Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cauliflower And Carrot Grown In Suburbs Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Vegetables are the fresh and edible portions of the herbaceous plants. They classified as seasonal vegetables but they also classified as root, tuber, shoot, flower, fruit and leafy on the base of mode of consumption. Each of the categories mentioned above have its own role in human body. They play a vital role in human health due to their higher nutritional values. They are major source of macro and micro nutrients which required by the human body for optimal functioning. They are not only involved for normal body functioning but they also disease preventive in nature. Heavy metals get entry through different routes and accumulate in edible and inedible portions of the vegetables in quantity enough to cause clinical problems to humans and animals. This study was designed to assess the level of heavy metals in vegetables in different districts of Punjab.
Heavy metal is defined as metallic element usually toxic in nature with high density and atomic weight. As they are toxic in nature they accumulate in different parts of the vegetables and lead to several health complications in humans. Some of these metals are of nutritionally important for human health in small quantities and referred as trace elements which include zinc, iron, copper etc. They are among the major toxicants in vegetables which may cause chronic diseases in the kidney and liver of humans and causes disruption of numerous biochemical processes leading to cardiovascular, nervous, kidney and bone diseases. Open crown vegetables like cauliflower have more chances of infestation in suburbs due to waste water irrigation as compared to intact skin vegetables especially grown away from suburbs. Moreover, vegetables treated under clean sanitary conditions can have low levels of heavy metals as compared to the untreated ones.
There are different sources of heavy metals which include waste water irrigation, industrial waste water and soil pollution which associated with industrialization and agricultural activities such as atmospheric deposition, waste disposal, waste incineration, vehicle exhaust, fertilizer application and long term application of sewage sludge in agriculture land. Waste water contains sufficient amount toxic heavy metals which cause clinical problems.
In the present study two vegetable cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and carrot (Dascusorrota) were collected from suburbs of Lahore. While samples of cauliflower were include from various districts of Punjab. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, K and Na were determined in cauliflower and carrot from suburbs; While Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni were observed in cauliflower from various districts of Punjab. Digested vegetable samples were analyzed through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Lahore for cauliflower and carrot was (2.2267±0.0251, 2.2317±0.0076), (5.7100±0.0360,5.0333±0.2516), (1.1133±0.1154, 1.7333±0.0763), (2.466±0.1040, 2.4000±0.3605) respectively. There was a significant difference in both vegetables. Difference in concentration in both vegetables is due to the surface area of both vegetables as cauliflower has large surface area as compared to carrot.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Gujranwala for cauliflower was (2.3266±0.0145, 4.5966±0.0152, 0.9333±0.0152, 2.2467±0.0251) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Sheikhupura for cauliflower was (1.9000±0.0200, 6.043±0.0513, 0.933±0.0152, 2.490±0.0100) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Faisalabad for cauliflower was (1.928±0.0104, 5.736±0.0156, 1.193±0.0057, 2.476±0.152) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Kasoor for cauliflower was (1.900±0.0200, 6.043±0.0513, 0.933±0.0152, 2.490±0.0100) respectively.
Each of the city have different concentration of the metals, several reasons for this variation which include medium on which these vegetables are growing, water used for irrigation, application of agricultural products, poor agricultural practices and post-harvest treatment which include harvesting procedure, washing of vegetables with unsafe water and transfer from long rooted areas. Uptake behavior of these metals and minerals by vegetables also affect it. The transfer factor (TF) of different heavy metals from soil to vegetation is one of the key components of human exposure to metals through the food chain. The highest TF valueis found for Zn because Zn is more mobile in nature. This study will provide a baseline data and there is a need for intensive sampling of the same for quantification of the results. Soil, plant and water quality monitoring, together with the prevention of metals entering the plant, is a prerequisite in order to prevent potential health hazards of wastewater irrigation. By using good agricultural practices including use of less agricultural chemical products and sewage water should be used after proper treatment.
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Evaluation Of The Microbiological Quality Of Ice Cream Sold At Local Shops In Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Ice cream is a delicious, wholesome, nutritious frozen dairy food. It is noticed that generally manufacturing of ice cream on small scale production units like local shops doesn't totally follow the standard procedures of ice cream production. Ice cream can be contaminated with microorganisms if some ingredients have been added after pasteurization or by means of improper sanitation of the equipment and environment. Microbiological quality of ice cream reflects hygienic practice in production and is an indication of food safety. There was variation in quality of locally produced ice cream in different areas of Lahore.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describes handling, preparation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases. It includes a number of ways that must be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between the market and consumer with the fast pace of life the consumption of fast food is going to increase day by day in Lahore. It is imperative to prepare food at good hygienic conditions because of its perishability. The usual thought is that food should be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of food for the consumer.
Microorganisms affecting food comes from natural microflora or are introduced by manufacturing steps ranging from processing storage and distribution. In some cases these micro flora have no effect on the food and can be consumed without consequence, but those that are introduced during course of processing depending on type and level of contamination can spoil the food and cause food borne illnesses.
Food can transmit diseases from one person to another as well as serve as growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In the developed countries there are standards for food, whereas in less developed countries the main issue is the availability of safe water supply which is one of the critical item. Foodborne illness is a problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, bacteria, viruses, or parasites, natural toxins, chemicals that contaminate food.
For this study total 108 locally produced samples of ice cream were carried from different areas of Lahore. Mughalpura, Sadar, Model town, Gulberg, Town ship and Johar town. 6 shops from each area and 3 samples from each shop were purchased and put in the sampling box with ice packs. Samples were analyzes for microbial load in microbiology Lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
Each sample was analyzed for microbiological analysis (Enumeration of Total Viable Count (TVC), Enumeration of Total Coliform Count (TCC), Enumeration of Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) and detection of salmonella spp.
Nutrient agar was used to perform Total plate count, Mackonky agar was used for Total coliform count, Mannitol salt agar was used to count S.aureus , Salmonella Shigella agar for Salmonella detection . Each analysis was performed 3 times.
The samples collected from Mughalpura, Sadar and Model town were highly contaminated having more microbial count which shows contamination due to poor handling and hygienic conditions while Gulberg, Johar town and Town ship having less contaminated.
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A Case Control Study On Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In District Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to identify the association ofvarious risk factors with GDM.The study was consist of cases and controls andconducted for a period of 3 month i.e. February to April 2016. A total sample of 284 comprises of 142 cases and 142 controls were selected fromgynaecological outpatient department, tertiary care hospitalsof district Lahore. The cases matched on the basis of parity with control. The data about demographic and risk factors associated with gestational diabetes were collected through predesigned questionnaires.
The study was completed in a period of three months. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0.The results of this study will be useful for the prevention and control of this disease from fatal outcome.
The results of the study showed the relationship of GDM among cases than controls. It was observed that most of the woman’s were illiterate and housewives. The economic status was found statistically significant in present study. But overall participants werefrom lower middle class families. Present study showed that the woman’s with the age of 29-35, that is high age group and significant association found in the mother age.
Previous history of diabetes mellitus and family history of diabetes mellitus also role plays in raising the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence was higher in those women who had family history of diabetes. The higher number seen among cases who had diabetes in previous pregnancy, which was significantly higher at(p value= 0.000). It was investigated that diabetes mellitus was more common in high BMI>25kg/m2 so it has strong relationship with high BMI.
This study was designed to identify the risk factors associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Because the prevalence of Gestational diabetes is increasing with increase the number of women in childbearing age. The timely diagnosis of GDM and identify its risk factors are need of the time to control fetal and maternal complications.
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Comparative Quality Evaluation Of Raw And Pasteurized Milk
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: This particular project was designed to evaluate the overall quality of raw and pasteurized milk available at different areas of Lahore. The parameter which was checked includes microbiological analysis, adulterants, physicochemical properties and the effect of temperature on vitamin C in milk samples. Raw samples were collected from ten different towns of Lahore, whereas pasteurized milk samples belong to ten different brands. Ten samples were collected under control conditions from animals in sterilized containers.
For microbiological analysis four parameters were selected including total plate count (TPC), total coliform count (TCC), total psychrotrophic count (TPSC) and total yeast and mold count (TYMC) whereas, different adulterants like adulteration test was done such as urea, starch, hydrogen peroxide, detergent or soap, sorbitol, quaternary ammonium compound, boric acid, cane sugar, sodium chloride, formalin and hypochlorite were checked by using the milk adulteration kit in QOL. Milk contains casein and whey proteins. Whey protein being added in the milk to increase its density which is considers being an adulterant. In this project whey protein was estimated in all milk samples by titration method. Physicochemical characteristics of milk are an important parameter to judge the quality of milk. These physicochemical properties include fat%, SNF%, density kg/m3, lactose%, solid/ash, protein% and pH. Physicochemical properties were evaluated mechanically by Milkoscan. Heat treatment is an important method to reduce the microbiological contamination of milk. These treatments may include pasteurization and UHT etc. During the heat treatment some of the micronutrients may deteriorate thus compromising the quality of milk. Vitamin C is among those heat labile micronutrients. Vitamin C was checked quantitatively in market and self-collected samples by using titration method.
It was concluded that total plate count TPC, TCC, TPSC and TYMC of raw milk samples were above the standard value indicating the poor quality of the milk. As far as the pasteurized milk samples were concerned ninety percent of the samples showing higher values for TCC, TPSC and TYMC. Total plate counts of all self-collected raw milk from a healthy animal were found within the standard value. Counts were in range of 3.8x 103 – 8.9x103 CFU/mL of all milk samples. TPC of all self-collected raw milk from a healthy animal were found within the standard TCC were found within permissible value (102 CFU/mL .TPSC were negative for all milk samples. TYMC were in range of 2.6x101 -7.2x101 CFU/mL. Among milk samples (n=10), three samples (30%) were positive for TYMC were while remaining samples (70%) were negative and showed no growth.
Physicochemical factor show that 50 percent of raw milk have low nutritional value as compared to the standards which are buffalo and cow milk contains 7.6, 4.5% fat, 3.8, 3.8 % protein, 5.1, 4.9% lactose, 0.78, 0.72% ash and 17.0, 13.9% total solid respectively. In raw milk mean of fat (%), solid not fat (%), lactose (%), Solid/ash (0%), protein(%) and pH were 4.50±0.03, 7.915±0.06, 23.05±0.055, 3.893±0.06, 3.85±0.05, and6.9±0.0.02 respectively. In pasteurized milk mean value for fat, SNF, lactose, ash, protein and pH were 3.48 ±0.13, 7.24±0.10, 3.60±0.05,0.5 ±0.06, 2.82±0.05, 7.2±0.20 respectively. Pasteurized milk is good for consumption.
Different adulterant such as urea, starch, hydrogen peroxide, Sorbitol, QAC, Boric acid, Cane sugar, NaCl, Carbonate, Formalin, hypochlorite, whey protein, Added water and soap /detergents were evaluated in all milk samples. Among these adulterant water (66%) was found in majority of milk samples, followed by whey protein (15%), starch (13%), (10%) NaCl and
(8%) cane sugar were detected in raw milk samples. n Pasteurized milk samples only added water (49%) and whey protein (31%) was detected.
Among the raw milk samples the maximum and minimum concentration of vitamin C was observed 0.33±0.02 and 3.33 ±0.02 mg/100ml and for pasteurized milk maximum and minimum concentration of vitamin C was observed 2.54mg/100ml and 0.32 ±0.02 mg/100ml respectively. In self- collected samples the minimum and maximum concentration of vitamin C was observed 5.25±0.02 and 8.34 ±0.04 mg/100ml respectively and after pasteurization in laboratory minimum and maximum concentration of vitamin C was observed 3.48±0.04 and 5.83 ±0.02 mg/100ml respectively. These observations had showed that pasteurization treatment decreased Vitamin C quantity.
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Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude And Food Handling Practices Of Household Women In Lahore
Material type: Book Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Considerable proportions of foodborne illnesses arise from mal practices in domestic kitchens. Such as serving contaminated raw food, insufficient cooking, re-heating of leftovers, and poor hygiene practices. There are no food safety regulations for domestic kitchens hence, household women as primary food preparers are to ensure food safety hygiene practices at home. The present study was an attempt to assess food safety KAP of Household Women in Lahore to understand its status in households, as there is no previous study in this field in Pakistan. A sample of 1000 household women from 10 Towns of Lahore was collected. Simple Random Sampling was used to select Union Councils within Towns and Convenient Sampling for selection of Household Women. A KAP survey study was conducted using a closed-ended questionnaire to assess status of Food Safety awareness among Household Women. A variable file was created on SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean and percentages of responses and overall KAP mean percentage scores. Chi-Square test was used to study significant association between KAP scores and education levels, and also to study association between knowledge & attitude, knowledge & practice and attitude & practice. Mean & standard deviation scores for overall knowledge of household women was 34.24 ± 4.210 which showed negative food safety knowledge among majority of the household women. Overall attitude was 32.47 ± 3.141 which showed negative attitude among majority of the household women in Lahore towards food safety awareness and overall practice was 26.60 ± 3.977 which showed unhygienic food handling practices among majority of the household women. Significant difference was observed between education and KAP scores & attitude and practice of household women. Data obtained served as baseline knowledge and information for emphasis on continuous improvement on the knowledge of household women. Household food preparers probably have misinformation or misunderstandings about food safety and are certainly engaged in culturally focused stereotypical food handling practices. Food preparers at domestic level need to realize that their current food safety practices jeopardize the health of their household members as well as the community. The inclination to alter behavior was certainly influenced by their attitude as per the results of this study. Henceforth, household women should commit and expose themselves to attaining the prerequisite knowledge and sources of information needed in reducing the probability of potential risks that will eventually lead to progressive food safety culture development in Pakistan. It is thus concluded that there is a need for surveillance and interventions at domestic level with professional assistance for household women regarding food safety issues and its awareness in the state. Food safety educational programs through formal and informal education and mass media must be advertised and repeated at specific intervals for consumers at all ages. Health & educational institutions can communicate and provide short training courses to consumers of all ages, especially beginning at school since education has a bigger impact on food safety KAP in the current study.Union council wise educational intervention programs/trainings can be introduced. They need to be informed about the basic principles of food safety at home such as using the Five Keys to Safer Food Manual as food safety starts and ends with frequent behaviors of consumers.Efforts in making flyers and other advertising materials at market level is advised such as pictorial flyers. This study concludes that there is a need for additional research for the possible risks household women at home could pose to human health in regards to food safety, since it is widely acceptable that household women as the primary food preparers at home are the ultimate route of protection against foodborne illness and thus in ensuring food safety at home.
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Effect Of Inulin Present In Chicory Roots On The Diabetes
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Diabetes is metabolic disease in which there are high glucose levels over a long period of time. The principle symptoms of high glucose are expanded thirst, regular pee, and expanded craving. Diabetes is a disease that influences the way the body uses food from the blood. It is normally a hereditarily issue of digestion system, that is showed by the inability to tolerate carbohydrates and insulin inadequacy.
In 2014 around 387 million individuals have diabetes the whole way across the world and 90% of the cases were of Type 2 diabetes which is equivalent to 8.3% of the grown-up population. This proportion was equivalent for both ladies and men. From years 2012 to 2014, it is evaluated that 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year was because of DM. The danger of death is twice with diabetes. The normal number of individuals with diabetes is 592 million by 2035 by this rate. With more than 16 million individuals America have some type of this disease (DM). 700,000 new instances of DM are analyzed each year.
Diabetes is increasing at very high rate in Pakistan. There are nearly 7.1 million DM patients in Pakistan and it is also estimated that if DM continually develop at this rate then 11.4 million patients of diabetics will be there and Pakistan would rank 10th in the world in 2030. This study is designed due to this alarming rate of diabetes in our country. Inulin present in chicory roots may be used to optimize blood glucose level in diabetic patients.
Total 20 diabetic participants aged 30 to 40 years, present in Lahore, were selected for this study in two groups with 10 each participants. Chicory root powder was used as a source of inulin.
Chicory roots was purchased from the market. Then cleaned from dirt and then it was dried with the help of oven at temperature 55˚c.Then this dried roots were grinded with the help of grinder machine.
Two group were formed. One group was control group that used only allopathic medicines specifically for diabetes. Other group was inulin group that used chicory root powder. Inulin group used both chicory root powder and medicines 1st week of the study. This was done only to ensure no side effect of chicory root powder on the participants. Next week when there was no adverse effect then participants were advised to use half of the medicine along with the chicory root powder. Then after 13 days when glucose level of the participant was on the course then eliminated the medicines and told them to use only 10 grams of chicory root powder daily.
Glucose level of these patients was tested daily by the glucometer for two weeks. Then after every 5 to 7 days for 3 months. Then at the end of this period HBA1C test was carried at the hospital laboratory.
In this experimental trial, we investigated the effect chicory root supplementation especially inulin has on glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Our results showed that three months of chicory root supplementation significantly decreased blood glucose level. My study reveals that inulin as a fiber didn’t control the diabetes but have a little effect on the glucose intake in the blood due to its fibrous nature. Data showed that the inulin supplementation slightly reduce the glucose level in the blood. First week of the supplementation was along with medicines and data showed reduction in the glucose level of blood. At initial day the average random blood glucose level was 251.2 ± 60.1 mg/dl and after 7 days it was 220 ± 53.1 mg/dl and at the end of 90th day it was 195 ± 52.3 which shows that inulin has a reducing effect on the diabetes to some
extent. In this study we can conclude that inulin containing chicory roots has a positive effect on the reduction of glucose level of blood (p < 0.001). The patients that use 10 grams of chicory root powder constantly were able to lower their blood glucose level and HbA1c. But it cannot be used as a medicine replacement in diabetic patients because it does not control blood glucose level to the normal range.
I recommend in future that effect of inulin on the diabetic patients should be checked in relation to amount of medicines given to the patients. Researchers should check that what happens when inulin is used with different amount of medicines in diabetic patients. And also what happens when different amount of inulin is given to diabetic patients along with same medicine.
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Impact Of Nutrition Education On Knowledge About Osteoporosis Among Women
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem. It leads to compromised bone health and quality of life deteriorates. As there is no cure to it, it is important to prevent it. The peak bone mass can be achieved prior to the age of 30. Therefore, prevention is most effective if done in childhood and adolescent. About 9.9 million people in Pakistan have osteoporosis of which 7.2 million are women. The occurrence of Pakistan is expected to rise in the coming years with an estimated prevalence of 11.3 million in 2020, and 12.9 million in 2050. Therefore, the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Pakistan is of public health concern. The nutrition knowledge about osteoporosis in women was improved after nutrition education. The study design was randomized pretest posttest control group design. A sample of 150 females aged between 16 - 30 years visiting Pakistan Society for the Rehabilitation and Disabled were selected through purposive sampling. Data was collected through closed ended questionnaire. Sample was divided into two equal groups; Control Group and Experimental Group. Both groups were pretested. The baseline knowledge of both the groups was assessed using a 27-item questionnaire. After pretesting nutrition education was imparted to the experimental group through various materials. Nutrition education was given once a week for 2 months (8 weeks). Each education session was of 30 minutes approximately. The educational tools used were handouts for participants and multimedia power point presentations. After 2 months, both control and experimental group were post-tested to assess the effectiveness of nutrition education. The data analysis was done using SPSS v.20 software. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used and qualitative data was presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Analysis of data was carried out by making tables and clustered bar charts. The study concluded that intervention (nutrition education) is effective on improving the knowledge and attitudes about Osteoporosis among females aged 16-30 years. The findings are in conformity with studies from Pakistan and abroad.
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Linking Childhood Obesity With Excessive Use Of Digital Media
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Obesity is one of the most prevalent problems all over the world particularly in children and adolescence that could lead to sedentary behavior and influence the dietary habits of children. The television food commercials have bad impact on children and increased brand advertisements may lead to unhealthy consumption patterns. The hypothesis of the study was excessive use of digital media can lead to weight gain in children. The sample of 400 children of class 4-6 was taken from private schools, Daar-e-Arqam school, Himayat-e-Islam higher secondary school and Al-Huda Educational Institute, Lahore.. Children of age 9-11 years was included from middle class group (monthly income 30,000-70,000/-). The demographic measurements were obtained by each student while having a personal interview with them. The anthropometric measurements (heights, weights, BMI, TSF, MUAC and MAMC) were taken by using specific measuring tools. The height were measured by stadiometers, weights by weighing machine and other anthropometric measurements by abs plastic medical body fat skinfold caliper meter. Growth charts were used to assess the degree of malnutrition (over nutrition or under nutrition). The questionnaire was filled by asking questions to the children in order to assess the relationship of body weight and digital media. Descriptive statistics and chi square, Pearson’s correlation (SPSS version 20) was applied on the data to assess either digital media has positive or negative relationship with children’s body weight. The age, gender and class are significantly associated with nutritional status of the students. The students of Lahore Pakistan like to use mobile and laptop and the duration of using mobile or laptop is positively associated with health status of the individual. Student has very busy life and they do not have spare time to watch television so it is not significantly
associated with health status of the individual. In such case, students have low physical activity and increase sedentary behavior. Parents do not allow their children to go out for games or activities because of security concerns or restrictions on girls especially. The physical activity is negatively associated with health status of the individual. The dietary habits of the individuals are badly affected due to the trends of junk and fast food consumption but it is not associated with food marketing campaigns in this study. The food marketing campaigns target young children for selling their products by advertising them in prime time of children programs but due to busy schedule of the individuals , they do not have time to be effected by them.
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Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For Simultaneous Detection Of Bacterial And Viral Water Borne Pathogens
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Waterborne illness is a serious issue throughout the world. Bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., E. coli spp. and from Viruses mostly Rotaviruses are involved in various waterborne outbreaks due to usage of contaminated water because of poor sanitation system mixing of waste material and fecal material with water, which can be transferred to human body by consuming such contaminated water Detection of these bacteria and virus from various foods by conventional method is not easy. Conventional methods are time consuming laborious and expensive. Now multiplex PCR is widely used for rapid detection of waterborne pathogens. The method is more sensitive and specific and can detect more than one pathogen in one single reaction mixture. This experimental design is developed to optimize the multiplex PCR reaction for detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli spp. and Rota virus.
ATCC culture of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli spp., revived using standard culturing technique and multiplex PCR is optimized to amplify four different microbial genes simultaneously. A total 100 samples obtained from 10 towns, of Lahore. The samples were processed for multiplex PCR for detection of E. coli spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Rota virus directly from water samples.
With the amplification of 4 bacterial and viral genes simultaneously multiplex PCR was optimized. Water samples were obtained, to check the strength of planned experiment in the field. The samples were processed for and multiplex PCR for direct detection of Salmonella spp. and E. coli spp. directly from water samples.
Similarly multiplex PCR was optimized with 3μl DNA template of each microbe , 56oC annealing temperature , 20pmol of every primer and 25μl of multiplex master mix.
Multiplex PCR is more sensitive and specific. It is also time redeemable technique because conventional culturing method requires several days for the detection of waterborne pathogens but this technique wants expertise.
This study was helpful to establish an optimized Multiplex PCR for the rapid and simultaneous detection of waterborne pathogens.
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Assessment Of Nutritional Status Of End Stage Renal Disease Patients On Maintained Hemodialysis
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: End stage renal disease patients on MHD (maintained hemodialysis) have critical nutritional status. The state of nutrition is always critical for the recovery from any disease. An optimal health status assures good quality of life. The study aimed to assess the nutritional status of patients diagnosed with ESRD on maintained hemodialysis. Caloric and protein intake of patients was calculated and compared with standards. Inadequate dietary intake leads to protein energy malnutrition in patients with end stage renal disease on maintained hemodialysis. A sample of 240 patients identified with end stage renal disease (age 40-60 years) visiting outdoor patient department, department of nephrology, Sheikh Zayed Hospital and nephrology department Mayo Hospital, Lahore was selected. Sample was calculated using Yummny formula. Sample was selected through purposive sampling. Direct Nutrition assessment will be conducted through ABD. Anthropometric measurements included BMI, MAMC and TAPM (Appendices I). Biochemical tests included Creatinine, BUN, Serum albumin, total proteins and hemoglobin. Dietary intake was assessed through 24 hour diet recall and FFQ. PG-SGA form was used for screening of patients for malnutrition. The study found that the nutritional status of ESRD patients on MHD is critically poor. 82% of the subjects of the study were moderately to severely malnourished. BMI of most of the patients were normal and thus it is not a reliable parameter to assess malnutrition among critically ill patients. The dietary intake data had shown significant difference between intake and requirements of calories (kcal/day) and proteins (gm/day). The MAMC and TAPM results interpreted that lean muscle mass is depleted in more than 70% of the patients. TAPM values were significantly related with protein intake and PS-SGA score. Thus, it is a reliable parameter for the assessment of malnutrition. Descriptive
statistics, regression analysis, t-test, correlation, chi square and cross classification table was used to analyze data. Data was presented in form of graphs and tables. Statistical software SPSS version 22 was used to analyze data. Data thus obtained will serve as baseline data for improvement of nutritional status of ESRD patients. The study also validated the nutritional markers and parameters, which will be helpful in assessment of critically ill patients.
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Kap Survey Of Foodborne Illness In Lahore City
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Occurrence of many food pathogens in variety of foods is conventional in Pakistan. Accurate estimation of foodborne illness in Pakistan is difficult to make because of lack of people knowledge, monitoring system, infection control and surveillance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, practices and perception of general public about food and food safety found in Pakistan and estimation of foodborne illness. There has been no research study found in this field in Pakistan.Lack of food safety knowledge, attitude and practices of general public are associated with food poisoning and foodborne illness.Datawas collected through questionnaire Performa’s present in hard copy filled by interviews.Convenient based samples were collected from general public of city Lahore. A sample size of 1000 was collected. Targeted respondents were members of aged 18 or above who were at least 2 years resident of Lahore city. Datawas collected from all 9 towns of city Lahore.Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS window version 22.0 was used to analyze the data. Significance level was set at p-value <0.05 for analyses involving the test of significance. Chi square test of association was used to compare two variables.Our study shows results that demographic characteristics have antagonistic effects on foodborne illness such as education level and income but education level impacts the overall knowledge about food safety and its related practices among consumers. Results reflect that source of water, outdoor food and meat products are the major cause of foodborne illness in city Lahore. Our research showed association between drinking water & suffer in foodborne illness, p-value is lesser than α i.e. 0.000 < 0.05 which shows the results were significant. Similarly, significant relationship has been observed between suffer in foodborne illness and outdoor food, p-value is smaller than α such as 0.000 < 0.05. Evidently, results showed association between food commodity and foodborne illness, p-value is smaller than α such as 0.000 < 0.05 which shows the results were significant.Water is mainly used for drinking, cooking, washing and rinsing of dishes. We should improve our water supply system so sewage water and other hazardous chemicals not mix with drinking water. On the other hand we should improve hygiene conditions of our outdoor localities/restaurants services; we should buy food only from certified food facilities, also give proper training/education to food handlers, food manufacturers and food retailers to avoid risk of foodborne illness because food safety is a shared responsibility. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of periodic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Henceforward we should improve our slaughtering techniques, animal husbandry techniques, meat storage and transportation techniques to eliminate the risk of salmonella, campylobacter and E.coli, also prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves. Foodborne illness of microbial origin is the most serious food safety problem..These data suggest a critical need for action that is focused on preventing disease transmission within the food service industry. Clinicians should report all suspected foodborne disease to public health authorities to ensure appropriate epidemiologic investigation.The results of the proposed study have provided a baseline data on food safety status in Pakistan and general public’s perception about food found in Pakistan. General public observations about Foodborne illness, health education, personal hygiene, environmental hygiene and food safety, all data helped to estimate foodborne illness in Lahore city by identifying which factor has influenced more on food safety and caused foodborne illness.
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Microbiological Analysis Of Food Contact Surfaces Used In Various University Cafeterias Of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Personal hygiene and food contact surfaces are direct routes of cross contamination that can make food unsafe and are a major concern for food service facilities in controlling the spread of food borne pathogens. Good cleaning practices are particularly important in premises like cafeterias, preparing ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, as these foods are consumed without further cooking or processing to reduce or eliminate microorganisms. Lahore is educational capital of Pakistan where educational institutions are increasing and therefore number of students, eating meals from university cafeteria is becoming more frequent. Despite the growth of this sector, there is no effective education or training of the food handlers or hygienic control of the food sold as many of these were sealed last year due to unhygienic conditions. This study aims to evaluate the microbial status of various food contact surfaces that are used in various university cafeterias of Lahore so that recommendations could be provided and therefore risk of food poisoning cases among youth could minimize. For this study (n=120) samples were collected from food contact surfaces i.e. work tops, equipments, tools, utensils and hands of food handlers working in cafeteria of various universities of Lahore. Each sample was analyzed for microbiological tests i.e. Total Aerobic Colony Count (ACC), Total Coliform Count, Staphylococcal count and Salmonella. The microbiological quality of various food contact surfaces of university cafeterias preparing ready to eat food was determined. Results highlighted poor hygienic status of FCSs in Universities. Among 120 samples 95.28% have been poor hygiene status according guidelines. Work tops and food handler’s hands had high total plate count value. Utensils was having low bacterial load than other two surfaces. Total Coliform count on utensils was lower than other two surfaces that are work tops and food handler’s hands.
Staphylococcus count on hands was abundant as compare to other two surfaces. In all the three microbiological tests Total Coliform Count was lower as compared to Total Plate Count and Total Staphylococcus Count. In sum the hygiene status of all the surfaces was highly unacceptable indicating that these surfaces are harboring many pathogenic bacteria that could be transferred to food that will come in contact in result of cross-contamination as food contact surfaces and one of three basic routes of cross contamination of food. It indicates that FCSs directly involve in food poisoning and food-borne outbreaks. Guidelines should be provided and implemented to reduce the risk of food contamination. Awareness and proper training and good hygiene practices are highly recommended in light of given results.
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Heavy Metals Assesment In Tomato, Lady-Finger And Mint From The Surrounding Areas Of Hudiara Drain, Lahore.
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Heavy metal is defined as metallic element usually toxic in nature with high density and atomic weight. As they are toxic in nature they accumulate in different parts of the vegetables and lead to several health complications in humans. Some of these metals are of nutritionally important for human health in minute quantities and referred as trace elements. Lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium are among the major toxicants in vegetables which may cause chronic diseases in the kidney and liver of humans and causes disruption of numerous biochemical processes leading to cardiovascular, nervous, kidney and bone diseases. Leafy vegetables like mint has more chances of infestation in suburbs due to waste water irrigation as compared to intact skin vegetables especially grown away from suburbs. Waste water contains sufficient amount toxic heavy metals which cause clinical problems.In Pakistan farmers are openly using the sewage water for cultivation. Food safety is serious issue these days in Pakistan as many foodborne diseases occur due to consumption of vegetables growing in sewage water. Cultivation of crops by contaminated water is of bigger concern regarding food safety issue. Use of polluted water in fields for long terms without any treatment is liable to cause diseases.
Total 36 samples of vegetables, 4 samples of water and 8 soil composite samples were collected from four different places surrounding Hudiara drain in Lahore for one month. Sampling was done for 3 months (May, June and July).Soil samples were taken from two different depths (0-6 inches and 6-12 inches with the help of soil auger. For three months, total of 144 samples were analyzed for desired study. The heavy metals Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr in tomato, lady finger and mint (from various places around Hudiara drain Lahore) were determined in washed, dried and digested vegetable samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The data was brought to presentable from by applying Two-way ANOVA through SPSS Version 16.0. Mean and S.D was also calculated for every ANOVA to discuss in detail. Results exhibited significant values in water, soil and vegetable samples. Lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium showed significant values in some samples of water, soil and vegetables. Lead was found above permissible limit in tomatoes and lady finger. The data showed that there is continuous bio-accumulation of heavy metals from waste-water to soil, which is causing uptake of heavy metals from soil to plant. Continuous cultivation with affected water will make the land unfit for irrigation and vegetables for consumption. Proper treatment is required of water which is being used for cultivation in surroundings of Hudiara drain in Lahore.
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In Vitro Study Of The Effect Of Camphor On Electrophysiological Indices Of Isolated Omasum Epithelium In Calves
Material type: Book Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Agriculture is a backbone of Pakistan and livestock. Omasum is the third part in ruminant’s forestomach which absorbs the fluid.The endproduct of protein metabolism is ammonia and present NH4+ in ruminants and its reabsorption linked by non-selective cation channels.Addition of cation channel modulators such as camphor to diet can enhance absorption of nitrogen in the omasum. As it is suggest that ammonia transport is enhanced by essential oils. The purpose of this study is addition of camphor on isolated omasum epithelium of calves because electrophysiological changes primarily linked to the ammonia transport through activation of non-selective cation channels.Camphor may enhance short circuit currentand ammonia uptake inomasum epithelium of calves.
Ten calves of uniform weight and age were slaughtered in a local slaughter house.Omasum will be removed from the abdominal cavity and cleaned in a standard transport buffer solution. Serosal layer of omasum were removed and mounted in the” ussing chamber”. Omasum epithelium after 20 minutes replaced with ammonia containing buffer solution and changes in bioelectric parameters were observed. Camphor in concentration of 1mM wasadded to mucosal side and electrophysiological parameters like Isc and Gt were observed. Moreover, pH of serosal side waschecked after camphor treatment at time intervals 20, 60 and 90 minutes respectively to assess ammonia transport.
Camphor affected the electrophysiology of isolated omasum epithelium of calves by increasing short circuit current due to increase in ammonia concentrations in the omasum.
Camphoraddition in 40mM NH4Cl containing solution significantly increased current (p < 0.05). ΔIsc was also significant between the groups containing 10 and 40mM NH4Cl containing solution. Change in potential difference was non significant after addition of camphor in both groups. Conductance increased significantly by increasing concentration of ammonia.Data were analyzed by using completely randomized ANOVA followed by post-hoc test used (p<0.05).
Camphor treatment affects the electrophysiological indices of isolated omasal epithelium of calves and enhances ammonium transport across omasal epithelium increasing recycling of nitrogen. This may lead to efficient protein utilization by the animals.
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Microbiological Evaluation Of Street Vended Sugar Cane Juice Sold In Different Areas Of Lahore City
Material type: Book Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The condition of local vended sugar cane juice sold in various areas of Lahore is not safe for consumption which causes serious food safety issues. This study has therefore been planned to evaluate food safety status oflocally vended cane juice in Lahore
Total 108 samples were collected from all nine TMAs (four samples from each TMA) of Lahore city. The samples will be collected in aseptic conditions. These samples were analyzed for TPC, Yeast & Mould, Total Coliform, E.coli and fecal streptococcus microbiological testing. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS (version 21). Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. (DMRT) was applied to get the trend of microbial load (bio burden) from sugar cane juice.
In all the TMAs of Lahore, the log values of TPC ranged from 3.91.±0.09 to 8.27±0.019. The maximum microbial load is observed in Wagha TMA while the minimum microbial load is observed in TMA Data Gunj Bakhsh. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 5.4038 and CV is 6.81 and the result is highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, the results of all the samples of every TMA are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material.
The log values of total coliform count in all TMAs ranged from 1.86±0.027to 3.30±0.09. The maximum total coliform count is observed in Ravi TMA. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 2.6780 and CV is 12.86 and the result is highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, 89% of the results are unsatisfactory.
The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material.
The log values of E.coli count in all TMAs ranged from 1.66±0.047 to 2.69±0.08. The maximum E.coli count is observed at Ravi TMA ant the minimum E.coli count is observed at Nishtar TMA. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 2.0980 and CV is 6.69 and the result is highly significant.Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, 67% of the results are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material.
The log values of fecal streptococcus ranged from 1.79±0.10 to 2.68±0.10. The maximum fecal streptococcus is observed in Wahga TMA while the minimum microbial load is observed in TMA Data Gunj Bakhsh. The overall mean value of fecal streptococcus for all the TMAs is 2.0935 and CV is 8.90 and the results are highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, 44% of the results are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material.
The log values of yeast and mould count in all TMAs ranged from 3.39±0.21 to 7.05±0.16. The maximum yeast and mould count is observed in Shalimar TMA and minimum yeast and mould is observed in Gulberg TMA. The overall mean value of total coliform count for all the TMAs is 4.9455 and CV is 11.65 and the result is highly significant. Comparing with the gulf and Codex standards, the results of all the samples of every TMA are unsatisfactory. The reasons behind such results can be poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation of machine as well as poor handling of material.
In a nutshell, the level of microbiological contamination detected during the research in fresh sugar cane juice advances a grave concern related to health and economic welfare of the people. Microbial resistance against antibiotics is additional evolving food safety problem and may aggravate the health related concerns in all TMAs of Lahore. A detailed and well defined monitoring and investigation system needs to be in place and executed on crucial grounds to discuss the food safety of fresh sugar cane juice in Lahore. Application of awareness programs on different health related issues among the vendors, consumers and stakeholder may be another scheme to inhibit the horror of food safety issues.This study has presented the general analysis of microbiological trend and can be used as the base for further researches on related issues in different area of Lahore city.
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