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1. Prasitic Contamination Of Vegetables Eaten Raw In Lahore

by Shafa-ul-Haq | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Fresh vegetables are important part of human diet. Eating raw vegetable is customary in many parts of the world including Pakistan, but these raw vegetables can be a major source of parasites. A parasitic survey on vegetables collected from major markets in Lahore was conducted for the discovery of human and animal parasites. Ten species of vegetables: beet (Beta vulgaris), cabbage (Brassica denceal), carrot (Davcus carota) chili (Capsicum frutecense), coriander (Corriandum sativum) cucumber (Cucumis sativa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Mint (Mentha viridis), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun) were evaluated in this study. Fifty samples of each vegetable were taken, comprising a total of 500 samples for the study. Hundred gram of each vegetable was washed with a cationic solution of Hyamin detergent containing glass particles for the elution of eggs. Concentration of eggs/cysts was achieved by centrifugal sedimentation technique at 5000 rpm for 5 minutes. Sediment was examined under microscope for the presence of parasite eggs, cysts and larvae. Examination of vegetables revealed twelve genera of parasites. All vegetables were highly contaminated with parasites with an overall prevalence of 31.2%. Of parasites studied, Ascaris eggs found to be the highest (37.1%), followed by Hook worm(10.8%) and Trichostrongyloides sp.(8.9%), while the least common parasite was Toxoplasma gondii (1.9%). Lettuce showed the highest contamination (48%), followed by Cabbage (44%) and Mint (podina) (42%) while chili showed the least contamination (16%). The results would seem to indicate that one of the important routes of parasitic infection is due to consumption of raw and unwashed vegetables. So, enlightenment programs for the public on necessity of food sanitation and personal hygiene should be intensified. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1419,T] (1).

2. Evaluation Of Adulticidal And Larvicidal Efficacy Of Zadirachta Indica (Neem) And Lantana Camara (Punch Phul) Extracts

by Asemah Anwar | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Pakistan is one of sub-tropical countries and its climatic conditions favor parasitic diseases along with disease vectors including mosquitoes. Mosquitoes of genus Aedes are causing Dengue fever. It has become one of infectious vector born disease of world. Annually it is striking around 100 million people with dengue fever and about 5 Lac people with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), resulting in 5 % deaths per year. Current study was conducted to evaluate efficacies of plant extracts against dengue fever mosquitoes of Aedes genus. Study target was to search some safer alternates than that of chemical pesticides. Also exhibiting characteristics like less toxic to environment, do not induce resistance in mosquitoes, do not harm non-targeted organisms, would not be toxic to human beings and will have biodegradation ability. Study has evaluated indigenous plants extracts as potent larvicidal and adulticidal materials. Mosquitoes were collected from different areas of Lahore and they were identified upto genus level only Aedes genus was identified upto species level, then Aedes aegypti was reared in laboratory to have F 1 generation, to have mosquitoes and larvae for testing the activity of plant extracts. Plant materials were collected from different areas of Lahore. Methanolic extracts of seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica and lantana camara respectively, were extracted accordingly. Stock solutions were prepared from these extracts and then out of this serial dilutions were made. Experiment was performed in four groups A, B, C & D for both adults and larvae. Each group was representing total of 25 larvae/adult out of which one was kept untreated as negative control, one with deltamethrin as positive control while two were provided with test concentrations. LC50 and LC90 was determined by Probit analysis, using SPSS version 13.0 SPSS inc. 2004. lethal concentrations of A. indica mosquitocidal assay were LC50=30.44 mg/l and LC90=62.36 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=-9.87mg/l and LC90=59.102 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was significant for 24 h while for 48 h it was not significant. Maximum mortality observed after 24 and 48 hrs is 99% at 70 ppm. DMR test shows after 24 hrs., all treatment means are significantlt different from each other, from control and from mean of insecticide's mortality, control is significantly lower while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. after 48 hrs. treatments were significantly different from each other while treatment mortality at 70 PPM is significantly higher than insecticide treated group and rest. Lethal concentrations for L. camara adulticidal assay were LC50=60.40 mg/l and LC90=113.61 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=48.20 mg/l and LC90=79.31 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was not significant at 24 h and is significant at 48 h. DMR test after 24 hrs. treatment, control and insecticide treated were significantly different from each while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. After 48 hrs 4 and 5 treatment groups were found significantly higher than rest Larvicidal assay of A. indica has shown LC50 =52.36 mg/ l and LC90=105.42 mg/ l after 24 h and LC50 =80.70 mg/l and LC90=145.73 mg/ l after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 values for both 24h and 48h were not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. insecticide treated was significantly lower than all above treatment groups. Treatment group 7 has significantly higher mortality than all other. After 48 hrs. there was not any significant difference. Lethal concentrations for L. camara LC50 =100.76 mg/100 ml and LC90=198.22 mg/100 ml at24 h and LC50 =61.27 mg/100 ml and LC90= 122.45mg/100 ml after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 value for both 24h and 48h was not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. shows insecticide treated group i.e. 8 is significantly lower than all treatment groups except 1 which is at lowest treatment. After 48 4, 5 and 6 had came to same activity level no significant difference was found and were higher than all others. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that crude plant extracts can act as potential Adulticide / Mosquitocide and Larvicides, though these are required in higher concentrations than that of synthetic insecticides and purified botanical products, but they have advantage of posssessing less resistance presentation and safe for aquatic life. It is also concluded that chemical insecticide used i.e. Deltamethrin has higher efficacy as adulticidal with drastic effects on environment and other beneficial insects. But it was found least effective as larvicidal compared to crude plants extracts. It is suggested that plant extracts can prove a better, safer and cheaper alternate these should consider as a better alternate to control most lethal disease of present time i.e. Dengue fever by eradicating its vector i.e. Aedes aegypti mosquito. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1475,T] (1).

3. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Various Endoparasites In Pheasants

by Bushra Nazeer | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Anjum | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The study was designed to check the prevalence of nematodes in pheasants. A total of 200 faecal samples (100 from Lahore Zoo & 100 from Jallo Park Lahore) were collected from pheasants. Faeces were examined by using direct smear and centrifuge floatation technique. Forty six out of 200 Pheasants were found to be infected with nematodes. The overall prevalence of nematodes was 23%, while 20% & 26% prevalence was reported for Lahore Zoo & Jallo Park Lahore respectively. The overall species wise prevalence of nematodes reported as, Capillaria, Ascaridia, Coccidia, Trichostrongylus and Heterakis 23.9%, 30.4% 19.6%, 2.2% and 23.95 respectively. Then forty five birds were selected for chemotherapeutic trial by using fenbendazole and tetramisole and checked the efficacy of these drugs against the nematodes. The decrease in mean of EPG in faecal samples was calculated before and after treatment. All the Pheasants in group A were treated with tetramisole and mean EPG was 1000 at day 0 (before treatment). The reduction in mean EPG after treatment was observed 293, 220 and 367 on days 3, 7 and 18 respectively and tetramisole efficacy was 71%, 78% and 63%. The lowest (63%) tetramisole efficacy was calculated after 7 day, likewise highest (78%) on day 7 after treatment. The overall percentage efficacy of tetramisole was calculated 71% during this drug trial. On the other hand in group B the mean EPG was 961 before treatment (on day 0). The mean EPG was calculated 226, 193 and 327 on days 3, 7 and 21 respectively after fenbendazole treatment, indicating the egg load reduction 76%, 80% and 65% respectively. In group B, the highest reduction load (80%) of eggs was calculated on day 7 after medication, on contrary 65% on day 18 (post-treatment). The significant difference (p<0.05) was seen in EPG before and after treatment with anthelmintic in group A and B. The efficacy of fenbendazole was found highly significant (p<0.02) than tetramisole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1600,T] (1).

4. Comparative Efficiency Of Coprological Identificatiocn With Sensitive Detection Of Cryptosporidium By PCR In Domestic and Commercial Chickens

by Hafiz fahad nazir | Dr. Nisar ahmad | Prof DR. Azhar maqbool | Prof. DR. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2010,T] (1).

5. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Canine Babesiosis

by Faisal Shrif | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. MUhammad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2117,T] (1).

6. Taxonomy And Control Of Flea Infestation In Cats At Lahore

by Umair Tariq (2008-VA-233) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: INTRODUCTION Fleas play an important role in causing clinical skin disorders and diseases transmission in man and pets animals (Rust & Dryden, 1997). Fleas are one of the most important ectoparasites with more than 2,000 species worldwide affecting mammals, birds, and reptiles (Hsu, 2003). In some locations, fleas represent over 50% of all the dermatological cases presented to small animal clinics. Most are limited to hosts with nests as this can provide conditions for the completion of their life cycle (Linardi & de Avelar, 2014). While fleas on pets are generally considered a nuisance that may cause some dermatologic problems, they are also responsible for the transmission of several important diseases in humans and animals (Dryden & Rust, 1994). They have been involved in transmission of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) (Chomel et al., 2006; Comer et al., 2001), Rickettsia typhi (Murine thyphus), Rickettsia felis (Finkelstein et al., 2002; Rolain et al., 2005), and also serve as the intermediate host for the tapeworm Dipylidium caninum (Rust & Dryden, 1997) and several trypanosomatids (Coutinho & Linardi, 2007). The term ‘‘cat flea,’’ which is the approved common name for Ctenocephalides felis felis (C. f felis), can occasionally cause confusion. When it appears in print, it refers to the specific flea genus and species and not to fleas recovered from cats. There are four recognized subspecies of C. felis throughout the world: Ctenocephalides felis damarensis and C. felis strongylus occur primarily in East Africa, C felis orientis occurs in India and Australia, and the widespread C. f felis occurs in all continents except Antarctica and is the only subspecies that occurs in North America (Rust & Dryden, 1997). The cat flea, C. felis, is a clinically important parasite of domestic pets, being responsible for the production of allergic dermatitis, serving as the vector of Introduction 2 various bacterial pathogens, and being the intermediate host for filarid and cestode parasites. Flea allergy dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disease of dogs and a major cause of feline miliary dermatitis (Dryden & Rust, 1994; Rust & Dryden, 1997). Clinical features vary from asymptomatic to severe hypersensitivity reactions with restlessness, alopecia from scratching and biting resulting in a pruritic papular dermatitis. Vacuuming of carpets, furniture cushions, rugs, or other substrata, with a vacuum machine containing a ‘‘beater bar,’’ will remove many of the flea eggs and larvae. In addition, cocooned pupae at the upper levels of the carpet can also be affected. The vibration also stimulates adult fleas to emerge from their cocoons so that they can be collected in the vacuum machine. Therefore frequent vacuuming, during a flea infestation, can reduce the overall flea burden in the home. It should be ensured that vacuum bags are disposed of properly, to prevent recolonization of the home with flea stages previously removed by vacuuming. Because outdoor development of immature flea life stages is limited to shaded areas, altering outdoor environments to eliminate such habitats can effectively reduce flea populations. Because urban wildlife, such as opossums, raccoons, and foxes, are good hosts for cat fleas, pet owners should avoid encouraging visitations by wildlife, which will affect flea and tick control (see later discussion). Treatment of indoor and outdoor environments with insecticides requires knowledge of what to use and where to use it. For this reason, it is suggested that pet owners consult with a licensed pest control specialist for such applications (Angelbeck-Schulze et al., 2014; Perrins & Hendricks, 2007). In line with increasing urbanization over the last few decades, flea species that infest pets have become household pests. Thus, and for reasons of animal and human welfare, the control of fleas is of great importance worldwide. Despite the increase in the number of products available and Introduction 3 their use, flea infestation of cats and dogs is still widespread in Europe and on other continents, whereas resistance of these insects against many chemicals has been detected (El-Gazzar et al., 1986). Cat fleas are the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide. During the past ten years, topical and oral applications of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, lufenuron and, most recently, selamectin have revolutionized cat-flea control. Recent studies show that these therapies eliminate the need to treat indoor and outdoor environments, and their use markedly reduces the severity and prevalence of flea allergic dermatitis. Surveys have yet to reveal the development of insecticide resistance to these chemical compounds. Extending the longevity of these effective host-targeted therapies should be a major goal of the veterinary community (Rust, 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2253-T] (1).

7. Conventional And Molecular Characterization Of Theileria Species Prevalent In Cattle

by Fafiz Muhammad Nadeem (2003-VA-77) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theileriosis is the destructive disease caused by the protozoan in cattle. It is major cause of huge losses in production of cattle. It is a wide spread protozoan syndrome of cattle playing foremost role in production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in reducing production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in the control of disease.( Hypothesis ) Incidence of different Theileria species was recorded. Blood samples was collected in sterilized vacutainers. The samples were examined by preparing fresh blood smears followed by Giemsa staining and observing under microscope. Identification on preliminary basis was done by morphological characters of Theileria. In order to find the harmful effect of the theileriosis, blood hematology and biochemistry values were also be determined in both healthy and infected cattle. The samples from theileriosis positive animals were used for nucleic acid extraction. The extracted nucleic acid was amplified using Species specific primers.Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to visualize the amplified DNA. Amplicons of nucleic acid was treated with different restriction enzymes and pattern was visualized to find differences among different species of Theileria. Suitable statistical tool was used to analyze the data collected. Chi was applied on data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0. This research will help to confirm for the conventional and molecular diagnosis of theileriosis in dairy animals. Also genetic variation in Theileria species will be determined. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2436-T] (1).

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