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1. Effects Of Aflatoxin In Poultry

by Ata-ur-Rehman Rizvi, Syed | Not Available | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: A total number of 300 samples of finished commercial poultry feeds, obtained from poultry feed mills (75 samples), wholesale poultry feed dealers (70 samples) and poultry farms (155 samples) were examined for aflatoxin contamination.It was found that 126 (42%) samples, including 18 (24%) from mills, 19 (27.1%) from dealers and 89 (57.42%) from farms were samples was carried out both by the aqueous acetone method, and the chloroform extraction method. The extracts were qualitatively examined by quick screening method, minicolumn chromatography method and thin layer chromatography method. All of three methods gave comparable results. The quantity of aflatoxin in contaminated samples ranged from 20 microgram/kg to 2000 microgram/kg. The levels of aflatoxin in majorityofthe contaminated samples (90.5%) ranged from 20 microgram/kg to 150 microgram/kg feed and only 9.5% of samples contained higher levels of aflatoxin. Most of the samples containing higher levels of aflatoxin came from commercial poultry farms. These farms had complaints of high mortalities and poor performance in broilers and low production and low mortalities in breeder flocks. The experimental production of aflatoxin was carried out on long grain rice using a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus parasiticus (FRR-2752). The rice cultures were incubated at 28 degree centigrade in an atmosphere of high humidity. In the present study a maximum yield of 803 microgram aflatoxing rice was obtained. The determination of LD50 of aflatoxin was carried out in 210 one day old Hy-Bred broiler chicks with an average weight of 38 gram each. The chicks were divided into 21 groups labeled from 1 to 21 with 10 birds in each. A single dose of aflatoxin, ranging from 32.82 mg/kg body weight to 0.33 mg/kg body weight, was inoculated into the crops of chicks in groups 1 to 19, the group 20 acted as solvent control and the group 21 as aflatoxin free control. The birds were observed for 7 days post inoculation. The physical state and mortalities were recorded. The birds which had received higher levels of aflatoxin died within few hours of inoculation showing symptoms and lesions of per acute aflatoxicosis. The LD50 was calculated by Abbot's probit method and was found to be 9.278 mg/kg body weight. The pathological effect of a single dose of aflatoxin B1 on the immunocompetent organs was studied in a group of broiler chickens. Day-old 60 Hy-Bred broiler chicks were raised on aflatoxin free feed for 3 weeks and then divided into six groups labeled 1 to 6 with 10 birds in each. A single dose of pure aflatoxin B1 at dose rates of 8, 16, 26, 50 and 100 microgram/birds was given to the birds in groups of 1 to 5 respectively, the sixth group acted as toxin free control. The birds were maintained on aflatoxin free feed and water ad lib and observed for 3 weeks post inoculation. The bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen of each bird was removed and histologically examined, No appreciable histological changes were seen in the organs of birds which had received 8, 16 and 26 microgram AFB1/bird while reductions in size accompanied with other degenerative changes were seen in the thymus glands, bursa and spleens of birds, which had been injected 50 and 100 microgram AFB1/birds respectively. The normal tissues of these organs were replaced by the inflammatory and fibrous tissues. No changes, gross pathological or histological, were seen in the thymus glands, bursa and spleen of control group birds. The Immunomodulatory effects of a single dose of 100 microgram aflatoxin B1/bird on the development of immunity against Newcastle disease virus vaccine was studied in broiler and layer chickens. A group of 120 one day-old Hy-Bred broiler chicks were divided ito two groups with 60 birds in each and raised for 3 weeks on an aflatoxin free feed.Three randomly selected chicks were bled on the first 7th, 14th and 21st days of age for the determination of maternal haemagglutinin inhibiting (HI) antibody titers. At 3 weeks of age the broilers of each batch were further subdivided into groups labeled as T, T1,T2, K1 and K2 with 10 birds in each. A batch of layer chicks was raised for 8 weeks on aflatoxin free feed and then divided into groups T, T1, T2, K1 and K2 with 10 birds in each. Three randomly selected chicks were bled on day one and thereafter weekly for determination of maternal H1 antibody titers till the 7th week of age. The birds in groups T received vaccine and aflatoxin simultaneously, the birds in groups T1 received vaccine 72 hours before toxin and the birds in groups T2 received toxin followed 72 hours later by vaccine. The birds in group K1 acted as toxin free vaccinated control and the bird in groups k2 acted as toxin free unvaccinated control. The birds were maintained on aflatoxin free feed for further 4 weeks. Three randomly selected birds of each group were bled weekly for the determination of serum H1 antibody titers. At the end of 3rd week post inoculation one batch of broilers and the layer groups were challenged with a virulent strain of Newcastle Disease Virus while the other batch of broilers was given a booster dose of vaccine. All of the birds in unvaccinated aflatoxin free control groups (k2) died within 72 hours of challenge, while the rest o the birds survived. The survivors were bled and sacrificed one week after challenge/booster vaccination. The Sera of birds were examined for H1 antibody titers. The results showed that the administration of aflatoxin alongwith, immediately before or after vaccination depressed the development of H1 antibodies significantly. Immunomodulation caused by continued feeding of aflatoxin on the development of immunity against Pasteurella multocida vaccine were studied in layer and broiler chickens. Seventy two one-day old hyline layer chicks were raised for 6 weeks on aflatoxin feed and then divided into groups T, T1, T2, T3, K1 and K2 with 12 birds in the Seventy two Hy-Bred broiler chicks, one-day old were divided into 6 groups T, T1, T2, T3, K1 and K2 with 12 birds in each. A toxic feed containing 2.1 microgram of aflatoxin/gram was prepared. The Birds in groups T were given toxic feed for 42 days (21 days before and 21 days after vaccination). The birds in groups T1 were fed toxic meal for 21 days before vaccination and those in groups T2 were fed toxic meal for 21 days after vaccination. The birds in groups T3 received a single dose of 9.278 mg Aflatoxin/kg body weight on the day of vaccination. The birds in the groups K2 as toxin free vaccine free control. All of the birds, except those in the groups K2, were vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida vaccine at the end of 3rd week of age in the broilers and 9th week of age in the layers and challeneged with a virulent Pasteurella multocida organisms 3 weeks post vaccination. After challenge the birds were shifted to aflatoxin free feed till the termination of the experiment. In layers one bird each of group T and T3 died. In unvaccinated toxin free control group of layers as well as broilers (K2) 11 out of 12 birds died. Six broilers of group T and 5 broilers of group T3 died after challenge. The experiment was terminated on the 7th post challenge. The survivors were bled and sacrificed. Serum was collected from 4 randomly selected birds on the day of vaccination and thereafter weekly till the termination of the experiment. The antibody titer were determined by IHA and ELISA tests. Continued feeding of aflatoxin depressed the development of humoral immunity against Pasteurella multocida vaccine, the depression being more pronounced in broilers. The pathological effects of aflatoxin were studied in 3 weeks old broiler chicks. A batch of 36 one day-old broiler chicks was raised on aflatoxin free feed for 3 weeks. On 21 days of age the chicks were divided into 3 groups T, T1 and C with 12 birds in each. A single dose of 9.278 mg/kg body weight was injected into the crop of birds in group T. The birds in group T1 were maintained on a feed containing 9.278 mg aflatoxin/bird (2.1 ug/g feed) for 4 weeks. The third group (k) acted as control. The experiment was terminated on the 49th day of age by sacrificing the survivors. The liver of birds in group T1 were enlarged, and the heart were atrophied. Regenerative changes, some bile duct hyperplasia and fatty changes were seen in liver of birds in group T. in Birds of group T2 the liver was enlarged and showed nodular hyperplasia. Histologically the liver tissue showed acute necrosis, pericellular fibrosis, nuclear dissolution, bile duct proliferation and lymphoid hyperplasia. Degenerative changes were also seen in the heart and kidneys and other organs. No gross or histological changes were present in the organs of the control group (K) birds. The effects of aflatoxin on the live weight, dressed weight, the weight of liver, heart and gizzard, some seral enzymes and bilirubin were studied in a group of 165 broiler chicks. Day old Hy-Bred broiler chicks were raised on aflatoxin free feed for 3 weeks and then divided into 3 groups T, T1 and K with 55 birds in each. The birds in group T received a single dose of 9.278 aflatoxin/kg body weight while the birds in the group T1 received 9.278 mg aflatoxin/bird which was mixed in feed and offered ad. Lib. To these birds over the next 4 weeks. The birds in group K acted as the toxin free control. The experiment was terminated on the 28th day post inoculation by sacrificing the survivors. Five chicks from each group were bled through cardiac puncture and sacrificed, daily from day one (21st day age) to the 7th day post inoculation (28th day age) and thereafter weekly till the end of the experiment. Serum of these birds was examined for SGOT, SGPT, LDH, SAP and Bilirubin. Continued feeding of aflatoxin or administration of a single dose of aflatoxin significantly depressed the live weight, dressed weight and weight of heart, while it significantly increased the weight of liver and gizzard. Administration of a single dose of aflatoxin produced dramatic increase in the volume activity of SGOT, SGPT, LDH,SAP bilirubin within 24 hours of toxin administration, the values remained higher during the first week and thereafter slowly came down. In birds fed on contaminated meals the enzymic activity and bilirubin gradually increased during the first week and remained high till the termination of the experiment. In the birds of control group the activity of these parameters remained on baseline levels. No Carcinogenicity was seen in any of the internal organs of layer chickens which had been raised for 1 year on feed containing 2 ug aflatoxing. No aflatoxin or aflatoxin residue could be detected in the liver, kidneys and breast muscles of broilers, which had been fed contaminated meals for various lengths of time, and were shifted to aflatoxin free feed 7 days before slaughter. Aflatoxin was recovered from the liver and kidneys of layers which were feeding a contaminated meals at the time of sacrifice, the rate of recovery being 1 microgram/100 grams liver tissue and less than 1 microgram/100 gram kidney tissue. No aflatoxin could be detected in the breast muscles of these chickens. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0014,T] (1).

2. Epidemiology And Economic Losses Of Trichostrongylid Parasites In Sheep

by Sarwar Khan, M | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The meteorological data recorded during the study period from 1.1.96 to 31.12.96 showed the maximum temperature in June as 36.5°C and minimum temperature in December as 6.8°C. Maximum and minimum Humidity was recorded in the month of September and April as 85% and 55% respectively. The maximum rainfall during the year was recorded in the month of August as 660 mm. The faecal egg counts of sheep grazing on permanent pasture showed the minimum EPG during first week of January while maximum EPG on nid of September and first week of October. Pasture larval counts were performed on permanent pasture and experimental plot for the recovery of trichostrongylid larvae. The maximum number of larvae was recovered on 16th September, 1996, while minimum number was recovered in January and February from permanent pasture and experimental plot respectively. Two species of trichostrongylids were identified i.e. Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongvlus colubriformis. The faecal and larval counts were very low in the months of January and February, the counts started rising in March. Peak counts were seen in the month of September. Decline in counts started in late October and reached to minimum in December. Mature and immature worm counts of slaughtered sheep were performed at 15 days interval. The, overall prevalence oftrichostrongylid parasites was 34%. The maximum number of mature parasites were seen during first week of October which was886 whereas maximum number of immature parasites including hypobiotic was 326 on 1st of December. During this study the average fecundity/female of contortus and L colubriformis parasites were calculated as 721 and 209 respectively. A spring rise in worm egg counts was experienced in mid of March. A pen parturient rise in the worm egg counts of pregnant and lactating ewes indicated the maximum counts during lambing week. An experimental group of sheep with mixed infection of trichostrongylid parasites showed the similar pattern of EPG counts as of naturally infected sheep. A study was performed to evaluate any protection provided by a particular Flaemoglobin type to trichostrongylid infection hut not difference could be observed. The Asparate Aminotransferase (AST) and total protein levels of infected sheep were decreased as a result of increase in the intensity of infection. A decrease in R.B.C. counts, Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume and lymphocyte counts was observed both in experimentally and naturally infected slaughtered sheep. However, an increase in total leukocytic count (TLC) alongwith an increase in the ratio of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils was observed. At the end of experiment infected sheep gained 5.71 Kg/head less body weight and produced 4 3 grn less wool as compared with non-infected group. Based on epidemiological information the suggestions for control of the, trichostrongylid infection are submitted alongwi th recommendations for further studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0595,T] (1).

3. Clinico-Biochemical Studies On Detomidine Analgesia And Effects Of Its Combinatios On Animals

by Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the newly introduced imidazole derivative, drug "detomidine" with alpha-2 adr2noceptor binding properties, and its various combinations in animals. A clinico-hiochemical study was carried out to explore the various aspects of a novel sedative and analgesic drug. Analgesia was evaluated by performing castration in small ruminants, rumenal fistulization in large ruminants, skin prick test, electric stimulation, and developing an experimental colic model in donkeys. The parameters used to evaluate analgesia revealed that detomidine has greater potential to lessen the pain during minor and major surgical interventions in different animals. However, its local usage to achieve paravertebral and epidural analgesia proved that detomidine produces general effect after getting into the circulation and very poor local effect. It has been concluded that the drug can be used as preanaesthetic with chloral hydrate and pentothal sodium anaesthesia to perform major surgical exercises in equine and canine respectively. In addition it has an edge over other sedative drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on various physiological parameters of the animals. Clinical trials have proved that detomidine "a novel sedative and analgesic" is a drug of choice for restraining, examination, and minor and major surgical manipulations on equine, bovine, caprine, ovine and canine species without any untoward effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0867,T] (1).

4. An Epidemiological Study Of Nosocomial Infections At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tayyaba Ijaz (Phd) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the Prevalence of Etiological Agents of Nosocomial Infections in Mayo Hospital, Lahore-Pakistan of the 32,620 patients studied during 1997-2001; a total of 4502 (13.80%) patients acquired various types of nosocomial infections during their stay at Hospital. Clinical samples collected from various types of patients consisted of 1040 samples of Pus & Wound Swabs, 109 samples of blood; 115 of Pleural Fluids, 286 of Ascetic Fluids, 37 of Cerebrospinal Fluid, 1398 of Urine, 988 of Sputum; 329 of Burn Swabs, 99 of Patient Body Devices and 101 of Fecal and Drainage Material. The routine techniques for isolation. Identification through Biochemical, Serological and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing were used for studying the Bacteriology of the selected samples. The present findings revealed that from a total of 4502 samples, 1287 Strains of Staphylococci, 429 Strains of Streptococci, 328 Strains of Enterococci, 781 Strains of Pseudomonas, 349 Strains of Enterobacter, 41 Strains of Acinetobacter, 26 Strains of Klebsiella, 140 Strains of Proteus, 1031 Strains of Escherichia, 67 Strains of Serratia, 93 Strains of Haemophilus, 119 Strains of other types of Gram Positive Bacteria, 13 Strains of other types of Gram Negative Bacteria, and 189 Strains of Yeast and Fungi were found as Etiological Agent for Nosocomial Infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0912,T] (1).

5. Pathogenesis Of Salmonellosis With Respect To Carrier States In Poultry And Its Public Health Impact

by Younus, M | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Prof.Dr.Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The present research endevour was made to study and investigate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings. The objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only' produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. In this study 400 samples were collected and were distributed and detailed as; poultry feed (n=100), poultry intestines (n100 Small and n=100 Large intestines) and eggs (n=100) were collected for the identification of the organism through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella enteritidis in the poultry feed was 20,15,10,15 and 10 for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher respectively (P>0.05). The positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella typhimurium for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher feed was 15,10,10, 10, and 10 respectively (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between layers feed and broilers feed as far as identification of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium was concerned (P>0.05) but the prevalence range of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimuilum from poultry feed was 10-20% which was biologically significant. The positivity percentage rate of Salmonella enteritidis for small and large intestine in Desi birds (local breed) was 2 and 16 % respectively. Where as for broilers in small and large intestine it was 4 and 18% respectively. The positivity of Salmonella typhimurium in small and large intestine of Desi birds was 2 and 14% where as in broilers it was 4 and 16% in the small and large intestine respectively. There was a significant difference (P <0.05) between the positivity of percentage of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium as far as identification of Salmonellae from Desi and broiler meat was concerned. It was found that 16%, 8%, 16'Y0 and 16% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella enteritidis in layer egg albumin, Desi (local breed) eggj albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the detection of Salmonellae. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, Desi (local breed) double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% respectively. It was found that 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella lyphimurium in layer egg albumin, Desi egg albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the' detection of Salmonella. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 8%, 4%, 8% and 4% respectively. The positively rate for Salmonella typhimurium in both albumin and yolk was relatively less in both albumin and yolk of layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs. Statistically there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) but the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from different eggs ranged between 4-16% and 4-12% respectively which was biologically significant. The Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated, identified and grown on the artificial and selective media. The virulence of the organisms of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were estimated through calculation of LD50. It was found as 10358/mI and 103/ml for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium respectively, having significant difference (P< 0.05). In order to understand the pathogenesis and carrier states of salmonella organisms in poultry, a group of 300 broiler birds were procured and divided into three groups were studied upto the age of 3 months. The infection was orally given on the 7th day of their age. As an average 86.74% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella enteritidis in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05). Similarly an average 94.94% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella typhimurium in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05) but non of the samples of Small and Large intestine of control group (Group-C) were found positive for Salmonella enleritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. There was a significant difference between Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in large intestine of poultry (P< 0.05). The histopathology of different organs of broiler chickens i.e liver, lung, spleen, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, bursa of fabracious and lean muscles at different phases of disease was also conducted for the better understanding of pathogenesis due to salmonellosis. The principal lesions in the liver at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and haemmorrhage. No lesions were recorded in liver after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the lungs at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration,' mild necrosis, vascular congestion and haemrnorrhages. No lesions were recorded in lungs after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the spleen were mild leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and congestion at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in spleen after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the kidneys were marked tubutar necrosis with glomerular degeneration and Ieukocytic infiltration and haemmorrhages at the age of 14 to 28 in groups A and B. No lesions were1 recorded in kidneys after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the small intestine were degeneration of mucosa with inflammatory cells, necrosis, inflammation, superficial ulceration on mucosal lining of intestine at the age of 14 to 21 days. No lesions were recorded in small intestine after 21 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of the large intestine were leukocytic infiltration with necrosis and inflammation at the age of 14 to 91 days. The lesions were recorded up to 91 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of Bursa of1, fabricious were atrophy & necrosis of bursal follicles and leukocytic infiltration at the age of 14 to 21 in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in Bursa of fabricious after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of lean muscle were muscular degeneration and necrotic areas at the age of 14 to 21 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in lean muscles after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever and food poisoning in humans. The chain of transmission started fron poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end host. Finally, the 400 samples of stool and blood from 200 human patients (100 suspected of typhoid fever and 100 suspected of food poisoning) were also collected from four different hospitals from urban area of Lahore for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. A total of 14% and 10% stool samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in case of suspected typhoid fever patients respectively. Similarly 6% and 2% blood samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected typhoid fever patients and also as for as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients of each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals. CONCLUSION A series of five experiments were conducted and carried out to study and explore the project Pathogenesis of Salmonellosis with respect to carrier states in poultry and its public health impact." For this purpose, in the 1st phase, identification, isolation and characterization of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was attempted. It was followed by the estimation of LD 50 and carrier states and histopathological study at different phases of disease in broiler chickens experimentally infected with Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium to ascertain the nature of carrier states in terms of maintenance of the Salmonellae by different organs leading to histopathological changes and finally to the stage of shedding of the organism through the feces in the environment. Dissemination to human beings and the Public health impact of Salmonellosis was studied in the human subjects who consumed the meat and eggs of the carrier birds which were followed by testing their stool and blood samples through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this way the pathogenesis and chain of Salmonellas enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infection through poultry feed, meat, eggs and humans beings was transmissible. However, the humans were considered as dead end host. It was concluded that Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was maintained in the large intestine of the poultry and has transmitted from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs to human beings and thus, causing typhoid fever and food poisoning. RECOMMENDATIONS /SUGGESTIONS Major aim of this research endeavour was to help in understanding the basic principles involved in the chain of infectious cycle of SalmoneUosis. In addition to that the application of the quality control of poultry products with respect to Salmonella infection to broiler chicks and broiler meat available in the market for human consumption is the ultimate goal of this project. The objective was to reduce the risk of Salmonellosis in poultry and humans. The following measures are suggested. 1. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN POULTRY! ANIMALS A. Monitoring o The poultry and their environment should be monitored by frequente testing of Salmonellae. o Bacteriological profile of poultry house environment. o Serological testing of flock and removal of infected birds. o Culturing of tissues from selected birds. o Egg sheils, egg albumin & egg yolk culturing. B. Hygiene and Sanitation o Eggs from infected layer flocks should be pasteurized before consumption. o Salmonella positive breeder flocks should be given pellet feed. o Hatching sanitation o Proper disinfection of hatching eggs. o Proper sanitation and disinfection of farm premises. o The provision of salmonella-free feed i.e pellet feed is of prime importance for the prevention of salmonella infections of poultry flocks and parent flocks. o Control of rodent, insects and wild birds C. Managemental o For routine treatment of eggs and progeny, only those antibiotics should be used that do not cause microbial resistance against drugs widely used in humans o Resistance of Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp. to fluoroquinolones has become a public health risk. This does not exclude well targeted and transient use of antibiotics as essential measures in salmonellosis control programmes. o Vaccination of breeder flock is recommended for decrease of the salmonella infection pressure. 7 1. MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN HUMANS A. Meat and Eggs o Wrap fresh meat in plastic bags at the market to prevent blood from1 dripping on other foods. o Cook poultry products at temperature of 170°F for breast meat and at 180°F for thigh meat. o Avoid eating raw or under cooked meat and egg. o Cook poultry meat and egg thoroughly. o Purchase only inspected grade AA eggs and animal food products. o Handle raw eggs carefully: o Keep eggs refrigerated o Throw away cracked or dirty eggs. o Do not eat half fried and half boiled eggs. o Wash hands immediately after handling raw poultry or raw eggs. o Full fried and full boiled eggs should be used for eating to prevent food borne Salmonellosis problem. b. PERSONNEL HYGIENE MEASURES o Washing of hands with soap and warm water before and after handling foods, after using the bath rooms. o Refrigerate foods properly. - Use bleach to wash cutting boards and counters used for preparation immediately after use to avoid cross contamination of other foods. o People who have Salmonellosis should not prepare food for others. o Educate the food handlers and persons who prepare food. Educational programmes covering pre- and post harvest food safety procedures, especially salmonella control, should be initiated in the animal and food production sectors for the public awareness. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0938,T] (1).

6. Epidemiology Of Giardia Duodenalis And Cryptosporidium Parvum Infections In Calves And Young Dogs

by Khalid Saeed | Dr. William P. Shulaw, Advisor | Dr. Margaret A. Masterson | Dr. Thomas E.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In recent years Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum have been considered by some investigators to be important causes of diarrhea. The role of G. duodenalis as an enteropathogen in animals remains undetermined. Limited information is available concerning the effect of age and season on G. duodenalis and C. parvuni infection in calves. A year long prospective longitudinal study was conducted to determine the effect of age and a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the effect of season on infection rates and shedding intensity. Associations between Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections and abnormal stools were also determined. A separate case control study was conducted to investigate the association between Giardia, and Cryptosporidium infections and diarrhea in young dogs admitted to two animal shelters. Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts/oocysts were frequently identified in fecal samples from calves. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 54% and 24% of samples respectively from 1 day to 387 day-old calves. About 80% of individual calves had at least one positive sample for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections. Age was a significant factor in determining Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections and cyst/oocyst shedding levels (P< 0.01). The highest proportion of Cryptosporidium-positive samples was from 2 week-old calves. Giardia cysts were most frequently identified in samples from 8 week-old calves and about 80% of samples had cysts. Giardia cysts were less frequently found in samples collected in winter than in other seasons (P <0.01). Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was not influenced by season. Among infected calves, Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding levels were higher in winter than in other seasons. Giardia cysts were more frequently found in normal stools than in abnormal su)ols (P 0.01). Lrvptosporu.tiiein oocysts were more frequently identified in abnormal stools than in normal stools (0R3.5; P <0.001) and among infected calves higher oocyst shedding levels were observed in abnormal stools than in normal stools (P <0.01). No association between Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidiuni oocyst shedding levels and diarrhea was observed in the young dogs studied. Giardia infections were more common in females than in male dogs (P- 0.03). Gender was not associated with i3pru,,poriduun infections (Pr- 0.32). but higher mean oocyst shedding was observed in males than in females (P < 0.01 ). Mean body condition scores of cases was slightly lower than that of control dogs (P= 0.04). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0945,T] (1).

7. Immune Response Of Buffaloes To Foot And Mouth Disease Virus Vaccine

by Munir Ahmad Tariq | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious infection of cloven-footed animals such as buffalo, cattle, sheep, goats and camels and FMD is characterized by high rise of temperature, salivation, smacking of mouth, vesicular lesion in the buccal cavity, inner flares, coronary band and interdigital spaces, memory glands etc. In Pakistan FMI) disease is caused by "0", "A" or "Asia-i" type of the virus of an Aphthovirus of Picornaviridae. The vaccinal serotypes of FMD virus were characterized as "A", "0" and "Asia-i" by virus neutralization test using imported mono-specific rabbit antiserum. Each of the serotypes multiplied rapidly on monolayer of Baby Hamster Kidney -21 (BHK-21) cells. The BHK-2 I cells were propagated in carrel and roux flasks in MEM 199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Heat treated goat serum was equally effective as growth promoter for BHK-21 cell line. The cells rapidly multiplied and formed a monolayer within 72 hours at 37 °C. The cells were harvested using trypsin (0.025%) without affecting the cell viability that was observed by cytometeric as well as by colorimetric assays. The cells were stored in cryogenic containers and revived successfully on 12 months post storage. The FMD virus isolate ("0", "A" and "Asia-i") grew well on the monolayer of BHK-21 cells and produced more than 106, and i04 units of the Tissue Culture Infective Dose-50 (TCID50) on 5th passage, respectively. Each of the virus serotypes was effectively inactivated using 0.12 % formaldehyde, or 0.004 M of Binary Etyhieneimine (BET). The inactivated virus suspension was admixed with either oil base, lanolin or aluminium hydroxide gel and homogenized to get stable vaccine preparation. The adjuvant containing vaccines induced detectable level anti-FMDV-VN antibodies titer in buffalo calves on 19 days post-priming. Oil and gel based FMD vaccines induced detectable geometic mean titer (GMT) of the anti-FMDV-CFT antibodies (2-3 and 7-8) on 19 days post vaccination, respectively. The oil and gel based vaccines induced 1: 64 and 1:80 GMT titer of the anti-FMDV-CFT antibodies on 128 and 64 days post-vaccination, respectively and the titer declined there after as 1: 9 and 1: 3.3 on 258 days post vaccination. From this study it can be concluded that oil based vaccine induces the antibody response in buffalo latter than that of gel adsorbed vaccine. Higher titers of the antibodies are retained for comparably longer period of time by oil based vaccines. Moreover, age of buffaloes, animal species and vaccine storage at 4 C exhibited undetectable effects on the antibody response to the vaccine. The study has indicated that vaccination programs against field infection of FMD in all the domestic cloven footed animal species could be effective way of immunoprophylaxis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0973,T] (1).

8. Isolation And Characterization Of Clostridium Perfringens From Domestic Animals An Man In Punjab

by Waheeda Raana | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The objectives of present investigation were to isolate the Cl. perfringens from the domestic and zoo animals and human beings; characterize it through biotyping and pathogencity observation, and to develop a vaccine- from the common CI. perfringens isolate. For this purpose a total of 1240 samples of morbid tissues (faecal samples from animals and gangrenous tissues from humans). From cattle (n=180), goats (n=180), horses (n=250), camel (n=250), deer (n=28), wild beast (n=07), monkeys (n16), zebra (n10), elephant (n01), yaks (n=09), foxes (n07), jackals (n=08), baboons (n=08), and bears (n08) were collected and processed for isolation of CI. perfringens. In addition a total of 100 human cases; 83 wound swabs and 17 gas gangrene were also collected and analyzed bacteriologically. This study has indicated that Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens causes multiple clinical problems in animals and human beings as was indicated by good rate of its isolation from the examined morbid tissues and fecal samples. Of the total 1240 samples from various types of animals 297 (23.95%) indicated the presence of CI. perfringens. The overall isolation percentages of various types of CI. perfringens from the cattle, sheep goat, horses, camel, wild beast, deer, bear, jackal, zebra, monkeys, yak, elephant, baboon, foxes, and humans were 22.2, 12.2, 57.2, 8.0, 21.6, 57.1, 30.76, 37.50, 50.0, 50.0, 37.50, 33.33, 100.00 75.00, 57.14 and 18.00, respectively. Of the tested population of domestic animals, goats indicated the highest Cl. perfringens (57.2%) infection rate. In the zoo animal population, the elephant, baboons, wild beast, jackals, and foxes were shown to be heavily infected with various CI. perfringens types compared to other wild life animals species. Of the 298 isolates obtained through this investigation Cl. perfringens type D was obtained from 118 (39.7%) morbid samples of the domestic and zoo animals; CI. perfringens type A from 63 (21 .21%) samples, Cl. perfringens type B from 95 (31.98%) samples; and the CI. perfringens type E was isolated from 21(7.07%) samples. None of the samples indicated the presence of CI. perfringens type C. Of the total 100 samples from the humans, CI. perfringens type A was isolated from 14 (14%) and Cl. perfringens type D was isolated from 04 (4%). None of the human samples showed the presence of Cl. perfringens types B, C, or E. Of the 17 human gangrene tissue samples, Cl. perfringens type A was isolated from 09 (52.94%) samples and the Cl. perfringens type D was recovered from 02 (11 .76%) samples. However, all attempts to isolate Cl. perfringens types B, C or E from the human gangrene tissue/material samples were unsuccessful. The overall findings indicated that of the total 297 samples positive for various Cl. perfringens types 63 indicated the presence of Cl. perfringens type A. Of those 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates, 49 were recovered from the animals; and 14 were isolated from the wound swabs and gangrene tissue material samples from humans. Of the 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates from the animals, 5 were isolated from cattle; 3 from sheep, 20 from goats; 5 from the horses; 10 from camels, 01 from the deer; 01 from the zebra, 01 from baboon, 01 from fox, 01 from the monkey, and 01 isolate was recovered from yak. Of the 14 isolates of Cl. perfringens type A from humans, 05 were recovered from the open wound swabs, and 09 strains of the organism were isolated from the gangrenous tissue material. Of the 297 samples positive for various Cl. Perfringens types, 95 animal samples indicated the presence of Cl. perfringens type B. These 95 isolates were obtained from cattle (n=22), sheep (n=10), goats (n=30), horses (n=03), camel (n=14), deer (n03), wild beast (n=02), monkey (n=02), zebra (n=02), yak (n=01), fox (n01), jackals (n02), baboon (n02) and bear (n=02). None of the human samples was positive for Cl. perfringens type B. Isolation of C/. perfringens type B from the zoo animals is a matter of concern for the human health, as the zoo visitors have the possibility to get infected with this organism. Of the total 297 positive samples of faecal and morbid tissues from various types of animals and human being Cl. perfringens type D isolates were recovered from 118 (39.7%) samples. Of these 118 isolates of Cl. perfringens typeD, 114 were obtained from various types of animals, and 04 isolates were from the humans. Of the 114 animal isolates, 10 from the cattle, 5 from the sheep, 44 from the goats, 9 from the horses, 27 from the camel, 4 from the deer, 02 from the wild beast, 02 from the monkey, 02 from the zebra, 01 from the elephant, 01 from the yak, 02 from the fox, 02 from the jackals, 02 from the baboon, and 01 isolate the bear. A total of 04 CI. perfringens type D isolates were recovered from gangrenous tissue and open wound samples from human beings. During this investigation 21 isolates of CI. perfringens Type E were obtained from domestic and zoo animals. Of the 21 isolates, 03 were from cattle, 04 from sheep, 09 from goats and 03 from horses, 01 from monkey, and 01 from the baboon. All the 21 isolations were from the fecal material of above mentioned animals. None of the human samples was positive for CI. perfringens type E. Alpha toxin was produced by all of the 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates. Within the toxin producing isolates, there was no difference in the quality of toxin in respect to its lethality for mice, dermonecrosis effects for guinea pigs and cytotoxicity in the HeLa cells. The 07 fecal isolates were hemolytic, lecithinase (+), and positive for all biochemical characteristics of Cl. perfringens. Those isolates were not lethal for mice, indicated no dermonecrotic activity in guinea pig, and produced mild degree of cytotoxicity in the cell cultures. The activity of beta toxin obtained from 95 isolates of CI. perfringens type B isolates was determined using standard toxin-antitoxin test carried in mice and the standard serum neutralization test with antitoxin raised in rabbits. Within the toxin producing isolates, no difference was seen in the potential of toxin based on its lethality for mice. Epsilon () toxin activity of the 114 isolates of CI. perfringens type D from animals and 4 of the human isolates was also determined. Of the 114 animal isolate, 110(96.49%), and all the 4 human isolates produced E-toxin. There was no difference in the lethal potential of toxin for mice, dermonecrotis action in guinea pig and production of CPE in VERO cells. Iota (i) toxin activity of the 21 isolates of Cl. perfringens type E was also determined serum neutralization test in mice. Many isolates produced more than one major toxin. Ci. perfringens (CP) type A produced Alpha (a) toxin; CP type B produced Alpha (a), Beta (3) and Epsilon (E) toxins; OP type D isolates produced Alpha (a) and Epsilon (E) toxins, and OP type E isolates produced Alpha (a) toxin + Iota (i) toxin. The immunobiologic studies of isolates showed that many of the isolates were quite antigenic. Isolates of CI. perfringèns type D and B were found highly immunogenic as those isolates producing SN titer of 1:320. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0998,T] (1).

9. Effect Of Long Term Use Of Bovine Somatotropic Hormone On Milk Production ,Production Nutrient

by Iftikhar Ahmad | Makdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Use of bovine somatotropic hormone (bST) for increased milk production has been widely investigated in dairy cattle, whereas very little work has been done in buffaloes. To observe the effect of bST on buffalo for long term duration study was planned with the objectives to investigate the effects of long term use of bST on milk production, milk composition, reproduction, hematological and biochemical parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. For this study 30 lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes with similar milk production and stage of lactation were selected and randomly divided in to two groups A and B with 15 animals in each group. The group A (0 bST) served as control while animals in group B (+bST) were given injection of bST (250 mg Boostin-250/animal) at 14d interval. Nutritional requirements of experimental animals were met through available green fodder (45-50kg/day) supplemented with concentrate ration @ half of milk production. The milk production was significantly (P<0.05) increased by 18.04 % in treated group compared with control. The results showed that there was no significantly variations in parameters like milk composition, dry period and lactation length, calving interval in both the groups. The postpartum estrous period and service period were significantly (P< 0.05) improved which reflected positive effect of bST on reproductive parameters. However, the difference in services per conception was non-significant. Small variations were found in the prevalence of contagious and non contagious diseases in both experimental groups during the study period. The differences among body weights, hematological and biochemical parameters were also non-significant expect blood urea nitrogen (p< 0.05). The proceeds over a lactation period of 305 days was PKR. 4227.0 with the use of bST. Second trial was conducted to study the effect of dose interval of bST in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. For the proposed study 21 Nili-Ravi lactating buffaloes with similar milk production and stage of lactation were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C with 7 animals in each group. The group A was injected with full dose of bST hormone (250 mg/animal) with trade name of Boostin-250 at an interval of 14 days, while animals in group B were given injection on alternate days with divided dose of 36 mg/animal. Group C was kept as control. Duration of study was 5 months and the animals were kept on green fodder supplemented with concentrate ration half of milk production. The concentrate ration had 17.2% CP and 72.0% TDN. The milk production increased by 18.35% and 15.27% in-group A and B compared with group C (control) but increase was non-significant (P>0.05) . Similarly data revealed that dose interval had no affect on milk contents, reproductive and hematological parameters in all the experimental groups. In a third trial feed digestibility and efficiency for milk production was studied. For the study fourteen Nili-Ravi buffaloes at their mid lactation with almost same level of milk production were randomly divided into two groups A and B with seven animals in each group. The group A was kept as control, while group B was injected bST hormone (250 mg/animal) at an interval of 14 days and continued for 60 days. The nutritional requirements of animals in both the groups were met through TMR according to NRC recommendations. The milk production was increased by 7.0% in. treated group (B) as compared with control group (A) and the increase was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). However, the feed efficiency for milk production was significantly improved (P< 0.05) in treated group. The differences in milk composition (Fat, SNF, TS and Protein percent) body weight gain digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients in treated and control groups were found non-significant (P>0.05). The fourth trial was conducted to determine the effect of energy on milk production and its quality under the influence of bST hormone in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Multiparous (n12) buffaloes with mid lactation and similar level of milk yield were selected and randomly divided in to three groups i.e. A, B and C with four animals in each group. All the experimental animals were injected bST with trade name of Boostin - 250. The dose level was 250 mg per animal and injection was given at fortnightly interval during study period. The nutritional requirements of three groups animals were met through TMR with varying levels of energy (15% low and 15% above the recommendations of NRC). The milk yield was significantly higher (p<O.O5) on medium and high energy ration but the difference of milk yield was non significant (p>O.O5) between medium and low energy diets. The milk components and body weight gain were similar on all rations, while feed efficiency and nutrient intake (except ether extract) in low energy diet was significantly higher (p<O.O5) from two other rations. It may be concluded that 15% higher energy than recommended by NRC favoured milk production in Nih Ravi buffaloes when they were injected bST hormone. Conclusion On the over all there was consistency of results for milk production and milk composition with reference to available literature. However, some reproductive parameters including postpartum estrus and service period were significantly improved with the use of bST hormone. This effect has not been reported in the previous literature which needs to be further investigated and verified. Similarly the dose level in buffaloes needs to be further studied. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0999,T] (1).

10. Epidemiology Seriodiagnosis And Chemoprophylaxis Of Theileriosis In Cattle

by Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof.Dr.Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Prof.Dr.Kahlid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The field study was carried out in indigenous and cross bred cattle in three districts of Punjab namely, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi during the year from September 2006 to August 2007. A total of 1200 cattle were selected as reference population comprising of 600 Sahiwal and 600 Cross bred animals. 300 blood samples were collected during each season by taking 100 samples from each district. The results of field study on the basis of PCR showed that prevalence of Tannulata during summer was highest 46.7% in both breeds of cattle while lowest prevalence was recorded in winter, 4.6 % and autumn season 4.3% . The breed wise prevalence of Tannulata was lower, 11.5 % in sahiwal cattle compared with 20.2 % in cross bred cattle. The mortality rate of 2.8% was noticed only in cross bred cattle with highest mortality recorded in district Rawalpindi ,64.7% and lowest in district Multan,29.4% .The positive percentage of Tannulata was higher,61.5%(234/380) in females as compared to males ,38.4% (146/3 80) of both breeds. The positive percentage in much animals was highest, 32.4 %( 123/380) in both breeds while lowest was recorded in heifers, 11.1 %( 42/3 80). In males of both breeds 26.3% (100/3 80) positive percentage was seen in adults above 1 year of age while lower, 12.1% (46/3 80) was recorded in young animals up to 1 year of age. The prevalence of Tannulata was highest,l2.2% in district Lahore in both breeds while lowest prevalence, 9.33% was seen in district Rawalpindi. The efficacy of PCR test was highest ,31.6% followed by microscopic lymph node smear examination,8.25% and microscopic blood smear examination,6% in diagnosis of field challenges of Theileria. During the present study mixed infection with Babesia bigemina, 158%, was recorded in reference population. TLc breed wise prevalence of Babesia bigen'iina was higher in cross bred animals 33.33 % compared to 17 % in sahiwal cattle respectively along with 6% prevalence of the ileria specie on blood smear examination. The overall economic losses of 3.39 million were calculated during the present study in three districts under study. The stocking pattern was highest (47%) for herd size of 1-2 animals while lowest herd size (12%) of 5-6 and above 6 was recorded. The survey of ectoparasites showed the highest prevalence of ticks,66.7% recorded in district Lahore while prevalence of lice was highest,36.3% in district Rawalpindi and prevalence of mange mites was highest ,4% in district Multan. The highest prevalence of Hyalomma 12.0%, followed by Boophilus 8.1% Haemaphysalis 5%.and Rhipicephalus 3.1% were recorded. During the present study the species of Hyalomma identified were Hyalomma a. anatolicurn (65.2%) and Hyalomma n-zarginatum marginaturn (34.8%).The examination of salivary glands revealed that Hyalomma a. anatolicum (87%) and Hyalomma marginatum inarginatum (20.8%) were infected with T. annulata sporozoites. It was observed that the population of ticks was heaviest in the month of June, mid September to mid October with lowest infestation during the month of November. No ticks were noticed on animals from December to February. The taxonomical study of Hylomma species showed the difference between both sexes and in different developmental stages. The two species of Hyalomnia in the present study were differentiated on the basis of structural features in adults. The pre-oviposition & oviposition periods recorded during spring were longest i.e 9 days and 12 days respectively. The incubation period of the ova of Hyalomma in summer and autumn was longest i.e 20 days. Mean survival period of unfed larva of Hyalomma was recorded as 56 days while for nymph it was 65 days. Larval and nymph engorgement period was longest in spring i.e. 9 days and 7days respectively while for adult the mena engorgement period in spring was longest i.e 9 days .The larval and nymph moulting period was longest in spring i.e 16 days and 17 days respectively . Amount of blood sucked in mg by first instar of Hyalomma ranged from 0.132 -0.126mg while for second instar it ranged from 140-79mg and for third instar it was 237-180 mg. The eggs were oblong in shape and measured 0.470 X 0.420 mm in size with weight of 0.041 rng on an average. It was observed that the maximum number of eggs laid by a single female tick in spring varied from 3720 to 3918, in summer from 2611 to 2961 and in autumn from 2423 to 2606. The bionomical study showed effect of varying temperature and humidity on the development of different stages of Hyalomma tick. The effect of constant temperature (30°C) and varying humidity showed mean pre-oviposition period of mid October with lowest infestation during the month of November. No ticks were noticed on animals from December to February. The taxonomical study of Hylomma species showed the difference between both sexes and in different developmental stages. The two species of Hyalomnia in the present study were differentiated on the basis of structural features in adults. The pre-oviposition & oviposition periods recorded during spring were longest i.e 9 days and 12 days respectively. The incubation period of the ova of Hyalomma in summer and autumn was longest i.e 20 days. Mean survival period of unfed larva of Hyalomma was recorded as 56 days while for nymph it was 65 days. Larval and nymph engorgement period was longest in spring i.e. 9 days and 7days respectively while for adult the mena engorgement period in spring was longest i.e 9 days .The larval and nymph moulting period was longest in spring i.e 16 days and 17 days respectively . Amount of blood sucked in mg by first instar of Hyalomma ranged from 0.132 -0.126mg while for second instar it ranged from 140-79mg and for third instar it was 237-180 mg. The eggs were oblong in shape and measured 0.470 X 0.420 mm in size with weight of 0.041 rng on an average. It was observed that the maximum number of eggs laid by a single female tick in spring varied from 3720 to 3918, in summer from 2611 to 2961 and in autumn from 2423 to 2606. The bionomical study showed effect of varying temperature and humidity on the development of different stages of Hyalomma tick. The effect of constant temperature (30°C) and varying humidity showed mean pre-oviposition period of that the values of TEC, TLC, and PCV and hemoglobin decreased considerably. Comparison of normal average with affected average values increased in Cross bred cattle while for Sahiwal cattle the values increased for lymphocytes and decreased for neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. The experimental study showed highest preyalence of disease in adult animals as compared to young animals by all diagnostic tests. The prevalence of disease in young animals at 12 months of age was highest (85.7% by MLE,71 .4% by MBE,85.7% by IFA & PCR in Sahiwal while 71.4% by MLE & MBE, 89% by IFA, 100% by PCR in cross bred animals. ) while lowest percentage of disease was seen at 3 months of age by all tests.The highest specificity and sensitivity ,96% and 75% respectively for PCR test was recorded while for MBE lowest specificity and sensitivity ,76% and 44% respectively were calculated. PCR analysis of the samples with 6u1 of MgCl2 gave successful results . It was found out that primers set A anneal at Tm 55 °C while Primer set B anneal at 60°C. The expected 721-bp fragment was generated from T. annulata DNA with primer set N5 1 6/N5 17721 -bp liagment with 0.00040% parasitemia, corresponding to 19 parasites per ml while primers 989 and 990 amplified the expected 1098 bp fragment of DNA. All animals that were positive by microscopic examination were also positive by IFA as well as PCR. The therapeutic trials showed efficacy of buparvaquone @ J/M 2.5 mg /kg body weight and Calotropisprocera @ 0.3mg! Kg dose orally.8 doses on alternate days was 60% and 100% respectively. After completion of treatment with Cal otropis procera no tick infestation was seen while ticks were present on the body of that the values of TEC, TLC, and PCV and hemoglobin decreased considerably. Comparison of normal average with affected average values increased in Cross bred cattle while for Sahiwal cattle the values increased for lymphocytes and decreased for neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. The experimental study showed highest preyalence of disease in adult animals as compared to young animals by all diagnostic tests. The prevalence of disease in young animals at 12 months of age was highest (85.7% by MLE,71 .4% by MBE,85.7% by IFA & PCR in Sahiwal while 71.4% by MLE & MBE, 89% by IFA, 100% by PCR in cross bred animals. ) while lowest percentage of disease was seen at 3 months of age by all tests.The highest specificity and sensitivity ,96% and 75% respectively for PCR test was recorded while for MBE lowest specificity and sensitivity ,76% and 44% respectively were calculated. PCR analysis of the samples with 6u1 of MgCl2 gave successful results . It was found out that primers set A anneal at Tm 55 °C while Primer set B anneal at 60°C. The expected 721-bp fragment was generated from T. annulata DNA with primer set N5 1 6/N5 17721 -bp liagment with 0.00040% parasitemia, corresponding to 19 parasites per ml while primers 989 and 990 amplified the expected 1098 bp fragment of DNA. All animals that were positive by microscopic examination were also positive by IFA as well as PCR. The therapeutic trials showed efficacy of buparvaquone @ J/M 2.5 mg /kg body weight and Calotropisprocera @ 0.3mg! Kg dose orally.8 doses on alternate days was 60% and 100% respectively. After completion of treatment with Cal otropis procera no tick infestation was seen while ticks were present on the body of animals treated with buparvaquone. With herbal treatment the animals showed diarrhoea for first 10-12 hours after administration of every dose on alternate days but animals recovered spontaneously without any antidiarrhoeal treatment. The results of CBC showed the characteristic macrocytic hypochrornic anemia in theileriosis was recovered by Calotropis procera treatment. The of result of LFT's and kidney function tests post treatment with Calotropis procera showed no toxicity of drug. In group C the characteristic signs of disease were noticed. The results of prophylactive trials with both drugs showed delay of 23 days in the onset of clinical disease with buparvaquone while clinical disease was not seen in second group that was prophylactively treated with Calitropis procera. The in vitro trials with both drugs to check the acaricidal activity supported trials with Calitropis procera as having acaricidal within 3 hours while no such effect was noticed with bupasrvaquone in vitro trials. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1033,T] (1).

11. Pharmacokinetics Of Meloxicam In Different Species

by Khawaja Tahir Mahmood (2003-VA-207) | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Mansoor Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug. It has been registered in Pakistan as a safe substitute of diclofenac sodium which was banned for veterinary use due to its relay toxicity associated with the catastrophic decline in vulture population of the subcontinent. Marked inter-species differences in the pharmacokinetics of NSAIDs have been reported and pharmacokinetic data cannot be extrapolated from one to another species. The project was designed to study the pharmacokinetic parameters of meloxicam in domestic animals under local conditions. The study was completed in two phases. A simple, precise and accurate HPLC analytical methods for measurement of meloxicam in biological fluids was standardized and validated in phase-I. The pharmacokinetic parameters and absolute bioavailability of meloxicam in dogs were investigated in phase-I whereas pharmacokinetic parameters of meloxicam were characterized in the horses, donkeys, buffalo, and goats in phase-Il. Eight healthy animals of each species (dogs, horses, donkeys, buffalos and goats) were used for this project. The dose for these animals was chosen from literature in order to achieve plasma concentrations of meloxicam that were likely to have an effect against inflammation. The samples of blood were drawn as per protocol before and after medication at various time intervals. The separated plasma was stored at -20 °C till analyzed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1073,T] (1).

12. Effect Of Various Stress Factors On The Immune Response(Ph.D)

by Muhammad Yasser Mustafa Butt | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram Muneer | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Pakistan has vast population of dogs belonging to different breeds. Most of the dogs have no pedigree record which is a great threat to conservation of different breeds. No study on DNA fingerprinting of dogs has been conducted in Pakistan. DNA fingerprinting of dogs is necessary to overcome the problems like forensic cases, sale & purchase, individual identity in case of fertilization by more than one male and ownership disputes. Microsatellite markers have been proved as an efficient and powerful tool for parentage testing and breed characterization of dogs. In this study, a panel of microsatellite markers, having high polymorphism information content (PlC) values, was developed. Blood samples were taken from cephalic vein of two breeds of dogs (German shepherd and Labrador retriever). DNA was extracted by Inorganic method. Primers of microsatellite markers were optimized for successful amplification conditions in the Bio-Rad thermocycler. Multiplex PCR was performed, for amplification of these microsatellite markers on 46 samples belonging to 20 families. Genotyping analysis was performed for the PCR products of microsatellite markers on non denaturing polyacrylamide gel. These results were analyzed statistically software "POPGENE 3.3 and POWER STAT". Allele frequency, heterozygosity, homozygosity, polymorphism information content (PlC), power of discrimination and power of exclusion of all microsatellite markers were calculated. Average power of discrimination among non parents, average hetrozygosity, average observed homozygosity and average polymorphism information content (PlC) value for all alleles was 0.809, 0.6345, 0.29 13 and 0.724 respectively. Moreover combined power of exclusion reached a significant value of 0.9998. Almost all of the microsatellite markers showed significant variations in both German shepherd and Labrador retriever breeds. Microsatellite "REN41D2Ob" showed maximum variation i.e. 17 alleles and microsatellite"REN49F22b" showed the least variation among all microsatellite markers i.e. 4 alleles. Genotyping results of microsatellite markers were clearly different for two different breeds showing a distinct genetic distance between German shepherd and Labrador retriever breeds. Results of this study lead to development of a panel of microsatellite markers which can be used for parentage analysis and breed characterization of dogs. This was a preliminary study on dogs in Pakistan. This facility can be provided on commercial basis to pet owners and kennel clubs. Moreover this study can become the basis for further research investigations in canines in Pakistan. To evaluate effects of various stress factors on immune response and growth performance of broiler chicks, a total of five experiments using 2000 broiler chicks were conducted. In each experiment, chicks were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E), and each group consisted of 80 day-old-chicks. In each experiment, the chicks were exposed to stress factors, such as temperature, stocking density, feed deprivation, water restriction and light. Each chick in groups A, B, C, and E was vaccinated against IBV, NDV, IBDV and HPSV, but chicks in group D were kept as unvaccinated controls. Blood samples from each group were collected on 36 day of age, at 18 hrs for determining TLC, DLC and H/L ratio. The antibody titers of chicks in different groups were analyzed using HI test at days 36th and 56. The cellular response was analyzed by injecting PHA-P in the wattles of bird during post stress period. The effects of each stress on lymphoid organs were determined. The potential to resist virulent NDV challenge and effect of stress factors on body weight gains and FCR of chicks was also determined. In experiment 1, conducted to determine the effect of various temperature ranges on broiler chicks, it was observed that the heat stressed (HS) birds showed non-signilicant dilYerence in TLC values. The HS effect on lymphoid organs indicated that the mean weight of thymus of chicks in group B (0.29±0.02) and C (0.59±0.13) was significantly (P<0.05). lower than those in groups A (4.11±3.26), D (4.50±0.77) and E (4.35±0.21). The mean bursa weight of heat stressed chicks in goups A (0.94±0.59) and B (0.20±0.01) were significantly (P0.05) lower as compared to non- heat stressed chicks in groups D (1.42±0.22) and E (1.33±0.18). The mean spleen weight of groups A (1.21±0.13) and B (1.30±0.11) was significantly (P0.05) lower than groups D (L93±0.16) and E (1.52±0.10) indicating the adverse effect of increased temperature. The FCR valueswere significantly (P0.05) different among groups in 6th1 week and effect of Vitamin C was found significantly (P<0.05) improved than Vitamin E and glucose treatment. At 36 day of age the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group A (GMT 61) than B (GMT 144) and C (GMT 109) groups while group E (GMT 186) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and E at the age of 56 days was 79, 156, 122 and 216, respectively. There was nonsignificant (P>0.05) differences in wattle thickness (cm) among groups A (1.51+0.06), B (1.77±0.26), C (1.2±0.25) and D (1.52±0.22) but increased in group E (1.83+0.08). The mortality was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in groups A (14) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. In experiment 2, conducted to determine the effect of various levels of stocking densities on broiler chicks, it was observed that stressed birds had showed non-signilicant (P>0.05) difference in TLC values. The effect on lymphoid organs found that the mean thymLls weight (grn) of chicks in groups A (0.37±0.04) and B (0.74±0.17) were significantly (P<0.05) lower than groups C (1.50±0.35), D (4.43±0.72) and E (4.40±0.23). The mean bursa weight (gm) of groups A (0.33+0.03) and B (0.57+0. 1 7) were significantly (P0.05) lower than those of groups D (1.76±0.05) and 13(1.33±0.08) indicating that less space effect the bursa development in the chicks. The mean spleen weight (gm) of groups A (1.18±0.07) and B (1.52±0.20) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than group D (2.37±0.28). The FCR values were sign ilicantly (P<0.05) different among groups in 6thi week and there was non-signiflcant (P>0.05) difference among groups with treatment of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glucose. At 36th day of age the I-Il titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group A (GMT 67) than groups B (GMT 9.6) and C (GMT 102). The chicks in group D (GMT 07) showed negligible HI titer while group E (GMT 185) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the 1-Il antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease indicating that the titers in the birds were not enough to resist the virulent challenge. The postNDV-challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and Eat the age of 56 days were 86, 121, 132 and 210. There wa non-significant (P0.05) differences in wattle thickness (cm) in groups A (1.44±0.07) and C (1.43±0.10) while group E (1.64±0.31) showed significantly (P0.05) increased wattle thickness. The mortality was found significantly (P0.05) higher in groups A (25) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that less floor space decreased the immune response of the birds which leads to the infection/death. In experiment 3, effect of feed deprivation at different time intervals on broiler chicks was studied, it was observed that feed deprivation stressed birds had showed non-significant (P>0.05) differences in blood cells population. The effect of feed deprivation on the mean thymus weight (gm) of chicks in group C (0.96±0.29) was adversely affected as the chicks in this group had significantly (P<0.05) lower weight than groups B, 1) and E. The bursa mean weight (gm) of groups A (0.48±0.11) and C (0.52±0.06) was significantly (P0.05) lower than those of groups D (1.40±0.18) and E (1.28±0.11) indicating, that 24 hrs and morning off-feed effect the bursa development in the chicks. The mean splen weight(gm) of groups A (I. 19±0.07) and C (1.21±0.06) vcre significantly (P0.05) lower than groups D and E indicating adverse effect ol24hrs and day off feed on chicks lead to infection. The FCR values were significantly (P0.05) different among groups in 6hhl week and there was significant (P<0.05) differences among groups with treatment of glucose than Vitamin C and Vitamin E treated. groups. At 36th day of age, the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group B (GMT 15) than C (GMT 74) and group D (GMT 07) showed negligible HI titer while group E (GMT 140) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and Eat the age of 56 days were 68, 54, 115 and 165. There was non-significant (P0.05) difference in wattle thickness (cm) among groups while group E (I .78±0.06) showed significantly (P<0.05) increased wattle thickness. The mortality was Found significantly (P<0.05) higher in Groups C (12) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that 24 hrs off feed decreased the immune response of the birds which leads to the infection. In experiment 4, studied the effect of water restriction at different time intervals on broiler chicks, it was observed that water restricted birds had nonsignificant (P0.05) differences in blood cells population except lymphocytes percentage was found higher in groups A (43.7±2.47), C (43.7±1.16) and D (53 .3±1 .30) than group B (39.1±1.06). The effect of water restriction on the mean thymus weight (gm) of chicks in group C (0.60±0.07) was adversely effected as the chicks in this group had significantly (PO.O5) lower weight than group D (4.09±0.70) indicating that increased in the period of water restriction in chicks adversely affected the mean thymus weight and chicks reared on ad-flbituni water had higher mean thymus weight. The mean bursa weight (gui) of group C (0.07±0.02) was significantly (P<0.05) lower as compared to group D (1.37±0.88) indicating that water restriction of 24 hr had affected the bursa development in the chicks. The mean spleen weight (gm) of group C (2.64±1.49) was significantly (P0.05) higher than groups A, B and E. The FCR values were significantly (P<0.05) different among groups in 6th week and there was non-significant (P0.05) difference among groups with treatment of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glucose treated groups. At 36th day of age the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower in group D (GMT 09) than A (GMT 54) and group E (GMT 109) showed significantly (P0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) the HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and E at the age of 56 clay was 78, 63, 48 and 134. There was non-significant (P0.05) difference in wattle thickness (cm) among groups B and E and group A (1.28±0.08) showed significantly (P0.05) lower wattle thickness. The mortality was found significantly (P<0.05) higher in groups B (14) and C (21) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that 18 and 24 hrs water restriction decreased the immune response of the birds. In experiment 5, effect of light stress at various time intervals on broiler chicks was studied. It was observed that light stressed birds had showed non-significant (P>0.05) difference on blood cells population except lymphocytes percentage was found higher in groups D (6 1.4±1.16) than group C. The effect on lymphoid organs studied and the mean thymus weight (gin) old chicks in group B (I .90±0.53) was adversely effected as the chicks in this group had significantly (P0.05) lower mean thymus weight than groups D (4.64±0.74) and E (4.34±0.25) indicating that increase in the period of oil-light in chicks adversely effected the mean thymus weight and chicks reared on 24hr light had higher mean thymus weight. The bursa mean weight (gm) 01' group 13(0.43±0.05) was significantly (P0.05) lower as compared to group D (1.59±0.17). The spleen mean weight (gun) of group D (1.88±0.15) was significantly (P<O.05) higher than group B (1.18±0.08). The FCR values were significantly (P().O5) different among groups in 6th week and there was non significant (P0.O5) difference among groups with treatment of Vitamin C, Vitamin E and glucose. At 36° day of age the HI titer was recorded significantly (P<0.05 lower in group C (GMJ 83) and group D (GMT 06) showed negligible HI titer while group E (GMT 128) showed significantly (P0.05) higher HI titer. At the age day 56 (06 days post challenge) in HI antibody titers in all groups registered a rise except in group D. All the chicks in group D died indicating clinical signs of Newcastle disease. The post challenge GM HI titers recorded in groups A, B, C and B at the age of 56 days was 122, 116. 108 and 133. There was non-significant (P>0.05) difference in wattle thickness (cm) among groups while group B (1.53±0.15) showed significantly (P<0.05) increased wattle thickness. The mortality was found significantly (PO.05) higher in groups A (18) and D (40) on challenge with NDV virulent virus. This indicated that 24 hr off-light decreased the immune response of the birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1080,T] (1).

13. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Argas Persicus In Rural Poultry At Lahore District

by Nazish Munawar | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr.Aftab | Dr.Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: External parasites like ticks causes great economic losses in poultry in term of low productivity, anemia, and secondary bacterial infection. Keeping in view economical importance of this problem the project was designed to record the prevalence of Argas persicus in poultry and to treat the birds with different drugs. For this purpose indigenous poultry at Lahore was visited for the collection. Overall prevalence of tick infestation and identification of ticks was on the basis of their taxonomic characteristics. During the study period 5207 ticks were collected from five hundred birds. Three species of Argas were identified, 3316 were belonging to Argas Persicus (65.02%), 935 Argas reflexus (17.95%), (18.32%), 957 were Argas vespertilionis. Antigen was prepared from the mouth parts of ticks. Five hundred blood samples were taken from birds found positive. Sera were centerifuged and subjected to AGID test. Overall 19.4% prevalence of Argas persicus was recorded. Age -wise 8.19% and 25.8% prevalence was observed in chicks and adults respectively. The highest prevalence during spring was (26.8%) due to high humidity reason. One hundred layers were selected for therapeutic trials. These were randomly divided into 5 groups i.e., A, B, C, D and E. Birds in group A, B, C, D was treated with Cypermethrin, Ivermectin, Permethrin, and Dormectin respectively. Where as birds in group E was served as untreated control. Efficacy of drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of ticks on the body of poultry. The efficacy of drug trial was noted in poultry subunits for a period of 15 days. The maximum control was achieved by Cypermethrin (90.7%), Ivermectin (90.35%), Dormectin (89.3%) and Permethrin (88.9%). The data were analyzed statistically by using NPar test, kruskal-Wallis test and Median test (Steel and Torrie 1989). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1084,T] (1).

14. Nutritional Evaluation Of Processed Hatchery Waste Meal And Its Utilization In Layer Diet

by Athar Mahmud | Dr.Saima | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr.Abdul.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Due to ever increasing human population, more area is being used for cash crop and there is shortage of traditional feed items such as maize, wheat and soybean meal for poultry. This situation has necessitated using non-conventional feedstuffs as replacement for the conventional ones. Hatchery waste, when processed appropriately, has the potential to increase the viable economic profitability of the poultry production. To determine the feeding value of processed HWM, present study was conducted in four phases. In experiment I, the HWM prepared by using different processing techniques i.e., simple cooking, autoclaving and extrusion cooking was chemically and microbiologically analyzed. Proximate composition showed that the protein contents of the cooked, autoclaved and extruded HW meals were 43.67, 44.10, and 41.64%, while ash contents of meal prepared by above mentioned techniques were 25.81, 26.94 and 27.90, respectively. The high ash contents were due to presence of shell moiety. Microbial analysis of the raw HW depicted high total viable count (TVC) i.e. 8.3x107 and total coliform count (TCC) as l.9x105. Different processing techniques reduced the microbial count of HW up to a safe level. Autoclaving reduced both the TVC (4.7x103) and TCC (3.0x102) level while extrusion reduced the TVC and TCC to a level of 3.7x103 and 2.9x102, which were significantly less (P<0.05) as compared to other processing treatments. In experiment II, protein quality of cooked, autoclaved and extruded HWM was measured in terms of protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization (NPU). For this purpose, ten days feeding trial was conducted and five poultry rations were formulated for broiler chicks. Twenty five straight run 14-days old broiler (Hubbard) chicks were divided randomly into five groups in such a way that there were five chicks in each group. Each group was divided randomly into five experimental units in such a way that each chick represented as single replicate. The weight gain in group consuming reference diet with casein as sole source of protein showed significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain (86.5 g) as compared to the other experimental groups. The PER values of cooked (1.46), autoclaved (1.50) and extruded HWM (1.38) were significantly less (P<0.05) than that of casein diet (1.63). The statistical analysis of data revealed that PER values of all protein sources tested, differed significantly (P<0 .05) among all groups. The minimum (1.38) PER value was observed in group fed on extruded HWM. The NPU values of cooked (45.71), autoclaved (45.22) and extruded HWM (40.63) were also significantly less (P<0.05) than that of casein based diet (74.22). It was also observed that groups fed autoclaved and cooked HWM showed significant (P<0.05) difference with that of extruded HWM. However, there was non- significant (P>0.05) difference between autoclaved and cooked HWM with regard to NPU. The less NPU value in extruded meal was attributed to low protein contents in this meal. But overall values of PER and NPU revealed that processing of HWM can generate nutrient rich, palatable ingredients that can replace the traditional ingredients for better broiler performance. The processed meals are rich in fat contents (18-21%) due to presence of yolk which tends to spoil the quality of NW by creating rancidity. This problem can be counter acted by addition of an appropriate antioxidant. In experiment III, cooked, autoclaved and extruded meals were stored with three different level of antioxidant. This was done to determine the optimum level of antioxidant for proper storage of meals. For this purpose, four different levels of antioxidant (Oxygun) at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg were added to the ground HWM prepared from the above mentioned processing techniques and stored for 50 days. After every 10 days, the representative samples were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and free fatty acids (FFA) contents. Variable values of oxidation were observed when the values of PV, FFA and TBA of HW treated with different processing techniques were compared at different storage periods. There was a linear increase in PV, FFA and TBA values of all the treatments. Comparison within the raw hatchery waste (RHW), cooked hatchery waste (CHW), autoclaved hatchery waste (AHW) and extruded hatchery waste (EHW) with different levels of antioxidant for PV generally showed significant differences (P<0.05) within the treatments. The PV decreased with higher level of antioxidant. This trend was observed during 50 days storage. The lowest PV was found in extruded HW with 300 mg/kg of antioxidant at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days storage compared to their correspondent treatments, while highest PV was at cooked HW with 100 mg/kg of antioxidant with the same storage periods. When different levels of antioxidant in extrusion techniques were analyzed, it revealed that extruded HW with 300 mg/kg of antioxidant was significantly (P<0.05) lower in PV as compared to extruded HW with 100 mg/kg of antioxidant. It was noted that when antioxidant level was increased in all treatments it subsequently checked the PV i.e. higher the level of antioxidant, lower was the PV. When FFA % and TBA value was analyzed it showed the same pattern as in PV. In general, all the processing techniques as well as antioxidant addition checked the fat rancidity throughout the storage period as compared to raw samples without antioxidant addition, however synergistic effect of extrusion cooking and 300 mg/Kg of antioxidant addition was found to be most appropriate to keep the samples highly acceptable for 50 days storage period. HW was subjected to different processing techniques and analyzed and in fourth experiment, optimum inclusion level of each type of processed HWM was determined in layer's diet. For this purpose, three hundred white leghorn hens were randomly distributed to 10 experimental diets containing 4, 8 and 12 % of cooked, autoclaved and extruded HWM respectively. Results showed that maximum egg production (79.56%) was achieved with 4 % HWM processed by autoclaving. Processing of 11W with extrusion significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg production and more pronounced decrease was found with 12 % of extruded HWM (69.48%). Egg mass and feed conversion followed the same trend, observed for egg production. Average egg weight due to different treatments fell within very narrow range and showed no difference (P>0.05) among them. Yolk, albumen and shell weights as a percentage of egg weight were not significantly affected with the use of different levels and processing of HWM. Maximum value of albumen height as well as Haugh units were obtained with the feeding of 4% autoclaved HWM. Other egg quality parameters like shell thickness, yolk index and color were independent of the dietary treatments. The findings of this study suggest that autoclaving of hatchery waste is better than extrusion and cooking techniques and 4 % of autoclaved HWM may be included in layers ration to get more production than diets without NW. Nevertheless, layer diets up to 8% HWM could be used to feed the laying hens to maintain reasonably good production without detrimental effects on egg quality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1093,T] (1).

15. The Impact Of Community Based Animal Helth Services Delivery System On Epidemiological Parameters And Farmer'S

by Farrukh nazir | Dr. Muhammad athar khan | Dr. Haji ahmad hashmi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: A study was conducted to understand the impact of community based animal health services delivery systems on epidemiological parameters and farmer's economic sustainability in Central Punjab. In Pakistan three systems for the animal health services delivery are being practiced without any data base and conclusive findings for the comparison purposes and in terms of the replication if needed in future, therefore, a study was planned to quantify and compare the three systems. These systems are; community based, public based and conventional based animal health services delivery systems. As the community based system was launched as Halla scheme, in Central Punjab through the German Technical Cooperation program / funding. Therefore, the other two systems i.e. public and conventional based were selected in the areas adjacent to the community based system (Halla Cluster). The project area was selected because of the similar geographical, environmental, socio cultural and political similarities. One cluster of five villages was selected randomly for each system. The data was obtained from each cluster through active disease surveillance and was recorded on a questionnaire. Each questionnaire was used for one farmer. The cluster of five villages was 'considered as one herd. In the 1st project, the clusters were quantified and compared on different parameters, like provision of animal health services, provided from the system to the member farmers. Epidemiological parameters like morbidity and mortality rate were recorded and analyzed statistically. In the 2IId project, the community trials were also conducted to compare the efficacy of prophylactic interventions, for the economically important diseases of buffaloes and cattle i.e. the haemorrhagic septicaemia and foot and mouth disease. The effect of deworming was also recorded with reference to morbidity and mortality. In the third project the sustainability of the farmers residing in the systems were compared in terms of cost benefit ratio. Animal health services were arranged like vaccination, treatment, deworming, artificial insemination and nutrition support. Poor, good and better services were provided in conventional based, community based and public based animal health services delivery systems, respectively. The impact of services on morbidity and mortality was recorded, the minimum morbidity and mortality rate was recorded in the community based system and moderate and maximum morbidity rate, mortality rate, number of outbreaks and fertility rate due to various diseases were recorded in the conventional based animal health service delivery system. The results were statistically analyzed and significant difference at a level 5% was estimated. The efficacy of the vaccination was estimated and it was statistically found that the morbidity and mortality rates were significantly low in the intervention herds of buffaloes and cattle, as compared to non intervention herds. The overall sustainability of the farmer in term of cost benefit ratio was higher in community based as compared to public based and conventional based animal health services delivery system. In conclusion the better the animal health services delivery system, the more prosperous was the farmer. So, it is recommended that the community based animal health service system be promoted and replicated on priority basis. The animal health services are provided by public based service deliverers but they are not of the same quality as were provided by the community based system in Halla Cluster. This is the reason that in spite of all the services provided by the public based system, the morbidity rate and mortality rate due to various infectious and non infectious diseases were higher in buffaloes and cattle as compared to the community based system. In conventional based system neither the community based services nor the public based services were available for the farmers because those areas were remote and far from the public veterinary hospitals. Therefore, the morbidity rate and mortality rate at the highest spectrum of ranking and disease burden/disease load. The magnitude of disease problems was highest in the conventional based, lowest in the community based system and intermediate in the public based system. Better the quality of services are provided the minimal are the losses due to the diseases in the animal populations and in turn better the cost benefit ratio and ultimately the more prosperous is the farmer. The only way of poverty alleviation in the rural communities is to replicate the community based animal health services delivery system (Halla) with certain modifications in the Provinces of Punjab and Sindh in particular and in North West Frontier Province and Balochistan in general Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1147,T] (1).

16. Identification And Genotyping Of Vp1 Genses Of Fmd Viruses

by Atia Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Irshad Hussain | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Within two decades after its first report in 1954 from Pakistan, Foot and mouth disease has become endemic in the country and poses a serious threat to large as well as small ruminant population. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is prevailing in cattle and buffaloes and is caused by either 0, A, Asia-i serotype of the FMD virus in Pakistan. The present study was undertaken to study the mutation rate of FMD virus and also molecular typing of the strains prevalent in Pakistan was done. A total of 60 samples from buffalo and cattle were collected from five districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Okara and Sheikhupura. Soon after extraction of their RNA, all of them were reverse transcribed and then subjected to amplification by using different sets of the primers including universal as well as serotype specific primers. Then their VPI portions were amplified by using VP1 specific primers. Among 60 samples, 48 were positive with universal primers. Other 12 samples were not amplified with these primers hence not processed. Among 48 FMD positive samples, 24 were positive with serotype 0 specific primers, 16 with serotype Asia-i and remaining 8 were positive with serotype A specific primers. After their amplification, the amplicons were run on the gel. These amplicons were extracted by using DNA extraction kit. After their purification, they were sent to Macrogen® (Seopl, Korea) and Centre of Excellence for Molecplar Biology, Pakistan (CEMB) for sequencing. Each amplicon was sequenced thrice and the consensus sequence was established eliminating sequencing errors. Sequence identity and multiple sequence alignment of molecular sequences (nucleotide and amino acids) were performed with Clustal W algorithm (Thompson et al., 1994). Neighbour joining trees were constructed by using MEGA version 4.0 (Kumar et al., 2004). Nucleotide distance matrices were computed by Kimura two parameter algorithm based on the total nucleotide substitutions and evolutionary trees for VP1 genes were constructed. For FMDV serotype '0' phylogenetic analysis, 14 VPI sequences from various field isolates were compared with some previously published Pakistani FMD 0 type VP1 specific sequences available with GeneBank and some recently published VP1 sequences reported by countries bordering with Pakistan including India, Iran and Afghanistan Similarly, 12 VP 1 sequences of FMDV serotype Asia-I isolates of this study were compared with previously published sequences and their phylogenetic relationship was established. However, the sequencing results of serotype A were inconclusive and were not included for phylogenetic analysis. Three sequences of three locally available FMD vaccines were also studied and compared with the outbreak strains. Polymerase chain reaction was optimized with respect to MgCI2, buffer pH, annealing temperature, primer concentration, template concentration, and Taq polymerase. A concentration of 2.5 mM of MgCl2 resulted in the best amplification of the target sequences (Figure 1). The buffer with pH 8.8 yielded the best results (Figure 2) Although, the suggested annealing temperatures for various primers (of various serotypes) ranged from 48 °C to 63 °C, however, a temperature of 56 °C was found to be the best with all sets of primers (Figure 3). The best intensity DNA bands were observed with 0.3 pM concentration of the primers (Figure 4). Moreover, the best cDNA template concentration giving optimum amplification was found to be 3.0 p1 per reaction (Figure 5). Lastly, a concentration of 0.5 U of Taq polymerase was not sufficient for amplification of cDNAs, however, 1.0 U of enzyme was found to yield better amplification (Figure 6). VP 1 DNA sequences of six previously published Pakistani FMD serotype 0 strains were analyzed phylogenetically with VP 1 DNA sequences of 14 isolates of the study. Serotype 0 isolates of this study distributed themselves into two distinct clusters (Figure 19). First cluster comprised of Sheikhupura 1 and 2, Muridkey 1, Raiwind 1, Nankana 1, Gujranwala 1 and Gujrat I isolates (Figures 19 and 20), whereas the second cluster included Depalpur 1, Sahiwal 1, Okara I, Multan 1, Toba 1, Faisalabad I and Pattoki 1 isolates (Figures 19 and 21). The first cluster was found to be associated with previously published Pakistani isolates of 2006 mostly. However, it also showed association with Afghanistan's isolates of 2004 (Figure 20). The second cluster seemed to be mostly related to previously published Pakistani isolates of 2003 (Figure 21). The overall grouping of the 14 sequences, when compared with each other, depicted a three clustered phylogram (Figure 22). Serotype 0 isolates from Depalpur, Sahiwal, Okara, Multan, Pattoki, Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad grouped together into a clan and had more than 85% sequence similarity with each other. The second cluster consisted of isolates of Sheikhupura, Nankana, Raiwind and Muridkey. These sequences had more than 86% similarity with each other. The third cluster consisted of only two isolates which were 100 % similar to each other. However the third cluster had only 74 % sequence similarity to cluster I and 73 % sequence similarity when compared with cluster 2. When the phylogenetic relationships with previously reported isolates of Asia 1 was evaluated, FMD Asia I isolates of this study were found to be scattered into two distinct groups (Figure 16). Group one consisted of isolates of Lodhran, Toba and Hafizabad that were more closely related to Indian isolates sharing more than 98% identity with each other and more than 94 % sequence identity with isolates of Indian 2001 to 2004 (Table 5 and Figures 16 and 17). However, they shared more than 86% sequence similarity with Pakistani isolates of 2002-2005 (Table 5). Group two comprised of isolates of kasur, Lahore, Pakpattan, Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and multan alongwith vaccine A and B (Figure 16). The isolates of group 2 were found to be closely associated with previously published isolates of Pakistani and Afghani origin of year 2003 and 2004 (Figures 16 and 18). Collectively, they shared an overall 70% sequence identity with each other. However, isolates of Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan and Multan shared more than 98% similarity with each other, a measurement of close relationship denoting a likely common origin as one clan or dade. Similarly, isolates of Pakpatan, Faisalabad, Okara, Kasur, and Lahore shared 88% sequence identity with each other and qualified as one clade. Although, overall amino acid sequence similarity of our isolates was not strikingly different from that of the published isolates, however, amino acid substitutions with dissimilar properties were found with a scattered pattern of distribution. For example, 15th amino acid residue which is hydrophilic in the previously published isolates had a substitution with a hydrophobic amino acid residue in our three isolates namely Sheikhupura 2, Muridkey I and Raiwind I (Figure 25). Similarly, 14th amino acid residue which is hydrophobic in nature was found to be replaced with a hydrophilic one in our last five isolates. Amino acid residue number 13 (Figure 25) had a substitution with a hydrophobic residue in some of our isolates etc. etc. It is interesting to note that such substitutions with amino acids having dissimilar properties have also been found, albeit at lower rate, in previously published sequences by many researchers (Figure 25). A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in the critical VP I region of FMD serotype Asia I revealed that most of this study isolates shared very high homology with sequences of Vaccine A. However, the sequences of isolates of Lodhran, Hafizabad and Toba did not match much with that of either vaccines, A or B (Figure 23). Sequences of Vaccine A had a "K" which seemed to be replaced by a "T" in the sequences of most of the isolates. Considering the properties of various amino acids, this change does not signify a major shift in the three dimensional picture of the protein as K is a lysine, a positively charged amino acid, whereas a T is threonine, a hydrophilic amino acid in nature. Next substitution in most of the isolates is a "P" for "A" in comparison to the vaccines. Again, it is not a significant change as both P and A share the same property, hydorphobicity. Similarly a K with an R can be substituted without much change in the overall shape of the protein molecule. Next amino acid substitution is a leucine instead of methionine. Again both are hydrophobic in nature; hence their impact on the overall picture is minute, if at all. However, glycine and arginine are two very different amino acids; the former is a hydrophobic amino acid whereas the latter is positively charged one. Such amino acid substitutions may have the potential to make a major impact in terms of the epitopic differences in the capsids of vaccinal and field viruses. A comparison of the deduced amino acids of FMD serotype 0 isolates also exhibited such changes with the vaccinal virus (Figure 24). Of the three hyper immune sera raised against three different vaccines in rabbits, only one vaccine induced a measureable immune response yielding good precipitation line against various FMD virus antigens. In summary, RT-PCR for diagnosis of serotypes A, 0 and Asia 1 of FMDV was optimized and could be used for prompt and precise diagnosis of FMD in the country. Although, RT-PCR data pertains to bovines in the current project, but PCR optimization parameters are equally applicable to FMDV infections in other FMD susceptible animal species such as sheep and goat. The combination of PCR and sequencing of the VP1 gene to detect and analyze FMDV in disease outbreaks is fast (less than 6 hours for PCR and about 24 hours for sequencing), and it can give an accurate immunologic characterization of the virus, thus providing a rational basis for choice of vaccine. In fact, the molecular epidemiology of field isolates is a powerful tool to monitor the circulation of viruses (Saiz et al., 1993). Secondly, various isolates of serotypes 0 and Asia 1 were sequenced along with some vaccinal strains. Sequence similarity tree analysis indicated that most of our isolates were closely related to previously reported Pakistani isolates and to those of neighboring countries such as India, Afghanistan and Iran. Additionally, amino acid sequence similarity data of major immunogenic site that forms 13G-13H loop in FMDV serotypes revealed that serotype Asia 1 vaccinal strain and Asia 1 isolates of this study possessed high degree of similarity suggesting a likely host immune response against the vaccine that may afford some protection against most field isolates of serotype Asia 1 type. Lastly, of three vaccines tested, only one was found to afford protection against field isolates of FMDV suggesting more work on vaccine issue in the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1179,T] (1).

17. Prevalence Of Caprine Mycoplasmosis In Different Areas Of Pakistan

by Waseem Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007. For this purpose a total of 1440 different samples such as nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung piece, synovial fluid, and milk samples (1180), and 260 serum samples were collected from clinically affected goats of different breeds, age and sex. These samples were collected from twelve districts including Mansehra, Peshwar, Swabi, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Pishin, Jhang, Sargodha, Lahore and Faisalabad with 6 union councils (UC) in each district. Twenty samples of different nature were collected from each of union council. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, Growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One twenty one samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth whereas out of these 121 samples 58 grew on PPLO agar. All 58 field isolated organisms showed positive reaction to GIT. None of the serum sample showed a positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five samples out of 1180 prior to culturing were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing, whereas 58 samples were positive with this technique after culturing. Prevalence of mycoplasmosis in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5 % respectively) is not significantly higher as compared to semi desert and sub hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9 % respectively) which may be due to chance alone. Furthermore, the adult group-3 (age > 1 year) has significantly lowest prevalence (2.7 %) of Mmc as compared to age group-1 (age < 181 days) with 5.1 % prevalance and age group-2 (age: 181 to 365 days) with 4.4 % prevalence. This difference may be due to chance but not areal difference. Similarly prevalence (4.7%) of mycoplasmosis in female goats is not significantly higher as compared to males (3.2%). Beetal, Piamiri, Beetal teddy cross, Baltistani and Desi breeds of goats showed higher prevalence only by chance as compared to other breeds in the areas under study. Saponin inactivated vaccine was prepared from this field strain and found to be effective against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goats. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4+, CD8+, and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 ºC, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsintreated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1188,T] (1).

18. Epidemiology Diagnosis And Chemotherpy Of Strangles In Equines

by Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Strangles is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis and causes high morbidity and low mortality. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. The present study comprised of five phases. In phase-I, epidemiology of the disease including prevalence, variations in SeM, SzPSe and Se18.9 proteins and mortality rate were studied in Lahore and Sargodha districts. For epidemiology, nasal swabs and pus samples from the affected lymph nodes of 500 equines (nr=250 horses, rutz250 mules) suspected for strangles were collected and cultured for identification of S. equl. The collected samples were processed at Medicine and Microbiology Laboratories of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lhore, Pakistan and Gluck equine research center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, USA. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules, 113(45.2%) horses and 99 (3 9.6%) mules tested positive for S. equi. on the basis of culture. Number of S. equl isolates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in pus samples taken from sub-mandibular lymph nodes as compared to nasal discharge samples. The difference was significant (P<0.05) among mules of different age groups. The highest prevalence of strangles was recorded in horses and mules less than 2 year of age as compared to those having age more than 2 years. In the present study, prevalence of strangles round the year in horses and mules were also calculated and it was found to be the highest during the months of February, March, April and May while few cases were seen during the months of January, June and July and no cases were observed during others months. The significant difference was observed (p<O.O5) among the prevalence levels of strangles in different months of the year. Similarly when compared the prevalence of strangles in different seasons of Pakistan i.e. summer, winter, spring and autumn. The highest prevalence rate was recorded during the spring season. The prevalence on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of S. equi in horses and mules was also recorded. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules tested, 122(48.8%) horses and 113(45.2%) mules were positive for S. equi. When compared the prevalence rate on the basis of PCR and culture of nasal and pus samples from affected submandibular lymph nodes it revealed that the sensitivity of Polymerase chain reaction appears to be much greater than culture. The culture along with PCR is the best diagnostic technique for S. equi as PCR test does not differentiate between dead and live bacteria, hence a positive test may not correlate with active infection; therefore, a positive culture may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this phase of epidemiological study of disease, effect of selective pressure of allelic diversity in SeM of S. equi on immunoreactive proteins SzPSe and Se 18.9 was also studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM are accompanied by variations in the immunoreactive surface of exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9. Sequences of genes of 25 S. equi alleles isolated from different countries of the world over a period of 40 years were compared. Twenty different SeM alleles were identified including 6 not included in the data base (http:// pubmlst.org/szooepidemicus). Amino acid variation was also detected distal to the N- terminus of SeM. No variation was observed in SzPSe except for an Australian isolate which showed a deletion of one PEPK repeat. The Se 18.9 protein in all 25 isolates of S. equi did not exhibit any variation. Interestingly, only 2 SNP loci were detected in Se 18.9 compared to 93 and 49 in SeM and SzPSe respectively. The greater frequency of mutation in SzPSe compared to Se18.9 may be related to a high rate of recombination of SzPSe and the inclusion of exogenous DNA sequence based on the atypical GC percentage of its central hyper variable region. In horses the mortality rate was recorded as 1.64% whereas the mortality rate in mules having less than 5 years of age was found to be 0.88%. No significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rate among horses and mules of different age groups affected with strangles was observed. In phase-I! of the present study, carrier status of the horses and mules were studied. Out of 122 horses found positive to PCR, 20 horses (10<2 years and 10 between 2 and 5 years of age) were selected and monitored for 12 weeks. Their nasal swab samples were used for identification of bacteria through culture and PCR on weekly basis. Till the end of 3rd week all horses <2 years of age remained positive but at the end of 4th to 7th weeks there remained positive only 5, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture whereas through PCR at the end of the 4th week all horse <2 years of age were found positive, but at the end of 5th to 10th weeks there remained 7, 5, 4, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively. While all the horses aging between 2 to 5 year, were positive up to the 1St week but at the end of 2nd to 8th week out of 10 there were 9, 7, 6, 3, 1, 1 and zero horses respectively positive on the basis of culture but through PCR, all horses were positive till 4th week but at the end of 5th to 9th week number was reduced to 9, 7, 6, 3, 2 and zero. Similarly, out of 113 mules, 20 mules (10<2 year and 10 between 2 and 5 years of old) were also monitored for 12 weeks to study their carrier status. After the end of 2nd week all mules <2 years of age were positive but at the end of 3rd to 6th weeks there remained 7, 3, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR at the end of the 5th week all mules <2 years of age were positive, but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there remained 9, 7, 3, 2 and zero mules out of 10, respectively. While in 2 and 5 year old mules, all were positive up to the 2nd week but at the end of 3rd to 7th weeks there were 6, 4, 2, 1, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR, all mules were positive up to 5th week but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there were 8, 5, 2, 1 and zero. Horses and mules were declared free of infection on the basis of three consecutive negative samples through culture and PCR. From the result of present study, it may be concluded that sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction appears to be much greater than culture for study of carrier status of equines. Moreover, recovered animals should be kept in quarantine period at least upto 9th week because the recovered horses and mules remain carrier for prolonged period of time and can act as source of infection for susceptible animals through periodic shedding of S equi. (comprising 10 horses and 10 mules) for in-vivo trials. Efficacy of the antibiotics was assessed weekly on the basis of negative nasal swab culture. Results of in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity revealed that in horses and mules, S equi was most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine, erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim + sulfdiazine and gentamycin whereas the result of in-vivo antibiotic trials revealed that horses and mules suffered from strangles without abscess formation were most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine and erythromycin whereas animals which developed abscess showed no response. It is concluded from the result of present study that Procaine penicillin is most effective in-vitro and in-vivo antibiotic followed by ceftiofur Na and cephradine. These antibiotics might be used for the treatment of strangles infection. Phase-V, comprised over in-vitro trials of disinfectants. Efficacy of disinfectants, like povidone iodine, 0.6% H2S04, dettol and bleach was assessed. Phenol Co-efficient Test was applied, to ascertain efficacy of these disinfectants, used in, in-vitro trials. Among four disinfectants, povidone iodine was found to be the best one with a phenol coefficient of 1.25 that is greater than phenol i.e. 1.00 while 0.6% H2S04 showed similar phenol coefficient as that of phenol. The phenol coefficient of dettol and bleach were observed as 0.5 and 0.75 respectively. Therefore it is recommended that S. equi is highly sensitive to povidone iodine and 0.6% H2S04. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1211,T] (1).

19. Implications Of Varying Electrolytes (Sodium Potassium And Chloride And Their Balance On Growth Performance and Physiologcal Responses of Broilers

by Mirza Muhammad Haroon | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad | FAPT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A series of experiments were envisaged to evaluate the effect of supplementation of dietary electrolytes with applicability of dietary electrolyte balance by using different salts on growth and carcass responses, body physiological responses and litter condition of modern day broiler chickens under phase feeding system. Day-old straight-run Hubbard broiler chicks were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments replicated four times in such a way that a floor space of 0.09 m2 was provided to each bird. Birds were housed in environmental control system. Continuous light was provided 24 hours for the first 3 day and thereafter a light pattern of 23L:ID was adopted for the entire experimental. In each experiment, a basal diet was formulated having lowest level of each electrolyte. In experiment 1, Na and DEB in the basal diet were maintained at 0.08% and 160 mEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was then supplemented with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and disodium sulphate (Na2SO4) to maintain four levels of Na (0.17, 0.26, 0.35, and 0.44%) by fixing K and Cl with DEB 200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg, respectively. In experiment 2, a basal diet was prepared to contain the lowest level of K and DEB i.e. 0.70% and 160 mEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was supplemented with potassium sulphate (K2S04) and potassium carbonate (K2C04) by fixing Na and Cl. So, four levels of K (0.86, 1.02, 1.18, and 1.34%) were maintained in eight dietary treatments. In experiment 3, a basal diet was prepared to contain the lowest level of Cl and DEI3 i.e. 0.17% and 320 rnEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was supplemented with ammonium chloride (NH4CI) or calcium chloride (CaCl2), so that, in each diet, we can have the increase of 40 mEq/kg DEB at 0.3 I, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73% of Cl at DEB 280, 240, 200 and 160 mEq/kg, respectively, by fixing Na and K. At the end of each phase (pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher); data of feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio, mortality, water intake, water intake-to-feed intake ratio and litter quality were collected and evaluated. At the end of each experiment, two birds were slaughtered for their carcass and body physiological responses. Blood was also collected from these same birds for blood pH. glucose and serum mineral analyses. For statistical analyses, four (4) levels of electrolyte were used with two (2) sources of salt in a factorial arrangement of 4 x 2 under completely randomized design using GLM. In experiment 1, highest weight gain and feed intake were found in birds consuming 0.17% (NaHCO3) and 0.44% (Na2SO4) dNa, respectively during d 1-10. However during d 11-20, weight gain and feed:gain were reduced with same levels of dNa. Maximum weight gain was found in diets containing 0.17 and 0.24% dNa during d 21-33 and 34-42, respectively. Improved FG was the result of diets containing 0.20% (NaHCO3) and 0.37% (Na2SO4) dNa during d 2 1-33. Linear rise in water intake was observed in birds with increasing dNa during d 1-42. Minimum litter dampness was seen at 0.37% (NaHCO3) and 0.2 1% (Na2SO4) during d 1-10. Minimum and maximum mortality were observed at 0.37% level of dNa in case of supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2SO4, respectively. Significantly increased pH and kidney weight while reduced dressing percentage were observed by amount and salt of dNa. Increased breast, thigh and gizzard weights were observed with increasing sodium. Weights of pancreas, gall bladder, bursa, and lungs, and shank length were affected by interaction of amount and salt of dNa. In experiment 2, BWG (P0.03) and feed:gain (P0.05) was improved at 1.20% dK during 32 to 42 d of age. K2S04 supplemented diets increased feed intake during I to 10 d (P<0.05), water intake during 34 to 42 d (P0.04) and mortality during 1 to 42 d (PE0.02). Water intake was increased linearly with increasing dK when supplemented by K2C03 whereas this was decreased linearly with increasing dK with that of K2S04 during 11 to 20 d (P0.002). The K2S04 supplemented diets lowered the blood pH (P0.00l), dressing (P0.04), abdominal fat (P0.03) weights and shank length (P0.02). A significant salt x dK effect was observed where low levels of dK with K2C03 and high levels with K2504 exhibited lower litter moisture during all phases. Increasing concentration of serum cations was observed by increasing dK, by balancing of increasing serum HCO3 with decreasing Cl at the end of the experiment. In experiment 3, body weight gain and water consumption were optimized at 0.73%, and 0.73% (CaCI2) and 0.45% (NH4CI), respectively, during d 1-10. During d 2 1-33, maximum weight gain and feed intake were observed at 0.42%, and 0.63% (CaCI2) and 0.63% (NH4CI), respectively. Highest weight gain (0.60% dcl), feed intake (0.61% CaCI2 0.42% NH4CI) and mortality (0.73%) while improved feed:gain (FG; 0.38% dCl) were obtained by interaction effects of amount and source of dCl during d 34-42. Fl (0.60%), feed:gain (0.3 8%) and litter moisture (0.31% NH4CI; 0.35 CaCl2) was affected during I -42d by amount of dcl. Increased blood pH, serum glucose and dressing percentage were found by dCl and replacing CaCI, with NH4C1. Improved breast meat, thigh meat and shank length while reduced abdominal fat were observed by replacing salts (CaCI2 withNH4Cl). It is concluded that birds showed better growth performance and reduced mortality against high levels of dietary sodium in Na2SO4 than NaHCO3 supplemented diets, while significant rise in pH, breast and thigh meat yield while reduced dressing percentage were observed with increasing dietary sodium. The importance of high concentration of dK for better weight gain and feed efficiency was depicted in later stages of production. K2C03 increased survivability and dressing responses but both dK levels and salts played important role for water intake, litter condition, carcass characteristics and serum mineral concentration. Birds were also suggested to be more sensitive to amount and source of dC1 in later part of their life. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1212,T] (1).

20. Feeding Management For Optimum Growth, Reproduction And First Lactation Performance In Sahiwal Heifers

by Muhammad Fiaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdulla | Prof. Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Sahiwal is well known dairy cattle breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of world for its excellent heat and tick resistance. The value of adequate nutrition and management of replacement heifers is mostly overlooked and production losses linked with slow growth rate are not entirely realized. Efficient utilization of nutrients like energy during pre pubertal and gestation periods is needful for melioration. The study included two experiments. The aim in first experiment was to investigate the effect of varying dietary energy levels on pre pubertal growth and age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. Twenty Sahiwal heifers (Age = 12 ± 2 month and avg. wt = 125 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments having five animals on each treatment. Isonitrogenous (CP=13.7%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% of NRC recommended level for small breed non bred heifers were fed to the respective groups until onset of puberty. Dry matter and protein intakes were not influenced by varying dietary energy levels during pre pubertal period. However, metabolizable energy (ME) 124% of NRC recommendation enhanced average daily gain (ADG) up to 571±15 g/d which was higher than all other dietary energy levels, whereas it was similar between ME 100% and ME 112% (442±11 and 450±05 g/d, respectively) but lower in ME 88% (397±07 g/d). The improvement in ADG of heifers fed ME 124% of NRC might be attributed to availability of excess energy nutrient for heifers to fulfill not only maintenance requirements but also to grow and develop body reserves. Provision of extra dietary energy improved efficiency of diets which might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. The 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum time period to have significantly highest ADG in Sahiwal heifers. This might be attributed to propitious physiological conditions under which heifers grow at faster rate. The optimum increase in body structures (Body length, height and heart girth) was achieved in ME 124% of NRC recommendations. The phase from 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum possessing significantly highest values of increase in body length and heart girth, whereas phase from 19 months to age at puberty was optimum to achieve significantly highest body height. The optimum increase in heart girth during first two phases (13 to 19 months of age) might be attributed to relatively faster muscle growth in body than bone growth. The digestibility percentages of nutrients (DM, CP, NDF and ADF) were not influenced by different dietary energy levels. No influence of dietary energy levels on digestibility of nutrients in the present study might be attributed to best adaptability of Sahiwal heifers to utilize diets even with low energy under local environment. Similarly, age at puberty was also not affected by dietary treatments and overall average was 833 ± 10 days. The optimum performance in terms of age at puberty at lower dietary energy level might be attributed to lesser energy requirements of Sahiwal under tropical and subtropical environment condition as elaborated by NRC (2000) that maintenance energy requirements of Bos indicus breeds including Sahiwal are about 10% lower. The similar pattern of influence was observed in serum progesterone concentration. The average of progesterone detected during a month before puberty was 0.44±0.005 ng/mL and during a month after onset of puberty was 1.48 ± 0.03 ng/mL serums. The similar rogesterone concentration among dietary treatments might be attributed to similar age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. It is concluded from results of first experiment that higher dietary energy level (ME 124% of NRC) enhanced growth parameters and feed efficiency but reproductive performance of Sahiwal heifers in terms of age at puberty was optimum even at lower dietary energy level (ME 88% of NRC recommended level) under local environment conditions of Pakistan. The aim in second experiment was to study the effect of feeding varying dietary energy levels during last trimester of pregnancy on 1st lactation performance in Sahiwal heifers. Five to six months pregnant Sahiwal heifers (n=16) were assigned four dietary treatments having four heifers on each treatment. Iso-nitrogenous (CP=14.1%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% percent of NRC recommended level for pregnant heifers were fed to the respective groups until calving. After calving, all heifers were fed a similar diet having CP (16.2%) and ME (1.72 Mcal/kg). Dry matter and CP intakes were similar across the dietary treatments. Pre calving ADG was not different among heifers fed ME 112 and ME 124% (486 ± 13 and 497 ± 05 g/d, respectively) but higher than other diets, whereas it was also higher (444 ± 07 g/d) in ME 100% than 397 ± 08 g/day in ME 88% of NRC recommendation. Feed efficiency was similar between ME 124 and ME 112% but higher than other diets, whereas ME 100% was also more efficient than ME 88% of NRC recommendation. The higher feed efficiency in higher dietary energy levels might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. Better body score through higher pre calving dietary energy level might be attributed to availability of energy for animal in surplus to its requirements of maintenance and pregnancy. Higher level of energy at this stage enabled pregnant heifers to develop extra body reserves needed in early lactation period to fulfill high demand of lactogenesis. The similar birth weight of newly born calves might be attributed to the factor that needs of conceptus (growth of fetus, fetal membranes, uterus and mammary glands) are accorded high priority by the homeorhetic controls it transmits to the dam. Extra energy levels beyond NRC recommendation during prepartum period were not advantageous to increase milk yield in 1st calf heifers. The performance of 1st calf heifers in terms of milk yield was only optimum through pre calving feeding according to NRC recommendations. The lesser milk yield in diets having higher energy levels than recommended by NRC might be attributed to more availability of mammary fat pad which may limit further parenchymal tissue development and consequently decrease milk yield during subsequent lactation. However, milk fat percentage increased as pre calving dietary energy level was increased, whereas milk protein, lactose and SNF percent among animals fed different experimental diets did not differ. It is concluded from results of second experiment that the optimal performance of pregnant Sahiwal heifers was achieved through provision of pre calving extra dietary energy (ME 112%) beyond the NRC recommendation but first lactation yield was found optimum in heifers fed diet having energy level as per recommendations of NRC. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1230,T] (1).

21. Isolation And Molecular Characterization Of Antimicrobial Resistant E-Coli Isolation From Retail Meats

by Ali Ahmed | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Dr.Mueen Aslam | Prof.Dr.Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1252,T] (1).

22. Epidemiology Of Diarrheal Diseases Of Bovine Calves In Punjab

by Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1254,T] (1).

23. Study Of Pathogenesis Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum In White Leg Horn Layer

by Mubasher Rauf | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr Aftab | Dr.M.Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: In first part of present study 380 samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of layers suffering from respiratory diseases in and around Lahore. Samples were subjected for mycoplasma isolation by using Frey's medium. Plates with positive growth revealed characteristic colonies on 8th day post inoculation that reached maximum in size and growth at 15th day post inoculation. Out of 380 samples, 104 (27.36%) samples were positive on culture. Isolates were identified through growth inhibition test (GIT) by using hyper immune sera raised in rabbits. Isolates were further confirmed by PCR. Similarly, tracheal swabs and tissue samples of lungs and trachea collected under refrigeration were also subjected for DNA analysis. Out of 380 samples 264 (69.5%) were positive on PCR analysis. By comparing two diagnostic techniques it was found that PCR was more sensitive and reliable technique for screening of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. In second part of study experiment isolates were analyzed for protein profile of Mycoplasma by standardization of two techniques Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. These techniques help to find out any antigenic variation in prevailing strain of mycoplasma. During our study five bands of protein were detected with molecular size of 32.35 kDa, 43.65 kDa, 52.48 kDa, 64.56 kDa and 70.8 kDa. These proteins were extracted from whole cell of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates. On comparing the molecular sizes it was found that isolated species showed low antigenic variation, analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Western blot was used to determine the specific protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with the use of specific polyclonal antibody raised in rabbit. The positive reaction site was shown on nitrocellulose membrane confirming target species of CRD. During third part of present study, it was concluded that aerosol route of infection causes early disease, followed by intra tracheal and per-oral route respectively. The severity of infection was found more in aerosol and intra tracheal routes of inoculation than per-oral route which was found to be very mild. The general gross lesions observed in the above two groups were hemorrhages in trachea with mucous plug. There was air sacculitis, hemorrhages in the lungs, salpingitis and putrefied eggs in the ovary. On histopathological examination lesions were found in trachea, lungs and oviduct. Re-isolation was carried out to confirm antigen in experimentally inoculated birds. Paraffin embedded sections of trachea, lungs and oviduct were processed for immunohistochemical examination in order to confirm the antigen of Mycoplasma gallisepticum within tissue. A positive immunochemical reaction was found in lungs and oviduct. Which represents that antigen was same as inoculated during study of pathogenesis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1258,T] (1).

24. Studies On Pathogenesis And Molecular Characterization Of Contagious Caprie Pleuropnemonie In Small Ruminants

by Umer Sadique | Prod.Dr.Zafar Iqbal | Dr.Aftab | Prof.Dr.M.Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1273,T] (1).

25. Epidemiology And Controls Of Coccidiosis In Cattle

by Razia Sultana | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof.Dr.MAnso | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Field study was conducted from September, 2007 to August, 2008 and a total of 2700 rectal faecal samples were collected from cattle farms of 3 categories i.e. Government Dairy Farm, Military Dairy Farm and Peri Urban Dairy Farms (Gawala Colonies) Lahore. Seventy five random samples were collected from each category of farms on monthly basis. The results of field study showed that overall prevalence of coccidiosis in cattle was 54.55%. Prevalence of coccidiosis in cattle at Military Dairy Farm Lahore was the highest (65.33%) during Autumn followed by summer (52.66%) then winter (47.66%) whereas the lowest (34.00%) during spring season. The highest (56.66%) prevalence was observed in animals between 6 & 12 month, whereas the lowest (46.33%) in animals under 6 months age. Prevalence of coccidiosis above 1 year of age was 50.66%. No coccidial oocysts was detected in calves less than 15 days old. In female animals prevalence was 51.22%.In the present study, the maximum oocyst per gram of feces (OPG) count was 65,000 whereas the minimum count was as 2000. The count was variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. The mean OPG in group A (under 6 month), group B (6 month to one year) and C (above one year) was 44000, 38000, and 22000, respectively. The four species of Eimeria were identified in all age groups i.e. E.bovis (29.28%) E.zuernii (26.03%) E. cylindrica (23.42%), E. ellipsoidalis (21.25%). The results of field study showed that prevalence of coccidiosis at Government Dairy Farm, Lahore was the highest during autumn (49.33%), followed by summer (44.33%), then winter (38.33%) where as the lowest during spring (30.33%). The highest (62.66%) month wise prevalence of coccidiosis was noted during August whereas the lowest (28.00%) during April. The highest ( 45.33%) prevalence of coccidiosis was observed in animals aged between 6 to 12 months, followed by 41.35% in animals under 6 months of age whereas the lowest (36.00%) above I year. Female animals were more frequently affected (41.28%) than males (39.50%).In the present study, the maximum OPG count observed was 55,000 and the minimum count as 2500. The counts were variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. The mean OPG of group A, B, C was 42,000, 35,000 and 20,000 . In the present study five species of Eimeria were E.bovis. E. zuernii E. cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. ellipsoidalis. The results of field study showed that prevalence of coccidiosis at Peri Urban Dairy Farms (Gawala colonies), Lahore was 71.55%. Month wise prevalence was the highest during August (90.66%) whereas the lowest (48%) during April. The seasonal prevalence indicated that it was the highest during autumn (84.00%), followed by summer (78.33 %), then winter (69.33%) whereas the lowest during spring (50.00%). The highest prevalence of coccidiosis (80.66%) was observed in animals under 6 months of age, whereas the lowest (62.33%) in animals above I year. Prevalence of coccidiosis in animals aged between 6months to 1 year was 71.66%. No coccidial oocysts were detected in calves less than 25 days old. Prevalence of coccidiosis was higher (74.61%) in females than in males (63.60%). In this study, the maximum OPG count observed was 65,000 and the minimum count as 2800. The counts were variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. The mean OPG of group A, B,C was 48,000, 38,000 and 23,000 respectively. Age wise analysis of Eimeria species showed that above mentioned five species were found in all age groups and most predominant species was E.bovis (26.39%) followed by E. zuernii (19.87%), E. cylindrica (23.60%), E.ellipsoidalis (18.63%), whereas the lowest prevalence of E.subspherica (11.49%)was noted (Table 16). The counts were variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. There was inverse correlation of OPG and the age of animals. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was the highest during autumn (66.22%) followed by summer (59.66 %) then winter (51.77%) whereas the lowest in spring (38.22). The role of Meteorological data i.e. temperature, humidity and rain fall on the prevalence of disease was also studied. The bionomical showed that humidity and rain fall played a very important role in the causation and spread of disease and also help in the development of sporulated oocyst. Increased temperature showed higher prevalence of disease. The results of histopatholgical studies showed that there was an increase cellular infiltration of leukocytes, cellular debris in most of intestinal portion. Results of therapeutic trials by using toltrazuril, amprolium, sulphaquinoxaline, lasalocid are presented in table 17. The result of therapeutic trials showed that efficacy of toltrazuril was better than amprolium, sulphaquinoxaline and lasalocid. No clinical signs of disease were observed in treated animals while in diseased animals signs of disease were observed i.e. animals showed diarrhoea, loss of weight gain. From the results it was noted that efficacy of toltrazuril was better than other drugs . Statistically, there was no significant difference between efficacies of all four drugs. The efficacy of per oxygen based disinfectant was higher as compare to oocide while non- treated animals showed clinical signs of disease. Statistically, there was no significant difference between efficacies of both disinfectants Result of chemo prophylactic products are presented in table 19. It was noted that sonicated vaccine showed high antibody titer as compare to non- sonicated vaccine. Result of the challenge experiments revealed that the inactivated sonicated vaccines gave 100% protection to the challenge calves. Their faeces were normal and no clinical sign was recorded even 42 days post vaccination. Few remaining live oocysts were not able to produce the disease in calves. The weight gain of treated animals was higher as compare to non-treated animals. The FCR value in treated animals was better than non treated animals " Prevalence of coccidiosis was the highest during autumn followed by summer where as the lowest during spring. Farm wise prevalence of coccidiosis indicated that it was higher in Peri Urban Dairy Farms followed by Military Dairy farm where as the lowest at Government Dairy farm. " Prevalence of coccidiosis was higher in calves below 9 months of age than above 9 months. All the animals examined for coccidian were naturally infected with coccidiosis. These animals were not experimental calves and prevelance of infection was based on random selection of animals. Overall Prevalence of coccidiosis was slightly higher in females than male. Species wise prevalence indicated that Eimeria bovis is more pathogenic than other species. " Results of chemotherapeutic trials showed that among the four drugs used i.e. Toltrazuril, Amprolium, Sulfaquinoxaline and Lasalocid. Toltrazuril showed the highest efficacy followed by Amprolium, where as Lasalocid showed the lowest efficacy. No side effects of these drugs were noted when were given at their recommended dose rate and marked clinical improvement in animals was noted after treatment. " Two disinfectants were tried. Per oxygen based disinfectant showed better results than. Oocide disinfectant. " Histopathological studies showed inflammatory granulocytic infiltration of the mucosa and cellular debris in most of intestinal portions. There were necrosis of villi and degeneration of villi. Haemorrhages in mucosa and sub-mucosa were noted. Some of the glands in the sub-mucosa of intestine showed degeneration & necrosis. " Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) antibody titer was higher in calves vaccinated with inactivated sonicated vaccines as compared to the calves vaccinated with inactivated sporulated vaccine. Results of the challenge experiments revealed that the inactivated sonicated vaccines gave protection to the challenge calves. Their faeces were normal and no clinical sign of disease were observed even 42 days post vaccination. " Weight in infected group was reduced. After treatment, high weight gain was reported in treated animals than control group. Recommendations: " Overcrowding should be avoided. " Provide good hygienic and managemental conditions in farms. " Proper drainage of rain. " Feeders and wateres should be above the level of the ground. " Regular use of coccidiostats is the need of the day. " Diseased animals particularly with diarrhoea should be separated from healthy animals. " Stocking density should be according to recommended of world Association of Parsitologists. " Contaminated faeces should be properly disposed off. " Grazing of animals during rainy season should be avoided. " Animals should be provided well balanced nutritive food. " Entry of visitors in the livestock farms should be restricted Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1281,T] (1).

26. Comparative Growth Rate And Body Composittion Of Major Carps (Labio Rohita , Cata Catla And Cirhinus Mrigala )

by Noor Khan | Prof . Dr . Grant William Vandenberg | Prof . Dr . Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Presently fish culture in Pakistan is primarily dependent on natural food produced in pond by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is supplemented with cheaper agriculture by-products to meet the nutrient deficiencies. Artificial feed which is a blend of various plant and animal by-products is rarely used. Development .of appropriate artificial feed now has become mandatory to transform conventional fish culture practices to advanced fish production systems to improve per unit fish production. The present study was therefore signed to formulate a quality supplementary feed from cheap and easily available feed ingredients that contains at least minimum required nutrients for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out). The feeds developed during these studies were evaluated in terms of growth, diet utilizalion efficiency and its effect on the body composition and flesh quality of the three Indian majr carps (Catla cat/a, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala).The study comprised of three trials. Trial I was conducted on fingerlings of individual species under monoculture system using 42% protein diet. Trials II and III were conducted on Grow-out fish using 35% protein diet under monoculture and polyculture systems. The study was conducted in earthen ponds having an area of 0.03 ha with three replicates and a control. After preliminary preparation of ponds, in trial I, fingerlings were stocked at 80 fish per pond. while in trial II at 70 fish of each species and in trial III ratio of 30%, 50% and 20% of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala per pond were maintained. All the ponds received same amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers (cow dung, poultry manure, SSP and urea) thoughout the experimental period. Supplementary feed in trial I was applied at 4% of fish wet body while in trial II and III feed was applied at 3% of fish wet body weight daily. In trial I 42% protein diet was used containing fish meal. soybean meal. maize gluten (60%). rice polish, wheat bran. maize grains. molasses. vitamins and minerals while in trial II and III 3YYo protein diet containing fish meal, soybean meal. canola meal. rice polish. wheat bran, molasses, vitamins and mineral was used. Growth parameters in terms of length and weight gam were regularly monitored fortnightly. Organolept sensory evaluation was done at the termination of each trial. Proximate fish body composition was determined at the start and at the end of the experimental trials. Fatty acid profile of three experiments was performed at the post-trial basis. In addition, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FeR). protein efficiency ratio (PER). protein utilization (PU). gross nitrogen retention efficiency (G RE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %) were also determined. Proximate analysis of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. Key physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), free CO2, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, light penetration. salinity and nitrates, were regularly monitored during the study period. In trial I the highest net weight gain was observed in treatment group (D 1) (Catla calla 9425.83 g and 171.5 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (374.34 g and 178.7 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (288.18 g and 161.9mm). The lowest growth was observed in Cirrhinus mrigala (176.9 g and 116.4 mm) in control (DO). A significant difference was observed regarding net weight gain among three fish species and between different treatments (DO and 0 I). The net weight gain was significantly higher in trial I treated (01) ponds than control (~O). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR %) were also determined. Labeo rohita exhibited higher values (1762.51 % and 3.03%) followed by Catla calla (1341.58% and 2.95%), while Cirrhinus mrigala showed lowest (976.17% and 2.6%) with experimental diet (DI) Again Cirrhinus mrigala exhibited lowest percent weight gain and SGR (300.85% and '1.54%)in control (DO) ponds. In trial II grow-out under monoculture the net weight gain of fish differed significantly among three fish species and between treatments (DO and D2). Calla catla showed highest net weight gain (37\.88 g and 72.2 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (310.18 g and 72.3 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (270.75 g and 57 mm) in experimental unit (02) while a lowest net weight gain of Cirrhinus mrigala (162.15 g and 36.5 mrn ) was observed in control (DO). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita under different treatments were found non-significant. Although Catla catla showed highest percent weight gain and SGR values (109.78% and 0.81 %) followed by Labeo rohita (90.93% and 0.69%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (84.3% and 0.65%), respectively with experimental diet (D2). Lowest values of percent weight gain and SGR (48.54% and 0.43%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala in control ponds (DO). In trial III grow-out under poly culture the average final weight of fish was significantly different in control (~O) and experimental diets (02) while species showed non-significant difference regarding final weight and net weight gain. The highest final and net weight gain of Lobeo rohita (679.46 g and 370.5 g) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (674.52 g and 303.86 g ) and Catla catla (607.2 and 307.06 g), respectively in experimental unit (D2) while Catla catla exhibited lowest final weight and net gain in weight (493 g and 182.3 g) in control (DO). Regarding percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species under polyculture system no significant difference was observed hence, Labeo rohita showed highest percent weight gain and SGR (126.87% and 0.9%) followed by Catla catla (l 02.31 % and 0.76%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (85.15% and 0.63%), respectively with experimental diet, while Cirrhinus mrigala once again showed lowest values (40.12% and 0.37%), respectively in control diet (DO). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein utilization (PU), gross nitrogen retention efficiency (GNRE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %), in all the three experiments under monoculture as well as in polyculture system, for fingerlings and grow-out fish of three species were found non-significantly different. However, in trial I fingerlings better FCR values (1.63, 1.56 and 1.43) were obtained for Catla catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala and Labeo rohita. Regarding gross nitrogen retention efficiency Catla catla showed highest GNRE % value (10.4) followed by Labeo rohita (9.3) and were found significantly different from Cirrhinus mrigala (6.5) in experimental unit. In trial II grow-out monoculture, FCR values 3.7. 4.57 and 4.56 for Calla calla. Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita were pbtained while GNRE % varied 9.5,5.8 and 8.0. respectively. In trial III grow-out poIyculture the FCR values of three species varied from 3.99, 4.72 and 3.61, respectively while GNRE % varied from 10.3, 8.2 and 12.5%, respectively among Calla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo Rohita. The Labeo rohita for GNRE% differed significantly from other two species. No significant difference among species and between diets (DO, D 1 and D2) was observed in proximate composition in all the three experiments. However, in case of fingerlings Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D 1) showed higher protein contents (16.44<Yo) while Catla catla showed the lowest protein content (12.9%). Crude fat contents were found highest (7.28 %) in Labeo rohita with control diet (DO) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (6.96 %) and Labeo rohita (6.S2 %) in experimental diet (01) while lowest values were observed for Calla catla (4.17%) in control (DO). The Ash contents showed minor variations among species and treatments ranged from (4.81 % and 3.S6%) for Catla catla, (4.34% and 4.7S%) for Cirrhinus mrigala and (3.98% and 4.49%) for Labeo rohita in control and treated ponds, respectively. Highest gross energy was found (6.S3MJg'l) for Labeo rohita and lowest (S.OMJg'l) for Catla catla with experimental diet (D 1). In trial II grow-out monoculture the highest crude protein contents (1S .16%) were observed in Labeo rohita followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (14.S3%) with control diet (~O) while lowest for Labeo rohita (12.13%) in (02). Higher contents of crude fat (7.31 %) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla (S.38%) in experimental group and lowest amount 3.18% and 3.19% was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla in control group (~O) . . Higher amount 4.11 % was found in Catla catla under control (~O) while lowest amount 3.1 % was observed in Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D2). Highest gross energy percentage 996.13%) was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala under experimental diet (D2) while lowest 4.91 % was observed for Catla catla in control group (DO). In case of experiment III grow-out polyculture the proximate body composition highest crude protein contents (IS.76% and 10.53%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala followed by catla catla 911.87% and 13.3S%) and Labeo rohita (12.72% and 6.S6%) in treated (D2) and control (DO) group. respectively. Higher crude fat contents (6.S7%) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest (3.13%) in Labeo rohita and (2.9S%) in Catla catla. Ash percentage was found higher in Catla catla and lowest (2.14%) in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (2.87%) under (DO). Gross energy contents were found highest (6.84MJg,l) in catlacalla under (DO) and (6.56MJg,l) Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest amount (3.24MJg.l) were observed in Labeo rohita under (DO). Mineral composition of three fish species under three dfferent experiments showed non- sign ificant differences. Minor variation regarding mineral composition was observed in pre- treatment and post-treatment level. However. Ca and P contents showed relatively higher percentage than Mg and K contents in all the three experiments. A significant difference was observed in Mg contents in experiment III where Catla catla showed significantly higher (0.045%) percentage than Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita each containing 0.02%. A significant difference was observed in fatty acid profile among three fish species and between diets (~O, Oland D2). Among fatty acids, palmitic acid (C 16:0) was found a dominating fatty acids in all the three experiments. In trial I highest concentration (40.59 g 100 g-1 was found in Cirrhinus mrigala under (DO) and 37.19 in (D1) while lowest (30.75 and 30.78 g 100 g.l) in Labeo rohita and Catla catla under (D 1). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids were observed higher and ranged from (40.20 to 53.29 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (29.30 to 37.81 g 100 g-I), w-6 PUFA (7.65 to 14.94 g 100 g') and @-3 PUFA (7.76 to 11.07 g 100 g-I). respectively. In case of trial II significant differences were also found among three fish species and diets (D0 and 02) for different fatty acids composition. Palmitic acid (C 16:0) also showed highest concentration ranged from 28.36 to 29.73 g 100 g-I). Total saturated fatty acids were found higher that varied from (35.90 to 39.41 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.52 to 40.84 g 100 g-I), and l:PUFA (19.02 to 24.40 g 100 g-I), respectively. In trial III once again same pattern of dominance of palmitic acid along with total saturated fatty acids (36.43 to 42.24 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.899 to 43.72 g 100 g-I) and 2:PUFA (14.97 to 23.03 g 100 g-I) were observed. In case of organoleptic evaluation all the species under di Iferent culture system and treatments illustrated non-significant differences. Hence. significant differences were observed among different cooking processes (steamed and fried fish). The physico-chemical parameters of pond water remained within the acceptable limit for Fish gowth. Although comparatively lower values of temperature were found for experiment II and III for grow-out trial that was conducted in fall. The correlation co-efficient studies revealed a positive significant correlation of temperature, TDS, light penetration and salinity with growth of fish species while pH showed positive non-significant correlation with growth of fish. It was concluded from the present study that both the experimental diets D I and 02 for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out) showed significantly higher growth of all the three species in monoculture system. The diet D2 did not showed any significant higher growth in polyculture system but overall growth performance remained high in polyculture than monoculture treated ponds of grow-out fish. Comparison of species indicated that artificial diets (DI and D2) remained much suitable for Catla catla and Labeo rohita than Cirrhinus mrigala under both the culture systems. Non-significant difference was observed in the body composition and flesh quality irrespective of their economic viability. Information derived from the present research experiments will be useful in future research and formulating supplementary feed for Indian major craps for different age groups. It can also be helpful in understanding the mineral and fatty aeid profiles of the Indian major carps cultured under semi-intensive pond culure system whieh is first study of its kind on these species in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1290,T] (1).

27. Surveillance Of Tuberculosis In Buffaloes, Cattle And Derectton Of Mycobacterium Bovis And Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Food of Animal Origin

by Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Younus | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The main objectives of this study were: to survey the prevalence of TB infection in livestock and their products in Pakistan; to standardize PCR based techniques for the detection of TB in buffaloes, cattle and animal products (milk and meat) as presently no such system has been developed for the detection of TB in animals and their products in Pakistan; to evaluate improved tests for the differentiation of Mycobacterium complex isolates in cattle, buffaloes and animal food products and to compare modern and conventional methods for rapid diagnosis of the Mycobacterial spp. The study was performed in different experiments to have surveillance of tuberculosis in Buffaloes and Cattle; and to detect the presence of different Mycobacteria in animal food products. One thousand animals from different areas of Lahore District were screened with the tuberculin test. The milk and blood of tuberculin tested animals were further studied for the presence of Mycobacterial spp. by conventional methods as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In other experiments one hundred market milk samples and ten thousand five hundred tissue samples from twenty-one hundred carcasses at Lahore slaughter house were screened with conventional microbiological tests and multiplex PCR for differentiation of Mycobacterium species. The results indicated that PCR had more sensitivity and required less time to detect and differentiate different Mycobacterial species as compared to conventional methods. It was also noted that M. bovis were found in milk and blood of milking animals as well as tissue sample collected from Lahore slaughter house. On the basis of findings, regular monitoring of the milking animals, animals to be slaughtered, and workers handling these animals is suggested. It is also recommended to review the current slaughter act to prevent the slaughtering of TB affected animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1321,T] (1).

28. Studies On Cyanide Toxicity In Ruminants

by Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was conducted with the objectives to: (a) determine the cyanogenic potential of various livestock fodder and grasses, (b) determine CN? content in blood of ruminants feeding cyanogenic plants, (c) develop a simple, reliable and inexpensive assay for the determination of CN? in blood, (d) evaluate the efficacy of various antidotes against CN? toxicity in a rabbit model, (e) find out the effect of CN? on hematological and biochemical profile, (f) study the postmortem and histopathological changes associated with CN? toxicity in various organs and (g) study alterations in tissue oxygenation and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity in pigs. For this purpose a total of 500 samples of various plants being used as fodder to livestock were collected from the field and analyzed for CN? content spectrophotometerically. To develop a simple picrate method for CN? estimation in blood, two goats were infused with KCN at 0.6mg/kg for 1 hours. Blood samples were collected at intervals and were subjected to the general method. Standard curve was developed using standard solutions of various concentrations of CN?. Additionally 6 rabbits were also given CN? orally for 40 days and blood samples were collected for CN? estimation. Later on, this method was successfully used to determine CN? levels from 500 blood samples of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats (n=125 each) feeding cyanogenic plants which were collected from the field. For antidotal studies forty two rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G each comprising of six animals. Rabbits in group A were given feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus oral solution of potassium cyanide (KCN) and were positive control. Animals in group C were given feed, KCN and intraperitoneal (IP) injection of garlic extract. Rabbits in group D were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Members in group E received feed, KCN and IP injection of both garlic extract and sodium nitrite (SNT). Animals in group F were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of both STS and SNT whereas the rabbits in group G were given feed, KCN and hydroxocobalamin IP. The treatments were given to respective groups for a period of 40 days. At the end of 40 days, serum and fresh urine samples were drawn from each rabbit to study biochemical panel. Subsequently the rabbits were euthanized for postmortem and histopathological changes in various organs. For hematological and growth rate studies 12 rabbits were divided into two groups of six viz. A and B. Rabbits in group A were given feed only while members in group B were treated with feed and oral KCN at 3mg/kg for 40 days. The animals were weighed after every 10 days. Feed consumption rate, feed efficiency and weight gain for the members of each group were recorded. Blood samples were also collected for hematological studies at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. To study tissue oxygen and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity, 26 piglets were anesthetized. The non-invasive monitors were used to measured oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm and cerebral response to sedation. The invasive monitors were placed to measured beat to beat variability of the arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressures. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and cardiac output were continuously monitored. Regional brain O2 (cerebral cortex) and skeletal muscle O2 saturation (rSO2) were also measured via sensors. After getting baseline metabolic and hemodynamic measurements that included arterial and venous blood gas analysis, lactates and cyanide levels, all pigs were started on an infusion of NaCN (0.55 mg/kg/hr). The infusion continued until the occurrence of sustained apnea (?3 minutes). A non-significant difference was found in the CN? content of Sorghum bicolor and S. sudanese, while a significant difference was observed between the CN? content of Jumbo grass (S. bicolor x S. Sudanese hybrid) and S. halepense. Jumbo grass and S. halepense were found to have significantly higher CN? concentrations than S. bicolor or S. Sudanese. Maize has significantly lower CN? content compared to S. bicolor, S. sudanese, Jumbo grass, or S. halepense. A gradual increase in CN? content with increasing height of plants was also observed. Highest CN? levels were observed at heights of 91-100 cm in sorghum varieties. At greater heights, a gradual decrease in CN? content was seen in all plant species, with the lowest levels at heights of 200 cm or above. No CN? was detected in maize at heights over 131 cm. In picrate method, the calibration curve was linear (R2=0.99) in the range of 0.3-120 mg CN?/L. In standard CN? solutions a color change in picrate paper from yellow to brown was observed at a concentration of 3 mg CN?/L and above. This method was sufficiently sensitive to quantify the low concentrations (0.3mg CN?/L) of CN? found in ruminant blood. In goats infused with KCN, the CN? concentration in blood was time-dependent and continued rising during infusion, gradually declining after infusion ceased after 1 h. Blood CN? levels showed a time-dependent increase in all experimental rabbits with the maximum concentration (1.34 mg/L) at day 40. The highest blood CN? concentrations were found in cattle, followed by goats and buffalo, with the lowest in sheep. When blood CN? levels of these species were compared statistically, a non-significant difference was observed. A non-significant difference was found between males and females. No relationship was observed between blood CN? levels and age of the animal for any species. Buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goats allowed to graze showed significantly higher blood CN? levels than animals kept in a stall feeding system. Animals grazing on jumbo grass were found to have significantly higher blood CN? levels than those fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese with a non-significant difference found between animals fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese. No CN? was detected in blood samples of animals fed maize. Hydroxocobalamine was found to be a significantly more effective CN? antidote than garlic, STS, SNT plus garlic extract, or SNT and STS, either alone or in combination. A combination of SNT and garlic extract was the second most effective CN? antidote. The efficacy of garlic alone was significantly higher than STS or SNT in combination with STS. The efficacy of combined SNT and STS was superior to STS alone in treating rabbits with CN? toxicity. No rabbits in any group demonstrated gross deviation from the normal organ structure. The activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH enzymes, as well as serum bilirubin, were significantly increased in CN? treated rabbits compared to controls. Severe hepatocyte vacuolation and degeneration were present in liver of rabbits in the CN? treated group. Liver of rabbits in the control group showed normal morphological patterns. The concentrations of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly higher in CN? treated rabbits than in control group. Urinary thiocyanate levels were also significantly higher in the CN? group than in controls. Kidneys of rabbits in the CN? group demonstrated severe glomerular and tubular necrosis and congestion. Pyknotic nuclei were present in tubular epithelial cells, whereas a normal histological pattern was observed in kidneys of rabbits in control group. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly lower in the CN? group compared to controls. A non-significant difference in blood glucose levels was recorded between rabbits in control and CN? treated groups, and histological examination of pancreas revealed no microscopic lesions. No significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol levels of CN? and control group rabbits. The serum albumin and total protein concentration in CN? treated rabbits were significantly lower than in the control group. Heart of rabbits in both CN? and control group did not show histopathological changes under microscopic examination. The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were all found to be significantly lower in blood of CN? treated rabbits than control group. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in the CN? group rabbits than control group animals. On the other hand, the difference in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets were non-significant. The difference in total and daily feed consumption between CN? and control group rabbits was non-significant, whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than for rabbits in CN? fed group. The net weight gain of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than in the CN? fed group. Cyanide infusion to pigs resulted in toxic levels of blood CN? accompanied by lactic acidosis. In addition, there was a progressive increase in cardiac output, Venous oxygen saturation, heart rate, elevation of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery blood pressure. Skeletal muscle rSO2 progressively and significantly decreased with increasing lactate and CN? levels. However, there was no significant change in brain rSO2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1322,T] (1).

29. Genome-Wide Association Mapping To Approach The Candidate Gene Having Potential Role In Dairy Bull Fertility

by Asif Nadeem | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr.Atif Hanif | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Reproductive efficiency is a most important determinant of dairy profitability. Fertility in the herd is absolutely critical for both male and female animals. Fertility studies in dairy cattle were directed toward the female side and very little importance has been placed on the influence of the service bull. In this study association mapping was carried out Cor fertility trait in Holstein dairy cattle bulls using high-throughput and a high-density SNi> genotyping array. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with dair, cattle bull fertility. Associated SNPs were queried in the bovine genome. Seven SNPs were found within the genes and fourteen were within 10 kh o! a gene. Seven gl'nes. namely LEPRELl, MOBKL3, CD247, LRRC8J\, LRFN5, IT] I [J and [·.NTP[) J were seleeted as candidate genes. Resequencing and fine mapping of selected candidate genes were performed and identified SNPs were associated with dairy cattle hull fertility. This is the first GWA study for dairy bull fertility using the Illumina Bovine S~ P50 Bcadchip containing 54001 S Ps powered by I1lumina lnfinium-Il assay. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1354,T] (1).

30. Alleviation Of Cyclic Heat Stress In Broilers By Dietary Supplementation Of Mannan-Oligosaccharides And Lactobacillus-based Probiotic

by Muhammad Umar Sohail | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Hibib ur Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The antiviral activity of plants Silybum marianum (seeds), Chenopodium album (whole plant) and Nigella sativa (seeds) were evaluated against Peste des petitis ruminants virus (PPRV) and Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) in this study. Methanolic extraction of these plants was done by using Soxhlet apparatus and extracts were dried by using rotary evaporator. Six dilutions of each extracts 100, SO, 2S, 12.S, 6.2S, 3.12~g/ml were made in distilled water. Vero cells were infected by PPRV and BHK-21 by FMDV respectively. The herbal extracts assays of antiviral and cytotoxic were carried out in cell culture plates. Each well of 96 well cell culture plate were seeded with 104cell/ml of cell suspension. Cell counting was performed by hemocytometeric method. Positive and negative controls for antiviral and cytotoxic assay were also used, incubated the 96 well cell culture plates at 37°C for 4 days. After this incubation, MTT [3-(4,S-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,S-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay were used for the determination of their quantification. Endpoint of this assay was considered in terms of cell survival percentage. Results were compared for qualitative variables using Chi-square technique and quantitative variables by linear regression analysis. 1 OO~g/ml and SOIlg/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 87.9% and 86% respectively in PPRV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for Vero cells. IOuug/ml and SO~g/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 88.5% and 87.2% respectively in FMDV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for BHK-21 cells. Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50!J. glml and 25!J. glml showed prominent cell s urvival of 85% and 84% respectively in PPRV and only one concentrations l Ouug/ml were found cytotoxic.Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50uglml and 25!J.glml showed prominent cell survival of 79% and 77% respectively in FMDV and only one concentrations IOuug/ml were found cytotoxic. Only IOuug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.glml shown prominent antiviral activity 91% and 85% respectively in PPRV. In FMDV l Otlug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.g/ml shown prominent antiviral activity 93% and 91 % respectively. The results of present study are helpful in the treatment of Peste des petitis ruminants and Foot and Mouth Disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1360,T] (1).

31. Sero Epidemiology Transmission Dynamics And Hematological Studies On Neospora Caninum In Dairy Buffaloes

by Amir Nasir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The current study was carried out in two districts of the Punjab province (pakistan), viz. Lahore and Narowallocated;on the eastern part of the province bordering Indian Punjab ::. and the first study assessing the epidemiology of N caninum in dairy buffalo in Pakistan. Overall, the true sercprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffalo (assessed by using cELISA validated for buffalo by using IFAT as reference test) of the two districts was 39.4 % - with no significant difference in the prevalence of N caninum antibodies between male (29.5%) and female (41.5%) dairy buffalo. However, in the Lahore district alone, the prevalence in the female (46.1 %) buffalo was significantly higher than in their male (23.8%) counterparts. In contrast, in Narowal district, the prevalence in male (42.4%) buffalo was higher than females (32.2%) but this difference was not statistically different. The other risk factors evaluated in regards to the prevalence of N caninum in buffalo were similar overall in both the districts; these included age-specific, season-specific, pregnancy-specific, parity- specific, abortion-specific and dog contact-specific prevalence. The difference in sero- prevalence was not significant amongst all the ages but was significant between the younger " 3yrs.) and adult (> 3yrs.) age buffalo. The adult buffalo showed a higher prevalence of N caninum antibodies compared with younger buffalo. Anyhow, the age group of buffalo >3-5 yrs. showed consistently the highest prevalence of N caninum antibodies overall and in both the districts in the current study. The summer season was the one in which buffalo of the two districts and overall showed the highest prevalence, followed by high prevalence in autumn; while the lowest prevalence of N caninum antibodies was observed in buffalo sampled during the winter. The prevalence in the higher parities buffalo was significantly higher than the lower parity and pregnant heifers. The prevalence in pregnant dams was significantly higher than in non- pregnant buffalo in the herds in different areas of the two districts. Similarly, aborting buffalo in regular contact with dogs- at the dairy properties showed significantly higher prevalence of N. caninum antibodies than non-aborting buffalo without the contact of dog. The serological analysis-of dogs (using cELIS A) present at some dairy buffalo '" properties generally showed high prevalence of N. caninum; antibodies at the dairy properties where the buffalo were in regular contact with dogs compared with farm premises and their buffalo without any contact with dogs at the farm. This signifies the roleof the dogs in the - . transmission of N. caninum oocysts and infection to buffalo (intermediate host) as the isolates of dog and bovine origin has been reported to be identical (Stenlund et al., 1997). The analysis of milk samples from the dairy buffalo. also tested for serum antibodies using iscom (immune stimulating complex) ELISA and showed a good level of agreement (Kappa ratio=O.567) between the performance of two tests (iscom ELISA versus cELISA). However, the cELIS A (VMRD, Pullman, W A) showed higher sero-positivity compared to iscom ELISA (SV ANOV A, Uppsala, Sweden). Therefore, the use of either ELISA used on milk for evaluating the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in buffalo can give good results . for lactating buffalo, but cELIS A appeared to have superior sensitivity in our study. The use of iscom ELISA offers advantages regarding ease of sampling and repeated screening of lactating herds but with little lower sensitivity than serum antibody cELISA. The co-existence of N. caninum with Br. abortus, another important abortifacient pathogen in buffalo, is quite significant as the probability of such infectious abortions is increased in the susceptible herds resulting in more economic losses compared to those caused by single pathogen. The co-existence of Br. abortus in N. caninum seropositive buffalo in the current study was 13.2%, while the overall prevalence of Br. abortus antibodies in buffalo of two districts was 12.2%. The prevalence trend of Bt: abortus was related to age, ~ though not exclusively; as prevalence continued to increase with age except in the age groups of 6-7 yrs, and> 7 yrs. old buffalo. The higher prevalence in the adult age groups indicates the association of Br. abortus with development of the reproductive system of the host (buffalo). It also suggests the increase in the exposure of the buffalo to the pathogen with increase.in age to some good extent. However, this prevalence was statistically not signific~ "0. in all the age groups of buffalo. The prevalence of co-existence was highest (18.5%) in -, buffalo >3-5 yrs. old followed by 18.2% in buffalo >7 yrs. age. Howe er, statistically, the difference in the prevalence of co-existing antibodies against N caninum and Br. abortus in buffalo was not significant. Hematological analysis of the N caninum sere-positive and sero-negative dairy buffalo for different haematological determinants, such as total leukocytic counts (TLC), differential leukocytic counts (DLC), RBCs, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelets and blood plasma glucose level showed no difference in sero-positive and sero-negative two groups particularly, regarding the effect of sero-positivity in buffalo. Albeit, some interactions such as season x N caninum seropositivity showed significantly lower monocyte counts and high blood glucose level in N caninum sere-positive buffalo compared with sero-negative buffalo. Overall, in both groups no significant changes were observed in the seropositive buffalo compare to sero-negative ones. Some interaction have independently affected certain haematological parameters although, the animals were not seropositive. This suggests the effect of some environmental factors and physiology states of the buffalo on its haematological dynamics. These effects included the effect of lactation on the lymphocyte count in the lactating and non-lactating buffalo, where lymphocyte counts were higher in non-lactating compared with lactating buffalo most possibly due to the recruitment of lymphocytes in the udder for excretion in milk. Similarly, blood haemoglobin was lower in the hot months and packed cell volume was higher in the cooler months of the year in the buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1366,T] (1).

32. Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle

by Farhan Ahmad Atif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr..Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts, Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle. A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and crossbred cattle of both the sexes. Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent (5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer. The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association (P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non- significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were revealed. The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was 31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders in all study districts. The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles (OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to Khushab and Rawalpindi. The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%). The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves. It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1368,T] (1).

33. Isolation, Characterization And Pathogenesis Of Capripox Virus

by Abdul Sajid | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Aftab | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Goat pox is the most important pox diseases of livestock and it usually causes huge economic losses. The economic losses occur in terms of mortality, reduced productivity and lower quality of wool and leather. The clinical manifestations of the disease include high temperature, lesions skin in the form of macules, papules, vesicles, pustule and scabs on hairless areas of the body. The disease is highly contagious having high morbidity and mortality in the infected herds. The present study was conducted to document the prevalence of goat pox disease in the different regions of Punjab. The study was based on clinical manifestation of the disease in various collecting spots including slaughter houses, cattle and hide markets and tanneries. The prevalence of goat pox at slaughter houses in different regions was 9.93% in arid region followed by 8.69% and 7% in southern and northern irrigated regions respectively. The prevalence of pox disease in sheep was highest (8.54%) in the northern irrigated region, 7.69% and 6.62% in arid and southern irrigated regions respectively. The prevalence of pox recorded in the hide markets shows a trend of high presence 7.29% in arid region followed by 6.22% and 3.84% in southern and northern irrigated regions. Whereas in sheep the overall prevalence was 0.51 %, 4.44% and 1.66% in northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions. In tanneries the pox lesions were identified on the basis of method as adopted in hide markets. The overall prevalence of pox in goat was 3.96%, 4.06% and 4.09% while in sheep 9.58%, 2.41 % and 10% in northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions. The overall prevalence of pox disease in goat was 5%, 5.79% and 5.34% in Northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions respectively. Where as in sheep, pox was 3.133%, 4.11 % and 2.67% in Northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions respectively. The highest trend of incidence of disease was present in the arid regions followed by southern and northern regions. The slaughter houses shows high incidence of disease as compared to cattle and hide market and tanneries. The result was significant (P<0.05) among the regions and samples collecting spots. A total of 100 samples consisting of 55 scabs and 45 skin tissues were randomly selected from the different collecting spots of the three regions. The scabs and skin tissue samples were processed on dehydrated minimum essential media tor virus isolation. The virus was isolated on Vero cell line culture and its characteristics were observed on the basis of specific cytopathic effects. All 55 scab samples consisting 20 from cattle markets, 20 from slaughter house and 15 from hide market and tannery were tested through cell culture. The cell culture positive result for scabs was 60% cattle markets, 20% hide market and tannery and 40% slaughter house. All 45 skin tissue samples including 5 from cattle markets and tannery, 20 from hide market and 20 from slaughter house were subjected to virus isolation on Vero cell line. The cell culture positive result for skin tissue samples was 100% cattle markets, 30% hide market and tannery and 60% slaughter house. In this way the total cell culture result for scabs and skin tissue samples from all areas become 41.82% and 51.11 % respectively. The isolated virus was confirmed through peR. All the collected samples were also analyzed through peR in order to compare the two techniques for disease diagnosis. Out of 40 samples from slaughter houses 18 scabs and 15 tissues sample were positive through peR with 82.5%. Out of 25 samples collected from cattle markets consisting of 20 scabs and 5 skin tissues, 17 of scabs and 5 skin tissues were positive with 92%. Similarly a total of 35 samples out of which 15 were scabs and 20 were skin tissues collected from hide markets and tanneries. The peR of 7 scabs and 14 skin tissues was positive with 60%. In this way the total peR result for scabs and skin tissue from all areas was 42% and 34% respectively. In the 3rd study of the present project the isolated virus was inoculated in to experimental animal to study the detail pathogenesis. The disease followed the same pattern as in the natural outbreak. But however the routes of inoculation affect the severity of the disease. During the study the diseased animals were periodically slaughter at weekly interval after the appearance of 1 st clinical signs. The detailed lesions were observed in different visceral organs and the tissues were collected and preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed for histopathology and immunohistochemical examination. The IHC was successfully optimized for the detection of viral antigen in the tissues of skin, lung and lymph nodes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1372,T] (1).

34. Bat Biodiversity (Vespertilioniformes: Order Chiroptera) In Some Tropical And Arid-Subtropical Regions Of Pakistan

by Arshad Javid | Dr. Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan | Dr. Muhammad Ali Nawaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from June 2009 to May 2011 in those arid subtropical and tropical regions of Pakistan which included less pronounced monsoon influenced areas of the Salt Range, the Upper Indus Plains and the sand dune areas typified by the Cholistan. Bat surveys were conducted in two protected areas i.e. the Margallah Hills National Park (SA1) and the Chinji National Park (SA2) that were located in the arid subtropical region and in another, the Lal Suhanara National Park (SA3), situated in the tropical sand dune region of the Upper Indus Plains. In addition, bat samples were also collected from Gujranwala, Lahore, Tob Tek Singh and Kasur districts (SA4). These sub-areas were selected to maximize the chances of capture of as many bat species inhabiting arid-subtropical and tropical habitats of Pakistan as possible. A total of 182 bats belonging to twelve species were recorded. These included R. blasii (Family Rhinolophidae), R. hardwickii (Family Rhinopomatidae), Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus (Family Emballonuridae), Scotoecus pallidus, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, P. javanicus, P. pipistrellus, P. tenuis and Hypsugo savii (Vespertilionidae). Rhinolphous blasii was captured only from SA1, R. hardwickii and S. pallidus from SA3 and P. tenuis from SA1. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured from SA1 and SA3, S. kuhlii and P. ceylonicus from SA1 and SA4, H. savii from SA1 and SA2 and P. javanicus from SA1 and SA2. Scotophilus heathii and P. pipistrellus were recroded throughout the study area. Maximum bat activity was recorded in spring (n = 65) that was followed by summer ( n = 61), autumn (n = 32) and winter (n = 24). Rhinolophus blasii and S. pallidus were recorded only during winter, R. hardwickii and P. tenuis during autumn, while S. kuhlii was recorded only during summer. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured during summer and autumn. Pipistrellus pipistrellus was recorded during autumn, spring and winter while S. heathii was captured throughout the year. Although the netting effort was the same, the number of bats captured from the SAs was different. A total of 72 bats were recorded from SA1, 52 from SA4, 43 from Lal SA3 and 15 from SA2. The dominance was highest for SA2 and lowest for SA1. Both Shannon and Simpson indices show that the diversity was the highest at SA1 followed by SA3, SA4 and SA2. Evenness was found to be highest at SA4 followed by SA3, SA2 and SA1. The mean head and body length of three Rhinolophus blasii was 39.33 mm ± 0.577 (SD) forearm length was 40.17 mm ± 1.155 (SD) and the tail length was 19.23 mm ± 1.940 (SD). The greatest skull length of a single R. blasii was 17.22 mm and mandible length was 11.80 mm. The baculum of a single R. blasii sample was 3.5 mm long. The mean head and body length of two Rhinopoma hardwickii 66.00 mm ± 5.657 (SD). The mean forearm length was 54.00 mm ± 0.0 (SD). The tail length was 59.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The greatest skull length was 19.68 mm ± 0.108 (SD), and the length of mandible was 11.28 mm ± 1.652. The baculum of single R. hardwickii was 1.1 mm long. The mean head and body length of twenty six Taphozous nudiventris was 86.87 mm ± 5.556 (SD) and the tail length was 27.57 mm ± 12.187 (SD). The greatest skull length was 26.16 mm ± 0.323 (SD) and the length of mandible was 17.53 mm ± 1.149 (SD). The mean total baculum length of the two specimens was 0.58 mm ± 0.017 (SD). The head and body length of four T. perforatus was measured as 84.30 mm ± 5.450 (SD) long. The forearm was 64.30 mm ± 3.457 (SD) long and the length of tail was 22.10 mm ± 2.702 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 22.24 mm and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.25 mm. The total length of a single T. perforatus was measured as 0.69 mm. The head and body length of fifty three Scotophilus heathii was 79.46 mm ± 6.941 (SD). The mean forearm length was 58.69 mm ± 2.929 (SD) and the tail length was 55.00 mm ± 7.360 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 21.39 mm ± 1.378 (SD) and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.08 mm ± 0.882 (SD). Mean total bacular length of ten S. heathii was measured 1.76 mm ± 0.150 (SD). The mean head and body length of five specimens of S. kuhlii was 72.10 mm ± 8.096 (SD). The forearm was 49.40 mm ± 3.03 (SD) long and the length of tail was 42.40 mm ± 4.04 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 18.98 mm ± 0.613 (SD) and the mandible length was 14.41 mm ± 1.173 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. kuhlii was 1.74 mm. The head and body length of two Scotoecus pallidus was 56.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The forearm was 35.50 mm ± 0.707 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 35.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 15.46 mm ± 0.449 (SD) and mandible length was measured 9.64 mm ± 2.425 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. pallidus captured from SA3 was 5.0 mm. The mean head and body length of twenty two Pipistrellus ceylonicus was 63.60 mm ± 7.486 (SD). The length of forearm was 29.92 mm ± 2.492 (SD) and tail length was 25.68 mm ± 3.442 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.76 mm ± 0.257 (SD) and the length of mandible was 9.28 mm ± 3.956 (SD), respectively. Mean total length of the bacula of four P. ceylonicus was 3.66 mm ± 1.190 (SD). Mean head and body length of the ten P. javanicus was 52.00 mm ± 2.712 (SD). The forearm was 35.13 mm ± 1.996 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 30.38 mm ± 5.236 (SD). The greatest skull length was 13.01 mm ± 4.546 (SD) and the length of mandible was 10.29 mm ± 1.679 (SD). The mean total length of the four bacula was 3.57 mm ± 0.860 (SD). The head and length of fifty two P. pipistrellus was 39.33 mm ± 2.690 (SD). The forearm was 28.23 mm ± 1.264 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 25.86 mm ± 3.396 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 11.04 mm ± 0.342 (SD) and the length of mandible was 7.87 mm ± 0.802 (SD). The mean total length of the eleven bacula of P. pistrellus was 3.19 mm ± 0.421 (SD). Only two specimens of P. tenuis were captured from SA1. The head and body length of these specimens was 35.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The forearm length was 28.00±0.707 while the length of the tail was 22.25 mm ± 3.182 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.19 mm. and the mandible length was 7.82 mm. The total bacular length was 2.79. The head and body length of the two Hypsugo savii was 55.50 mm ± 19.092 (SD). The forearm was 36.75 mm ± 3.889 (SD) long while the length of the tail was 33.50 mm ±6.364 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 11.18 mm and the length of mandible was 7.08 mm. The total bacular length of a single H. savii was 2.67 mm. The echolocation calls of bats of Pakistan have never been recorded and thus the accuracy of species identification on the basis of their calls remains a bit doubtful. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1374,T] (1).

35. Effects Of Stair-Step Nutrition Regimen On Growth Rate, Nutrien Utilization And Pubertal Development In Nili-Ravi

by Muhammad Iqbal Anjum | Prof. Dr. Mukhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Under this study, effect of stair-step nutritional regimen compared to the standard NRC recommended energy levels on growth rate, nutrient utilization, some selected blood metabolites, pubertal age, conception rate and economic analysis in ili- Ravi buffalo heifers were measured. Study lasted for 18 months during the years 2008- 20 I O. Twenty-two heifers, 6-8 month old, 98.57±5.07 kg average ody weight were divided into two equal groups and randomly assigned either control or stair-step nutritional regimen (SSNR) diets. The SSNR was designed in three phase program each having 6 months duration i.e., postweaning (7 to 13 month age), repubertal (13 to 19 month age) and pubertal/breeding (19 to 25 month age). In each phase, the treatment group during step 1, was fed on low energy diet (80% ME of NRC) for 4 months followed by high energy diet (120% ME ofNRC) for 2 months in step 2. The heifers in ontrol group were fed according to NRC (200 I) requirements of Holstein Friesian heifers continuously for 6 months. For both the groups individual feeding was carried out. Daily feed intake and fortnightly fasting weights were recorded. Nutrients digestibility and N balance trials were conducted during last week of each step during each phase. Blood samples were collected at the end of each low or high energy diets for blood metabolites analysis. Oestrus detection was done with the help of a teaser bull at age of 15-16 months. Transrectal ultrasonography was done to assess uterus and ovarian structures development. Measured blood serum progesterone concentration collected every 10 days interval at 09.00-10.00 hours during 18-20 months age by ELISA using commercial kit. The age and live weight at onset of puberty was recorded when heifer tood to be mounted by the bull first time in her life. The heifers detected in oestrus were bred by natural mating at approximately 12-15 hours of the onset of oestrus activity. Heifers not returning to oestrus were examined for pregnancy diagnosis through rectal alpation of uterus at 70-90 days post breeding. Data of feed onsumption during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertallbreeding phases were used to calculate the feed cost used per kg gain between the SSNR and control heifers. During postweaning phase, heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (2.03 Meal/kg) ained significantly (P<O.OS) lower daily weights than those fed control diet (2.SS Meal/kg), When heifers fed high energy diet (3.01 Meal/kg), daily weight gain was significantly (P<O.O 1) higher in SSNR compared to control. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was poorer (P<O.OS) in SSNR heifers fed low energy diet compared to those fed control diet. But on high energy diet FCR was better (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group. During prepubertal phase, there was no difference (P>O.OS) in weight gain between the heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (1.89 Meal/kg) and control diet (2.3S Meal/kg). But on high energy diet (2.80 Meal/kg) weight gain was higher (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. On low energy diet there was no difference (P>O.OS) in FCR between the two groups. But on high energy diet FCR was significantly (P<O.OS) better in SSNR compared to control group. Average DMI in heifers of both groups was similar (P>O.OS). During pubertal/breeding phase, similar trend of weight gain, DMI and FCR was found in SSNR versus control group as reported in prepubertal phase. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) as percent body weight were statistically non-significant (P>O.OS) differet between the SSNR versus ontrol groups during all phases. Metabolizable energy (ME) consumption was significantly P<O.OS) lower in SSNR group fed low energy diet than the heifers fed control diet. But ME consumption was significantly (P<O.O 1) increased in SSNR group fed high energy diet than control group. Similar, trend of ME consumption was observed in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets during prepubertal and pubertal phases. Water to dry matter intake ratio in heifers during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertal phases were statistically similar (P>O.OS). In all phases, apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility was higher (P<0.05) when SSNR heifers fed low energy diet, but on high energy diet NDF digestibility was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control, respectively, during all phases with the exception of step I in the prepubertal phase and step 2 in pubertal phase where the differences were non-significant (P>0.05) between the groups. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility with SSNR low energy diet was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the heifers fed control diets during three phases. But on high energy diet, ADF digestibility was not different (P>0.05) between the two groups. Also N intake was not different (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) diets and control diets, respectively, with the exception of step 2 in the postweaning phase when the control group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in intake of N compared to the SSNR group. Faecal N as well as Urinary N losses in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) versus control diets did not differ significantly (P>0.05). All heifers have shown haematological values which are almost similar in heifers of two groups. Except total cholesterol, concentration of urea N, glucose and macro minerals in serum did not differ between the two groups. There was no significant (P>0.05) differences in age and weight at onset of puberty and number of services per conception between the two groups. Pregnancy rate in heifers fed on SSNR diet was 50% while on control diet was 57%. Fifty percent of heifer fed SSNR and 60% of heifers fed control diet as per NRC requirement had serum progesterone concentrations> 1.0 ng/ml in two samples collected 10 days apart before reaching puberty. The overall feed costs incurred (42660.88 vs 44509.96 Rs./animal) on SSNR heifers was significantly (P<0.05) less than the control heifers fed according to NRC recommendations from weaning to breeding age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1376,T] (1).

36. Seroepidemiology And Immunoprophylactic Trials Of Rabies In Dogs

by Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar khan | Dr. Muhammad Arif khan | Factuly of veterinary science.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A field and an experimental study were carried out on pet and experimental stray dogs, respectively. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the rabies immunoprofile of dogs vaccinated with different rabies vaccines under field and experimental conditions and determine the relation between vaccine type, post vaccination intervals, health status, breed, age, gender and dewormers on rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titer. Field study was carried out on 300 pet dogs including 1-108 months old males and females. Dogs were allocated to three groups; (I) regularly vaccinated (II) irregularly vaccinated (III) maternally immunized, each with 100 dogs bled at various stages. Experimental study was carried out on 16 adult, healthy stray dogs equally allocated to four groups; three groups for monovalent and polyvalent vaccine trials with Rabisin, Rabisyva-VP13 and Hexadog DHP-LR at day 0 and 21. Fourth group was negative control. Sample collection was carried out on day 0 and day 21 post vaccination followed by sampling at 30 days intervals till ten months, in each group. RVNA titers of the serum samples were determined by Rapid Florescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) at Rabies Lab., Kansas State University, USA. In field study 58% dogs regularly vaccinated with Rabisin, Hexadog DHP-LR and Rabisyva-VPl3 vaccines, were diagnosed with protective RV A titers while 33% dogs were suffering vaccine failure. Mean protective RVNA titers monovalent Rabisin, Rabisyva-VP13 vaccines were higher than polyvalent Hexadog DHP-LR vaccine without a significant difference. Among irregularly vaccinated dogs, only 25% dogs exhibited protective RVNA titers while 25% dogs were diagnosed with vaccine failure. 50% irregularly vaccinated dogs exhibited RVNA titer below minimum protective level. Maternal rabies immunity was minimum protective level. Maternal rabies immunity was diagnosed in 20% puppies with protective RVNA titers and 20% puppies were suffering immunity failure. Remaining samples were either diagnosed with RVNA titers below minimum protective level or dcould not be assayed due to toxic effect on BHK cells. No relation was observed among RVNA titers and vaccine type, health status and gender in any field study group while a significant relation was observed among RVNA titers, breed, age and post immunization intervals with a significant difference in all groups. In experimental study there was no case of vaccine failure in any group and all groups exhibited high protective RVNA titers at the termination of study. Both the increasing and decreasing trends were observed at various intervals of experimental study. Mean RVNA titers Were 4.53±4.23, 3.48±3.40, 9.36±7.12 in Rabisin, Hexadog DHP-LR and Rabisyva-VP13 vaccinated groups, respectively. A relation was observed among RVNA titers, vaccines and post vaccination time intervals with a significant difference. However health status, gender and use of imomodulatory levamisol were not found to be significantly affecting RVNA titers in any group. On the basis of the present study it is concluded that monovalent rabies vaccines Rabisyva-VP13 and Rabisin generate higher RVNA titers as compared to polyvalent Hexadog DHP-LR vaccine under the both field and experimental conditions however, a high incidence rate of vaccine and maternal immunity failure is one of the factors that can be responsible for high incidence of rabies especially in rabies endemic area. It is also concluded that health status, gender and immunomodulatory effect of levamisol do not significantly affect the rabies immunity however, there is the significant effect of age and post immunization intervals on rabies immunity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1384,T] (1).

37. Prevalence, Serodiagnosis And Zoonotic Importance Of Hydatidosis In Small Ruminants And Humans

by Hafiz Javed Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Hydatidosis is a world-wide zoonotic parasitic disease which is caused by the larval stage of tape worm Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. It is highly endemic in some regions of the world. Keeping in view the importance of the disease, the present study was conducted to record the age, sex, species and season wise prevalence of hydatidosis in small ruminants. The study also includes comparison of the two serological tests used for the diagnosis of this disease and efficacy of mebendazole was aIso evaluated. Prevalence and organ specificity of hydatidosis was studied in 2400 sheep and 2400 goats of different age and sexes. The overall prevalence of hydatidosis in sheep and goats was 8.25 and 6.21 percent respectively. Sex wise prevalence indicated that it was 9.85 and 7.85 percent in female and male sheep respectively whereas in female and male goats it was 5.83 and 7.23 percent respectively. A reasonably higher prevalence of hydatidosis was observed in female animals as compared with males. In adult animals hydatid cysts were present in 11.38 and 7.77 percent in sheep and goatsrespectively while in lambs and kids it was 1.79 and 1.06 percent respectively. Statistically no significant difference was observed in any season through out the year in both the species. In the present study, lungs were found to be most commonly infected organ in sheep andliver in goats. Out of 198 infected sheep, 45.45 percent had cysts in lungs, 33.84 percentin liver, 10.10 percent in both liver and lungs, 2.53 percent in spleen, 2.02 percent in heart and 6.06 percent in abdomen and thoracic cavity whereas in goats organs specificity was 34.23, 40.27, 16.78, 0.67, 8.05 percent respectively for lungs, liver, lungs & liver both, spleen and abdomen and thoracic cavity. A total of 60 cysts in sheep were examined for fertility and it was found that out of 18 cysts of less than two centimeter size, maximum (50 percent) were suppurative orcalcified and minimum (16.7 percent) were fertile in nature. Of 30 cysts of 2-4 em size, 40 percent were suppurative and 40 percent were fertile and from 12 cysts of more than four centimeter size, maximum (66.7 percent) were fertile and only 16.7 percent were sterile in nature. In goats, of 15 cysts of less than 2cm size, maximum (46. 7percent) were suppurative, and minimum (13.3 percent) were fertile. Of 7 cysts, belonging to the group of more than four centimeter seize, 71.4 percent were fertile in nature and only 14.3 percent were sterile. Overall fertility rate in sheep and goats was 38.33 and 36.96 percent respectively whereas overall sterility rate was 23.3 and 32.60 percent in sheep and goats respectively. In sheep, total number of protoscolices found in 23 cysts was 936 of which 72.65 percent were fertile in nature. The mean of total proto scolices was 40.70 with standard deviation of 23.05 whereas the mean number of viable protoscolices was 29.57 percent with a standard deviation of 18.92. In goats, total number of protoscolices observed in 17 cysts was 719 whereas only 52.71 percent were fertile in nature. The mean of total protoscolices was 42.30 with a standard deviation of 17.13 whereas mean of viable protoscolices was 22.30 with standard deviation of 17.10. Blood samples of 40 positive and 40 negative sheep for hydatid disease were collected from slaughter house and serum was separated. ELISA and IHA test were applied on these samples. The sensitivity, specificity, efficacy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ELISA were 92.5 percent each whereas these values for IHA were 80 percent, 97.5 percent, 88.75 percent, 96.96 percent and 82.98 percent respectively. In goats, blood samples from 40 positive and 40 negative cases of hydatidosis were collected from slaughter house before slaughtering and ELISA and IHA were applied on all of these samples. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 90 percent and 95 percent respectively whereas the sensitivity and specificity of IHA was 75 percent and 97.5 percent respectively. A total of 12 i.e. 6 sheep and 6 goats (healthy) were purchased and kept at Ravi campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. These were divided into experimental (4 sheep and 4 goats) and control group (two sheep and two goats). In experimental group, 100 eggs of Echinococcus granulosus were given orally to all animals and then mebendazole was given to two sheep and two goats on zero day and then after two months intervals. Blood samples were collected from all animals on zero day, 90 days and 180th day and serum was separated. ELISA and IHA were applied to all samples. Mebendazole was not found completely effective and ELISA detected the infection earlier than IHA. On postmortem examination, multiple cysts were found in all animals of group A and no cyst was found in group B. Eighty blood samples of humans i.e. 40 positive and 40 negative for hydatidosis were coilected, serum was separated and ELISA and IHA test were applied to all the samples. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 95 percent and 97.5 percent respectively whereas the sensitivity and specificity of IHA was 82.5 percent and 97.5 percent respectively. The present study will be helpful in disseminating the informations regarding the prevalence, zoonotic importance, effect of mebendazole in animals and the use of immunodiagnostic tests for the diagnosis of hydatidosis in small ruminants and human beings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1405,T] (1).

38. Comparison Of Diagnostic Approaches For The Detection Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistency In Dairy Herds

by Arfan Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Bovine viral diarrhea is one of the most important diseases of cattle which are causing continuous economic losses to the cattle industry primarily due to decreased reproductive I performance. Without doubt, direct contact between BVDV persistently infected, and susceptible animals is the most important transmission route of virus. All control programs which are in use in many countries of the world, mainly depend upon the detection of PI animals, eliminating them and preventing their return into the herds. Therefore, in this study diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsies and serum samples were compared for the detection of PI animals, as well as proficiency of various diagnostic approaches like VI, AC-ELISA, IHC and real time RT-PCR were evaluated using ear notch biopsies. A total of 468 samples were collected from 12 participating dairy cattle farms located at Prince Edward Island, Canada. The samples were divided into two groups on the basis of age, A " 6 months), and B (> 6 months). PI calves remain immunotolerant to the infecting strain but if exposed to a heterogonous strain postnatally, they may develop low level of antibody. Accordingly, serum neutralization was applied for initial screening of samples for further testing. The samples of animals of group B, having SNT (:S 1 :64) were selected, while all samples of younger aged group A were processed without considering the serum neutralizing titres, because unlike older animals, P.1. animals below 6 months of age can have passive colostral antibodies in the course of persistency. Diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsy and serum sample for confirmation of BVDV A significant discrepancy was observed between ear notch biopsies (51198 positive) and serum samples (71198 positive) during first round of testing by real time RT-PCR. However, on follow up testing, 30 days post first round of testing, a complete agreement between ear notch biopsies and serum samples was observed. On second round of testing, a total of 4 animals out of 197 (one positive animals died before re-sampling) were confirmed with PI, using both ear notch biopsies and serum samples. The decrease in the positivity using RT-PCR on serum samples in the second round of testing reflected the presence of 2 transiently infected animals. Ear notch biopsy (EN) testing did not detect any transiently infected animal indicating the lack of delectability of the virus in EN during transient infection under conditions of this study. After follow up testing, 2 animals in each of group A and B were identified as PI. These findings have led us to conclude, that either serum or ear notch biopsy can be used for the detection of persistent infection. Of 468 collected and 197 tested samples, an overall 0.85% and 2.03% prevalence of PI animals with BVDV was observed respectively. A complete agreement (P value=l) was observed when three diagnostic approaches (Real time RT- PCR, AC-ELISA, and IHC) were compared with standard of VI. A total of 197 ear notch biopsies (145 of group A and 52 of group B) were tested by the four diagnostic tests, four animals (2 from group A and 2 from group B) were found positive by all the tests applied. A complete agreement was observed between the first and the second round of testing. All four assays were found specific but real time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive. Both, VI and IHC were found labour intensive, as diagnosis may take more than one week to be made. Further PI calves remain immunotolerant tothe infecting strain but if exposed to a heterogonous strain postnatally, they may develop low leved ofantibody. Accordingly, serum neutralization was applied for initial screening of samples for further testing. The samples of animals of group B, having SNT (:S 1 :64) were selected, while all samples of younger aged group A were processed without considering the serum neutralizing titres, because unlike older animals, P.1. animals below 6 months of age can have passive colostral antibodies in the course of persistency. Diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsy and serum sample for confirmation of BVDV persistent animals were evaluated by real time RT-PCR. TaqMan probes and primers specific for BVDVI and BVDV2 were used. They were found specific and able to detect 10·s and 10-4 TCID50 units ofBVDVI and BVDV2, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1407,T] (1).

39. Immunoprophylaxis Of Tick Infestation In Bovine

by Zakir Ali | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof.Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A study to investigate prevalence of different genera of hard ticks was carried out in three districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan (Faisalabad, Jhang and Khanewal). Overall prevalence of Hyalomma species is the highest at 61 % as compared to other genera of hard ticks. In sex-wise distribution, it was found that female Hyalomma species were the highest at 85% followed by A mblyomma species at 81 %, whi Ie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) species and Haemaphysalis species were at 77%. Infestation rate in cattle at 70% was higher as compared to buffaloes at 34%. In tick infestation level study, high infestation level in cattle at 59% was higher as compared to that of buffalo population at 18%. In cattle population, peR results showed the prevalence of T annulata in H anatolicum and Hidromedari ticks as 50% and 40% respectively. No theilerial organism was detected in Himarginatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Three different types of vaccines were prepared from different organs of ticks i.e., salivary gland, intestine or whole ticks of the same species of Hyalomma and they were injected to rabbits. It was found that vaccine prepared by grinding whole tick produced the higher level of antibody as compared to two other vaccines. Each of the whole tick homogenate vaccine prepared from either of the species of Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus or Amblyomma and injected to rabbits. These vaccines produced antibody as well and cross reacted with each other showing each of the hard ticks were antigenically similar. Efforts were made to prepare oil based whole Hyalomma tick vaccine with three different antigen concentration 5.0 mg, 7.5mg and 10.0 mg and evaluated its potency in buffalo calves. It was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as invaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as in vaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of contamination for the tick cell culture which are extrinsic as well extrinsic. The growth rate of these cells in our study was not optimal so the media was not splitted to get more cells. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1416,T] (1).

40. Identification Of Molecular Markers In Bmp15 Gene Of Different Pakistan Sheep And Goat Breeds

by Ahmad Nawaz | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Genetics of prolificacy in sheep and goat emphasize the importance of main genes which have been made known to affect litter size and rate of ovulation through various mechanisms. Natural mutations in prolific sheep and goat breeds have shown that the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) super family ligands such as bone morphogenetic protein 15 is crucial for ovulation and as well as for increasing litter size. Keeping in view the importance of prolificacy in sheep and goat, a research project was planed to identify the polymorphism, its association with fecundity and uncovering the nucleotide picture of BMP15 fecundity gene in sheep and goat breeds of Pakistan. In the research finding, various polymorphism, insertion and deletion of nucleotides in goat and sheep breeds of Pakistan were identified and associated with fecundity and secondly, some novel polymorphism in Pakistani goat and sheep breeds were identified which are different from the goat and sheep breeds of the world. This is the first report of the whole nucleotide of BMP15 gene in the sheep. A lot of work has been reported on these genes but total nucleotide picture in the sheep is not reported. Sequences of Bmp15 gene from sheep and goat breeds of Pakistan has been submitted to the NCBI GenBank database libraries,USA under accession numbers JN655669, JN655670, JN655671 and JN655672. It will result in fast vertical expansion of small ruminants to increase the mutton production and uplift the socio economic condition of small ruminant's farmers in the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1421,T] (1).

41. Epidemiology And Prophylaxis Of Babesiosis In Felidae

by Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1425,T] (1).

42. Pharmacokinetics Of Ketoprofen In Domestic Animals

by Zaka-ur-Rehman | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1427,T] (1).

43. Epidemiological, Haematological And Biochemical Risk Factors Of Parturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Altaf Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Parturient haemoglobinuria is disease of economic importance which affects a considerable number of buffaloes every year in India, Pakistan and Egypt. It is a non infectious hemolytic syndrome characterized by intravascular haemolysis, hypophosphataemia, haemoglobinaemia, haemoglobinuria and anaemia. The exact pathogenesis is not known and diversified etiological factors have been associated with this disease in different parts of the continent. Information on multidimensional etiological aspects of this buffalo syndrome is quite scanty. The present study was therefore carried out in district Chakwal for assessment of disease burden (parturient haemoglobinuria), its distribution and quantification of associated epidemiological, haematological and biochemical risk factors in order to suggest control measures and future research priorities. Active surveillance was conducted in eight randomly selected villages of district Chakwal from April 2010 . March 2011. All breeding age buffaloes (1938) of these selected villages were taken as sampling frame whereas one breeding age buffalo was taken as sampling unit. Parturient haemoglobinuria appeared as number one disease among all problems of breeding age buffaloes with respect to mortality rate (1.03%) and proportional mortality rate (20%) whereas it appeared as 8th and 7th disease respectively with respect to incidence (3.97%) and case fatality (25.97%) rates. Case-Control study was conducted for quantification of epidemiological risk factors associated with disease by analyzing the data of 180 case-control pairs for various 162 hypothesized risk factors. . 7 months pregnancy, . 3 lactation number, . 60 days postpartum period, . 7 years age, previous history of haemoglobinuria and ingestion of cruciferous plants were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) risk factors with odds ratios of 15.80, 6.39, 6.23, 5.56, 3.41 and 2.51 respectively. Clinical trial was conducted on 30 haemoglobinuric buffaloes randomly divided into three groups with 10 animals in each group to compare and assess the recovery rates of three different treatment packages against parturient haemoglobinuria. The highest recovery rate (100%) was recorded for combined therapy of sodium acid phosphate and blood transfusion followed by sodium acid phosphate with antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (70%) and tranexamic acid with Novacoc injection (50%). Cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on haemoglobinuric (n = 30) and healthy (n = 60) buffaloes for quantification of haematological and biochemical risk factors associated with parturient haemoglobinuria. Red cell count (. 5 ~ 106 /ƒÊl), haemoglobin (. 8g / dl), haematocrit . 25%, mean corpuscular volume (. 50fL), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (. 20pg) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate( . 80mm / 1st hour) were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) haematological risk factors with odds ratios of 26, 17.81, 28.95, 21, 12.25 and 26 respectively whereas billirubin unconjugated (. 0.2mg /dl), billirubin total ( . 0.3mg /dl), phosphorous (. 2.5mg /dl), molybdenum (. 70ƒÊg /dl) and selenium (. 15 ƒÊg /dl) were recorded as significant (P.0.05) biochemical risk factors with odds ratios of 26.55, 26.55, , 7.50, 11 respectively. Experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of orally administered gossypol on haematological and biochemical parameters of eight female rabbits of six 163 months age purchased from local market and maintained at university of veterinary and animal sciences from February 2011 . April 2011 under optimum conditions. The cotton seed cake containing free gossypol contents of 0.25% was fed to rabbits @ 4 grams per kg per day in addition to their routine diet including good quality fresh vegetables (cucumbers, spinach, cabbage & carrots) and clean water ad-libitum. Blood samples of each rabbit were collected after every 15 days interval and analyzed for haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Significant (P.0.05) decrease was recorded in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and serum inorganic phosphorous whereas significant increase was recorded in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and monocytes from 0 . 60th day with the passage of time whereas non significant (P.0.05) difference was recorded with respect to granulocytes and serum calcium concentration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1429,T] (1).

44. Effect Of Protein Supplements Of Varying Ruminal Degradability On Milk Production, Composition And Nutrients

by Illahi Bakhsh Marghazani | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study on "Effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes" was carried out in three phases at three different experimental locations. The in situ study of animal and vegetable protein sources was conducted at the Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, Lahore while the feeding trials with early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes were carried out Government Livestock Farm, Kalurkot, Bukkar and Livestock Experimental Station, Khushab, respectively. Different animal (n = 6) and vegetable origin (n = 15) protein sources were subjected to ruminal protein degradability analyses using the in situ technique. All these test feeds collected from ten different locations were subjected to ruminal incubation (in triplicate) for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h to determine the quickly soluble fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction (b), degradation rate (c) and effective degradability at different (2, 5, 8 %) ruminal passage rates. The degradability characteristics in animal protein sources (part 1, phase 1) showed significant differences in degradation kinetics and effective degradability (ED). In crude protein (CP) degradability, the quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in fish meal, PBM and meat meal and lower (P<0.05) in blood meal, feather meal and bone and meat meal. Potentially degradable fraction (b) among test feeds was maximum (P<0.05) in bone and meat meal and PBM and minimum (P<0.05) in blood meal and feather meal. The degradation rate (c) did not differ among the test feeds. Of all the animal protein sources investigated, meat meal showed maximum CP degradability at 0.05 rumen passage rate whilst, minimum (P<0.05) ED of CP was exhibited by blood meal. Ruminal degradability characteristics in vegetable protein sources (part-2 of phase-1) showed variation in degradation kinetics and ED of CP. The quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, coconut meal and PKC. Potentially degradable fraction (b) was maximum (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, PKC, SBM and guar meal while minimum (P<0.05) in sesame cake and CGM 30%. Protein degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in CSC while lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal, coconut cake and CGM 60%. Effective degradability of CP at 0.05 rumen passage rate was highest in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal. All vegetable protein sources were treated (part-3 of phase-1) with formaldehyde (1 g/100 g CP) and heat treatment (1 h at 15 lb/100 g CP) to determine their effectiveness in reducing ruminal protein degradability. Both of these treatments decreased (P<0.05) rumen degradability of the vegetable protein sources investigated. Of the formaldehyde treated test feeds, quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lower (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, SBM, CGM 30%, guar meal, canola meal and coconut meal. The highest value of potentially degradable fraction (b) was recorded (P<0.05) in CSC and RSC while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in RSM, RSC, CSC, CSM coconut cake, PKC, sesame cake, SFM and CGM 60% and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 30%, guar meal and canola meal. Effective degradability of CP was maximum in sesame cake at all the rumen passage rates. In contrast, CGM 60% had the lowest (P<0.05) ED at all of the rumen passage rates. Among the heat treated vegetable protein sources, quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60% and SBM. Potentially degradable fraction (b) had the highest (P<0.05) value in almond cake, RSM, RSC, CSC and SFM while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Effective CP degradability of the heat treated test feeds showed that almond cake and sesame cake had the highest (P<0.05) ED whilst CGM 60% had the lowest values (P<0.05). In comparing both treatments, similar influence (P>0.05) of increasing RUP level was recorded in CGM 30%, SFM, RSM, CSM, PKC and coconut meal. Formaldehyde treatment was found more effective (P<0.05) in increasing RUP level in guar meal, canola meal, RSC, CSC, coconut cake, almond cake and sesame cake whilst heat treatment increased (P<0.05) RUP level in SBM and CGM 60% at applied rates in this study. In phase-2, a feeding trial with early lactating Sahiwal cows was conducted to investigate the effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization. Twenty four early lactating Sahiwal cows were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Four iso- caloric and iso- nitrogenous diets i.e., ration A (30% RUP), ration B (40% RUP), ration C (50% RUP) and ration D (60% RUP) were fed in a completely randomized design. Dry matter and CP intakes were significantly affected by ration composition (P<0.01), whereas NDF and ADF intakes did not vary among the four treatment groups (P>0.05). DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in cows receiving rations B and A than the cows fed rations C and D. There were significant differences in DM (P<0.05), CP (P<0.001) and NDF (P<0.05) digestibility due to the ration; however, ADF digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the rations. DM digestibility was higher (P<0.05) on ration B than rations C and D, but similar to that for ration A. Crude protein was higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on rations C and D. Daily yields of uncorrected milk and protein were highest in early lactating Sahiwal cows fed ration B and lowest when fed ration D. Daily yields of 4% FCM and milk fat were higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on ration D. In milk composition, fat, protein and total solids contents were the same across all diets. Nitrogen intake was highest (P<0.01) for rations B and A and lowest for ration D and C. Nitrogen balance (g/d) and as a percentage of N intake varied; with the cows consuming ration B retaining maximum (P<0.001) N. However, N balance did not vary between rations A, C and D. Nitrogen utilization was highest (P<0.001) in cows fed ration B, but there was no difference among cows fed rations A, C and D. Live weight and body condition score in cows were unaffected by the rations. Cost of milk production was least on ration B and highest on ration D. In phase-3 a feeding trial using early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was conducted. Twenty four buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into four groups. These groups were fed four experimental diets i.e., rations A, B, C and D having 30, 40, 50 and 60% RUP proportions, respectively in a completely randomized design. Results showed no differences (P>0.05) in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and ADF intake between the rations. Likewise, DM, CP and ADF digestibility were the same (P>0.05) in buffaloes fed rations A, B, C and D; however, NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.01) on ration C and B while lowest on rations A and D. Milk yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C while lowest (P<0.001) on rations D and A. Buffaloes given ration C produced more (P<0.05) FCM than those receiving rations A, B and D. Daily yield of milk fat was greater (P<0.001) on ration C compared to the other three rations. Milk protein yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C and lowest (P<0.001) on rations A and C. Diet had no effect (P>0.05) on milk fat, SNF, lactose, salts and total solids percentages; whilst milk protein percentage varied among all four diets, viz ration C>ration B>ration D>ration A. Nitrogen, intake, nitrogen balance and nitrogen utilization were similar across all the diets. Live weight and body condition score in buffaloes were unaffected by the diet fed. The cost of milk production was highest (P<0.05) with rations D and B whilst lowest (P<0.05) on ration C. It is concluded that among animal protein sources rumen CP degradability was least in blood meal and maximum in meat meal. In vegetable protein sources, coconut meal showed least ruminal CP degradability while sesame cake recorded with highest ruminal CP degradability. Both formaldehyde and heat treatments protected protein from ruminal degradability with varied levels of effectiveness in different feeds. Production performance improved with the use of RUP sources in early lactating cows and buffaloes. Sahiwal cows showed better yield performance in diets having 40% un-degradable protein in the diet, while Nili-Ravi buffaloes showed high yield performance in diets with 50% un-degradable protein sources. The use of latest technology and methods needs to be applied for minimizing variations involved in evaluating CP degradability of feeds through in situ procedure. Influence of RDP and RUP based rations in mid and late lactation of Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes are also fertile areas of research. The studies on degradability of amino acids for compiling 'internal standards' of feed resources and production performance of lactating cows/buffaloes based on ruminal degradability of amino acids rather than protein degradability would be better approach for future studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1470,T] (1).

45. Comunity Druven Sustainable Management Of Natural Resources Of Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuaty,

by Fehmeeda Bibi | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1496,T] (1).

46. Feeding Behavior And Performance Of Sheep And Goats Under Various Feeding Management Systems

by Nasrullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullan | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Sheep and goats have been bestowed with the capacity of surviving under a variety of environmental conditions including the coastal region, plains and high mountains. The profitable small ruminants farming depend upon feeding and management systems because the feed cost is 70% in any livestock farming. In Pakistan, mostly people grazed ruminants on summer and winter fodders for maintenance and production requirements. Commercial livestock production demands a change in feeding with a trend for more efficient utilization of scarce feed resources. The proposed study was planned in to three experiments under a factorial arrangement to evaluate the growth performance of sheep and goats. In experiment one a study was first conducted to compare the voluntary intake and digestibility of janter (coriandrum sativum), guar (cyamopsis tetragonolba), cowpea (Vigna sinesis) in sheep and goats. For this purpose, 90 female animals (sheep n=45 and goats n = 45) were selected randomly and divided equally in, 6 groups representing each species under 2×3 factorial arrangements, Groups A,B ,C represented goats while group D,E,F represented sheep. Results showed that goats spent more time on eating than sheep while ruminating time was higher in sheep than goats. Drinking time was not different (P>0.05) among the species. Goats spent more time on playing and resting than sheep fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. Dry mater CP, NDF, ADF and GE intake was higher in sheep than goats fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. DMD and CP were higher in sheep than goats fed guar. NDF and ADF digestibility was similar in both species. Average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain were similar in both the species. It is concluded that the jantar fodder in summer is most suitable fodder for sheep and goats compare to guar and Cowpea. In the second trial of the first phase study comparison of voluntary intake and digestibility maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) in sheep and goats were compared. Statistical analyses showed that eating time was higher (P?0.05) in goats than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum while, sheep spent more time on ruminating, drinking and standing than goats. Goats showed higher playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter CP, NDF and ADF intake was similar (P>0.05) in both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter digestibility was similar in sheep and goats fed maize, millet and sorghum. NDF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep fed sorghum while this was different (P?0.05) when maize and millet were fed. ADF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep. Average daily weight gain feed efficiency and cost of gain was not significant (P>0.05) among both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Results of the study showed that the non leguminous fodders during summer are equally preferred by both species. In second the phase voluntary feed intake and digestibility of berseem, (Trifolium alexandrium) lucerne, (Medicago Sativa), oats, (Avena Sativa) in female sheep and goats was studied. For this purpose, female animals (n=90) of sheep (n=45) and goats (n=45) were randomly selected and divided equally in six in a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that eating time was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep, while ruminating time was more in sheep than goats fed berseem lucerne and oats, whereas time spent on drinking was similar in both goats and sheep. Goats utilized less time in standing, higher (P<0.05) time in playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Crude protein intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne. DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem, while it was similar when fed lucerne and oats fodder. NDF, ADF and GE (M cal/d) intakes were higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne fodder however it was similar in both the species fed on oats fodder. DM digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in sheep and goats fed berseem, lucerne and oats. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. When fed Lucerne and oats there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between goats and sheep.. NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. Average daily gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain/kg was non-significant (P>0.05) between goats and sheep fed berseem, lucern and oats. Results demonstrated that during winter the most suitable fodder for sheep and goats is lucerne fodder. In the second experiment the study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under various feeding management systems in which ninety female animals were selected and divided into six equal groups with three groups of each species (sheep n=45, goats n=45) under a 2×3 factorial arrangement. These were in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive feeding management systems. Dry matter intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than goats kept under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep than goats fed intensively. NDF and ADF intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than in goats. Average daily weight gain was higher in sheep than goats on the extensive system followed by the semi-intensive system. Feed efficiency was similar in goats and sheep while the cost of gain per kg was more economical in sheep than goats. Results of study revealed that both species performed better on extensive feeding system than the other systems might be of natural grazing behavior. The third experiment of study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under the intensive management system. Sixty female animals (lambs n= 30 and kids n=30) were used. The animals were divided equally in four groups A and B representing lambs while C, D was for kids. Both species were allotted two treatments i.e. fodder ad libitum with concentrate supplement (240 grams/animal/day) and total mixed ration ad libitum under a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Results showed that DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids. Average daily weight gain was higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed total mixed ration. Feed efficiency was higher (P?0.05) in kids than in lambs fed fodder plus supplement. Dry matter and CP digestibility was higher (P?0.05) in kids than lambs fed a total mixed ration. NDF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed the TMR, it was also higher in kids than in lambs when fed fodder plus the concentrate supplement. ADF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than in kids fed the total mixed ration. The performance of lambs was better on TMR while kids showed good results on fodder plus the concentrate supplementation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1503,T] (1).

47. Studies On Genetic Diversity Of Labeo Rohita And Cirrhinus Mrigala By Using Molecular Markers In Punjab-Pakistan

by Fayyaz Rasool | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala by using molecular markers in Punjab-Pakistan were carried out to investigate the genetic structure of said Indian major carps by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The results obtained from the present study after statistical analyses are presented in section-4 of this dissertation. The samples were collected from the following sites; for farmed fish was collected from UVAS-Fish Hatchery, C-block Ravi campus Pattoki district Kasur and for wild fish; from Trimu Barrage at the junction of River Chenab and Jhelum near district Jhang, Taunsa Barrage at River Indus near tehsil Kot Adu district Muzaffar Garh, Qadirabad Barrage at River Chenab near district Mandi Bahuddin and Baloki Barrage at River Ravi near tehsil Bhai Phero district Kasur. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the different morphometric parameters of study and Pearson's correlation among the physico-chemical parameters of water quality was done by Minitab statistical computer software. The XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02 of the computer software was used for the Pearson correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters of study. The same computer program was used for Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) of the different genotype occurrence on the basis of differences in morphometric parameters was done by Agglomeration method by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA). The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on the basis of differentiation in morphometric parameters by Eigenvalues and differentiation into factors of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by correlation bi-plot/coefficient of the correlation (n) method in the same program. This software was also used to analyze the RAPAD data for Jaccard's coefficient by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated is presented in the next section. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primersin the same program. Following results were obtained: Morphometric Parameters 1. Morphometric parameters of L. rohitashowed following trends: body weight, total length and average length of paired pectoral fins were nonsignificantly different (p > 0.05), fork length, dorsal fin length, caudal fin length and average length of paired pectoral fins were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) while anal fin length was significant different (p < 0.05) among the experimental sites. In case of C. mrigala, the body weight was non-significantly different (p > 0.05) while all other parameters were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) except the dorsal fin length which was significantly different (p < 0.05) among the study sites. 2. The results of the Pearson correlation of morphometric parameters showed that body weight of L. rohita developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters, the fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the parameters except with the caudal fin length where the correlation was also positive but non-significant (p = 161). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study.The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of L. rohita showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 161). The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends. The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters. 3. The body weight of C. mrigala developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters. The fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with body weight, total length and dorsal fin length while this correlation was positive but non significant with the caudal fin length (p = 0.228), anal fin length (p = 0.168), average length of paired pectoral fins (p = 0.031) and average length of the paired pelvic fins (p = 0.106). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study. The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of C. mrigala showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.228).The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends with all the parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.168). The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.031). InC. mrigala, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.106). 4. Dendrogram generated on the basis of morphometric parameters of study dividedL. rohita genotype in to five major clusters or classes with 19.24% for within class variation while 80.76% for the between class differences. While the dendrogram developed for C. mrigala divided the genotypes in to four major clusters or classes with 27.28% for within class variation while 72.72% for the between class differences. 5. The results obtained from the PCA for morphometric parameters of L. rohitaand C. mrigalaindicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The values showed that its trend reached its maximum at level of second factor. In the same way according to the Kaiser (1958) criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 80.273% of cumulative variability for L. rohita and 82.558% for C.mrigala. The PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the L. rohita,the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 64.245% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 16.028% of the cumulative variability. The PCA grouped C. mrigala,also into two groups, the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 59.323% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 23.235% of the cumulative variability. 6. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples of all study sites were analyzed for correlation among them. The results were as follows; the correlation of the pH with water temperature (r= 0.107) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.905) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.798), salinity (r= -0.888), total dissolved solids (r = -0.857), total alkalinity (r = -0.736) and total hardness (r = -0.499) was negatively non-significant. The correlation of the dissolved oxygen with water temperature (r= 0.313) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.669), salinity (r= -0.828), total dissolved solids (r = -0.809), total alkalinity (r = -0.930) and total hardness (r = -0.300) was negative but also non-significant as like with the water temperature. The electrical conductivity was positively correlated with all the physic-chemical parameters as with water temperature (r= 0.482), salinity (r= 0.925), total dissolved solids (r = 0.889), total alkalinity (r = 0.452) and total hardness (r = 0.906) and this correlation was non significant.The salinity amongst the water parameters was correlated positively with water temperature (r = 193), total alkalinity (r = 0.717) and total hardness (r = 0.734) and it was non-significant but with total dissolved solids (r = 0.994) the correlation was also positive but highly significant (P < 0.001). The total dissolved solids values observed from the study sites were positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.172), total alkalinity (r = 0.734) and total harness (r = 0.657) and this correlation was non-significant. The correlation between the total alkalinity and total hardness was also positive and non-significant (r = 0.048). RAPAD Data 1. In case of L. rohita, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 40.00%, OPB-4, polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 20.00%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 25.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 14.29% and OPD-4 showed 50.00% polymorphism in amplification. In case of C. mrigala, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-4 polymorphism remained as 25.00%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 14.29%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 14.29%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 28.57% and OPD-4 polymorphism remained as 33.33% in amplification. 2. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of L. rohita by the randomly selected individuals with high scorable bands of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster while a single sample designated as Indus2 from the population from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage represents the second class/cluster and in same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of C. mrigala by the randomly selected individuals of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster and two samples designated as Indus2 and Qad2 from the populations from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage and River Chenab from Qadirabad Barrage represents the second class/cluster while one individual from the Trimu Barrage at the junction of Jhelum and Chenab Rivers designated as Trimu2 represents the third class and in the same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. 3. The PCA resultsfor L. rohitait can be assumedthat PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 58.177% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 33.327% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 24.850% of the cumulative variability. These results were also confirmed after the varimax rotation. By the PCA resultsfor C. mrigalawe can assume after observing the results that the PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 70.866% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 51.115% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 19.751% of the cumulative variability. This study in this way has provided the genetic information of the present fish species and how evolutionary processes are affecting the fish fauna. So this study along with the strengthening of the academic research area has also proven an applied research which will help the breeders to the chose most fit candidates for the breeding program in the Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1504,T] (1).

48. Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Haematiology And Therapy Of Toxocariasi In Dogs And Humans.

by Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1505,T] (1).

49. Productive Performance Of Four Close-Bred Flocks Of Japanese Quails With Different Body Weights And Its Effect on Subsequent Progeny Growth

by Ahmed Sultan | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In Pakistan, the low live and dressed market weights in Japanese quails has been one of the significant problems badly influencing future development in quail production. No serious attempts have yet been made in the country to improve body weight and meat yield in local quails. The present study of one year duration was therefore, planned at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate productive performance, egg quality, hatching performance, slaughter characteristics and blood biochemical profile in four close-bred flocks of Japanese quails with different body weights and examine its effect on the subsequent progeny growth. For this purpose, a total of 432 (108 males and 324 females) adult quails were randomly picked up from 4 close-bred flocks maintained at ART Centre and then were divided into 108 experimental units/ replicates (comprising 1 male and 3 females each). These experimental units were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups, having 4 close-bred flocks (imported, local 1, local 2, and local 3) x 3 female body size (heavy, medium and small) with randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial arrangements having 9 replicates in each treatment. The experimental quails were maintained under standard management conditions in individual compartments in multi-deck cages equipped with separate nipple drinkers and were fed ad-libitum with a quail breeder ration prepared according to NRC standards. The weekly data on productive performance (body weight, egg production and feed intake) were recorded. Feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg and g feed/g egg mass) was worked out. Egg quality characteristics (egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, haugh unit, yolk index, and blood and meat spots) and hatching traits (dead germ percent, dead in shell percent, infertile egg percent, hatchability percent and mal-positions) were recorded. At the termination of the experiment, two breeder quails from each experimental unit (one male and one female each) were randomly picked up and were slaughtered to record the slaughtering traits (live and dressed weight, dressing percentage, weight of giblets and other visceral organs). Proximate composition (crude protein, ether extract, dry matter and ash contents) of thigh and breast meat was determined. Blood samples from each group were analyzed for blood serum glucose, total protein, albumin, cholesterol and urea. Blood macro mineral profile for plasma calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) was determined. The eggs from each replicate were collected and separately incubated on fortnightly basis to study 3 weeks progeny growth performance (average weight of day-old quail chicks, weekly body weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (feed/g gain) and mortality rate). At the end of 3rd week, 2 quails (one male and one female each) from each experimental unit were picked up randomly and were slaughtered to record slaughtering traits (slaughter and dressed weight, dressing percentage, weight of giblets and visceral organs). Economics of quail production up to 3 weeks was worked out. The data thus collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique with randomized complete block design (RCBD) under factorial arrangement for further interpretation using general linear model (GLM) procedures (SAS, 9.1 version). The comparison of means was made using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test. 6.1. Parent breeder flock In the present study of 31 weeks duration, imported flock of Japanese quails gained significantly higher body weight than local flocks. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in their mean body weight. The interaction between flocks and body size was also observed to be significant (p<0.05). The heavy weight quails had maximum body weight followed by that of medium and small size quails. The difference in mean egg production percentage, egg number and feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg) were not significant, whereas, egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 4 close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. Mean feed conversion ratio (g feed/g egg mass) in imported and local-3 flocks of Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different from other local flocks. The body weight categories had significant (p<0.05) effect on egg production percentage, egg number, feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg) and egg weight, however, their effect was not significant on egg mass. The interaction between flocks and body size showed a similar trend. The mortality remained nil in the experimental breeder quails during this study. The significant (p<0.05) differences were noted in egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, yolk index, dead germ, infertile egg and hatchability percent, whereas, haugh unit value was not significantly different in all the close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The dead in shell percent in different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in all the parental groups except in H male x H female, M male x H female, S male x M female and S male x S female. With respect to body size categories, differences for egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, yolk index, haugh unit value, dead germ, infertile egg and hatchability percent were significant (p<0.05). The interaction between flocks and body size was significant in respect of all the above egg quality and hatching traits. Blood and meat spots were found nil and no mal-positions were noted. The minimum dead germ percent was recorded in local-2 and local-3 flocks in S male x H female, however, the highest hatchability percent was recorded in M male x S female parent of local-3 flock. The significant (p<0.05) effect of parental body weight on dead in shell percent was recorded in H male x M female (in imported, local-1 and local-2 flocks), H male x S female (in imported and local-1 flocks), M male x M female (imported and local-1 flocks), M male x S female (imported and local-1 flocks), S male x H female (imported and local-1 flocks). The dressed weight (g) in imported and local flocks of Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different in female quails, whereas, dressing percentage in imported and local flocks of male Japanese quails was not significantly different. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference for dressed weight and dressing percentage in both the sexes. The imported flock of male Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different from all the other local flocks in relative weight of gizzard (with and without contents) .Imported and all the local flocks of Japanese quails were not significantly different in their relative weight of liver in both the sexes. The relative weight of heart and mean weight of intestine in local-3 flock of male Japanese quails were significantly (p<0.05) different, whereas, female birds were not significantly different in this respect from all the local and imported flocks. With respect to body size categories, relative weight of heart, liver, gizzard and intestines in both the sexes were not significantly different. The interaction between flocks and body size was not significant for liver weight, whereas, it was significant (p<0.05) for heart, gizzard and intestinal weight only in male quails. The intestinal length and testes weight in male and mature ovarian follicle number and reproductive tract weight in female quails were not significantly different in imported and local flocks. With respect to body size categories, differences in mean length of intestine and mean weight of testes were not significant in male quails. The similar non-significant difference in reproductive tract weight and number of mature ovarian follicles was recorded in female quails. The interaction between flocks and body size for intestinal length, reproductive tract and testes weight was not significant, whereas, it was significant (p<0.05) for reproductive tract length. The crude protein and ether extract percent in breast meat of male and female Japanese quails were not significant. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in percent crude protein in female quails, whereas, similar trend for ether extract was observed only in male quails. The dry matter percent in breast meat of Japanese quails was significantly (p<0.05) different only in male quails. With respect to body size categories, mean dry matter percent was not significantly different in both the sexes. The interaction between flocks and body size was not significant for crude protein and ether extract, whereas, it was significant (p<0.05) for dry matter percent in both the sexes of quails. Ash percent in breast meat was not significantly different in male quails, whereas, it was significantly (p<0.05) different in female quails. The ash percent in breast meat and ash and crude protein percent in thigh meat in male and female quails were significantly different among imported and local flocks With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in ash percent in breast meat in female, whereas, difference was noted in ash and crude protein percent in thigh meat in both the sexes of quails was not significant. The interaction between flocks and body size was also non-significant for these components in thigh meat. The difference in dry matter percent in thigh meat of local -1 male flock was significant (p<0.05) from local-2 and local-3 flocks, whereas, female quails were not significantly different in this respect. With respect to body size categories, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in mean dry matter percent in male quails. Ether extract percent in thigh meat was significantly different between male and female quails. With respect to initial body size categories, ether extract percent was not significantly different in both the sexes. The interaction between flocks and body size was significant (p<0.05) in both sexes of quails for dry matter and ether extract percent. The mean serum glucose level in male and female quails was not significantly different among imported and local flocks. With respect to body size categories, a non-significant difference was noted in serum glucose levels. The interaction between flocks and body sizes was also not significant. The total serum protein level was significantly different in both the sexes of imported and local flocks, whereas, serum cholesterol and serum albumin levels were significantly different only in female quails of imported and local flocks. Serum urea concentration was significantly (p<0.05) different only in male quails of imported and local flocks. However, with respect to body size categories, serum protein, cholesterol, albumin and urea levels were not significantly different in both the sexes of quails. The interaction between flocks and body size was significant for serum protein and urea in both the sexes of quails. However, this interaction in respect of serum cholesterol was significant only in male quails, whereas, it was significant for serum albumin only in females. The difference in mean plasma calcium and sodium levels in male and female quails of imported and local flocks of Japanese quails was not significant. With respect to body size categories, mean plasma calcium level in both the sexes of quails was not significantly different, however, plasma sodium concentration was significantly (p<0.05) different only in female quails. The interaction between flocks and body size for plasma calcium levels was significant (p<0.05) in both the sexes of quails, whereas, for plasma sodium it was significant (p<0.05) only in female quails. The mean plasma phosphorus and potassium levels in imported and local flocks of Japanese quails were significantly (p<0.05) different only in female quails, whereas, plasma magnesium was significantly (p<0.05) different only in male quails. However, with respect to body size categories, plasma phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were significantly (p<0.05) different in female quails only. The interaction between flocks and body size was significant for potassium and phosphorus in female quails only, whereas, it was also significant for plasma magnesium levels in both the sexes of quails 6.2. Progeny flock In the present study different parental body weight categories significantly (p<0.05) affected day-old, 1st, 2nd and 3rd week progeny body weight in Japanese quails. The heavy male parents had apparently more pronounced effect on day-old and 1st week progeny body weight, however, the results were not significant in all close-bred flocks. The results indicated significant (p<0.05) effect of male parent body weight on 1st week progeny body weight in Japanese quails. The progeny day-old and 1st week progeny body weights in different close-bred flocks were not significantly different from each other. The interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks was not significant for day-old body weight. The cumulative body weight gain in quail progenies from different close-bred flocks were significantly (p<0.05) different in all the parental groups. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). Effect of different parental body size on 1st, 2nd, 3rd week and cumulative progeny body weight gain was significant (p<0.05). The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) for progeny cumulative weight gain. In the present study, 1st, 2nd, 3rd week and cumulative progeny feed intake and feed conversion ratio-FCR (feed/g gain) were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by parental body size of Japanese quails. The interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) for weekly and cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio-FCR (feed/g gain) in the progeny. A significant (p<0.05) effect of different parental groups on 1st, 2nd, 3rd and cumulative progeny mortality rate (%) was recorded with significant (p<0.05) interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks. Different parental body size significantly (p<0.05) influenced progeny slaughter weight, dressed weight and dressing percentage at 3rd week in 4 close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The slaughter weight (g) in different close-bred flocks in male progeny quails from all the parental groups differed significantly (p<0.05) except in M male x M female and S male x H female, M male x S female and S male x M female parents. The slaughter weight (g) in different close-bred flocks in female progeny in all the parental groups was significantly (P<0.05) different except in H male x H female, M male x H female and M male x S female. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) in both the sexes. The dressing percentage between different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in female progeny group. The dressing percentage between different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in the male progeny group, whereas, M male x H female, M male x M female, S male x M female and S male x S female were not significantly different. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). The relative weights (g/100g BW) of liver, heart and gizzard in the progeny was found to be significantly (p<0.05) influenced by parental body size in different close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The liver weight in female progeny of different close-bred flocks in all the parental groups differed significantly (p<0.05) except from H male x S female, M male x S female and S male x M female parent groups. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05) for different organ weights. The heart weight in female progeny in different close-bred flocks in all the parent groups was significantly (p<0.05) different. The relative weight of gizzard in different close-bred male and female progenies of quails were significantly (p<0.05) different from all the parental groups. The interaction between parental body size and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). The intestinal length in the progeny was influenced (p<0.05) by different parental groups in close-bred flocks of Japanese quails. The intestinal length in female quails in different close-bred flocks was significantly (p<0.05) different in all the parental groups except from H male x M female, H male x S female parent groups. The interaction between parental body weight and close-bred flocks was significant (p<0.05). A higher profit margin was recorded in progeny quails hatched from heavy imported parent flock. ? 6.3. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions have been formulated. i. Parent breeder flock a. Effect of close-bred flocks i. Imported flock of quails had significantly (p<0.05) better egg production percentage, egg weight, yolk index, feed conversion ratio-FCR (g feed/g egg mass), shell weight and dressing yield. Feed conversion ratio (g feed/egg) and egg mass were significantly (p<0.05) better in local-1 and local-3 flocks, respectively. Egg shell thickness and haugh unit were better in local-2 flock. ii. Final live body weight was higher in female than male quails and it was also better in local-1 male quails than in other close-bred flocks. iii. Reproductive tract weight and length and mature ovarian follicle numbers were higher in imported flock. Significant variation was recorded in relative weight of giblets, testes and intestines and intestinal length among different close-bred flocks. iv. The imported male flock had significantly (p<0.05) higher crude protein, dry matter and ash contents in breast and thigh meat. v. The mean serum glucose and cholesterol concentrations in local-1 male flock and mean serum albumin and urea levels in local-3 male flock were higher; however, total serum protein was also higher in male imported flock than in other local flocks. vi. Plasma phosphorus and potassium concentrations were not significantly different in male parents, whereas, plasma magnesium concentration was not significantly different in female parents. Plasma calcium was significantly (p<0.05) different in both the sexes. b. Effect of body size i. Egg production percentage, feed conversion ratio (FCR), fertility and hatchability percent, reproductive tract weight and length, mature ovarian follicle number and gizzard weight were better in small parents in comparison to medium and heavy parents, whereas, better egg weight and egg quality traits were recorded in heavy quail parents. Dressed weight and dressing percentage were higher in heavy female parents than in medium and small quails. ii. Crude protein and ether extract contents in breast and thigh meat were higher in heavy female parents, whereas, ash content was higher in thigh meat of heavy female parents. iii. The higher concentrations of serum glucose, total protein, albumin and cholesterol in heavy male quails were detected, whereas, serum urea was higher in medium female parents. iv. Plasma macro minerals profile for all the parameters studied was not significantly different in male parents, whereas, plasma calcium (Ca) was not significantly different in both the sexes. 6.3.2. Progeny flock a. Effect of close-bred flocks i. The day-old and subsequent weekly body weights/weight gain and feed intake were higher in imported than in local flocks. The lower feed intake and better feed conversion ratio-FCR (feed/g gain) and higher mortality rate were recorded in local-3 as compared to other flocks. ii. Dressed weight and dressing percentage were higher in male progeny of imported flock. The liver, heart and gizzard weights were higher in local-2 and local 3 male flocks, whereas, higher weight of intestine was recorded in local-1 male flock. Significant variation in carcass traits between different close-bred flocks was observed. iii. The highest final return per bird of Rs. 5.64 was observed in local-1 flock followed by imported, local-3 and local-2 flocks (Rs. 5.41, 5.15 and 5.14, respectively). b. Effect of parent body size i. The progeny secured from heavy male parent had higher hatch weight, body weight, weight gain, feed intake, dressed weight and dressing percentage than those hatched from medium and small male parents, showing more pronounced effect of male parent on progeny growth and on almost all the other parameters. ii. The liver and gizzard weight and intestinal length were higher in quail progenies secured from small parents than from heavy and medium parents. iii. The highest final return per quail (Rs. 5.92) was recorded in medium weight parent followed by heavy and small parents (Rs. 5.25 and 4.90, respectively). ? SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Research The findings of the present study may be helpful in setting up production standards in local quails to be further used as base line data by the research workers and quail breeders for formulating viable future strategy of quail breeding at national level. Extension For the future national quail breeding programs, use of heavy male parents for crossing with medium or small female parents may be considered for better progeny meat yield and higher egg production in the female quail parents. Considerable variations in body weight and other carcass characters in our local quail flocks recorded during the course of this study indicate possibility of further improving their genetic potential. Further research work is needed for improving genetic potential of our local quail stocks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1524,T] (1).

50. Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Screening Of Tannery Effluent Wastewater

by Lubna Shakir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Over the last decade or so the chromium based tanning industry has shown rapid growth in Pakistan. However the rule and regulations promulgated by the government are not strictly followed for the processing of effluent discharged by the tanneries. Consequently tannery effluents have become a great source of water pollution in surrounding area. This project was designed to evaluate the hazardous effects of tannery effluent wastewater (TEW) through various bioassays. During the first phase of the project, composition of the TEW samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Besides this, we have also investigated the impact of TEW on trace element content of ground water in Kasur tannery area. The ground water from shallow tubewells (100 to 300 ft) in the area has shown very high content of chromium while the ground water from the deeper tubewells (upto 600 ft) generally does not contain the toxic elements except for one outlet of the water supplied by the Muncipal Corporation. This could be due to corroded pipes in the tannery area. Microbial load was determined during second phase of this research project by viable count method. The detected viable count was 7.5 X 104 to 3.0 X 107CFU/ml. Various strains of chromium tolerant bacilli were isolated and they were found tolerant up to 2600 µg/ml supplemented chromium sulphate. During the third phase of this research plan, dilutions of TEW were evaluated for their effects on angiogenesis using CAM assay. TEWD1 and potassium dichromate were found highly anti-angiogenic. Moreover, dilutions of TEW and potassium dichromate have demonstrated significant toxicity when assessed through marine shrimps mortality assay and phytotoxiciy assasy. Chronic toxicity study on Wistar rats was conducted in the last phase. Chronic exposure of TEW for three months to rats leads to the development of various lesions in lung, liver, kidney and heart of rats. In short, TEW and contaminated ground water of Kasur is imposing a great threat not only to local inhabitants of the city but also to the population of far distance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1531,T] (1).



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