and practices were obtained from TB patients by administering pre-tested questionnaire. Among TB patietns 4% (12/300) were infected with M. bovis. None of the school children was positive for M. bovis. Residence, occupation, presence of animals at home and sleeping in shed at night was found significantly associated with occurrence of zoonotic TB. Except one all M. bovis isolates were resistant to Pyrazinamide. Among other drugs resistance to streptomycin and isoniazid was high. Low level of knowledge and practices were observed. The study concluded that considering zoonotic aspect of TB during diagnosis and treatment of TB is necessary and recommends national survey for true estimation of burden of zoonotic TB in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2540-T] (1).

35. Comparison Of Commercial Triladyl Extender With A Tris-Citric-Egg-Yolk (TCEY) Extender On Post-Thaw Semen Quality Of Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Muhammad Asad Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Cryopreservation of semen is the most important step for its usage in artificial insemination. Freezing of semen leads to a remarkable reduction in post-thaw semen quality. Therefore, selection of a better semen extender has always been considered priority that could serve as a good cryoprotectant.. Our semen production units (SPUs) have been using Tris based egg yolk semen extender since long time. Some modern SPUs like CEBG are using commercially available semen extenders for better post-thaw semen quality. After collection pooled semen divided into two equal aliquots in separate sterilized test tubes and kept in water bath at 37 ºC. Semen was diluted with each of extender (TCEY and Triladyl) on the basis of sperm concentration (40x106sperm/ ml). Diluted semen was placed bottles and placed in safety cabinet cooled to 4 ºC over and equilibrated for 4 hrs. After equilibration semen was filled in 0.5 ml French straws (20x106sperm/ 0.5 ml). All semen straws placed in automatic freezer 4cm above liquid nitrogen surface in vapors for 10 minutes. Liquid Nitrogen vapors used in automatic programmable freezer to reduce temperature from 4 ºC to -180 ºC and then plunged into liquid nitrogen -196 ºC for freezing and was stored until analyzed. The experiment was repeated for seven times (replicates = 07) CASA sperm motility parameter and kinematics were analyzed at Center of Excellence for Bovine Genetics (CEBG) Renala khurd District Okara. For further analysis frozen semen straws were brought to the Department of Theriogenology UVAS, Lahore. Effects of Triladyl and TCEY on post-thaw semen quality of the Nili Ravi buffalo semen were compared. Summary 54 In Triladyl group, significantly (P<0.05) higher post-thaw motility (PTM %), Plasma membrane integrity (PMI, %),) DNA integrity (%), Live percentage was found. However, no significant (P<0.05) difference was found regarding NAR results between both groups. Sperm abnormalities were found significantly lower in Triladyl group as compared to TCEY group. In overall assessment regarding and post-thaw CASA motility parameters, CASA motility, (PROG %), rapid (RAP %), medium (MED%), and slow (Slow, %) and sperm motility kinematics (VAP μm/sec), (VSL μm/sec), (VCL μm/sec), (ALH μm), (BCF HZ), (STR%) and (LIN%) Triladyl was found better than TCEY. This was concluded that use of commercial semen extender Triladyl resulted in significantly better post-thaw semen quality as compared to Tris citric egg yolk (TCEY) extender. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2581-T] (1).

36. Linking Childhood Obesity With Excessive Use Of Digital Media

by Hafiza Nida Rehmat (2014-VA-534) | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Ms. Tehreem Hussain | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Obesity is one of the most prevalent problems all over the world particularly in children and adolescence that could lead to sedentary behavior and influence the dietary habits of children. The television food commercials have bad impact on children and increased brand advertisements may lead to unhealthy consumption patterns. The hypothesis of the study was excessive use of digital media can lead to weight gain in children. The sample of 400 children of class 4-6 was taken from private schools, Daar-e-Arqam school, Himayat-e-Islam higher secondary school and Al-Huda Educational Institute, Lahore.. Children of age 9-11 years was included from middle class group (monthly income 30,000-70,000/-). The demographic measurements were obtained by each student while having a personal interview with them. The anthropometric measurements (heights, weights, BMI, TSF, MUAC and MAMC) were taken by using specific measuring tools. The height were measured by stadiometers, weights by weighing machine and other anthropometric measurements by abs plastic medical body fat skinfold caliper meter. Growth charts were used to assess the degree of malnutrition (over nutrition or under nutrition). The questionnaire was filled by asking questions to the children in order to assess the relationship of body weight and digital media. Descriptive statistics and chi square, Pearson’s correlation (SPSS version 20) was applied on the data to assess either digital media has positive or negative relationship with children’s body weight. The age, gender and class are significantly associated with nutritional status of the students. The students of Lahore Pakistan like to use mobile and laptop and the duration of using mobile or laptop is positively associated with health status of the individual. Student has very busy life and they do not have spare time to watch television so it is not significantly 49 associated with health status of the individual. In such case, students have low physical activity and increase sedentary behavior. Parents do not allow their children to go out for games or activities because of security concerns or restrictions on girls especially. The physical activity is negatively associated with health status of the individual. The dietary habits of the individuals are badly affected due to the trends of junk and fast food consumption but it is not associated with food marketing campaigns in this study. The food marketing campaigns target young children for selling their products by advertising them in prime time of children programs but due to busy schedule of the individuals , they do not have time to be effected by them. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2579-T] (1).

37. Seropravelance And Assosiated Risk Factor Of Avian Influenza Among Poultry Farm Workers/Handlers In District Lahore And Kasur

by Aneela Ilyas (2014-VA-512) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Avian Influenza is one of the most important zoonotic diseases which are a major concern for public health. Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is a potential source for the emer¬gence of human influenza pandemics (Fouchier et al., 2005; Olsen et al., 2006; Webster et al., 1992). The outbreaks of Avian Influenzas are usually associated with various factors e.g. do not wash hands after handling sick poultry and mortality, do not use of PPE’s (personal protective equipment), no dipping area, eating and drinking during working with poultry, confinement of birds, mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and poultry fecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short intermittent temperature changes and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets. Hypothesis: Avian Influenza A, H9 virus was prevalent and potential risk factors are associated with AIV disease. Parameter/Methodology: A cross sectional survey in poultry farm workers of district Lahore and Kasur would be conducted in order to determine seroprevalence of Avian Influenza. A study population was the apparently healthy poultry farm workers/handlers of District Lahore and Kasur of Province Punjab. Stage one cluster sampling technique was adopted and with the help of formula and 525 blood samples of poultry workers were taken from 38 selected clusters. Blood sample from apparently healthy poultry workers were collected from brachial veins. Blood (4-5ml) was collected in vacutainers and allowed to clot for separation of serum. Collected sera were stored in freezer at -70°C for further laboratory analysis. Haemagglutination assay (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test was applied on samples as per protocol of world health organization (WHO, 2013). I had to work on H5, H7 and H9 strains according to my topic but due to the non-availability of H5 and H7 live viruses I could not perform lab analysis. So, I worked only on H9 strain of AIV. Statistical Design: The proportion estimate with 95% Cl (Confidence Intervals) of the overall seroprevalence would compute by using “R” software. Descriptive analysis was conducted by using SPSS (version 20). Logistic regression (univariable and multivariable) was conduct to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000). Outcomes: The current study had provided useful estimates of risk factors related to AIV. The finding of above study will be published. These findings could be utilized by the policy maker to control the epidemics of AIV in population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2585-T] (1).

38. Effect Of Nutrition Education On Dietary Compliance Of Pre-Diabetics

by Aniqa Maqbool (2014-VA-520) | Ms. Tahreem Hussain | Dr.Sanaullah Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pre-diabetes or borderline diabetes, a condition characterized by impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance is a wakeup call to forestall the path leading to diabetes and its related complications. Nutrition education is thought to be a cornerstone in the prevention of chronic diseases. Intervening at right time through nutrition education will help to minimize the risk of diabetes. The current study hypothesized that nutrition education can improve dietary compliance in pre-diabetics. The current study was carried out on 400 participants who were interviewed and screened by arranging diabetes awareness camps arranged at Hafiz Medical and Diagnostic Centre. Filled questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Descriptive and inferential statistics was done to analyze data. The results of the current study showed positive effect of nutrition education on dietary compliance with improved blood glucose levels. The results showed compliance to go up with increasing education level (100% compliant in post-graduation) and importantly in extremely obese people (100%). Furthermore, it was observed that total calorie intake was significantly reduced by decrease in the intake of bakery products, starchy vegetables, refined sugar, sweets and desserts, fried products and sweetened carbonated beverages from baseline food consumption of pre-diabetics. Also, it was noted that consumption of fresh fruits, non-starchy and leafy vegetables was increased although not statistically significant but it replaced the refined carbohydrate intake thereby showing reduction in total percentage of carbohydrate consumed from total calories. Summary 83 Protein intake was statistically significant whereas percentage of fat consumed from total calories was not statistically significant between groups. Moreover, compliant pre-diabetics had significant improvement in fasting blood glucose levels on monitoring after 2 months of nutrition education whereas no statistically significant change was observed in anthropometrics measurements between groups although slight decrease was assessed in experimental group. Therefore, it can be concluded from the current study that nutrition education can definitively improve dietary compliance in pre-diabetics by good nutritional and lifestyle counseling. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2604-T] (1).

39. Isolation, Molecular Identification And Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Salmonella Enterica From Fancy Birds

by Aqeela Kousar (2010-VA-303) | Mr. Muhammad Asad Ali | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Salmonellosis is a disease with serious health issues related to food borne illness and most of world’s population is suffering from it. Early diagnosis in case is very important for treatment of disease. Salmonellosis may hidden as a carrier state, acts as zoonotic components for transmission of disease. Therefore the test with more diagnostic value needs to be developed like Polymerase chain reaction after culturing and microbiological examination.Salmonella enterica infections continue to pose a significant risk for poultry industry and fancy birds. Salmonella infections have been controlled by antibiotics but in recent times antibiotic resistance in microorganisms especially in Salmonella is a global health issue. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella has further compounded the problem. Poultry isolate of Salmonella enterica (n=150) were procured from Jallo park, Safari park and household pets which are taken to Pet Centre University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore then brought to Department of microbiology UVAS Lahore and identified by biochemical testing, morphology, staining characters and genus specific PCR. Antibiotic Susceptibility was checked by disc diffusion method against amoxicillin (30μg), ampicillin (10μg), cefixime (5μg), , ceftazidime (30μg), ceftriaxone (30μg), ciprofloxacin (5μg), gentamicin (10μg), nalidixic acid and tetracycline (30μg) and resistant pattern was 100 % in ampicillin and tetracycline and 41.18% and 58.82% % in gentamicin and ciprofloxacin respectively while antibiotic show 0% resistance. Fancy birds are carriers of drug resistant Salmonellae. A total of 150 samples collected from Zoo Lahore, safari park and household pet fancy birds each of n=50. Samples will enriched by non-selective and selective media, After isolation on selective media macroscopic, biochemical analysis and microscopic examination done. DNA Summary 53 extracted from culture isolated from cloacal swabs and polymerase chain reaction performed using primers. Amplication will be observed using Agarose gel electrophoresis. Research highlighted the prevalence of Salmonella in fancy birds and its possibility of transmission to human beings. Research also provided data on antibiotic resistance in Salmonellae from fancy birds and its possible role in ever increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2615-T] (1).

40. Salmonella Contamination In Vegetables Due To Irrigation With Wastewater In Lahore

by Muhammad Shahjahan Zafar (2009-VA-398) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Ms. Noor-ul-Hudda.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Salmonella has been one of the major food-borne pathogens for animals and humans for last many years. Many food borne outbreaks and other sporadic cases occur due to Salmonella in many countries. Foods of animal origin are considered major sources of Salmonella. However, Salmonella infections due to consumption of raw vegetables have occurred numerously in recent past. 30% of sewage water is directly used for irrigation purposes in Pakistan for various crops including vegetables. It may be the cause of Salmonella contamination. Apart from conventional microbiological techniques, nucleic acid amplification technologies have provided the opportunity for rapid detection of Salmonella from various sources, providing better sensitivity and superior specificity, thereby refining the administration of outbreaks by more rapid confirmation. Untreated wastewater is the major source of Salmonella contamination of vegetables. Vegetable sampling was done from field, wholesale and retail markets of Lahore city and wastewater sampling was done from River Ravi, Lahore Canal and other sources by using aseptic techniques and was transported at 4°C. Salmonella species was isolated by conventional methods and suspected colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests TSI and Urease Test. DNA was extracted through boiling and 10% chelex method. Molecular characterization of isolated strains was done through PCR. Antibiotic resistance of confirmed isolates were also checked. A total of 320 (Vegetable n=160, Wastewater n=160) samples were taken for present study for screening of salmonella microbial contamination in it. Different types of vegetables including Coriander (n=40), Mint (n=40), Carrot (n=40), Radish (n=40) were used for analysis. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 46 Wastewater samples were also collected from various sources like River Ravi (n=60), Lahore Branch Canal (n=60) and Kharak Nala (n=40). Salmonella was found in 4/40 (10%) samples of Coriander, 3/40 (7.5%) of Mint, 5/40 (12.5%) of Carrot, 3/40 (7.5%) of Radish and 33/160 (20.63%) of wastewater samples through PCR detection. Many of the isolates were found multi-drug resistant. This study revealed the presence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella species in vegetables and wastewater. All the vegetables studied were contaminated with Salmonella. This data was designed to find out the magnitude and real picture of the pathogen. It helped in drawing a relationship between Salmonella contamination of vegetables and irrigation of wastewater. As wastewater is the main reason for bacterial contamination of vegetables, measures should be adopted at governmental level for reduction of this contamination. Water disinfection practices and continuous water supply for irrigation can reduce the bacterial load. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2624-T] (1).

41. Prevalence Of Influenza Virus Among Children Of Tehsil Kot Radha Kishen

by Shamsa Rafique | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din-Ahmad | Dr. Amir Ghafoor Bajwa.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Influenza belongs to orthomyxoviridae with single stranded RNA genome. Influenza has three types namely A, B and C with further subtypes on the basis of hemaglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins that are H1, H2, H3, N1 and N2. Influenza infection causes headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sneezing and often fever with cough. Nose, lungs and bronchi are affected by it. Human influenza infection usually follows a period of 10-14 days with no residual effects. However, sometimes it may cause serious respiratory illness and rarely involve other body organs. On the other side, newly evolve strains of influenza have little immunity against them so these may cause serious illnesses and even lead to death. Various strains of influenza have caused epidemics, pandemics and zoonotic diseases at different times all over the world. This cross sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rate of influenza in Pakistan. Study period was 12 months. A cross sectional survey of Kot Radha Kishen, district Kasur was undertaken in children less than 15 years from 35 localities. Data was collected through two stage cluster sampling techniques. After a written consent, questionnaires were filled up. Total sample size was 245. In this study, Child aged less than 5% were 46%, 5-10 year were 40% and 10-15% were 14% including 50.8% female and 49.2%male children. Vaccination was completed in 86.4% and continued in 4.8%. However, 4.4% children were not immunized at all. These families were mostly shifted in that area after migration. During the survey 22% community showed their knowledge about seasonal influenza vaccination while 78% were ignorant of it. About 40.8% of community kept bird and 51% kept animal at home. Among those children, 33.2% children suffered from influenza like illness within the week of surveillance. Summary 53 Influenza contact history was positive in 33.2% of these cases. In case of illness 24.4% regularly took medicine from hospital While 34.8% population moved to traditional doctors for medicine and 17.2% took medicine from pharmacies without any doctor’s prescription. Prevalence estimates of human influenza were generated; associated risk factors were identified through this study. Results were shared with international community working for the control and eradication of human influenza Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2634-T] (1).

42. Relationship Of Parent’s Level Of Education And Socio-Demographic Variables With Child’s Immunization Status: A Cross-Sectional Study In The Rural Areas Of District Layyah

by Abida Zahoor (2012-VA-573) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Immunization is a very important element of public health. It is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, generally by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infections. It prevents against various communicable diseases such as Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Pertussis, Diphtheria, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Measles. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 parents having at-least one child under five years of age. Data was collected from the rural areas of district Layyah. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status on one hand and the effect of sociodemographic variables on child’s immunization status on the other hand. In this study, it was concluded that there was a significant association between parent’s level of education and the socioeconomic variables with child’s immunization status. Low rate of parent’s literacy, especially health literacy, poor socioeconomic status, large population size, parent’s refusal, difficulty in accessing immunization services and lack of health facilities were identified as the main barriers to immunization completion. As parent’s level of education is considered to be the corner stone in the progress of modern nation so education is a very important element as educated parents play a significant role in achieving the health of their children. It was concluded that there was a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The immunization status of children in the rural areas can be improved by higher household income, literacy, better Summary 41 health knowledge, exposure to media, maternal empowerment and mother’s participation in decision-making process. The policy makers should stress on the education of the people especially female education. Health awareness campaigns should be carried out so that parents can gain the benefits of vaccination. 6.1 Hypothesis Ho: there is no significant relationship between parent’s level of education and child’s immunization status. H1: Parent’s level of education has significant relationship on child’s immunization status 6.2 Methodology A cross-sectional study of six months duration from July 2016 to December 2016 was conducted in the rural areas of district Layyah in which parents of children under 5 years of age were interviewed about the immunization status of their children. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data. Data was collected from 200 parents living in the rural areas of district Layyah. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. 6.3 Statistical Design The dependent variable “child’s vaccination” and independent variables “parent’s educational level, household income, parent’s occupation and family composition” were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and Microsoft Excel. Data entry and analysis was done on SPSS-16. Chi-square test was used for statistical testing. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Cross Summary 42 tabulations were done among dependent and independent variables. Chi-square test was applied on different sociodemographic factors and child’s immunization status to define the significant associations. 6.4 Study Outcomes It is concluded that there is a significant association between literacy status of parents, income status of parents and the immunization status of children. The major benefit of this study is that, the research findings can be used to assess the relationship of parent’s education with child’s immunization status and to find out those factors which are the main hindrance in child’s vaccination coverage. It will also provide new dimensions for further research related to child immunization and the health managers will find new facts and figures that will help them to make national decisions with the certainty of success. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2654-T] (1).

43. Comparison Of Conventional And Modern Diagnostic Techniques For Bovine Tuberculosis With Associated Risk Factors

by Arslan Tariq (2014-VA-960) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Mansur-Ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial disease of cattle that occasionally affects other species of mammals. It is a zoonotic disease that can be spread to humans, typically by the inhalation of aerosols or the ingestion of unpasteurized milk. The present study was conducted to diagnose tuberculosis in cattle and buffalo by using conventional method of Tuberculin. Later on, the positive samples of tuberculin test were tested on ELISA and PCR. Additionally, associated risk factors including the age, sex, breed and body condition were also investigated. One hundred and ninety-two sexually mature animals of age 2-8 years for detection of tuberculosis were selected randomly from four organized farms in eastern wing Lahore district. The animals were divided into two main experimental groups labeled as group B (Buffalos) and group C (Cows). Each group was further sub-divided into 3 sub-groups namely B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3 with age group of below 4y, 4-6y and over 6y respectively. On the basis of tuberculin test number of positive cases of bovine tuberculosis in buffalo were 7.29 % while in cattle were 11.46% out of total 96 animals of each group. On the basis of diagnosis with ELISA-IFN-γ assay, percentage of positive cases were 71.43% and 72.73 % respectively out of tuberculin positive samples. Whereas the percentage of positive cases in case of PCR of buffalo and cattle were 85.71% and 90.91% respectively. Number of positive cases in buffalo at age below 4 years, 4-6 years more than 6 years were observed as 1, 2 and 4 respectively. While in cattle, number of positive cases were found to be 2, 3 and 6. In case of buffalo, number of positive cases of bovine tuberculosis in male and female were 2 and 5 respectively. In cattle, 4 males and 7 females were declared as positive. In case of buffalo, number of positive cases of bovine tuberculosis in Nili Ravi (pure breed) and non-descript breeds were 2 and 5 respectively. Number of positive cases in case of indigenous and exotic breeds Summary 41 of cattle were 3 and 8 respectively. In buffalo, only 1 animal with good body condition was found positive against bovine tuberculosis, while 2 animals with fair body and 4 animals with poor body condition were observed as positive cases. In case of cattle, only 1 animal with good body condition, 3 with fair body condition while 7 with poor body condition were declared as positive cases. It can be concluded from the study that Modern techniques are more specific than conventional techniques. It is also deduced from study that cattle are more susceptible to bovine tuberculosis rather than buffalo. Moreover, female animals were more prone to infection than that of male, older animals were found to be infected more frequently than that of younger animals. Animals with poor body conditions were at high risk of infection than animals with good body conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2648-T] (1).

44. Case Control Study Of Brucellosis And Its Associated Risk Factors At Commercial Dairy Farms

by Amna Riaz (2008-VA-257) | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Brucellosis, is a febrile, zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. It is a second most important zoonotic disease after rabies. (WHO, OIE, FAO). Brucella is gram negative, aerobic, non-spore forming and non-motile coccobacilli. (Gull and Khan, 2007).The main signs are abortion after fifth month of pregnancy, still births, birth of weak calves, infertility, placentitis in females and in male’s epididymitis and orchitis. Due to its zoonotic nature farm labors, butchers, veterinarians and slaughter house workers are at high risk. Signs in human brucellosis are highly variable i.e., flu, rising and falling of temperature and causes many other complications in the body. (Baba et al.2001; Grillo et al. 2006; Shimol et al. 2012). Standard tests for brucellosis are Rose Bengal Precipitation Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT) (Memish et al, 2002). Its control is very difficult due to its variable incubation period, long survival time in both extracellular and intracellular environments, asymptomatic stages and resistant to the treatment, co-mingling, increasing population size and nomadism (Rahman et al. 2006). The case study was conducted on the commercial dairy farms situated in the catchment area of University Diagnostic Laboratory, UVAS Lahore which were located Lahore, Kasur and Sheikhupura districts in Punjab. The data about positive and negative farms was obtained from university diagnostic lab, UVAS, Lahore. A predesigned questionnaire was filled from that farm workers in face to face interview. The sample size was calculated by the formula given by Schlesselman, 1982. The parameters for calculation of the sample size were power of study kept at 80% with 95% confidence interval. Total 90 samples were included (cases= 45, controls=45). Data was analyzed using chi-square. All statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 0.05. In this study, absence of the calving pens at the farm, feeding and water practices, presence of streams and lakes near the farm and breeding practices show the strong association with this disease,by controlling the above factors and improving management at the farm can low the occurrence and spread of the disease in animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2664-T] (1).

45. Epidemiology Of Influenza Virus H5n1 In Islamabad Capital Territory

by Zahida Fatima (2005-VA-246) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Khalid Naeem | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The poultry sector in Pakistan is the second largest industry that contributes to the national gross domestic products (GDP) and remains a major source of nutrition (protein and energy) for human population in Pakistan. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) outbreaks due to H5N1 virus in poultry have been recorded in over 62 countries, indicating the contagious nature of the disease and its potential to infect various avian species. These HPAI outbreaks in poultry have lead to killing/culling of around 120 million birds in various countries. During 2009, the Avian Influenza continues to occur in poultry in China, Hong Kong, India, Egypt, Nepal, Bangladesh and Canada . In Pakistan, an HPAI outbreak due to H7N3 virus was first observed in 1994-95 and those due to H9N2 virus in broiler and layer chickens were recorded between late 1990’s and early 2000. During the period between 2006 and 2008, poultry heavily suffered due to multiple outbreaks caused by H5N1 virus. The country experienced several and severe HPAI subtype H5N1 outbreaks during 2006-2008 in commercial poultry farms mostly, causing mass economic losses. In Pakistan all the four poultry production system exists being identified by FAO. The present study was conducted in peri-urban areas of ICT Islamabad, capital of Pakistan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the outbreaks due to HPAIV H5N1 in 2006-2007 in ICT and identify the pattern and trends of these outbreaks. For this purpose descriptive epidemiological study was conducted and data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire regarding farm demography, culling, morbidity and mortality. The result statistical analysis showed a significantly (P< 0.05) higher morbidity, mortality, case fatality and culling rate in layers farms than breeders and broilers respectively. Layers and breeders of old ages were mostly affected with having higher mortality and culling in comparison to younger age layer and breeder commercial farms. The mean morbidity and mortality rates ranged 57–95% and 5-43% correspondingly. After the HPAIV H5N1 first reported outbreak in Pakistan in 2006 culling strategy was adopted after devastating outbreaks regularly reported from throughout the country. The reasons behind these emerging epidemics were unknown and several hypotheses were given birth after these outbreaks. Knowledge regarding potential risk factors responsible for HPAIV H5N1 epidemics in commercial poultry farms in Pakistan was lacking. Therefore we conducted a longitudinal cross sectional survey (1:1 matched case control study) to identify potential risk factors at farm level responsible for 2006-2007 HPAIV H5N1 infection in poultry in ICT. Information on farm characteristics, biosecurity practices and farm management were collected. Logistic regression model on data was used to unveil the potentially associated risk factors with cases (farms confirmed HPAI H5N1 Positive). Several candidate variables were studied and investigated for association. The results multivariable logistic regression showed that farm location such as in urban area (P<0.05: OR=18.50), wild birds entry (P<0.05: OR= 12.66) and farms situated in highly dense poultry populated area (P<0.05:OR=4.50) were found significantly associated with outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in commercial poultry farms during 2006-2007 epidemics in the study area. Live bird markets (LBMs) are essential for poultry marketing in developing countries like Pakistan. One year active disease surveillance for influenza viruses in avian species in LBMs in ICT area was conducted in 2011. LBMs in Pakistan are typically urban that brings together many avian species produced by different suppliers. Which make LBMs in Pakistan a potential source of HPAIV viruses as well as other emerging poultry pathogens i.e. new castle disease virus,infectious bronchitis etc. The results of the present surveillance data showed that seroconversion against H5N1 and H9N2 is present in LBMs bird species which were isolated from different samples like serum, cloacal, nasal samples and organ samples.This indicates the continuous threat of AIV viruses circulating in the live bird markets set up of Pakistan. Findings of these studies will help to tailor control and prevention measure against devastating outbreaks in future regarding the local circumstances of commercial poultry farms as well as in LBMs. These studies also succeeded to unveil the true reasons behind these devastating outbreaks and their higher impact on poultry industry. Such type of surveillance programs will be useful in future to investigate several emerging diseases and outbreaks in Pakistan and other developing countries. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2700-T] (1).

46. Molecular Epidemiology Of Mycobacterium At The Animal Human Interface And Its Co-Morbidity With Diabetes Mellitus

by Zarfishan Tahir (2011-VA-624) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Abdul Majeed Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and fatal infectious disease which has afflicted mankind for several millennia. At the moment, TB is positioned at number five when it comes to the most common causes of fatality worldwide. TB is curable if it is properly diagnosed and treated. In 2015, it was estimated that 1.5 million deaths (an equivalent of 4,000 deaths per day) and 9 million new TB cases have been reported. Diabetes Mellitus is also widely distributed and estimated to affect 366 million people by 2030. The co-morbidity of DM and TB is re-emerging because of the progressive epidemiology of both diseases especially in the developing countries. Endemicity of TB and DM is growing in developing countries because of low socio-economic status and poor living conditions. In this study, a total of 500 tuberculosis positive patients were selected under TB DOTS program from five tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Sputum samples were collected from all the enrolled patients and smear microscopy was performed for TB confirmation. Blood samples were collected from the same patients for screening of diabetes mellitus. Sputum samples were also processed for culture and drug sensitivity on LJ medium. Molecular identification by PCR technique was carried out on all positive cultured strains and results were compared with reference strain H37RV. For DNA sequencing, PCR products were sent to Singapore where sequencing was performed by Sanger method. Data was compiled and variables including gender, age, drug resistance and treatment history and correlation among different variables was analyzed using chi-square test and Fischer’s exact test method at P-value of ≤0.05. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 20.0) was used for statistical analysis. The count data was statistically analyzed using SUMMARY 124 descriptive statistical tools. On screening for fasting blood sugar level, 74 (14.8%) patients were recorded as diabetics as well i.e. blood sugar level ≥ 126 mg/dl. Out of these 74 patients, 22 patients had previous history of diabetes whereas remaining 52 patients were newly diagnosed at the time of screening. The maximum distribution of TB-DM patients was found in age group > 57 years. Mean age of the group without DM was 39 years and with DM was 48 years. Coexistence of DM in TB patients was higher in males (62.2%) as compared to female study subjects. However, the gender difference is statistically non-significant (p value 0.243). The distribution of education level revealed that out of the total participants, maximum number of patients (n=220) were illiterate and similar trend was observed in diabetic patients with 54 (73%) individuals belonging to the illiterate group of the subjects. There is statistically significant difference between existence of DM and literacy level in tuberculosis patients. Among social and behavioral risk factors in tuberculosis patients, majority of the patients were unemployed (24%) in TB-DM group. Significant correlation p value ≤ 0.05 was found between coexistence of TB-DM and tobacco use. TB cases with diabetes were known to have history of smoking with 73% (n=54) while non-smokers were 27% (n=20). On sputum smear microscopy frequency of 3+ results showing high bacterial load, was profoundly higher i.e. 67.6% in diabetic tuberculosis patients as compared to non-diabetics which was 4.9% only. Total culture yield was 363 out of 500 sputum samples. There were 193 samples that were sensitive to all drugs, 9.4% were MDR strains (resistant to Isoniazid and Rifampicin). MDR-TB is significantly higher in TB-DM patients i.e. 13.5% as compared to 8.7% in TB only patients. In our study, DNA sequence data for drug resistance was studied by the sequence of rpoB gene of the wild type MTB strain. Sequencing results showed mutations at various spots of rpoB gene. SUMMARY 125 Most common mutational sites identified were at codon 531, 526 and 516 with frequency of 70%, 15% and 7.5%, respectively. Moreover, mutation sites at 512 and 574 codon had also been reported. In this study, predominantly two phylogenetic variants were identified. Majority of the isolated strains were Central Asia Strain (CAS) with a prevalence of 88.2% and rest were Beijing strain. However, attempts to find zoonosis could not be established. A total of 900 raw milk samples were also screened for M. bovis and no positive sample could be detected. The present study emphasizes the importance of screening for DM in TB patients, which had not been done in routine. This practice may prove to be helpful in reducing the disease burden of TB patients as well as DM patients. Thus it is recommended that the screening for DM should be implemented in TB/DOTS clinics. Emergence of Multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also a serious challenge for clinicians. A very large financial implication in terms of treatment, duration of chemotherapy and spread of MDR TB strains is being faced. Treating MDR TB is more complicated than treating drug sensitive TB. Patients with MDR TB require longer, much more costly treatment and experience higher mortality rates. Such a long time to initiate the treatment is not affordable, thus there is a dire need for some rapid technique like molecular based diagnostics for MDR detection, which can provide quick results and making it possible to start treatment at earlier to minimize transmission, morbidity and mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2710-T] (1).

47. A Case Control Study Of Risk Factors Of Periodonitis In Pregnant Women In District Faisalabad

by Sehar Yousaf (2014-VA-539) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | DR. MamoonaChaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Good oral health is the indicator of good general health of an individual. Poor oral hygiene is the most important factor to cause dental diseases. Severe form of gingivitis called periodontitis. Periodontal disease affects the gum and jaw bone. If periodontitis is not treated in the early stages it become worse due to increased production of clavicular fluid, which contains inflammatory mediators and bacterial flora that can damages the periodontium. Gingival health is compromised during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. This is called pregnancy gingivitis which is initial stage of periodontitis. A matched case control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of periodontitis during pregnancy. Study duration was three months and it was conducted in tertiary care hospitals of Faisalabad (Madina teaching hospital, D.H.Q, Allied hospital).Cases were matched on the bases of month of pregnancy and number of pregnancy with control. Study sample was 282 (141 cases and 141 controls). Data were collected through questionnaire which comprises of two sections one is demographic data and one is questions related risk factors. Data was entered on SPSS software value was less than 0.05 and confidence interval was 95%. Multi logistic regression test was applied to identify the potential risk factors of periodontitis. Results have been shown the different risk factors which are capable of cause periodontitis. The most significant risk factors e.g. family history, systemic illness in which diabetes and hypertension were most common, poor eating habits due to lack of knowledge about oral health were common. Results have been shared with health authorities of concerned hospitals. Results cannot be generalized on the whole population due to its less sample size. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2695-T] (1).

48. Prevalence Of Campylobacteriosis Among Diarrheic Children And Its Associated Risk Factors

by Zahra Aziz Butt (2014-VA-985) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Miss Noor-ul-Hudda.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Campylobacteriosis is an acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea (which could be bloody), fever and abdominal cramps. Campylobacter is becoming a leading cause of bacterial diarrheal disease worldwide. Campylobacter is a food born pathogen that can transmit to children through unhygienic practices by mother during feeding, through contact with pets, or consumption of raw milk, milk products, vegetables, undercooked poultry meat and contaminated water. It can leads to fetal outcome in children. Post infection complications can lead to reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS). So the study was design to measure the prevalence and associated risk factors of Campylobacteriosis among children suffering from acute diarrhea in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore. A total of 41 stool samples were collected through systematic random sampling from children having complaint of acute diarrhea visiting a tertiary care hospital (MAYO Hospital) in Lahore. The samples were transported within 6 hours of collection and cultured on modified charcoal cefparazone deoxycholate agar and incubated at 42ᴼC for 42 hours for isolation of Campylobacter. Then the samples were purified and various biochemical tests as catalase,3.5% NaCl stress, and 1% glycine stress were performed. Out of 41 samples 7 showed no growth on charcoal agar. Out of 34 samples that showed growth on charcoal agar 14 were positive biochemically. So the prevalence was found to be 34%. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 version. Descriptive statistics was applied to check the frequencies of different risk factors. Risk factors like sociodemographics and other risk factors related to hygiene as house member suffering from diarrhea, playing of child in muddy areas, use of raw milk, bottle feeding, use of common latrines, washing of latrines, presence of Summary 49 pets in house, access of pets to kitchen, restaurant eating and travelling to any other area were studied. Chi square test was applied to check the association of different risk factors with Campylobacteriosis. Three factors as washing of hands by mother before preparing food, frequency of washing of latrines and consumption of food from restaurant before onset of illness were found to be associated with the Campylobacteriosis. Campylobacteriosis is an important disease of children which is underestimated in Pakistan due to deficient knowledge in subject and financial constraints. Adequate awareness of hand washing, good hygiene, proper cooking of food and boiling of drinking water can be important in preventing infection. Careful attention should be given on the disease and further studies should be conducted about the disease to study upcoming status of the disease . Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2734-T] (1).

49. Epidemiological Investigation of rRisk Factors of Mastitis in Dairy Buffalo and Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus

by Abid hussain2010-va-261 | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud din ahmad.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Phd. Availability: No items available

50. Burden Of Respiratory Illness Related To Influenza Among Oupatient And Inpatients Healthcare Facility Centers District Sheikhupura

by Ayesha Mukhtar (2014-VA-1052) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness in humans. Influenza viruses have negative-sense RNA genomes and are placed in the Orthomyxoviridae family grouped into three types A, B and C on the basis of the internal nucleocapsid or the matrix protein. Droplet and airborne are the most common modes of transmission. In Humans infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected person or infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments.Globally the annual attack rate with influenza viruses ranges between 5 to10% in adults and 20- 30 % in children. The WHO estimates that 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness occur every year resulting in 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide, with most influenza deaths occurring among adults over 65 years of age. Influenza is the cause of outpatient visits and inpatient hospitalization among population of District Sheikhupura. A prospective study for duration of 3 months (September to october) was performed in Tehsil Muridke District Sheikhupra. Population of Tehsil Muridke is 4, 52,009. We selected Tehsil headquarter hospital randomly as sentinel sites .Our Target population was cases of ILI and SARI. All cases of influenza like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) who meets the inclusion & exclusion criteria was enrolled. Data was obtained by the face to face interview. A detail investigation form was filled after taking written consent form. Throat swab was collected from patient. The sample was stored at -70°C for further laboratory procedure. We will use Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of type of the influenza virus. RT-PCR allows viral template RNA to be reversed transcribed producing complementary DNA (cDNA) which can then be amplified and detected. So in our Study we used RT-PCR for influenza virus detection. Data analyzed by using SPSS software with 95% confidence interval. Chi-square test used to measure the association of risk factors (age, sex, occupation, exposure, healthcare worker, travelling etc) and the rate of morbidity and mortality was calculated by using standard formulae. We identified ILI and SARI cases associated with outpatients and inpatients & also provided data to identify and monitor groups at high risk for influenza and will measure trends in morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2805-T] (1).

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