Effectof Mentofin (Herbal Product)On Antibody Response Of Broilers To Newcastle Disease Vaccine
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Immunostimulants such as Mentofin® are commonly used to enhance the immune response of birds to vaccines. In the present study immunomodulatory effect of Mentofin® on antibody response of broilers to Newcastle Disease virus vaccine was evaluated. For this purpose one hundred one day old broilers were divided in to four groups (A, B, C and D) each containing 25 birds. Each bird of group A and B was vaccinated against ND and each bird of group A and C was treated with Mentofin. Anti-ND-HI antibody titer of each bird of each group was monitored on 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of age. Mentofin® treated broilers showed higher consistent antibody (anti-NDV HI antibody titer) response as compared to untreated broilers. These birds when given challenge infection of velogenic ND virus on 35 days of age showed same protection as that of untreated vaccinated birds. However non vaccinated broilers treated with Mentofin showed higher protection as compared to that of in non treated unvaccinated birds. Weight gain in Mentofin® treated broilers was same as that of non-treated birds. Similarly, there was no effect of the Mentofin on FCR. Droppings from Mentofin treated birds showed no urease producing bacteria while 100% droppings of the herbal untreated birds showed urease producing bacteria. Mentofin at 1% concentration in nutrient broth inactivated the proteus species while its 0.0001 % concentration inactivated the bacteria in urea broth. In in vitro studies, 0.5 % concentration of Mentofin inactivated the lentogenic strain of ND Virus within 15 minutes at interaction temperature of 37 0C.
The results can be used to formulate the vaccination policy along with herbal based immunostimulatant such as Mentofin®.
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Effect Of Two Synchronization Protocols (Ovsynch Va 2Pg)And Gnrh Pn Day Of Breeding On Reproductive Performancein
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The main objective of the present study is to compare the two synchronization protocols (Ovsynch vs 2PG) on estrus response, follicular development, ovulation, pregnancy rate and fecundity in Beetal and Teddy breeds of Pakistan. The secondary objective is to determine the efficacy of GnRH at the time of breeding on pregnancy rate in Beetal goats. Experiment 1 was conducted with a total of 28 goats during breeding season (September-October) at Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara. The goats were randomly allocated in one of two treatment groups, Ovsynch and two PGF treatments. The Ovsynch treated does received an intramuscular injection of GnRH analogue 12.5µg lecirelin (Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy), on "Day 0". On "Day 7" does were treated with injection of PGF2? analogue 37.5µg d-cloprostenol (Dalmazin®, Fatro, Italy,) followed by a second injection of 12.5µg lecirelin (Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy), after a 48h period. Animals in the double PGF group received two injections of 37.5µg d-cloprostenol (Dalmazin®, Fatro, Italy), 10 days apart. In order to determine the estrous response and its duration, two aproned bucks were used twice daily for 30 minutes after the last PGF2? injection in both groups until the termination of estrous signs. All goats were naturally bred 12h after the onset of estrus. Follicular and luteal activity was monitored by transrectal Ultrasonography (ALOKA, SSD 900 Japan) with the aid of a 7.5-MHz linear array transducer daily- from the start of treatment, until estrus and then twice a day until the cessation of large follicles (apparent ovulation). On day 7 after breeding, all goats were re-examined by transrectal ultrasonography to determine the ovulation rate, based upon the number of CL's present. Pregnancy rate and fecundity (no of embryos per doe) was again determined at Day 30 after breeding by transrectal ultrasonography. Experiment 2 was performed on 25 goats. These does were randomly allocated to two groups (GnRH, n=11 and Control, n=14). GnRH does received 12.5µg lecirelin on the day of natural breeding (12h after standing estrus), while the control does did not receive any treatment. Timing of ovulation, pregnancy rate and fecundity were assessed by transrectal ultrasonography as in Experiment 1. Estrus (Experiment 1) was detected in 10 out of 14 does (71%) in Ovsynch group, while all 14 goats (100%) of double PGF responded group. The interval from the last PGF injection to estrus was 48.0 ± 2.6h in the Ovsynch group, while 36.0 ± 1.2h in the double PGF group (P<0.05). The interval from the last PGF injection to ovulation did not differ significantly between the Ovsynch (73.0 ± 4.8h) and double PGF (66.0 ± 2.7h) groups respectively. Similarly the interval from standing estrus to ovulation was not significant between the Ovsynch (24.0 ± 3.7h) and double PGF (30.0 ± 2.7h) treatments respectively. Estrous duration was similar in both treatment groups (44.7 ± 4.9h for Ovsynch and 47.1 ± 2.9h for the 2PGF). The size of ovulatory follicle was similar in both treatment groups (Ovsynch, 7.1 ± 0.2mm; 2PGF, 7.1 ± 0.1mm). On day 7 after breeding, the ovulation rate (no. of CL's on the ovary) were similar in both the Ovsynch (1.6 ± 0.2) and double PGF (2.0 ± 0.2) groups. The pregnancy rate as determined by transrectal ultrasonography on day 30 (Fig. 1) revealed 6/10 (60%) in the Ovsynch and 11/14 (78%) in the double PGF groups respectively (not significant). Fecundity was similar for both treatment groups (1.6 ± 0.2). In Experiment 2 the interval from standing estrus to ovulation recorded was not significant (31.2 ± 2.9h and 36.0 ± 5.3h), the ovulatory diameter (6.8 ± 0.1mm, 7.2 ± 0.5 mm (P<0.05), the pregnancy rate (54% (6/11) and 64% (9/14), and fecundity (1.5 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 0.5) were not significant between GnRH treated and control does respectively (Table 2). From these experiments it can be concluded that the Ovsynch protocol, which is a non-steroidal and safe approach for estrous synchronization appears to be similar to the double PGF injection protocol, in terms of the reproductive performance in goats. However, this needs to be tested on larger number of animals. Furthermore, the use of GnRH at the time of breeding does not improve the reproductive performance in goats. The data generated has important implications for commercial goat farming in the developing countries.
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Development And Sensory Evaluation Of Flavored Probiotic Acidophilus Milk
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Fermented milk products are the foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria includes Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, bifidobacterium etc. These are of great significance as they not only preserve the surplus milk but also provide vast quantities of nutritious and healthy foods in a wide variation of flavors, aromas and textures. Acidophilus milk is one of the fermented milk products in which probiotic starter culture is used for fermentation. This probiotic product not only adds to the taste but also improves the digestibility of milk. This value added product helps in maintaining the normal mocroflora of GIT by boosting the number of friendly intestinal bacteria. Decreasing the incidence of pediatric diarrhea, reducing serum cholesterol concentration, reducing the risk of coronary heart diseases are some of health promoting benefits of this value added product.
Presently in Pakistan none of the dairy company is producing value added flavored acidophilus milk product using probiotic culture so the research project was designed in a way to develop flavored probiotic acidophilus milk which has its health benefits along with fulfilling the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics. Consumer acceptability was found to be important for product development and its marketing.
The aim of the present study was the development the probiotic acidophilus milk having health promoting benefits of probiotics and to appeal its consumer recognition by flavoring the product. For flavoring purpose different food grade flavors like strawberry, chocolate and vanilla at different levels was used with the purpose of providing our people with good, nutritional, healthy and value added product through research and development. Flavored probiotic acidophilus milk is a product in which the milk a perishable commodity was fermented using the pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a starter culture.
The freshly drawn raw milk used in the study was obtained from Dairy Animal Training and Research Center (DAT&RC), UVAS, Ravi campus, Pattoki. The whole milk was pasteurized at 72 °C for 15 minutes to kill the pathogenic microorganism and ensuring the safety of consumer. It was then standardized to 3.5% fat and 8.5% SNF and cooled at 4 ±1°C. This standardized milk was used for preparation of flavored probiotic acidophilus milk.
The microbiological identification and confirmation of Lactobacillus acidophilus starter culture procured from starter culture collection center (Danisco) was carried out in the postgraduate laboratory of Department of Dairy Technology UVAS, Ravi campus, Pattoki. The freeze dried culture was activated by inoculating and growing it in sterile whole milk at 40 ±1ºC and then maintained at 4 ± 1ºC.
Preliminary studies were performed to optimize and standardize the conditions like culture concentration (to be added in the milk for acidification and fermentation), temperature of incubation and time duration for incubation during the preparation of probiotic acidophilus milk. This task was accomplished by using culture varying in concentration form 1-5%. Similarly temperature variations were studied at 30°C, 35 °C and 40 °C. Time for incubation was given 04hrs and 08hrs for each culture concentration at different temperatures. The results of preliminary studies showed the development of probiotic acidophilus milk by inoculating with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture at 01% concentration incubated at 40 °C for 04hrs as the best choice.
The actual product development phase started after finding the best combination of culture concentration with temperature of incubation and time for incubation. During this phase the standardized and pasteurized milk (200ml) equilibrated for one hour at the fermentation temperature (40ºC) in a water bath was inoculated with overnight fresh culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus at the rate of 1%. Thereafter it was flavored using three different flavors e.g., mango, strawberry, and pineapple. Fermentation time was given 4hrs and the temperature of milk was maintained at 40ºC. The flavored probiotic acidophilus milk after its development was cooled and stored at 4±1 °C up to six days.
During storage the prepared flavored Probiotic acidophilus milk was evaluated for its sensory attributes. A panel of 10 judges evaluated the product for color, taste, aroma, appearance, acidic flavor and overall acceptability on 9-point hedonic scale (9 = like very much; 1 = dislike very much). The sensory evaluation of the product at day-1 and day-6 of its production was carried out in the Department of Dairy Technology University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus, Pattoki. The sensory evaluation performa was prepared and distributed to the panelist along with the consent form to participate in this sensory evaluation.
The flavored probiotic acidophilus milk, prepared, was evaluated regularly for physico-chemical analysis, based on pH and titrateable acidity (expressed as lactic acid %) during its storage up to six days with one day interval. The total viable count of the product was also determined microbiologically at day-1 and day-6 to study the viability of culture in the probiotic product.
All the results obtained were analyzed thorough analysis of variance technique (ANOVA). The significant differences were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test with a probability P ? 0.05.
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Comparayive Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Trails Against Hypodermosis In Cattle In Rajanpur
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Study was carried out in district Rajanpur from February, 2011 to April, 2011 to find out percentage of infestation and to study chemotherapeutic trails against warble fly infestation in cattle in three tehsils namely Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur of district Rajanpur. In each tehsil 200 cattle were examined to record clinical signs of hypodermosis. For treatment of affected animals drug trail were done with Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) and Ivermectin (Imec, SJG, Pakistan) 1% subcutaneously @ 0.2mg/kg body weight. Study included percentage of infestation in cattle in the households, veterinary hospitals and private farms. Average percentage of warbles in cattle was calculated and found 10 %, 17% and 16.5% in Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur respectively. It was found that percentage of infestation was 12% to 18% in hilly areas as compared to semi-hilly areas with 8% to16% and riverine areas 8% to 18% warble fly infestation in cattle. It was observed that warble fly infestation in cattle was absent in some plane areas in tehsil Jampur.
The comparison of different chemotherapeutic trails against Hypodermosis in cattle were observed and recorded. Three groups of cattle were made for chemotherapeutic trails against hypodermosis. Application of Tagafon in two different groups of cattle was carried out to evaluate their efficacy against Hypodemosis. In one group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) was applied with cotton gauzes by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution of trichlorophon. In second group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star, Pakistan) was given by drenching method with 2% solution at a dose rate of 0.2ml/kg body weight. In third group (Inj.Imec, SJG, Pakistan) Ivermectin 1% at dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneous injection was carried out. Ivermectin1% was found to be 100% effective. Tagafon (Trichlorophon) was found 90% effective by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution and Tagafon (Trichlorophon) by drenching method with 2% solution was found 85%effective against warble fly infestation in cattle in the study area. The data was analyzed statistically and found significant.
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Seriepidemiological Investigation, Risk Factors Analysis Of Brucellosis In Ruminants And Their Ownrs In Buner
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Dissertation note: The study was conducted in District Buner of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province. In this study small and large ruminants and their owners were included. A two stage sampling technique was used. In the first stage sampling two villages were selected by systemic way. In the second stage sampling five households having livestock holdings were selected for sampling. Information about risk factors in man and animals were gathered by separate structured questionnaires. And to investigate Brucellosis blood samples were collected and serum was isolated. Serum samples were screened with RBPT.
The prevalence of Brucellosis in animals was 5.59%, 6.14%, 6.25%, 5.55% and 3.27% in sheep, goat, cattle, buffalo and livestock owners respectively. Herd level prevalence for Brucellosis in sheep, goat, cattle, buffalo and mix herds was 35%, 7.89%, 15.55%, 10.33% and 19.51% were positive for herds respectively. Individual herd level prevalence was from was 4.76%, 25% and 13.38% minimum, maximum and average respectively.
Among the risk factors associated with Brucellosis in ruminants type of farm operation (p-value=0.000), type of flooring system (p-value=0.095 & OR=0.36), ventilation. i.e. (p-value=0.252 & OR=0.55), housing condition (p-value=0.157 & OR=0.692), animal health status (p-value=0.000). But the results showed a significant relationship between natural breeding of the animals and positive cases of Brucellosis. i.e. (p-value=0.033 & OR=9.98). No animal suffered from Brucellosis for whom Artificial Insemination was used for breeding. Artificial Insemination was significantly associated with negative cases of Brucellosis. i.e. (p-value=0.033 * OR=0.10).
Among the risk factors in human significant association between the occupation of the person and Test results for Brucellosis among Humans.
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The Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Agents Against Paramphistomum In Sheep
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to diagnose the paramphistomum infection in sheep and to evaluate the efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole and to observe the effect of paramphistomum on various blood parameters, haemoglobin estimation, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and packed cell volume. For this purpose twenty four Sheep were selected and divided into 4 groups. Each group comprised of 6 animals.
Faecal samples were collected from Out Reach centre Sitar wala and its adjacent areas and out door clinic UVAS Lahore for the diagnosis of paramphistomum. The faecal and blood samples were collected on day zero pre-medication, and day 7 and 10 post-medication. The drug efficacy was checked at those animals which were positive for the paramphistomum. The animals in Group A were treated with Oxyclozanide (Zanil) at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group B were treated with Albendazole (Albensel) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group C were kept as positive control (infected-untreated) and Group D were kept as negative control (uninfected-untreated).
Eggs per gram (EPG) of the faeces were noted on day 0 day before medication. The efficacy of these drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after treatment. Zanil showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts.
The efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil) was 58.33% on day 7 and 83.33 % on day 10. The efficacy of Albendazole (Albensel) was 36.36% on day 7 and 56.36 % on day 10. It was observed that Oxyclozanide (Zanil) showed better efficacy than Albendazole.
Haematological parameters showed different results. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected sheep and the haemoglobin value was in normal range in healthy sheep on day zero. Packed cell volume was reduced on day zero in all infected groups, but was normal in the group of healthy sheep. After the treatment these values increased towards normal range in group A and B. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased after 24 hours on day zero in all infected groups A, B, and C but was normal in the group D of healthy sheep.
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Efficacy Of Antifungal Agents Against Dermatophytosis In Cats
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The cat is commonly kept as pet all over the world. The dermatophyte Microsporum canis is the most common fungal agent of dogs and cats. In the presence study, the prevalence of Microsporum canis was recorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with Microsporum canis were divided into three groups named, group A (griseofulvin), group B (ketoconazole) and group C (terbinafine). All the drugs were given orally and the efficacy of each drug was observed by collecting the samples on 15 days interval after the commencement of treatment until the mycological cure was achieved up till day 90th. Prevalence of M. canis infestation was 31%. The breed wise prevalence was highest in Persian cats as compared to Siamese and local breed and the prevalence were also higher in young ones as compared to old age cats. Later on the calculation of efficacy revealed that griseofulvin was the best drug among the three drugs used.
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Uterine Microbial Frlora Of Nili Ravi Buffalo During Estrus And Its Relationship With Pregnancy Rate
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The low conception rate has been reported as one of the major cause of poor productivity of livestock. Beside other reasons, presence of different types of microflora inside the uterus of breeding animals, play a key role in the failure of pregnancy. All these microbes results in the infection of uterus ultimately affecting drastically the animal's conception rate. To study the impact of microbial flora on conception rate, 50 Nili Ravi buffalos were selected from Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. The breeding animals in heat just before artificial insemination were used to collect bacterial samples with the help of especially prepared and sterilized AI rod with some accessories. The samples were processed for the identification of bacterial microflora by doing number of conventional tests for final characterization. In this study seven different bacterial isolates were identified from all the samples. These include: Escherichia coli, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Citrobacter species, Proteus species, Lactbacillus species, and Micrococcus species. After elapse of proper period of time the pregnancy statuses of all these buffaloes were determined and correlated with the presence or absence of isolated microbes. The results indicated that Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were the most prominent bacteria in all the samples collected from pregnant, non pregnant and aborted animals. These two isolates could be designated as normal uterine microbial flora of Nili-Ravi buffaloes because of their presence during all the physical and pathological conditions. Proteus species and Micrococcus species were mostly isolated in pregnant animals. Statistical analysis also confirmed the above statement. Previous reports corroborate the present study and confirm that these bacteria are ranked as normal uterine microbial flora of bovines. So the previous study and present results confirm that both are the normal uterine microbial flora of pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes In the present study the prevalence of the Citrobacter spp. only in the aborted animals is supported by the previous studies which show that Citrobacter spp. Is only present in the diseased animals and it also cause the sporadic abortion. Statistical analysis of the data also proved the significance of Citrobacter spp. in aborted animals. So this concludes that Citrobacter spp. are the abnormal uterine microbial flora of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan which leads to abortion. The present study has been able us to find the normal and the abnormal uterine microbial flora of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. This information will help to understand the infection process in breeding buffaloes and through corrective actions may decrease the infection rate / abortion rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.
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Study Of Incidence Rate And Chemotherapy Of Balantidiasis In Donkeys
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Equines have been serving the mankind for many purposes since as early as the human history. In equines parasitic infection is a major problem. Factors such as continuous exposure to parasites, climatic conditions, and lack of knowledge on the part of livestock farmers regarding parasitic transmission play an important role in sustaining parasitic diseases. Balantidium coli causes a protozoal disease known as Balantidiasis. It is normally found in large intestine of pigs (wild and domestic) and also explained in camels, primates including human, rodents, and equines but distinctly found in dogs. Balantidiasis is manifested by diarrhea, dysentery, severe colic pain, tenesmus, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Balantidium coli may act as opportunistic pathogen in other infectious diseases. There is considerable information on B. coli in cattle and buffalo raising communities in the world. Investigations on Balantidium coli have not been conducted actively in the study area where equine rearing is one of the major occupations. This study will therefore is expected to serve as base line data for further work on this parasite.
The faecal samples of 400 donkeys irrespective of age and sex reared in and around Lahore were examined coprologically out of which 73 were found positive for Balantidium coli yielding the incidence rate of 18.25%. Chemotherapeutic trials of Secnidazole and Nigella sativa were performed on a group of 10 donkeys each (Group A & B) along with keeping 10 donkeys as positive & 10 donkeys as negative control (Group C & D). The animals of group A were treated with secnidazole (Dysen forte) at a dose rate of 10mg/kg orally for one day. The group A Showed the efficacy of 89.51% at day 14th (post treatment). The animals of group B were treated with Nigella sativa (Kalonji) at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight orally for five days. This group showed the efficacy of 40.02% at day 14th after medication.
Similarly the effect of B. coli on various blood parameters (Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) was studied in these animals. At day zero (pre-medication), the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.61 + 0.076, 10.61 + 0.13, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.47 + 0.27, 31.48 + 0.22, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day 14th after medication the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.79 + 0.094, 10.69 + 0.126, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.79 + 0.16, 31.64 + 0.13, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively.
On day zero (pre-medication), the hemoglobin and pack cell volume values of groups A, B and C were below the normal (Hb = 11.0 - 11.6 g/dl, PCV (%) = 32 - 33) while of group D were approximately normal. On day 14th (post-medication), there was increase in Hb and PCV values of groups A and B. The Hb and PCV values of group C and D were not changed.
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Compaiativ Efficacy Of Different Electrolyte Solutions On Heat Stress And Their Efiect On Hematology And Blood
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present project had been designed to study the effect of heat stress on cattle calves and to evaluate the efficacy of electrolytes solution (Normal Saline and Ringer Lactate) on various blood parameters. Five groups of calves comprising 10 in each group were selected for experimental study. Group A: Affected calves with heat stress were provided shade after taking TPR and the effect of shade were checked after one hour. Group B: Heat stressed calves of same age group were given Normal Saline IV according to their body weight and the effect were checked through TPR, hematology and blood electrolyte. Group C: Heat stressed calves of same age group were given Ringer's Lactate IV according to their body weight and the effect were checked through TPR, hematology and blood electrolyte. Group D: calves of same age group affected with heat stress were taken as the positive control. Group E: calves of same age group were normal healthy calves (negative control). Temperature was taken at regular intervals of one hour daily. Respiration was observed by placing the hand in front of nostrils. Heart rate was observed by stethoscope daily in morning and evening. The blood sample of each calf was collected both for control and experimental animals through disposable syringe from jugular vein. The blood was shifted to University Diagnostic laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. The samples were taken before and after therapeutic trials. Blood samples were taken for blood electrolyte examination and hematology. Serum of the blood was separated by centrifugation for electrolytes measurements. The flame photometer was utilized to measure the serum sodium (Na+) potassium (K+) Chloride (Cl+) and Bicarbonate (HCO3) concentration. The physical sign of experimental group before cooling were noted .sever sweating and panting were observed under physical sign. The pulse rate, respiration and rectal temperature of experimental group before cooling were increased. Changes found in CBC and blood electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate were measure by flam photometry.
These all observation showed that the animal of experimental group before cooling were suffering from electrolyte imbalance ,but it was not so serious which may result in death of the animal, however the persistence of that condition might result in heat stroke which is often lethal.
It is concluded that serum electrolyte concentration, CBC and pulse rate, respiration and rectal temperature help in accessing the condition of animal suffering form the heat stress. From the present study it can be concluded that heat stress cause changes in biochemical and Hematological parameters in calves. These changes can be overcome by giving animal's fluid therapy and by providing good shade in hot summer. Further studied are required to Conducted on other species of animals to understand the effect of heat stress .Other biochemical and hematological parameters should be studied in bovine calves and other animals for the better understanding the effects of heat stress.
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Bioequivalence Study Of Montelukast Tablets In Healthy Volunteets
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Objective of this bioequivalence study was to compare pharmacokinetic parameters
and to evaluate bioequivalence of two generic drug products. A multinational
company brand was compared with locally manufacture brand. It was a randomized,
single dose, two-period crossover study in which 12 volunteers were participated with
the age limit of 18-30yrs. These volunteers were selected according to different
inclusion and exclusion criteria and the study was conducted with one week washout
period. Each volunteer was one tablet of montelukast (reference or test) lOmg. 14
blood samples of 4-Sml collected at predefined time intervals i.e, 0, O.S, 1.0, 1.S, 2.0,
2.5, 3.0, 3.S, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, 12 and 24 hours .. Heparinized vacuette were used for
collection of blood samples. After sampling, blood samples were centrifuged
immediately to separate plasma and stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma montelukast
concentration was evaluated by using reverse phase - high performance liquid
chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate O.OSM at pH
3.5 with orthophosphoric acid in combination to acetonitrile (20:80) was used as
mobile phase. The wavelength of detector was set at 34Snm and flow rate was set to
2.0ml per min. Drug from plasma was extracted by de-proteinizing the plasma with
acetonitrile. 70 III injection volume was given to HPLC for analysis. For comparing
the pharmacokinetic parameters two compartment analysis was used and pair t-test was applied. Non compartmental analysis was used for evaluating pharmacokinetic
parameters to evaluate the both drugs were bioequivalent or not. 3 major parameters
of bioequivalence Cmax, AVC O-inf and AVC O-t were evaluated and they did not
show significant difference in between two formulations. Also the 90% confidence
interval values were within the limit. So, it was concluded that both the test and
reference drug were bioequivalent and test drug could be used interchangeably with
the reference drug.
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Pharmacoinetic Srudy Of Ketoprofen In Healthy Sheep
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Objective of this bioequivalence study was to compare pharmacokinetic parameters and to evaluate bioequivalence of two generic drug products. A multinational company brand was compared with locally manufacture brand. It was a randomized, single dose, two-period crossover study in which 12 volunteers were participated with the age limit of 18-30yrs. These volunteers were selected according to different inclusion and exclusion criteria and the study was conducted with one week washout period. Each volunteer was one tablet of montelukast (reference or test) 10mg. 14 blood samples of 4-5ml collected at predefined time intervals i.e, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, 12 and 24 hours. . Heparinized vacuette were used for collection of blood samples. After sampling, blood samples were centrifuged immediately to separate plasma and stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma montelukast concentration was evaluated by using reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.05M at pH 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid in combination to acetonitrile (20:80) was used as mobile phase. The wavelength of detector was set at 345nm and flow rate was set to 2.0ml per min. Drug from plasma was extracted by de-proteinizing the plasma with acetonitrile. 70 µl injection volume was given to HPLC for analysis. For comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters two compartment analysis was used and pair t-test was applied. Non compartmental analysis was used for evaluating pharmacokinetic parameters to evaluate the both drugs were bioequivalent or not. 3 major parameters of bioequivalence Cmax, AUC 0-inf and AUC 0-t were evaluated and they did not show significant difference in between two formulations. Also the 90% confidence interval values were within the limit. So, it was concluded that both the test and reference drug were bioequivalent and test drug could be used interchangeably with the reference drug.
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Detection Of Mycoplasma Synoviae By Pcr And Its Histopatholohical Studies In Poutry Breeder In District Abbottabad
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Poultry, an important sub-sector of livestock, has emerged a cheaper source of protein for human consumption. Mycoplasmas are the smallest known bacteria, 300-800 nm in diameter and are capable of replicating outside the cell. Mycoplasma synoviae is a member of the class Mollicutes, order Mycoplasmatales, family Mycoplasmataceae. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is considered economically to be most important pathogen. Mycoplasma synoviae infections occur in poultry worldwide, affecting poultry and causes diseases like respiratory distress, synovitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma is transmitted from infected to healthy birds both by horizontal and vertical routes. Horizontally disease is transmitted via infected and healthy carrier birds, hatchery, housing, equipments, feeding and during transportation.
To have an insight on pathogenesis and reliable diagnostic techniques, the present project was designed to know comparative sensitivity of rapid agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction for MS diagnosis and to study the gross lesion and histopathological changes in chicken joints produced by MS.
The birds showing clinical signs that included respiratory i.e. tracheal rales, conjunctivitis, coughing, sneezing, ocular and nasal discharge and infectious synovitis were selected for sample collection. Initially the collected sera samples were examined by Rapid Serum Agglutination test. RSA and PCR tests were used in order to confirm the pathogenic agent. RSA and PCR positive samples were further processed for histopathological study in order to identify the lesions in tissues produced by causative organism. In field visits it was observed that the suspected birds were with pale comb, mild to severe lameness, dull, depressed, ruffled feather, conjunctivitis, oculo-nasal discharge, tracheal rales and greenish or sulfur faeces. Birds hock joints, toe joints and paws pad were swelled. The infected birds were occasionally found with generalized infection. The infected birds complicated with other diseases of poultry such as Newcastle and infectious bronchitis causes infection airsacculitis.
Rapid serum agglutination test was conducted at 14 broiler breeder farms. The birds at a farm were showing respiratory and infectious synovitis signs and symptoms, suspected to Mycoplasma synoviae. The tests were performed at the spot. A total of 239 sera samples were examined out of which 63 (26.35%) sera samples were positive for MS. The clinical samples were identified and confirmed as Mycoplasma synoviae infection by PCR. The amplified PCR product was given about 211 bp size while PCR buffer was used as negative control. A total of 213 samples were subjected to PCR and 65 (30.52%) revealed PCR positive results for tracheal swabs, 28.16% (20 samples out 71) showed positive results. For tracheal and lung 33.38 % (24 out of 71) and 29.57% (21 out of 71 samples) were positive, respectively. The PCR test successfully amplified the DNA of MS clinical positive samples. Sixty five out of 213 Mycoplasma synoviae isolates were positive in MS specific PCR while the other 148 samples were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of molecular method Polymerase chain reaction was 100 percent.
For histopathological studies the samples of different organs including trachea, lungs, liver, hock joints (articular cartilage, piece of synovial membrane) and foot pad were further processed. The trachea was examined. There was epithelial degeneration, desquamation. congestion, haemorrhages and inflammatory cell infiltration. The lungs were examined and it was revealed that there was marked congestion, haemorrhages, necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration. Liver showed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Articular cartilage showing chondrocytes degenration. Synovial membrane was thickened due to infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cell. Foot pad showed hyperkaratosis and thickning of epidermis, acanthosis, degeneration of cartilage, infiltration of both mononuclear and plasma cell.
It is concluded from findings of present study that PCR is more appropriate technique than RSA for timely diagnosis of Mycoplasma synoviae. However combination of findings of both techniques may be utilized for accurate detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from broiler breeder in district Abbottabad.
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Effect Of Replacinh Inorhanic With Organic Trace Minerals On Greth Performance Carcass Characteristics And Meat Composition of Broilers
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Poultry is one of the vibrant segments of agriculture sector of Pakistan. Its contribution in agriculture and livestock is 4.81% and 9.84%, respectively. Poultry meat contributes 23% of total meat production of Pakistan. Poultry sector has shown a healthy growth at the rate of 8-10 percent annually. For optimum production and health, animal receive a balance diet that supplies nutrient at desired concentration. Organic trace minerals have been used in broiler feeds, showing promise in improving growth performance, bird health, processing yield and meat quality characteristics. Interest is also building in using organic trace minerals in place of a portion of the feed inorganic mineral supplement in order to get maximum growth and health with lower levels of mineral intake, thus lowering the amount of minerals excreted from the birds.
The average feed consumption based on gram/bird at different ages showed that maximum feed consumption was exhibited by group F followed by group E, D, C, B and A. The data of feed consumption when subjected to analysis of variance showed significant difference (P<0.05) feed intake was during first three weeks but during the last two week non significant difference was observed in feed. The feed intake in group supplemented with organic trace minerals was significantly different from that group supplemented with inorganic trace minerals.
The average body weights of broilers at different ages showed that broilers of group A attained maximum weight, which was followed by group B, C, D, E and F, respectively. . Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant (P<0.05) difference in weight gain due to treatments. The weight gain in group supplemented with organic trace minerals was significantly different from that group supplemented with inorganic trace minerals.
The overall FCR of group A was found to be the best among all groups. Birds in group B performed better than rest groups i.e., C, D, E and F. The analysis of variance among various experimental groups during 1st three weeks revealed a non significant difference between all groups i.e., A, B, C, D, E and F, however, FCR was significant difference (P<0.05) during last two weeks.
Result obtained showed significant differences in carcass characteristics i.e., shank length, keel length, bursa weight while non significant differences in dressing percentage, liver weight, heart weight, spleen weight and gizzard weight due to supplementation of organic minerals. Statistically significant differences were found in shank and keel length with supplementation of organic minerals, however non significant differences were found in shank and keel length in groups feeding inorganic trace minerals. The bursa weight of the birds in group supplemented with organic trace minerals was significantly lower from all groups, however non significant differences were observed in among birds in group supplemented with inorganic trace minerals.
The economics of production of broilers in different experimental groups A, B, C, D, E, and F showed that average cast of production remained 43.40, 43.50, 46.10, 45.36, 44.91 and 45.66 per kg live weight. Higher cast of production was observed in group C (46.10) and F (45.36) while group A (43.40) was having the lowest cast of production which showed significant differences from all other groups.
As the proximate analysis of broiler thigh and breast meat is concerned, Dry matter, moisture percentage and ash percentage of both breast and thigh portion of broiler meat for group A, B, C, D and E showed non significant differences among all treatments, while the data on crude protein and ether extract in breast and thigh part of meat of broiler when subjected to analysis of variance showed significant difference (P<0.05) among treatment groups A, B, C, D, E and F group.
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Study Of Livestock Health Issues And Availability Of Veterinary Services To Pastoral Herds Of Northern Pakistan
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pastoralists contribute great contribution in the economy of the developing world providing food and employment to peoples. In Pakistan pastoralism is also present and the pastoralists having their livestock keeping mobile through all the year upland and lowland. The goal of this research study has been to assess the major health problems in market oriented Livestock development. Although the feed resource and grazing land are quite enough, the research that was carried out in Narran valley reveals of how widespread the diseases are the health problems of livestock. The study indicates Narran valley has a high livestock population, which plays a substantial role in the livelihood of the farmers. In general, livestock is the most important unit of the Agricultural Community in both the market and the households' level. Unfortunately, animal productivity is very low in the area there are many reasons for this, among which is the major obstacle of widespread animal health problems and veterinary services availability. The diseases reported in the herds are the CCPP, FMD, Brucellosis, Small Pox, Liver flukes, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Enterotoxaemia, GID, Tympany, and PPR. These diseases cause heavy economic losses in their herds every year. The veterinary services for the land less pastoralists were not available where their herds were settled. For this research a survey was conducted to get the perceptions of the pastoralists and the veterinary services providers. Questionnaires were made for the pastoralists and veterinary services providers.
Results of this study lead to development of a policy for the landless herder's livestock. This was a useful study on the livestock health issues and veterinary services, as no other study has been carried out in Pakistan for the livestock of land less transhumant herders. Additionally this study can become the basis for further research in their livestock.
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Nutritional Evaluation Of Locally Availabie Feed Stuffs In Different Agro- Ecological Zones Of Punjab
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pakistan's economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock production. The production per unit animal in terms of meat and milk production is low as compared to developed countries. The major reason behind this truth lies in efficient use of feed resources. In Pakistan, availability of data on indigenous feed resources in different agro-ecological zones is scanty and limited. Present study was planned to analyze the nutritional profile of locally available feed resources in different agro-ecological zones of Punjab. This study was conducted into two phases; first phase consisted of collection of samples from ten districts of Punjab. From each district, sample of fodder, dry roughages and concentrate ingredients were collected randomly from different places. The estimated total number of sample was 1020; fodder (440), dry roughages (250) and concentrate (330) samples were collected in both summer and winter seasons. The second phase of the study consisted of chemical analysis of nutritional profile of collected samples. Samples were analyzed for crude protein, ash, detergent fibres i.e., NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin and cell soluble contents. Data thus collected were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance technique under CR Design.
In wheat straw the average CP percentage was 2.20 ± 0.25% while the value for ash content was 9.79 ± 1.97%. NDF and ADF averaged as 80.33 ± 4.43% and 52.41 ± 2.56% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Kasur and Sahiwal district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the rice straw average CP percentage was 1.71 ± 0.24% while the value for ash content was 13.56 ± 1.91%. NDF and ADF averaged as 78.36 ± 5.40% and 54.11 ± 2.25%. Higher value for protein was reported from Sahiwal district while lowest from Lahore and Pakpatan district.
In the maize stovers average CP percentage was 2.76 ± 0.39% while the value for ash content was 7.81 ± 2.16%. NDF and ADF averaged as 75.03 ± 4.78% and 48.15 ± 3.67% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Kasur district while lowest from Pakpatan district.
In the sorghum stovers average CP percentage was 2.72 ± 0.15% while the value for ash content was 5.81 ± 1.16%. NDF and ADF averaged as 77.74 ± 4.60% and 49.95 ± 2.31% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Sahiwal district while lowest from Hafizabad district.
In the millet stovers average CP percentage was 3.03 ± 0.37% while the value for ash content was 6.45 ± 0.72%. NDF and ADF averaged as 75.80 ± 4.45% and 43.81 ± 0.94% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the rice husk average CP percentage was 2.99 ± 0.22% while the value for ash content was 16.37 ± 0.58%. NDF and ADF averaged as 78.90 ± 2.90% and 69.01 ± 1.17% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Pakpatan district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the oat fodder average CP percentage was 11.89 ± 0.74% while the value for ash content was 10.68 ± 0.57%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 63.09 ± 1.88%, 32.68 ± 2.33%, 4.26 ± 0.81% and 36.91 ± 1.88% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Okara district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the wheat fodder average CP percentage was 11.74 ± 0.51% while the value for ash content was 6.84 ± 0.78%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 66.65 ± 2.70%, 36.31 ± 2.08%, 9.40 ± 1.72% and 33.35 ± 2.70% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Khushab district.
In the mustarad fodder average CP percentage was 13.42 ± 0.39% while the value for ash content was 11.57 ± 0.66%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 56.19 ± 1.94%, 38.49 ± 1.98%, 12.24 ± 0.98% and 43.81 ± 1.94% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Muzafargarh district while lowest from Pakpatan district.
In the berseem average CP percentage was 17.32 ± 0.82% while the value for ash content was 12.94 ± 0.76%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 57.37 ± 2.63%, 31.63 ± 1.90%, 10.67 ± 1.04% and 42.63 ± 2.63% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Pakpatan district while lowest from Hafizabad district.
In the lucern average CP percentage was 21.34 ± 0.84% while the value for ash content was 11.65 ± 1.69%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 45.60 ± 2.04%, 37.73 ± 0.63%, 11.87 ±1.05% and 54.40 ± 2.04% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Sahiwal district
In the sugarcane fodder average CP percentage was 5.60 ± 0.31% while the value for ash content was 11.78 ± 0.92%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 72.30 ± 3.88%, 38.20 ± 1.76%, 12.94 ± 1.13% and 27.20 ± 3.00% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Sheikhupura district while lowest from Lahore district.
In the grasses average CP percentage was 9.91 ± 0.48% while the value for ash content was 11.74 ± 0.94%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 72.71 ± 5.20%, 36.25 ± 1.96%, 6.29 ± 0.99% and 27.29 ± 5.20% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the maize fodder average CP percentage was 8.10 ± 0.75% while the value for ash content was 11.39 ± 1.58%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 70.88 ± 1.94%, 32.88 ± 1.42%, 7.15 ± 1.87% and 29.12 ± 1.94% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Kasur district while lowest from Okara district.
In the sorghum fodder average CP percentage was 6.62 ± 0.44% while the value for ash content was 8.96 ± 1.41%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 67.75 ± 2.79%, 42.11 ± 2.64%, 7.52 ± 0.96% and 32.25 ± 2.79% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Okara and Khushab district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the millet fodder average CP percentage was 7.76 ± 0.34% while the value for ash content was 14.80 ± 0.88%. NDF, ADF, lignin and CSC averaged as 69.90 ± 1.39%, 40.59 ± 4.54%, 9.74 ± 1.24% and 30.10 ± 1.39% respectively. Higher value for protein was reported from Sahiwal district while lowest from Khushab district.
In the corn grain average CP percentage was 9.47 ± 0.22% while the value for CSC content was 75.54 ± 1.39%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 24.46 ± 1.39% and 5.88 ± 8.47%. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Okara district.
In the wheat grain average CP percentage was 12.66 ± 0.89% while the value for CSC content was 59.75 ± 3.64%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 40.25 ± 3.64% and 4.86 ± 0.80%. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Gujranwala district.
In the Sorghum grain average CP percentage was 9.96 ± 0.42% while the value for CSC content was 49.11 ± 3.10%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 50.89 ± 3.10% and 22.06 ± 0.72%. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Muzafargarh district.
In the wheat bran average CP percentage was 12.53 ± 1.07% while the value for CSC content was 36.63 ± 2.24%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 63.37 ± 2.24% and 17.25 ± 2.63%. Higher value for protein was reported from Lahore district while lowest from Gujranwala district.
In the rice polish average CP percentage was 16.12 ± 0.69% while the value for CSC content was 47.58 ± 2.34%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 52.42 ± 2.34% and 18.28 ± 0.80%. Higher value for protein was reported from Hafizabad district while lowest from Kasur district.
In the cotton seed cake average CP percentage was 24.16 ± 0.36% while the value for CSC content was 40.91 ± 2.27%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 59.09 ± 2.27% and 27.65 ± 2.13%. Higher value for protein was reported from Khushab district while lowest from Sheikhupura district.
In the rape seed cake average CP percentage was 35.77 ± 0.42% while the value for CSC content was 57.42 ± 2.41%. While NDF and ADF averaged as 42.49 ± 2.59% and 24.61 ± 2.08%. Higher value for protein was reported from Sheikhupura district while lowest from Pakpatan district.
On the basis of the results of this study it is concluded that this study has generated compositional data of dry roughages, fodders and concentrates. This has lead to the preparation of dry roughages, fodders and concentrates composition tables for better feeding of livestock. The students, farmers and research workers may benefit from these tables.
It is suggested that further trials on palatability, feed intake and digestibility should be conducted to visualize practically the extent of digested nutrients in these dry roughages, fodders and concentrates.
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Surveillance Of Tuberculosis In Buffaloes, Cattle And Derectton Of Mycobacterium Bovis And Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Food of Animal Origin
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The main objectives of this study were: to survey the prevalence of TB infection in livestock and their products in Pakistan; to standardize PCR based techniques for the detection of TB in buffaloes, cattle and animal products (milk and meat) as presently no such system has been developed for the detection of TB in animals and their products in Pakistan; to evaluate improved tests for the differentiation of Mycobacterium complex isolates in cattle, buffaloes and animal food products and to compare modern and conventional methods for rapid diagnosis of the Mycobacterial spp. The study was performed in different experiments to have surveillance of tuberculosis in Buffaloes and Cattle; and to detect the presence of different Mycobacteria in animal food products. One thousand animals from different areas of Lahore District were screened with the tuberculin test. The milk and blood of tuberculin tested animals were further studied for the presence of Mycobacterial spp. by conventional methods as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In other experiments one hundred market milk samples and ten thousand five hundred tissue samples from twenty-one hundred carcasses at Lahore slaughter house were screened with conventional microbiological tests and multiplex PCR for differentiation of Mycobacterium species. The results indicated that PCR had more sensitivity and required less time to detect and differentiate different Mycobacterial species as compared to conventional methods. It was also noted that M. bovis were found in milk and blood of milking animals as well as tissue sample collected from Lahore slaughter house. On the basis of findings, regular monitoring of the milking animals, animals to be slaughtered, and workers handling these animals is suggested. It is also recommended to review the current slaughter act to prevent the slaughtering of TB affected animals.
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Studies On Cyanide Toxicity In Ruminants
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted with the objectives to: (a) determine the cyanogenic potential of various livestock fodder and grasses, (b) determine CN? content in blood of ruminants feeding cyanogenic plants, (c) develop a simple, reliable and inexpensive assay for the determination of CN? in blood, (d) evaluate the efficacy of various antidotes against CN? toxicity in a rabbit model, (e) find out the effect of CN? on hematological and biochemical profile, (f) study the postmortem and histopathological changes associated with CN? toxicity in various organs and (g) study alterations in tissue oxygenation and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity in pigs. For this purpose a total of 500 samples of various plants being used as fodder to livestock were collected from the field and analyzed for CN? content spectrophotometerically. To develop a simple picrate method for CN? estimation in blood, two goats were infused with KCN at 0.6mg/kg for 1 hours. Blood samples were collected at intervals and were subjected to the general method. Standard curve was developed using standard solutions of various concentrations of CN?. Additionally 6 rabbits were also given CN? orally for 40 days and blood samples were collected for CN? estimation. Later on, this method was successfully used to determine CN? levels from 500 blood samples of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats (n=125 each) feeding cyanogenic plants which were collected from the field. For antidotal studies forty two rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G each comprising of six animals. Rabbits in group A were given feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus oral solution of potassium cyanide (KCN) and were positive control. Animals in group C were given feed, KCN and intraperitoneal (IP) injection of garlic extract. Rabbits in group D were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Members in group E received feed, KCN and IP injection of both garlic extract and sodium nitrite (SNT). Animals in group F were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of both STS and SNT whereas the rabbits in group G were given feed, KCN and hydroxocobalamin IP. The treatments were given to respective groups for a period of 40 days. At the end of 40 days, serum and fresh urine samples were drawn from each rabbit to study biochemical panel. Subsequently the rabbits were euthanized for postmortem and histopathological changes in various organs. For hematological and growth rate studies 12 rabbits were divided into two groups of six viz. A and B. Rabbits in group A were given feed only while members in group B were treated with feed and oral KCN at 3mg/kg for 40 days. The animals were weighed after every 10 days. Feed consumption rate, feed efficiency and weight gain for the members of each group were recorded. Blood samples were also collected for hematological studies at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. To study tissue oxygen and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity, 26 piglets were anesthetized. The non-invasive monitors were used to measured oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm and cerebral response to sedation. The invasive monitors were placed to measured beat to beat variability of the arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressures. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and cardiac output were continuously monitored. Regional brain O2 (cerebral cortex) and skeletal muscle O2 saturation (rSO2) were also measured via sensors. After getting baseline metabolic and hemodynamic measurements that included arterial and venous blood gas analysis, lactates and cyanide levels, all pigs were started on an infusion of NaCN (0.55 mg/kg/hr). The infusion continued until the occurrence of sustained apnea (?3 minutes). A non-significant difference was found in the CN? content of Sorghum bicolor and S. sudanese, while a significant difference was observed between the CN? content of Jumbo grass (S. bicolor x S. Sudanese hybrid) and S. halepense. Jumbo grass and S. halepense were found to have significantly higher CN? concentrations than S. bicolor or S. Sudanese. Maize has significantly lower CN? content compared to S. bicolor, S. sudanese, Jumbo grass, or S. halepense. A gradual increase in CN? content with increasing height of plants was also observed. Highest CN? levels were observed at heights of 91-100 cm in sorghum varieties. At greater heights, a gradual decrease in CN? content was seen in all plant species, with the lowest levels at heights of 200 cm or above. No CN? was detected in maize at heights over 131 cm. In picrate method, the calibration curve was linear (R2=0.99) in the range of 0.3-120 mg CN?/L. In standard CN? solutions a color change in picrate paper from yellow to brown was observed at a concentration of 3 mg CN?/L and above. This method was sufficiently sensitive to quantify the low concentrations (0.3mg CN?/L) of CN? found in ruminant blood. In goats infused with KCN, the CN? concentration in blood was time-dependent and continued rising during infusion, gradually declining after infusion ceased after 1 h. Blood CN? levels showed a time-dependent increase in all experimental rabbits with the maximum concentration (1.34 mg/L) at day 40. The highest blood CN? concentrations were found in cattle, followed by goats and buffalo, with the lowest in sheep. When blood CN? levels of these species were compared statistically, a non-significant difference was observed. A non-significant difference was found between males and females. No relationship was observed between blood CN? levels and age of the animal for any species. Buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goats allowed to graze showed significantly higher blood CN? levels than animals kept in a stall feeding system. Animals grazing on jumbo grass were found to have significantly higher blood CN? levels than those fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese with a non-significant difference found between animals fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese. No CN? was detected in blood samples of animals fed maize. Hydroxocobalamine was found to be a significantly more effective CN? antidote than garlic, STS, SNT plus garlic extract, or SNT and STS, either alone or in combination. A combination of SNT and garlic extract was the second most effective CN? antidote. The efficacy of garlic alone was significantly higher than STS or SNT in combination with STS. The efficacy of combined SNT and STS was superior to STS alone in treating rabbits with CN? toxicity. No rabbits in any group demonstrated gross deviation from the normal organ structure. The activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH enzymes, as well as serum bilirubin, were significantly increased in CN? treated rabbits compared to controls. Severe hepatocyte vacuolation and degeneration were present in liver of rabbits in the CN? treated group. Liver of rabbits in the control group showed normal morphological patterns. The concentrations of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly higher in CN? treated rabbits than in control group. Urinary thiocyanate levels were also significantly higher in the CN? group than in controls. Kidneys of rabbits in the CN? group demonstrated severe glomerular and tubular necrosis and congestion. Pyknotic nuclei were present in tubular epithelial cells, whereas a normal histological pattern was observed in kidneys of rabbits in control group. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly lower in the CN? group compared to controls. A non-significant difference in blood glucose levels was recorded between rabbits in control and CN? treated groups, and histological examination of pancreas revealed no microscopic lesions. No significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol levels of CN? and control group rabbits. The serum albumin and total protein concentration in CN? treated rabbits were significantly lower than in the control group. Heart of rabbits in both CN? and control group did not show histopathological changes under microscopic examination. The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were all found to be significantly lower in blood of CN? treated rabbits than control group. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in the CN? group rabbits than control group animals. On the other hand, the difference in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets were non-significant. The difference in total and daily feed consumption between CN? and control group rabbits was non-significant, whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than for rabbits in CN? fed group. The net weight gain of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than in the CN? fed group. Cyanide infusion to pigs resulted in toxic levels of blood CN? accompanied by lactic acidosis. In addition, there was a progressive increase in cardiac output, Venous oxygen saturation, heart rate, elevation of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery blood pressure. Skeletal muscle rSO2 progressively and significantly decreased with increasing lactate and CN? levels. However, there was no significant change in brain rSO2.
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Production Of Single Cell Proteins (Yeast) To Fortify Human Food
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The production of single cell protein on agricultural wastes is amongst the potential non-conventional protein source for humans in protein deficient countries like Pakistan. Microorganisms in single cell protein have high protein contents and short growth times which lead to rapid biomass production. Moreover, microorganisms are able to utilize cheap sources of nitrogen and abundant carbon sources. Thus, the resulting biomass is usually economical having high potential as a supplement as well as protein fortificant to provide balanced nutrition.
The peels used for yeast biomass production study resulted in variable composition. Orange peel contained significantly highest (38.66 %) moisture content as compared to other peels. Regarding dry matter, the maximum DM (80.66 %) was present in potato peels while, crude protein contents were higher (10.13 %) in orange peels. In biomass production, the maximum growth (5.29 %) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained on potato peels while, lowest growth (0.3 %) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed on apple peels. Both apple and potato peels nitrogen free extract were statistically non-significant.
Proximate composition of experimentally produced yeast biomass was comparable with commercial yeast. Biological evaluation of single cell protein (SCP) diet in Sprague Dawley rats was conducted and compared with casein diet to determine the SCP protein quality. The values for SCP protein quality for parameters of TD, NPU, BV, NPR, FER and PER were 93.68 %, 67.02 %, 70.56 %, 4.55 %, 3.62 % and 2.19 % respectively, which were significantly lower as compared to casein diet. Although the scores for biological parameters of SCP diet were lower as compared to casein diet, yet the differences in actual values for both the diets was not much which indicates the overall good quality of SCP protein.
SCP also showed excellent water holding capacity (303.40±0.30 %) and oil absorption capacity (196.50±0.20 %). Similarly, foaming capacity, loose bulk density and packed bulk density were observed as 10.60±0.20 %, 0.65±0.01 % and 0.66±0.01 %, respectively. It also showed good gelling capacity as 0.7 g/20mL of yeast biomass resulted in complete gelling of the solution.
Yeast was used to fortify flour at various concentrations to prepare and evaluate protein enriched sugar-snap-cookies. The cookies, thus prepared, were subjected to physical and sensory evaluation to find out the most appropriate level of SCP fortification for cookies development. The spread factor and diameter of cookies decreased while cookie thickness increased with SCP fortification. There was not much difference in most sensory scores attributed to all fortified cookies with the exception of texture and taste which deteriorated with fortification. Although taste and texture scores were less yet the cookies fortified with up to 4% of SCP were well in high acceptable limit.
In a nutshell, potato peels can serve as a good vehicle for production of single cell proteins. Experimentally produced yeast was chemically comparable with that of commercial yeast; however its growth production varies with carbohydrates present in the industrial waste peels. The overall protein quality of SCP protein was found to be very good and thus can be used in various food formulations to enhance protein quantity and quality. Cookies fortified with up to 4% SCP were found to highly acceptable and thus recommended for fortification.
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Clinico- Pathological Studies Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: This study was carried out on total of 310 samples. Out of these samples, 200 were the blood samples (100 from the diseased birds and 100 from the apparently healthy birds), second were the tissue samples of liver which were 80 in number (50 from the ascitic birds and 30 from the apparently healthy birds). Then 20 were the water samples (10 from the source of water production and remaining 10 were from the drinking levels of the birds) and 10 feed samples. Samples were collected from randomly selected ten (10) broiler poultry farms in the district Gujranwala having the problem of ascites. The study was completed in four parts. In first part, serum biochemical parameters of liver were studied. The included parameters were total serum proteins, albumins, globulins, A/G ratio and SGPT. In second part of project, mineral profiles of serum concentrations were studied. Then in third part of the study, the collected, feed and water samples were analyzed for their dietary mineral levels. Sodium, potassium and chloride were the minerals, selected for study. Studies of the mineral profiles of feed and water samples were conducted at the Department of Nutrition, U.V.A.S. Lahore. Then the correlation was studied between the dietary mineral levels present in the feed and water, to the mineral levels exhibiting in the serum samples. On the basis of mineral levels present in the feed, water and serum samples, it was concluded that the Na and chloride may contribute to the development of ascities as the results were significant (P>0.05) but the role of K in this regard was not seemed to be significant (P<0.05) thus it may not has any significant contribution in the development of ascites syndrome. In fourth and last part of study, histopathology of the tissue samples was conducted. In this part of study, the tissue samples, collected from liver of ascitic birds and apparently healthy birds were subjected to histopathology and microscopic examination for significant changes. Histopathological studies showed that the hepatic degeneration, hepatic necrosis and fibrosis of the hepatic capsule were the common findings in the diseased group. The study elucidated the marked decrease of serum proteins including the total serum proteins and albumin while it was observed that the ascites syndrome has no significant effect on the enzyme assays of the liver.
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Bioequivalence Study Of Deferiprone In Healthy Volunteers
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating bioequivalence, relative
silability and efficacy of deferiprone manufactured locally (Ferinil, Global
aceutical, Pakistan) with a reference drug (Ferriprox, ApoPharma, Canada) in healthy
volunteers. It was a randomized crossover study enrolling 12 volunteers within age limit
g·55yrs and meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, Each volunteer was
administered two tablets of deferiprone 500mg of both reference and test drug with a two-
washout period. Blood samples of about 5ml was collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 5,4, 6, 8, 12 hour at predetermined time intervals and one sample was taken as control
giving first dose to volunteers. Heparinized vacuette was used for collection of blood
les. After sampling, blood samples was centrifuged at approximately 3000 rpm for 10
les and then stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma deferiprone levels were analyzed using
led High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters
calculated from plasma concentration time curve non-compartmentally and two-
artmental. After logarithmic transformation of data statistical comparisons of Cmax,
(0-1), AUC(o.oo) was calculated and appropriate statistical method was used for calculation. mean relative bioavailability was 104% and was proved to be bioavailable. The Cmax
(mean ±SD) for reference and test drug was 12.68 ± 4.91 and 14.41 ± 5.04 ug/ml,
ctively while average ± SD of AUCO-t and AUCO-inf of test and reference drug was 40.49
6,05 and 42.84 ± 18.47 ugh/ml and 38.63 ± 13.65 and 40.75 ± 14.17 ugh/ml. Average
(test/reference) of Cmax 90% CI was 0.9876-1.3125. Average ratio (test/reference) of
Co.190% CI was 0.9737-1.1150, and of AUCo-inf 90% CI was 0.9542-1.1343. Therefore both test and reference drug was fairly tolerated by volunteers and no adverse event was
detected. Hence, the average ratio of 90% confidence interval of AUCo-t and AUCO-inf was
0.9737-1.1150 and 0.9542-1.1343 that lie within the acceptable limit of (0.80 - 1.25) for
bioequivalence acceptance. Effectiveness of deferiprone depends on AUC instead of Cmax therefore the average ratio of 90% confidence interval of Cmax was 0.9876-1.3125 that lie
with the acceptable limit of WHO bioequivalence acceptance (0.75 - 1.33). ANOVA show
no significant variations among drug, period and sequence effect. Therefore, it was concluded
that Ferriprox was proved to be bioequivalent in healthy male Pakistani volunleers.
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Phylogenetic Analysis Of Newcastle Disease Virus On The Basis Of Fusion Protein Gene Isolated From Poultry In Lahore District
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Among the destructive and vastly communicable viral infections of poultry the most devastating disease is Newcastle Disease (ND) caused by a virus belong to genus Avulavirus of paramyxoviridae family, avian paramyxovirus-1. The NDV causes huge economic losses to the Poultry Industry. The available vaccines failed to protect the birds from the disease; this project is designed to find reasons of the vaccine failures. Keeping in view the importance of outbreaks reported due to NDV and adverse effects on Poultry Industry a study was conducted to examine the function of the cleavage site of Fusion protein sequencing, in Newcastle Disease Virus virulency through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction via objective to find the genetic variations among the different isolates of Newcastle Disease field viruses in Lahore District.
One hundred suspected samples of NDV from dead and morbid birds were collected from different sources and areas of Lahore district. Prepared inoculums were inoculated in the 9-11 days old embryonated hen eggs for virus isolation. The allontoic amniotic fluid (AAF) was harvested and tested for HA activity. Further confirmation of NDV was done by using Reference NDV antiserum (HI). Out of 100 samples, 63 showed Hemagglutination activity with washed chicken RBCs and only 16 samples were repressed with specific known NDV antiserum. The remaining samples showed inhibition with known H5, H7 and H9 specific antiserum (12, 13, and 22) respectively. The isolates that were found to be positive through Hemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) were further tested for Intra Cerebral Pathogencity Index (ICPI). ICPI was performed to characterize the isolates into Lentogenic, Mesogenic and Velogenic forms. The ICPI values obtained after pathogencity test of 16 isolates showed that only 6 isolates have the pathogenicity index above 1.5, and the remaining isolates below 1.5 and above 1, the average higher ICPI value of 16 virus isolates was 1.78.
On the basis of Intracerebral Pathogencity index (ICPI) results only 5 samples were selected for RNA extraction and PCR amplification. The RNA extraction was performed by using kit method (High Pure RNA Isolation kit by Roche-Germany) as recommended by the manufacturer. The gene representing F protein was amplified through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Nucleotide sequencing of complete (1580 bp) F gene of 1 NDV isolate was performed. The sequencing results of 1580 bp were compiled and sequence alignment of the NDV isolates, based on a variable portion covering the F-gene site, was done by using, software, ClustalW. The Neighbor-joining phylogenetic Tree was constructed with bootstrap value 1000 using software, MEGA 4.1. The phylogenetic result showed that our isolate has been distinct from Pakistani isolate and has 96% similarity with SPVC/Karachi/33/2007 (velogenic) available in GenBank.
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Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Four Different Varieties Of Native Aseel
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: In Pakistan rural poultry has been playing an important role in the production of eggs and poultry meat. During the year, 2010, the contribution of rural poultry in overall production of eggs and poultry meat in the country has been about 32.15 and 15.38 percent, respectively. However, conservation and genetic improvement of native poultry breeds has been the major problem hindering the development of rural poultry. Aseel is a native rural poultry breed which possesses very good meat production character, however very little research work has been conducted to study its growth and carcass traits. Keeping this in view, the present study was planned to evaluate comparative growth and carcass traits of different varieties of native Aseel. For this purpose 96, day-old Aseel chicks, 24 each of 4 different varieties viz Peshawari, Mianwali, Mushki and Lakha were maintained under standard managemental conditions for a period of 15 weeks according to Completely Randomized Design. The data on weekly body weight gain and feed intake were collected and feed conversion efficiency was worked out. At 12 and 15 weeks of age, carcass characteristics such as dressing percentage, shank length and width, breast length and width, intestinal length and weight and giblet weight were studied
The average feed intake (g) of four varieties of Aseel varied significantly (p>0.05) from 1 to 15 weeks of age. The average body weight (g) of four varieties of Aseel was significantly differed at 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 14th and 15 weeks of age. However, non-significant effect was observed at day-old chick and also at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 8th, 9th, 11th and 12th weeks of age. The average of weekly body weight gain (g) of four varieties of Aseel significantly differed at 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th and 10th weeks of age. However, non-significant effect was observed at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age.
The average of FCR of four varieties of Aseel was varied significantly (p<0.05) at 1st, 4th, 5th, 8th, 9th and 11th weeks of age, however, non-significant effect was observed in 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The average mean of times weekly body weight gain of four varieties of Aseel significantly varied (p<0.05) at 3rd, 4th, 8th, 9th and 10th weeks of age. Non-significant effects was however observed at 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th weeks of age. The weekly average mean intake of protein, calories, calcium, phosphorus and fiber in four varieties of Aseel significantly differed (p<0.05) throughout the experimental period from 1-15 weeks of age.
The results of this study in respect of carcass characteristics indicate that Aseel males had higher live body weight, weight with viscera, dressed weight, shank length, shank width, than Aseel females at 12 and 15 weeks of age. However non-significant differences were observed among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age in these parameters. The results indicated that males had higher, gizzard weight (with contents), gizzard weight (without contents), breast width, and breast length, than Aseel females at 12 weeks of age. However, non-significant differences were observed between sexes at 15 weeks of age and also among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age in the above mentioned parameters. Aseel males also exhibited higher intestinal and proventriculus weights than those of Aseel females at 12 weeks of age, however, non-significant differences were observed between sexes at 15 weeks of age in both these parameters.
Significant difference in proventriculus and blood weight was observed among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 weeks of age, whereas, non-significant difference was recorded in proventriculus and blood weight at 15 weeks of age. The results indicated non-significant differences between the sexes at both 12 and 15 weeks of age. Aseel males had higher intestinal length and lungs weight, than that of Aseel females at 15 weeks of age, however, non-significant difference in these parameters was observed between the sexes at 12 weeks of age and also among the four varieties of Aseel at both 12 and 15 weeks of age.
Non-significant differences were noted in liver, heart, abdominal fat and spleen weight among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 and 15 weeks of age. Similarly, non-significant difference was observed between the sexes in respect of liver weight and also non-significant difference was recorded in intestinal weight between the four varieties at 12 weeks of age. Whereas, significant differences were observed in these parameters among four varieties of Aseel at 15 weeks of age. Significant difference was observed in abdominal fat percentage among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 weeks of age, however, non-significant differences was found among the four varieties at 15 weeks of age. The sexes differed non-significantly in abdominal fat percentage and also non-significant difference was observed in testes and ovary weight among the four varieties of Aseel at 12 and 15 weeks of age.
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Determinaton Of Multiple Drug Resistance Against Pasteurella - Multocida Isolates From Cattle And Buffalo In District Naseerabad, Balochistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic Septicemia is one of the major problems from livestock point of view with high morbidity, mortality, loss of production and cost of treatment. The predisposing factors such as high temperature, high humidity and uncontrolled transportation of cattle and buffalo round the clock favor outbreak from time to time in the District Naseerabad, Balochistan. Forty samples were collected aseptically from Cattle and Buffalo and transported for further processing placing temperature 4 0C in to the Laboratory Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Samples were cultured on blood agar for isolation and purification .These isolate were identified macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical profile characteristics test. The antibiotic sensitivity test of Ceftriaxone, Cephaloridine, Trimethoprim, Streptomycin, Cinoxacin, Colistin, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Chloramphenical and Amoxycillin were determined for P. multocida isolates and also observed noticeable resistance against these antibiotics. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed statistically.
The aim and objective of present study was to determine multiple drug resistance against Pasteurella multocida so that proper antibiotic for the above said ailment with recommended dosage may be accomplished according to standard dosage.
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Histopathological Investigation Of Pleuropneumonia In Buffaloes Caused By Mycoplasma Bovis
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2009-2011 Dissertation note: This study was conducted by keeping in view the worldwide importance of Mycoplasma bovis to cause pneumonia and many other diseases, as it causes great economic losses to bovine industry. In the current project the incidence of Mycoplasma bovis to cause pleuropneumonia was studied, and its respective histopathological changes in lungs of the pneumonic adult buffaloes and buffalo calves were examined. 100 lung samples for this purpose (50 lung samples from adult buffaloes and 50 lung samples from buffalo calves) were collected from the Lahore Bakar Mandi Abbatoir. Samples were collected on the basis of following criteria: Red hepatization, grey hepatization, multifocal abscess, necrotic lung tissue. These samples were then divided into two portions, one half placed in 10% buffered formalin in the bottles and other half kept in sterile polythene bag. The portion of lungs for bacteriological study was kept in ice box. Histopathological procedure was performed in the pathology department of University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences Lahore. The samples were subjected to histopathological procedures and then slides were observed microscopically for the changes. Microscopically pulmonary odema, consolidation, caseous necrosis, abscess infiltration of mononuclear cells, plasma cells, macrophages, neutrophils infiltration were observed. For culturing of Mycoplasma bovis PPLO broth was prepared and samples were inoculated in the broth medium. At 7th day of inoculation the yellow color of the broth medium appeared which was indicative of positive samples. 30% positive samples in adult buffaloes and 36% in buffalo calves were obtained. These samples were then inoculated on the PPLO agar plates for further precision of results. On agar plates typical colonies of the Mycoplasma were observed under bright field compound microscope and 60% positive samples in adult buffaloes and 66% in buffalo calves were obtained. Next step towards the confirmation of Mycoplasma bovis was specific acridine staining, in which positive of Mycoplasma bovis samples gave dull yellow to colorless appearance of yellow broth medium and gave egg fried colony on agar. 78% adult buffalo and 67% buffalo calves showed positive results. These samples were then subjected to final confirmatory test which was growth inhibition disk test, in which hyper immune sera was raised in rabbits and filter paper disks soaked in this sera were used to check the zone of inhibition on cultured agar plates. 70% positive samples in adult buffaloes and 75% in buffalo calves were obtained which confirmed the presence of Mycoplasma bovis. CFU/ml of the positive samples calculated between 105-108. So the incidence of Mycoplasma bovis to cause pneumonia in adult buffaloes and buffalo calves calculated was (10% and 12%) respectively.
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Variation Of The Primary And Secondary Productivity In Monoculture And Polyculture System Of Fish Pond
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The present study was planned to check the primary and secondary productivity of fish
ponds. The primary productivity was checked by the estimation of chlorophyll-a and
abundance and diversity of phytoplankton in fish pond, the secondary productivity was
studied by identifying and counting the species of zooplankton. Sample were obtained
from treated and controlled ponds; in treated ponds in addition to periodic fertilization of
ponds, supplementary experimental fish feed was provided but in controlled ponds only
fertilizers (organic and inorganic) was applied to enrich the productivity. This study
provides a comparison of the effect of fish feed on plankton productivity. Data were
obtained on weekly basis during l " September to 31 November and on daily basis from
I st November to is" November. The data were collected weekly for chlorophyll
concentrations in fish ponds and fortnightly for phytoplankton and zooplankton
abundance and diversity and were related with the physico-chemical parameter. The
amount of chlorophyll a pigment and plankton abundance in treated and control pond of
Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita was observed. It was high in pond
containing Cirrhinus mrigala ranging from 2.056-4.421 IJ.g/L in pond containing Catla
catla it was low (ranging from 0.313-0.768 IJ.g/L). It was observed those ponds that were
treated although showed significantly higher chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton and
zooplanktons but fish was keeping the biomass grazed and there were no blooms of
phytoplankton were observed after the application of fertilizer. Data obtained weekly as well as every day showed a decrease in the level of chlorophyll
with the time. It was high in the treated ponds compared to control pond however the decreasing trend remained same. Primary productivity as studied from chlorophyll was
significantly difference in the ponds with Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 40.14**) and was non
significant in ponds with Labeo rohita ( F = 2.9SNS) and Catla catla (0.75NS) when
studied weekly and chlorophyll concentration values when observed daily showed
Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 52.91 **) Labeo rohita ( F = 20.00**) and Catla catla (11.73*)
all were significantly different and were higher in treated ponds in comparison to control
ponds. The diversity indices for phytoplankton and zooplankton distribution abundance
were estimated for treated and control ponds with different species of fish (Cirrhinus
mrigala, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). Higher values of diversity (H' =),
equitability (E =) and Simpson index (D= ) was observed in treated pond of Cirrhinus
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Effect Of Zinc Supplementation On Cadmium (Cd) Toxicity In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as an environmental pollutant especially due to its anthropogenic activity. Exposure to Cd is known to cause harmful effects of different levels of the trophic chain, because of bioaccumulation. Toxic effects of Cd are observed in the kidneys, lungs, testes, prostate, and the erythropoietic system in chicken and rat. These effects are associated with teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. Zinc posseses protective and antagonistic action in the uptake and toxic effects of cadmium, probably because of Zn-induced synthesis of metallothionein that detoxifies Cd by firmly binding this metal. The objectives of present study are:
1) To understand the effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity in Japanese quails
2) To study the effect of zinc and cadmium on liver and kidney function along with histopathological changes.
This experimental trial was carried out at Avian Research and Training Centre (ARTC), UVAS Lahore and tests were performed at Pathology Deptt UVAS Lahore. Day old Japanese quails (C. coturnix japonica) (n = 560) were used in this experiment. For this purpose, a total number of 560, day old chicks of Japanese quail were procured from the hatchery of ART Centre. They were assigned to seven dietary treatments. There were four replicates in each treatment group and each replicate was of twenty chicks.
A =Control diet group will receive only basal diet without any supplementation. B= Basal diet + 50 mg/kg Cd, C = Basal diet + 75 mg/kg Cd, D =Basal diet +100 mg/kg Cd E=Basal diet+50 mg/kg Cd+40 mg/kg Zn, F=Basal diet+75 mg/kg Cd + 40mg/kg Zn and G =. Basal diet+100 mg/kg Cd + 40mg/kg Zn. Each group consisted of 80 birds. The body weight of each the birds was carried out weekly. Blood samples were collected on the 21st (3rd week), 28th (4th week), 35th (5th week) and 42nd (6th week) days of treatment from each group to evaluate the liver and kidney functions and vital organs were collected after slaughtering from each group and then histo-pathological analysis was done. The data was analyzed by two way ANOVA.
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Nutritional Evaluation, Processing And Utilization Of Rumen Contents For Fattening Of Male Lohi Lambs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: At present, 121.1 million heads of animals in Pakistan annually require about 10.9 and 90.36 tons of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN), respectively. However the respective availability of these two nutrients is 6.7 and 69.0 million tons and thus, CP and TDN are 38.10 and 24.02% deficient per annum. For economical production of balanced feed for livestock, poultry, fish and pet animal, non-conventional feed resources need to be explored to find solution to the existing gaps. For this purpose the present study was conducted to determine the nutritional profile, processing and utilization of rumen contents for fattening of male Lohi lambs. The study was conducted in three phases. In phase one, bovine rumen contents were collected from the slaughter house near Bakar Mandi and were analyzed at Nutrition laboratory, UVAS, Lahore in triplicates before ensiling. In phase two, ensiling of wheat straw (Urea treated @4% of DM of wheat straw and also another ensiling without urea treatment) along with rumen contents will be done with or without 7% addition of molasses for minimum 60 days at Ravi Campus, Pattoki. pH of silages1,2,3&4 after 60 days was 4.78,4.70,4.92 and 5.11 respectively. The silage containing rumen contents and wheat straw showed a increase in C.P as compare to simple rumen contents and silages which were urea treated have significant (p<0.05) increase in C.P. In phase three, a metabolic trial was conducted at Ravi Campus Pattoki, in which 25 male Lohi lambs were fed the diets having total mixed ration (100%TMR) (Tc), 70%TMR with 30% silage1 (T1), 70% TMR plus 30% silage2 (T2), 70%TMR with 30% silage3 (T3), and70% TMR plus 30% silage4 (T4). The data thus obtained was statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The significant differences between means were tested by Duncan's Multiple Range test. DM intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group than other groups offered silages containing rumen contents. There was non significant difference (P>.05) in DM intake between T1.T2 & T3. T4 was non significant to all other treatments. Statistical results showed non significant difference (P>.05) in total weight gain among all the treatments however maximum weight gain was observed in control treatment. Feed efficiency was also non significant (P>.05) among all the treatments. So we can use processed rumen contents as cheap protein source in small Ruminant feed. There were no harmful effects on health of lambs during whole trial. So we can replace 30% of conventional TMR with Rumen Contents safely.
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Effect Of Feeding Of Different Non Protein Nitrogen (Npn)Sources On Performance Of Lactating Nili- Ravi Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The feed resources in Pakistan are comprised of green fodder / pastures (mostly on canal banks and on road sides), dry roughages (mostly wheat and rice straw) and conventional concentrates. Furthermore, it has been reported that conventional feedstuffs are very low in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources. These circumstances attracted the attention of nutritionists and farmers towards the use of slow-releasing non-Protein Nitrogen sources in the livestock feed. The experimental study was conducted at LPRI Bahdurnagar Okara. Feed was reformulated by addition of urea and Optigen. Samples in triplicates were analyzed at Nutrition laboratory, UVAS Lahore and LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara. The crude protein of the concentrates A, B and C were 17.03, 17.03 and 17.04 respectively. Eighteen lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided in three equal groups using completely randomized design. Each group was fed on isonitrogenous concentrate to find out its effects on performance of lactating buffaloes. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The significant differences between means were tested by least significant difference test. Milk production was higher in group C feeding with reformulated with 1% Optigen. The highest individual milk fat was higher for group C. The average protein percentages of all the buffaloes were non-significant. The milk urea nitrogen level was higher in group B. The blood urea nitrogen level was higher in group C. It was concluded that the use of Optigen in buffalo feed improved the milk production significantly without affecting the milk composition. It can replace the conventional NPN sources without any adverse effects on health of buffaloes. Optigen can be used as economical and affective slow release NPN source.
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Genetic And Phenotypig Trends In Some Performance Traits Of Kajlli Sheep
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Kajli sheep is one of the native breeds and is found in the irrigated areas of central Punjab
(Districts of Sargodha, Khushab, Gujrat, Mandi Baha-ud-Din, and Mianwali). Kajli sheep is
mostly raised for mutton, wool and occasionally for milk production. Wide variation exists in
various production and reproduction traits of Kajli sheep which indicates a great scope of
improvement in these traits of economic importance. Any program of breed improvement is
based on maximum exploitation of genetic variation. The potential of genetic improvement
largely depends on genetic variation of the trait and its relationship with the other traits.
Knowledge of heritability, repeatability and correlations among various traits is essential for
formulating efficient breeding plan and selection strategies. Objective of this study is to evaluate
the performance of a purebred flock of Kajli sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station
Khushab and Livestock Experimental Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Data on performance traits
as Birth weight, Weaning weight, Yearling weight and Greasy fleece weight from 1994 to 2009
were collected, An effort was made to determine the effect of all environmental and non genetic
factors on the performance of animals. For this purpose LSMLMW computer program was used.
The genetic parameters i.e., heritability, and phenotypic and genetic correlations among various
traits will be estimated. The breeding values for different traits were estimated for comparative
ranking of animals. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines were drawn to assess the selection success
in previous generations of Kajli sheep. These analyses were done using DFREML computer soft
ware which is s pecially designed for the estimation of variance components. The information so
generated will ultimately be helpful in developing future breeding plans for genetic improvement
of Kajli sheep in Pakistan. The birth and weaning weight in this flock averaged 4.16±0.0Ikg and
18.70±0.08 kg whereas yearling weight was 37.52±0.06 kg. The pre weaning average daily gain
was 142.34±0.83 gms. Birth weight varied significantly due to years, season, sex, type of birth
and flock. Data showed non- significant interaction between sex and type of birth. Analysis of
variance revealed significant effect of year of birth and season of birth on weaning weight.
However, the difference due to sex is non-significant. Type of birth and age of the dam were
significant. Effect of weaning age of the lambs on weaning weight was also significant, whereas,
birth weight had a non significant effect (P<0.05) on weaning weight. The variation in body
weight due to year, sex, and season of birth were significant (P<0.05).Whereas, effect of flock
and type of birth were non- significant. Weaning age of the lambs and birth weight had a non
significant (P<0.05) effect on yearling weight whereas weaning weights of the lambs had
significant effects on the trait under consideration. The analysis of variance revealed that year
and season of birth and birth type showed significant effect on pre weaning average daily gain
while sex had non-significant effect on the trait. The regressions of weaning weight and birth
weight on pre weaning average daily gain were significant (P<O.OI). The estimates of heritability
for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, pre-weaning average daily weight gain, and
greasy fleece weight were 0.054±0.019, 0.069±0.016, 0.015±0.020, 0.056±0.016, and
0.170±0.060 respectively. The low heritability estimates indicated the presence of less additive
genetic variance and large environmental variance. Hence, improvement in the traits through
selection may be limited. The estimated breeding values for Khizerabad farm were, for birth
weight from -0.205 to 0.164 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.149 to 0.180
kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.822
kgs in males and corresponding values were from -1.205 to 1.555 kgs in females. The breeding
value estimated for yearling weight was -0.152 to 0.285kg in males and -0.159 to 0.224kg in
females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.194 to 0.212 gms in
males and -0.174 to 2.00 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.247 to 0.708 kgs
and -0.429 to 0.575 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for
Khushab farm were, for birth weight from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs in males. The corresponding
values were from -0.148 to 0.145 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 0.284 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -0.976 to
1.923 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.198 to 0.176 in
males and -0.166 to 0.170 in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate
was -0.281 to 0.195 gms in males and -0.205 to 0.148 gms in females, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.380 to 0.706 kgs and -0.267 to 0.590 kgs in males and females respectively. The
estimated breeding values for sire in Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.169
to 0.164 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.694 kgs.
The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.151 to 0.285 kgs. The estimated
breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.190 to 0.212 gms, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.146 to 0.520 kgs. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khushab farm were,
for birth weight ranged from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 2.846 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -
0.198 to 0.176 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to
0.195 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.335 to 0.706 kgs. The genetic trends for birth
weight in Kajli sheep showed decreasing trend and phenotypic trend was fluctuating, whereas, the genetic
and phenotypic trend for weaning weight showed fluctuating trend. For yearling weight genetic and
phenotypic trend was also observed which show fluctuation, pre weaning growth rate also not statistic.
The phenotypic trend for greasy fleece yield showed little increasing trend.
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Molecular Diagnosis Of Bovine Anaplasmosis In District Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to determine diagnosis and infection percentage of Bovine anaplasmosis in cattle and buffalo of different age groups in and around District Lahore, and to study the comparative efficacy of diagnostic methods that is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Microscopic Examination. For this purpose 160 blood samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes ,randomly from eight villages , during the month of May, June, July, August of 2010 in and around District Lahore.80 samples were collected from cattle and 80 were collected from buffaloes and these samples were further categorized into two age groups that is 40 samples were collected from calves of 1 month to 6 month of age and 40 samples were collected from calves of 7 month to 12 month of age of each species. Screening was done by blood smears, stained by Giemsa'wright staining technique and later the blood samples from the same animals were also processed by PCR.
The blood smears showed Anaplasma marginale as dense , round, deeply stained body, approximately 0.3-1.0um in diameter. Most of them were located on or near the margin of the erythrocyte.On the basis of Microscopic examination overall 11.25% (18\160) prevalence was recorded. On the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) prevalence of Anaplasma marginale 25.6%(41\160) was recorded, showing the presence of carrier animals in District Lahore. The blood smears showed maximum prevelance in cattle of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is 20% (8\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 10% (4\40).The blood smears showed maximum prevelance in buffalo calves of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is 10% (4\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 5% (2\40). The blood smears showed that the prevelance of Bovine anaplasmosis is more in cattle 15% (12\80) than buffalo 7.5% (6\80). The overall prevalence 25.6% (41\160) was recorded for Bovine anaplasmosis , during summer season on the basis of PCR. The Polymerase chain reaction showed maximum prevelance in cattle of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is45 % (18\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 20% (8\40). The Polymerase chain reaction showed maximum prevelance in buffalo animals of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is 27.5% (11\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 10% (4\40). The Polymerase chain reaction showed that the prevelance of Bovine anaplasmosis is more in cattle 32.5% (26\80) than buffalo18.75 % (15\80).The results have shown high efficacy of PCR as compare to Microscopic Examination.
It is anticipated that present study was proved helpful in diagnosis of Anaplasma in infected as well as in carrier animals in District Lahore , and will be beneficial for further study.
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Biometry Of Femake Reproductive Tract Of Nili- Ravi Buffalo
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Knowledge of biometry of female reproductive tract of Nili Ravi buffalo is very
important for artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, estrus detection and to deal
with infertility problems. Animals were divided into four groups based on age and
cyclicity, which were non cyclic heifer, cyclic heifer, non cyclic adult and cyclic adult.
Each group contained ten reproductive tracts collected from government slaughter house
at Lahore. Anatomical parameters of normal female reproductive tract (ovary, oviduct,
uterine horn, intercornualligament, uterine body and cervix) were recorded.
Mostly the shape of the ovary was almond in Nili Ravi buffalo except one animal where
the shape of the ovary was oval. Length, diameter, circumference, weight, thickness, and
ovarian bursa diameter of left and right of cyclic adult were significantly higher than that
of non cyclic adult and non cyclic heifer. Mesovarien length of left and right ovary of
cyclic adult, non cyclic adult and cyclic heifer was significantly higher than that of non
cyclic heifer. There was no significant difference in mean number of follicles, outer
diameter, total diameter and total length on both ovaries among different groups. There
was no significant difference in number of regressed, developed and hemorrhagic CL on
both ovaries in all groups. Length and thickness of left and right oviduct of cyclic adult
were significantly higher than those of non cyclic adult and non cyclic heifer while, in
case of oviduct weight there was no significant difference among different groups. Outer
length, bifurcation lepgth, total length, diameter, weight, circumference and uterine artery diameter of left and right uterine horn of cyclic adult were significantly higher than those of non cyclic adult, non cyclic heifer and cyclic heifer. In the same way that of cyclic heifer was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer. Thickness of left uterine horn wall of cyclic adult was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer and non cyclic adult but in case of right uterine horn there was no significant difference in thickness among different groups. Mean number of caruncles of left and right uterine
horn as well as length of dorsal and ventral intercornual ligament of cyclic adult and non cyclic adult
was significantly higher than that of non cyclic heifer and cyclic heifer. Mean length, diameter,
circumference, thickness and weight of uterine body and cervix of cyclic adult were significantly higher
than those of non cyclic adult and non cyclic heifer. Mean length, diameter, weight, diameter and
circumference of uterine body and cervix of non cyclic adult and cyclic heifer were significantly higher
than those of non cyclic heifer. There was no significant difference in mean number of cervical rings
among different groups of Nili Ravi buffalo while shape of the cervix was cylindrical in all groups.
Length of cervix protrusion in vagina of cyclic adult and non cyclic adult was significantly higher than
that of non cyclic heifer and cyclic heifer and that of cyclic heifer was significantly higher than that of
non cyclic heifer. There was no significant difference between left and right parts of female
reproductive tract except ovarian lengt, ovarian diameter, ovarian bursa d iameter and number of
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Effect Of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Milk Production, Composition, Body Weight And Some Biochemical Parameters of Lactating Beetal Goats
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pakistan is the third largest goat producing country in the world after China and India. According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2010-2011 the population of goats stood at 61.1 million and their population is increasing at the rate of more than 3% per annum. The study was designed to investigate the effect of Bovine Somatotropin on milk production, composition, and weight gain and biochemical parameters in lactating Beetal goats at Small Ruminant Training and Research Center at Ravi campus Patoki, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences Lahore, Pakistan. Fifteen lactating Beetal goats of almost same age, body weight, and parity were included in this study. The goats were divided into three group's i.e A, B &C. Five animals in each group according to the lactation stage, parity and milk yield. Group A was used as control group, while B & C were subcutaneously injected with 50 & 100 mg /week of rbST for 8 weeks.
The treatment of goats with rbST rapidly increased milk yield after the onset of treatment. Statistically there was significant difference among the treatment (p<0.05). Highest increase in milk yield (29 %) was observed in group C that was treated with 100 mg of rbST. Non significant difference was noted between 50 mg and 100 mg treatment groups. Milk samples were analyzed for, protein, lactose, ash, total solids and fat. However slight increase in milk protein, lactose, ash, total solids and fat (9.33, 10.42, 3.92, 3.22 and 8.81 %) was observed respectively. However statistically there was nn significant difference was observed among the treatments.
Body weight (BW) of the does was not significantly affected by rbST treatment. Highest increase in weight was observed in group B (1.53 %). Statistically non significant differences were observed between the treatments.
Blood plasma samples were analyzed for Total protein (g/dl), Albumin (g/dl), Globulin (g/dl), Glucose (mg/dl), Urea (mg/dl), Creatinine (mg/dl), Total bilirubin (mg/dl), Cholesterol (mg/dl). A slight increase in plasma protein, cholesterol, albumin, was observed during the treatment period. However statistically non significant difference was observed among them. Plasma glucose level increase significantly (P<0.05) during the experiment period. Highest increase in plasma glucose (92.14 %) was observed in treatment group B, while slight decrease in plasma creatinine, globulin, urea and total bilirubin was observed during the whole experiment period. However statistically there was non significant difference was observed among the treatments.
On the basis of above mentioned facts and figure it is concluded that 50 mg/wk dose of rbSt is efficacious in increasing milk yield without any adverse effect on lactating Beetal goats.
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Preparatuin And Evaluation Of Monospecific Anisera Against Hemagglutinin, Neuraminidase And Matrix Proteins of local Avian Influenza Strains H5 N1, H7 N3, H9 N2, for diagnostics
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Avian Infuenza is an economically important disease of poultry worldwide. It has caused losses to poultry industry on larger scale. It is important due to its zoonotic nature. Studies were carried out to raise monospecific antisera against hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and matrix antigens. HA, NA and M proteins of each of the avian influenza strains were separated on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). First virus was lysed to release the proteins. Virus was lysed by using 4% Triton X 100, 1mM KCl and 0.01M Tris buffer. Then the sample was dialyzed. Sample was run on gel to purify proteins. The protein bands of appropriate molecular weight were cut and triturated in 1ml of normal saline. Material was centrifuged to remove the gel content.
Each protein was confirmed by the Bradford's Reagent. Each protein was individually mixed with Montanide ISA 50 adjuvant in 1:1 ratio to make the vaccine. Vaccine of each polypeptide of AIV strains was injected in three groups of nine birds each. One group of birds was injected with HA, second group with NA and third group with Matrix proteins of H?, H? and H?. Three groups of birds served as control. The blood samples of all birds were collected before and after inoculating vaccine. The sera of birds before and after inoculating vaccine were checked for antibodies titre against HA antigen by HI test. Antibodies against Matrix antigen were detected by Agar Gel Precipitation Test. Antibodies titre was raised after inoculating polypeptides. In case of sudden outbreaks, antisera may be helpful to control disease.
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Nutritional Manipulation To Reduce Blood Cholestrol And Improve Production Performance Of Broiler
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present experiment was conducted with the purpose to reduce cholesterol level and to improve the production performance of the broilers by offering different levels of the Garlic powder, dried neem leaves and CuSO4.5H2O. For this purpose, 210 day old broiler chicks was procured and divided into 7 treatment groups having 3 replicates containing 10 birds each. Different treatments used were, un-supplemented control group (T-1), Garlic powder (20 g/kg) supplemented group (T-2), Garlic powder (40 g/kg) supplemented group (T-3), dried Neem leaves (5 g/kg) supplemented group (T-4), dried Neem leaves (10 g/kg) supplemented group (T-5), CuSO4.5H2O(100 mg/kg) supplemented group (T-6), CuSO4.5H2O (200 mg/kg) supplemented group (T-7). Different parameters were studied include; average feed consumption, average weekly weight gained, feed conversion ratio (F.C.R), cholesterol level, antibody titre, abdominal fat collection, dressing percentage, copper contents, sensory evaluation of meat and economics of broiler production. The data thus obtained was statistically analyzed by using completely randomized design through ANOVA Technique (Steel et al, 1997). The difference among treatment means was tested through Duncan's Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955).
Statistical analysis of data showed significant (P<0.05) difference in the growth performance of different treatments groups and concluded that the addition of Garlic powder, dried neem leaves and CuSO4.5H2O helped to improve the growth performance. Garlic powder was found to be more effective in the growth performance then the Neem leaves and then the CuSO4.5H2O. Anti body titer against ND and IBD diseases showed significant differences among the control and groups fed with dried neem leaves. The titre was found to be more protective in the groups fed with neem leaves. In respect of, abdominal fat pad reduction, the garlic fed groups performed better with respect to other treatment groups. Dressing percentage among different treatments groups were taken in which the dressing percentage of control group was found poorest while the group fed with garlic (40 g/kg) was found the best among all the treatment groups. Copper contents from the liver and the excreta was estimated along with the primary aim to reduce cholesterol level, the copper contents was found more in excreta that was fed to the treatment groups fed with the pharmaceutical dosage of the CuSO4.5H2O. Sensory evaluation of the meat was done by the 10 panelists, the results of the sensory evaluation of the meat was non-significant (P<0.05) which showed that the additional ingredient used have no effects as far as the consumer acceptance was concerned. Different treatment groups showed different economical benefits, the group fed with Garlic powder (20 g/kg) performed best with the profit of Rs 28.78 per kg, while the control group worst among all the treatment groups with the net profit of Rs 16.11 per kg.
It is concluded from the present study that the Garlic powder, dried neem leaves and CuSO4.5H2O helped in the reduction of cholesterol level along with the better production performance.
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Passive Immunization Of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Infected Birds Using Chemically Purified Immune Yolk
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a major killer disease of poultry. It is also known as
Gumboro disease where the disease was reported first time. It is double stranded RNA
virus belongs to the family birna viridae. This disease is quite endemic in Pakistan
which has huge impact on poultry industry. Besides vaccination if immune yolk is
properly harvested and purified it can be used for treating of IBDV infected birds.
Therefore this work has been outlined to study the effectiveness of immune yolk in
experimentally produced IBDV infected birds. Refinement of yolk IgY from egg yolk
of immunized hens. Suitability in using hyperimmune egg yolk in IBD infected bird
in field conditions. In order to get hyper immunized egg yolk 20 commercial layers
were raised in poultry shed of the university. They were supplied with fresh water and
feed ad libitum with proper hygienic condition. The birds were vaccinated with oil
based killed Gumboro vaccine twice at 15 days interval at the age of 26 weeks to get
immune yolk. Eggs were collected at two weeks interval till two and half months after
boosting. Immune yolk was purified by chemical means. Antibody against IBD in egg
yolk and semi purified egg yolk IgY was measured by indirect ELISA kit method.
The eggs which were collected 15 days interval after boosting had the highest
antibody titre which decline with the passage oftime and lowest was recorded 75 days
after boosting. Similar pattern of results were also observed in semi purified egg yolk.
However significant antibody titre was lost during purification process. 50
commercial chicks of 15 days old were purchased and they were reared in poultry
shed in the university up to 36 days. They were splitted in eight groups and two
experiments were carried out side by side. In experimental chicks the birds were
challenged with the Gumboro infected bursal homogenates which were confirmed by agar gel diffusion tests. In first experiment the birds were challenged at the day of 30 days and they were provided with passive therapy of immune yolk and semi purified
IgY after 3 days of challenge. In the second experiment the birds were challenged and
passive immuno therapy was provided 24 hours interval of challenge and concurrently. The birds which received semi purified immune yolk and antibody titre having more or less 4000 they showed 20% mortality in the each group.
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Comparative Study Of Patent Versus Locally Manufactured Chemotherapeutic Agents Used In Breast Cancer Patients.
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The pharmaceutical companies produce anticancer drugs after extensive research and development. Number of generics of doxorubicin, fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide has recently been introduced but their clinical efficacy and toxicity has not been documented in comparison to the brand leader product in Pakistan.
Objective of this study was to compare the toxicity and efficacy of patent FAC (fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy combination versus local FAC manufactured by Pharmedic laborteries Pakistan.
Study was conducted on two groups of patients having 15 patients in each group with breast cancer. Median age was 48 years in group "A" and 47 years in group "B".
Patients in group "A" received patent FAC while group "B" received locally manufactured FAC. An inclusion and exclusion criterion was used for patient selection or rejection. Pre-treatment evaluation was done before the start of the chemotherapy. The dosage regimen and route of drug administration was same for both groups.
A median number of two cycles of FAC chemotherapy was given in each group. Toxicity was evaluated with special reference to hepatic function, renal function, hematological profile and S-T changes in ECG on day 14 after the execution of FAC combination of
chemotherapy and on day 21 before the start of second dose of chemotherapy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE).
Partial response was seen in 83% patients of group "A" and 60% in group "B". Two patients had stable disease in group "A" while three patients had stable disease and one patient had progressive disease in group "B".
In this small series of patients group "A" patients treated with patent or branded FAC appeared to have better response rate at higher cost than group "B" patients treated with locally manufactured FAC combination of chemotherapy.
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Correlatin Response Of Udder And Body Measurements As Affected By Age And Parity On Milk Contents And Yield In Nili- Ravi Buffaloesin Peri- Urban Areas of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is diverse specie of domestic livestock and the utmost need of
modern dairy farms in developing countries especially where it is indigenous animal as in
Pakistan and India. To achieve and enhance the full genetic potential of the animal, first of all,
one must be able to select the animal which will seems to have good genetic for the dairy
production on the basis of phenotypic characters. As far as. selection of this animal. on the basis
of its milk producing unit i.e. udder conformation is concerned has not yet been conducted
precisely. Only animals are judged by traditional ways without scientific approach. The core
purpose of this study was to select Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes on the basis of their phenotypic
features for commercial purpose. A total of 200 lactating ili-Ravi animals were measured in
and around peri-urban areas of Lahore. Out of 200 animals 4, 32, 63, 53, 34 and 14 were
belonging to first, second, third, fourth, fifth and Sixth lactations, respectively. The animals
found in different lactation stages. 47 (23.5%) were in first. 76 i.e. 38% were in second and
77(38.5%) were present in their third lactation stage. The mean and standard deviation of udder
length in first to sixth lactation were 57.0 3.05cm, 62.4 1.08cm, 63.6±0.98cm, 65.9±0.95 em,
66.1±1.17 ern and 62.7±2.41 em, respectively. Whereas, measurements of udder depth in
lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes ranged in six lactations from 13.3±3.05 cm,10.7±0.37 ern. IO.8±0.20 em, 14.7±2.64cm. 11.11:0.22 ern andl0.5±0.40clll respectively .. Udder width of lactating buffaloes in first six parities was 23.9±0.6 cm, 28.0:1..3.2 em, 28.3 4.2 ern, 29.2±4.6 cm, 31.6± 3.2 ern and 30.7±1.3cm respectively. The size of milk vein in from parity one to six was 5.6±0.7 ern, 6.6±1.1 ern, 7.3±1.2 ern, 7.4±1.6 ern, 8.1±0.8 cm and 7.9±O.77 em respectively. The average udder length, udder depth. udder width and milk vein in all lactations were found to be 64.2±0.52cm, I 0.9±0.14 ern, 29.1 0.29cm and 7.4±0.1 ern respectively. Bowl shaped udder was found in 156 animals (78%), whereas only 39 out of 200 (19.5%) had round and only five animals got goaty shaped udders i.e.2.5%. The average teat length and teat diameter in all parities under study were 9.6±0.86 ern and 4.08±0.046 ern, respectively. Whereas, average distance between both fore teats was found 14.4±0.23cm. between rear teats 6.3±0.13cm and between fore and rear teats of right and left side were 6.4±0.13cm and 6.4±0.13cmrespectively. 89% (178/200) Nili- Ravi animals in the peri-urban areas of Lahore were found to have cylindrical shaped teats. Whereas only eight animals (4%) have bottle and fourteen animals (7%), was having funnel shaped teats. Average Heart Girth. Body Length and Body Height of lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were found to be 203.2'10.77 em, 147.3 0.71 em and 140.2± I.06cm. The mean distance between the two pin bones and hook bones of the body were 30.2±0.26 em and
56.9±0.32 em, whereas, mean body depth found in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was 83.2±1.23 ern. The average scoring given to the different parts and overall body in the study were: Tail Head: 22.5±0.02; Ribs and Sacral region: 3.1±0.018; Angularity of Bones: 3.1±0.01; and Overall BCS: 2.9±0.0 17. The average fat%, protein%, SNF%, lactose% and solids (ash) % were 5.98±l.S, 3.3±O.2, 8.67±O.5, 4.58±O.3 and O.83±0.04 respectively.
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Alleviation Of Cyclic Heat Stress In Broilers By Dietary Supplementation Of Mannan-Oligosaccharides And Lactobacillus-based Probiotic
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The antiviral activity of plants Silybum marianum (seeds), Chenopodium album (whole plant) and Nigella sativa (seeds) were evaluated against Peste des petitis ruminants virus (PPRV) and Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) in this study. Methanolic extraction of these plants was done by using Soxhlet apparatus and extracts were dried by using rotary evaporator. Six dilutions of each extracts 100, SO, 2S, 12.S, 6.2S, 3.12~g/ml were made in distilled water. Vero cells were infected by PPRV and BHK-21 by FMDV respectively. The herbal extracts assays of antiviral and cytotoxic were carried out in cell culture plates. Each well of 96 well cell culture plate were seeded with 104cell/ml of cell suspension. Cell counting was performed by hemocytometeric method. Positive and negative controls for antiviral and cytotoxic assay were also used, incubated the 96 well cell culture plates at 37°C for 4 days. After this incubation, MTT [3-(4,S-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,S-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay were used for the determination of their quantification. Endpoint of this assay was considered in terms of cell survival percentage. Results were compared for qualitative variables using Chi-square technique and quantitative variables by linear regression analysis. 1 OO~g/ml and SOIlg/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 87.9% and 86% respectively in PPRV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for Vero cells. IOuug/ml and
SO~g/ml concentrations of Chenopodium album showed cell survival percentages of 88.5% and 87.2% respectively in FMDV and all six test dilutions of same plant showed no cytotoxicity for BHK-21 cells. Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50!J. glml and 25!J. glml showed prominent cell s urvival of 85% and 84% respectively in PPRV and only one concentrations l Ouug/ml were found cytotoxic.Two concentrations of Nigella sativa 50uglml and 25!J.glml showed prominent cell survival of 79% and 77% respectively in FMDV and only one concentrations IOuug/ml were found cytotoxic. Only IOuug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.glml shown prominent antiviral activity 91% and 85% respectively in PPRV. In FMDV l Otlug/ml of Silybum marianum has shown cytotoxicity and 50!J.glml and 25!J.g/ml shown prominent antiviral activity 93% and 91 % respectively. The results of present study are helpful in the treatment of Peste des petitis ruminants and Foot and Mouth Disease.
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Antiviral And Cytotoxiv Oroperties Of Solybum Marianum Chenopodium Album And Nigella Sativa Against Peste Des
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Comparative Performance Of Lohi Lambs Supplemented With Lucerne (Medicago Sativa) Hay And Pelleted Diets In Addition
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Animal feed resources are still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons)
and digestible protein (1.76 million tons). To meet the requirement of animal, there is need to
properly conserve the flush season growth of Rabi fodder like berseem and alfalfa in their
. different physical forms. Lucerne pallets are economical feed supplement to fulfill protein and
energy requirements of grazing lambs. Feeding management study was conducted to evaluate the
different physical forms of lucerne in eighteen extensive grazing male Lohi lambs having
approximately same body weight. Lambs were fed on individual basis on three experimental
diets designated as A, Band C having extensive grazing, chopped lucerne hay, Lucerne hay
pellets respectively. Each lamb was also given concentrate ration @ 0.5% of body weight on dry
matter basis. The data on daily feed intake, weekly gain, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and
economics was recorded. Samples of feed were analyzed by official method of analysis. Mean
daily dry matter intake of Lohi lambs kept on treatments A, B and C was 820.88 ± 13.22,905.19
± 13.83 and1010.24 ± 15.34 g, respectively. The dry matter intake difference was highly
significant (P< 0.001) between treatments and weight gain on daily bases in lambs was 82.89 ±
0.27, 91.74 ± 0.40 and 119.49 ± 0.44g in treatment A, B and C, respectively. Group C is highly
efficient consuming 8.49 kg dry matter for 1 kg of weight gain following group B consuming
9.86 kg dry matter for 1kg weight gain. Group A showed lower efficiency as it consumes 9.90kg
dry matter for one kg of weight gain. It was highly economical to feed Lucerne pellets with
grazing with a gross margin of Rs.13.75/animal/day followed by extensive grazing with a gross
margin of Rs.11.15/animal/day. Lowest gross margin of Rs.11.12/animal/day was shown by the
lambs kept on extensive grazing.
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Sero Epidemiology Transmission Dynamics And Hematological Studies On Neospora Caninum In Dairy Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The current study was carried out in two districts of the Punjab province (pakistan),
viz. Lahore and Narowallocated;on the eastern part of the province bordering Indian Punjab
and the first study assessing the epidemiology of N caninum in dairy buffalo in Pakistan.
Overall, the true sercprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffalo (assessed by using
cELISA validated for buffalo by using IFAT as reference test) of the two districts was 39.4 %
with no significant difference in the prevalence of N caninum antibodies between male
(29.5%) and female (41.5%) dairy buffalo. However, in the Lahore district alone, the
prevalence in the female (46.1 %) buffalo was significantly higher than in their male (23.8%)
counterparts. In contrast, in Narowal district, the prevalence in male (42.4%) buffalo was
higher than females (32.2%) but this difference was not statistically different. The other risk
factors evaluated in regards to the prevalence of N caninum in buffalo were similar overall in
both the districts; these included age-specific, season-specific, pregnancy-specific, parity-
specific, abortion-specific and dog contact-specific prevalence. The difference in sero-
prevalence was not significant amongst all the ages but was significant between the younger
" 3yrs.) and adult (> 3yrs.) age buffalo. The adult buffalo showed a higher prevalence of N
caninum antibodies compared with younger buffalo. Anyhow, the age group of buffalo >3-5
yrs. showed consistently the highest prevalence of N caninum antibodies overall and in both
the districts in the current study. The summer season was the one in which buffalo of the two
districts and overall showed the highest prevalence, followed by high prevalence in autumn; while
the lowest prevalence of N caninum antibodies was observed in buffalo sampled during the
winter. The prevalence in the higher parities buffalo was significantly higher than the lower parity
and pregnant heifers. The prevalence in pregnant dams was significantly higher than in non-
pregnant buffalo in the herds in different areas of the two districts.
Similarly, aborting buffalo in regular contact with dogs- at the dairy properties showed significantly
higher prevalence of N. caninum antibodies than non-aborting buffalo without the contact of dog.
The serological analysis-of dogs (using cELIS A) present at some dairy buffalo
properties generally showed high prevalence of N. caninum; antibodies at the dairy properties
where the buffalo were in regular contact with dogs compared with farm premises and their
buffalo without any contact with dogs at the farm. This signifies the roleof the dogs in the
. transmission of N. caninum oocysts and infection to buffalo (intermediate host) as the isolates
of dog and bovine origin has been reported to be identical (Stenlund et al., 1997).
The analysis of milk samples from the dairy buffalo. also tested for serum antibodies
using iscom (immune stimulating complex) ELISA and showed a good level of agreement
(Kappa ratio=O.567) between the performance of two tests (iscom ELISA versus cELISA).
However, the cELIS A (VMRD, Pullman, W A) showed higher sero-positivity compared to
iscom ELISA (SV ANOV A, Uppsala, Sweden). Therefore, the use of either ELISA used on
milk for evaluating the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in buffalo can give good results
. for lactating buffalo, but cELIS A appeared to have superior sensitivity in our study. The use
of iscom ELISA offers advantages regarding ease of sampling and repeated screening of
lactating herds but with little lower sensitivity than serum antibody cELISA.
The co-existence of N. caninum with Br. abortus, another important abortifacient
pathogen in buffalo, is quite significant as the probability of such infectious abortions is
increased in the susceptible herds resulting in more economic losses compared to those
caused by single pathogen. The co-existence of Br. abortus in N. caninum seropositive
buffalo in the current study was 13.2%, while the overall prevalence of Br. abortus antibodies
in buffalo of two districts was 12.2%. The prevalence trend of Bt: abortus was related to age,
though not exclusively; as prevalence continued to increase with age except in the age groups
of 6-7 yrs, and> 7 yrs. old buffalo. The higher prevalence in the adult age groups indicates
the association of Br. abortus with development of the reproductive system of the host
(buffalo). It also suggests the increase in the exposure of the buffalo to the pathogen with
increase.in age to some good extent. However, this prevalence was statistically not signific~
in all the age groups of buffalo. The prevalence of co-existence was highest (18.5%) in -,
buffalo >3-5 yrs. old followed by 18.2% in buffalo >7 yrs. age. Howe er, statistically, the
difference in the prevalence of co-existing antibodies against N caninum and Br. abortus in
buffalo was not significant.
Hematological analysis of the N caninum sere-positive and sero-negative dairy
buffalo for different haematological determinants, such as total leukocytic counts (TLC),
differential leukocytic counts (DLC), RBCs, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelets and blood
plasma glucose level showed no difference in sero-positive and sero-negative two groups
particularly, regarding the effect of sero-positivity in buffalo. Albeit, some interactions such
as season x N caninum seropositivity showed significantly lower monocyte counts and high
blood glucose level in N caninum sere-positive buffalo compared with sero-negative buffalo.
Overall, in both groups no significant changes were observed in the seropositive buffalo
compare to sero-negative ones. Some interaction have independently affected certain
haematological parameters although, the animals were not seropositive. This suggests the
effect of some environmental factors and physiology states of the buffalo on its haematological
dynamics. These effects included the effect of lactation on the lymphocyte count in the lactating
and non-lactating buffalo, where lymphocyte counts were higher in non-lactating compared with
lactating buffalo most possibly due to the recruitment of lymphocytes in the udder for excretion in
milk. Similarly, blood haemoglobin was lower in the hot months and packed cell volume was
higher in the cooler months of the year in the buffalo.
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Sheep Breeding Options And Role Of Support Services For Landless Mobile Herders In Norther Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Northern areas of Pakistan are blessed with countless natural resources. One of these resources is small ruminants including sheep and goat. This study was done on sheep population of up and low land areas. This study was designed to investigate the breeding practices followed, perceptions about different breeding strategies by the low and upland pastoralists and support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians). By the help of this study productive, economical and ecological adaptation characteristics of native (Kaghani), exotic (Rambouillet, Afghani) and crossed sheep breeds were also be examined. For this purpose three questionnaires were developed. First questionnaire were carry questions on current number, number in last year and relative proportion of different sheep breeds on breeding strategies, productive characteristics, ecological adaptation and economical characteristics of different pure and cross breeds of sheep. While the investigations on support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians) were covered in second questionnaire. Interviews were be conducted from the low and up land pastoralists for the data recording of first questionnaire, while data recording of third questionnaire was done by interviewing the livestock promoting authorities. Statistical analysis of all the data recorded was done by epi - info software.
The studied parameters presented by various breeds in this experiment elucidated the fact that Afghani breed could be regarded as most economical and successfully adapted breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan in respect of its market value, disease resistance, twining rate, age at puberty and meat quality. The Kaghani breed on the other hand was having an advantage of being native breed of the respective area as it presented one of the best disease resistant characters among the studied breeds; for the same reason, it was the most prevalent breed of the area. Ramboullite is an exotic breed introduced in the area from USA and was kept mostly for having a trait of better and high wool production though its poor disease resistance and low twinning rate renders it less economical. The crossbred animals were produced mostly as a result of deliberate cross between Kaghani and Ramboulette and the maximum heterosis results in many of the better characters, increased wool quantity and quality, increased disease resistance and accelerated twinning rates, to name some of them.
The present study can be concluded to rate Afghani sheep breed as most economical breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan. This study was lead to explore the breeding practices in sheep in northern areas and future breeding policies making in sheep. The investigators of this trial opine that the Afghani breed being most economical breed of the area be bred and reared on a priority basis with selective breeding and proper management of the parent herds. In context of the wool production and disease resistance, crossbred animals should be investigated in a number of future trials to determine the most productive combination of blood percentage of the two parent breeds, i.e. Kaghani and Ramboullette. In spite of all the measures to improve economical scenario of the mobile herders with reference to sheep production, the gene pool of each pure breed population, i.e. Afghani, Kaghani and Ramboulette, should be maintained via selective breeding to ensure the availability of the parent nucleus. All these healthy and economical practices can be propagated only by the effective and efficient provision of the extension and support services of the local area, implementation authorities and livestock business related institutions.
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Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great
economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the
prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of
Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts,
Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and
efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for
the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle.
A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly
selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster
random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small
holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and
elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and
crossbred cattle of both the sexes.
Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall
prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent
(5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia
bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as
compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer.
The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than
private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association
(P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non-
significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were
The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was
31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and
there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The
seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and
Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders
in all study districts.
The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm
management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy
farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate
analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy
tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for
seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide
frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles
(OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale
in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to
Khushab and Rawalpindi.
The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum,
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus
(Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation
among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%).
The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular
haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle.
A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb
dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves.
It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological
and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan.
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Incidence And Therapeutic Trails Of Sub Clinical Ketosis In Cows In And Around Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Subclinical ketosis is preclinical stage of ketosis. The peak incidence of subclinical ketosis occurs
during the fourth week of lactation. There are indications that cows with the highest milk yield directly
after calving are at greatest risk for developing ketosis. Subclinical ketosis causes delayed reproductive
functions, increased intervals from calving to first and last service, and an increased frequency of
ovarian cysts. The study was designed to diagnose the Subclinical ketosis on the basis of Ross Rothra's
method. This method was easy to conduct and can be able to perform at the farm. The purple color
indicated the presence of ketone bodies in the sample. After diagnosis the treatment trails was done on
three different treatment methods comprises of Dextrose, Dexamethasone and by increasing the diet.
Total 200 cow were studied for the diagnosis of subclinical Ketosis. Total positive samples of
subclinical ketosis were 62 and the overall Incidence of Subclinical Ketosis in was 31 % and in
sheikhupura and Raiwind areas it was 35% & 27 respectively. The results indicates that the use of
dexamethasone was very effective and it cured 84%,dextrose cured 64% ,and by the diet it was
25%.Although, dexamethasone was very effective but it also reduced the milk production in very next
day after the administration of drug while, the dextrose shows no any reduction in milk production. The
animals who received only green fodder as ration showed very positive results for subclinical ketosis while,
the animals who received a concentrated diet with green fodder they showed very little presence of
subclinical ketosis. Prevention of subclinical ketosis can be done by providing extra ration to pregnant
animals and during pregnancy give them pregnancy allowance and by effective managemental practices the
effects of subclinical ketosis can be minimized.
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Descriptive Epidemiological Study Of Cancer Patients Registered At Mayo Hospital, Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The objective of this study were to report the distribution and pattern of various cancers in Mayo
hospital of Lahore over a period of last 5 years and to determine the age and gender distribution
of the various reported Cancer cases in the above mentioned teaching hospital of Lahore. This
research project was planned to study the epidemiology of various types of cancer among
population of Pakistan. For the design of study a descriptive study based on passive surveillance
system was planned. The data of cancer patients were collected from the Mayo Hospital a
Teaching Hospital of Lahore. To meet the objective of this study we took data from Mayo
Hospital, based on previous five years (from 2006-2010). Data was entered and analyzed through
SPSS version 16 by researcher herself. Quantitative variable like age was presented in form of
mean ± SD with respect to type of cancer and year. The qualitative variable like gender, type of
cancer etc were presented in form of frequency tables and appropriate charts. Chi square analysis
was used to see the association between qualitative attributes. Analysis of variance was used to
see the mean age of different types of carcinomas. Independent sample t-test was used to see the
mean age in different gender. In this study there were total 12096 cancer patients registered at Mayo
hospital Lahore in period of last five years from 2006 to 2010. Out of which, 2305(19.1%),
2182(18.0%), 2293(19.0%), 2315(19.1%) and 3001(24.8%) patients were registered in 2006, 2007,
2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Out of total 12096 cancer patients, there were 5766(47.87%)
males and 6330(52.13%) females. Of the 12096 patients diagnosed with malignant cancers, nearly
11827 (98.5%) belonged to the province of Punjab and approximately 45 (0.4%) to the NWFP, 111
(0.9%) belonged to Azad Jammu Kashmir, 27 (0.2%) belonged to Karachi and 13 (0.1%)
belonged to Quetta. There were 2988 patients of breast and female genital carcinomas registered, out of which 592 patients were registered in 2006, 487 patients were registered in 2007, 583 were in 2008, 611 in 2009 and 715 were registered in 2010. Registered patients with carcinoma of digestive organs were 2071 in which there were 374 were in 2006, 385 were in 2007, 374 in 2008,418 in 2009 and 520 in 2010. Lymphoid heamatopietic were 1589 in which 293 were from 2006,322 were from 2007,302 were from 2008, 284 were from 2009 and 388 were from 2010.
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Descriptive And Therapeutic Trial Of Iron Supplements (Standard Drug And Herbal) In Anemic Pregnant Women
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: This study was carried out in two phases; in first phase descriptive epidemiologic study was done in pregnant females living around district Okara. List of a total 101154 pregnant females was obtained from Health office OKARA. Hemoglobin level of each subject was assessed and prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was observed 42.15%. From village 1141., 88 44%) pregnant women were enrolled, from 25 GD village 74(37%) pregnant women were enrolled and from 36/2L village 38 (19%) pregnant women were enrolled. in phase II, experimental epidemiological study was conducted to compare the efficacy Sharbat- e-Iolad (Treatment groups) with Ascifer (standard group). Sample Size of 200 patients was enrolled with 100 subjects in each group. SPSS 16.0.2 was used for data entry and analysis. Mean ± S.D was used to present the data. Two way repeated measures ANOVA was used to see the effects of treatments in the significance of Hemoglobin levels at different follow ups. Mean age of the mothers in group A was 27.16 ± 4.97 years and in group B it was 26.07 ± 4.78 years. The age range of the patients was 17 to 38 years. Mean Hb level in Group-A was 6.89 & 6.87 in Group-B at base line. Mean Hb level after first follow up (after 3 weeks from base line) in Group-A mean Hb level was 7.34 and in Group-B it was 7.26. After second follow up (after 6 weeks) mean Hb level in Group-A was 8.81 and in Group-B it was 8.50. In both Groups Hb level was significantly improved (p-value = 0.000). I-Ib level was significantly improved in both study groups with equal effects. In future any of the treatment may be used for the treatment of anemia but Sharbt-e-Folad is recommended due to its cheap cost and accessible availability in rural areas.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1371,T] (1).
Isolation, Characterization And Pathogenesis Of Capripox Virus
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Goat pox is the most important pox diseases of livestock and it usually
causes huge economic losses. The economic losses occur in terms of mortality,
reduced productivity and lower quality of wool and leather. The clinical
manifestations of the disease include high temperature, lesions skin in the form of
macules, papules, vesicles, pustule and scabs on hairless areas of the body. The
disease is highly contagious having high morbidity and mortality in the infected
herds. The present study was conducted to document the prevalence of goat pox
disease in the different regions of Punjab. The study was based on clinical
manifestation of the disease in various collecting spots including slaughter houses,
cattle and hide markets and tanneries. The prevalence of goat pox at slaughter
houses in different regions was 9.93% in arid region followed by 8.69% and 7% in
southern and northern irrigated regions respectively. The prevalence of pox disease
in sheep was highest (8.54%) in the northern irrigated region, 7.69% and 6.62% in
arid and southern irrigated regions respectively.
The prevalence of pox recorded in the hide markets shows a trend of high
presence 7.29% in arid region followed by 6.22% and 3.84% in southern and
northern irrigated regions. Whereas in sheep the overall prevalence was 0.51 %,
4.44% and 1.66% in northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions.
In tanneries the pox lesions were identified on the basis of method as
adopted in hide markets. The overall prevalence of pox in goat was 3.96%, 4.06%
and 4.09% while in sheep 9.58%, 2.41 % and 10% in northern irrigated, arid and
southern irrigated regions.
The overall prevalence of pox disease in goat was 5%, 5.79% and 5.34% in
Northern irrigated, arid and southern irrigated regions respectively. Where as in
sheep, pox was 3.133%, 4.11 % and 2.67% in Northern irrigated, arid and southern
irrigated regions respectively. The highest trend of incidence of disease was present
in the arid regions followed by southern and northern regions. The slaughter houses
shows high incidence of disease as compared to cattle and hide market and
tanneries. The result was significant (P<0.05) among the regions and samples
A total of 100 samples consisting of 55 scabs and 45 skin tissues were
randomly selected from the different collecting spots of the three regions. The scabs
and skin tissue samples were processed on dehydrated minimum essential media
tor virus isolation. The virus was isolated on Vero cell line culture and its
characteristics were observed on the basis of specific cytopathic effects. All 55 scab
samples consisting 20 from cattle markets, 20 from slaughter house and 15 from
hide market and tannery were tested through cell culture. The cell culture positive
result for scabs was 60% cattle markets, 20% hide market and tannery and 40%
All 45 skin tissue samples including 5 from cattle markets and tannery, 20
from hide market and 20 from slaughter house were subjected to virus isolation on
Vero cell line. The cell culture positive result for skin tissue samples was 100% cattle
markets, 30% hide market and tannery and 60% slaughter house. In this way the
total cell culture result for scabs and skin tissue samples from all areas become
41.82% and 51.11 % respectively.
The isolated virus was confirmed through peR. All the collected samples
were also analyzed through peR in order to compare the two techniques for disease
diagnosis. Out of 40 samples from slaughter houses 18 scabs and 15 tissues
sample were positive through peR with 82.5%. Out of 25 samples collected from
cattle markets consisting of 20 scabs and 5 skin tissues, 17 of scabs and 5 skin
tissues were positive with 92%.
Similarly a total of 35 samples out of which 15 were scabs and 20 were skin
tissues collected from hide markets and tanneries. The peR of 7 scabs and 14 skin
tissues was positive with 60%. In this way the total peR result for scabs and skin
tissue from all areas was 42% and 34% respectively.
In the 3rd study of the present project the isolated virus was inoculated in to
experimental animal to study the detail pathogenesis. The disease followed the
same pattern as in the natural outbreak. But however the routes of inoculation affect
the severity of the disease. During the study the diseased animals were periodically
slaughter at weekly interval after the appearance of 1 st clinical signs. The detailed
lesions were observed in different visceral organs and the tissues were collected
and preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed for histopathology and
immunohistochemical examination. The IHC was successfully optimized for the
detection of viral antigen in the tissues of skin, lung and lymph nodes.
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Bat Biodiversity (Vespertilioniformes: Order Chiroptera) In Some Tropical And Arid-Subtropical Regions Of Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from June 2009 to May 2011 in those arid subtropical and tropical regions of Pakistan which included less pronounced monsoon influenced areas of the Salt Range, the Upper Indus Plains and the sand dune areas typified by the Cholistan. Bat surveys were conducted in two protected areas i.e. the Margallah Hills National Park (SA1) and the Chinji National Park (SA2) that were located in the arid subtropical region and in another, the Lal Suhanara National Park (SA3), situated in the tropical sand dune region of the Upper Indus Plains. In addition, bat samples were also collected from Gujranwala, Lahore, Tob Tek Singh and Kasur districts (SA4). These sub-areas were selected to maximize the chances of capture of as many bat species inhabiting arid-subtropical and tropical habitats of Pakistan as possible.
A total of 182 bats belonging to twelve species were recorded. These included R. blasii (Family Rhinolophidae), R. hardwickii (Family Rhinopomatidae), Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus (Family Emballonuridae), Scotoecus pallidus, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, P. javanicus, P. pipistrellus, P. tenuis and Hypsugo savii (Vespertilionidae). Rhinolphous blasii was captured only from SA1, R. hardwickii and S. pallidus from SA3 and P. tenuis from SA1. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured from SA1 and SA3, S. kuhlii and P. ceylonicus from SA1 and SA4, H. savii from SA1 and SA2 and P. javanicus from SA1 and SA2. Scotophilus heathii and P. pipistrellus were recroded throughout the study area.
Maximum bat activity was recorded in spring (n = 65) that was followed by summer ( n = 61), autumn (n = 32) and winter (n = 24). Rhinolophus blasii and S. pallidus were recorded only during winter, R. hardwickii and P. tenuis during autumn, while S. kuhlii was recorded only during summer. Taphozous nudiventris and T. perforatus were captured during summer and autumn. Pipistrellus pipistrellus was recorded during autumn, spring and winter while S. heathii was captured throughout the year.
Although the netting effort was the same, the number of bats captured from the SAs was different. A total of 72 bats were recorded from SA1, 52 from SA4, 43 from Lal SA3 and 15 from SA2. The dominance was highest for SA2 and lowest for SA1. Both Shannon and Simpson indices show that the diversity was the highest at SA1 followed by SA3, SA4 and SA2. Evenness was found to be highest at SA4 followed by SA3, SA2 and SA1.
The mean head and body length of three Rhinolophus blasii was 39.33 mm ± 0.577 (SD) forearm length was 40.17 mm ± 1.155 (SD) and the tail length was 19.23 mm ± 1.940 (SD). The greatest skull length of a single R. blasii was 17.22 mm and mandible length was 11.80 mm. The baculum of a single R. blasii sample was 3.5 mm long.
The mean head and body length of two Rhinopoma hardwickii 66.00 mm ± 5.657 (SD). The mean forearm length was 54.00 mm ± 0.0 (SD). The tail length was 59.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The greatest skull length was 19.68 mm ± 0.108 (SD), and the length of mandible was 11.28 mm ± 1.652. The baculum of single R. hardwickii was 1.1 mm long.
The mean head and body length of twenty six Taphozous nudiventris was 86.87 mm ± 5.556 (SD) and the tail length was 27.57 mm ± 12.187 (SD). The greatest skull length was 26.16 mm ± 0.323 (SD) and the length of mandible was 17.53 mm ± 1.149 (SD). The mean total baculum length of the two specimens was 0.58 mm ± 0.017 (SD).
The head and body length of four T. perforatus was measured as 84.30 mm ± 5.450 (SD) long. The forearm was 64.30 mm ± 3.457 (SD) long and the length of tail was 22.10 mm ± 2.702 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 22.24 mm and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.25 mm. The total length of a single T. perforatus was measured as 0.69 mm. The head and body length of fifty three Scotophilus heathii was 79.46 mm ± 6.941 (SD). The mean forearm length was 58.69 mm ± 2.929 (SD) and the tail length was 55.00 mm ± 7.360 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 21.39 mm ± 1.378 (SD) and the length of mandible was recorded as 16.08 mm ± 0.882 (SD). Mean total bacular length of ten S. heathii was measured 1.76 mm ± 0.150 (SD).
The mean head and body length of five specimens of S. kuhlii was 72.10 mm ± 8.096 (SD). The forearm was 49.40 mm ± 3.03 (SD) long and the length of tail was 42.40 mm ± 4.04 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 18.98 mm ± 0.613 (SD) and the mandible length was 14.41 mm ± 1.173 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. kuhlii was 1.74 mm.
The head and body length of two Scotoecus pallidus was 56.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The forearm was 35.50 mm ± 0.707 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 35.50 mm ± 3.536 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 15.46 mm ± 0.449 (SD) and mandible length was measured 9.64 mm ± 2.425 (SD). The total length of the baculum of a single S. pallidus captured from SA3 was 5.0 mm.
The mean head and body length of twenty two Pipistrellus ceylonicus was 63.60 mm ± 7.486 (SD). The length of forearm was 29.92 mm ± 2.492 (SD) and tail length was 25.68 mm ± 3.442 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.76 mm ± 0.257 (SD) and the length of mandible was 9.28 mm ± 3.956 (SD), respectively. Mean total length of the bacula of four P. ceylonicus was 3.66 mm ± 1.190 (SD).
Mean head and body length of the ten P. javanicus was 52.00 mm ± 2.712 (SD). The forearm was 35.13 mm ± 1.996 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 30.38 mm ± 5.236 (SD). The greatest skull length was 13.01 mm ± 4.546 (SD) and the length of mandible was 10.29 mm ± 1.679 (SD). The mean total length of the four bacula was 3.57 mm ± 0.860 (SD).
The head and length of fifty two P. pipistrellus was 39.33 mm ± 2.690 (SD). The forearm was 28.23 mm ± 1.264 (SD) long and the length of the tail was 25.86 mm ± 3.396 (SD). The greatest length of skull was 11.04 mm ± 0.342 (SD) and the length of mandible was 7.87 mm ± 0.802 (SD). The mean total length of the eleven bacula of P. pistrellus was 3.19 mm ± 0.421 (SD).
Only two specimens of P. tenuis were captured from SA1. The head and body length of these specimens was 35.00 mm ± 2.828 (SD). The forearm length was 28.00±0.707 while the length of the tail was 22.25 mm ± 3.182 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 10.19 mm. and the mandible length was 7.82 mm. The total bacular length was 2.79.
The head and body length of the two Hypsugo savii was 55.50 mm ± 19.092 (SD). The forearm was 36.75 mm ± 3.889 (SD) long while the length of the tail was 33.50 mm ±6.364 (SD). The greatest length of the skull was 11.18 mm and the length of mandible was 7.08 mm. The total bacular length of a single H. savii was 2.67 mm.
The echolocation calls of bats of Pakistan have never been recorded and thus the accuracy of species identification on the basis of their calls remains a bit doubtful.
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Effects Of Stair-Step Nutrition Regimen On Growth Rate, Nutrien Utilization And Pubertal Development In Nili-Ravi
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Under this study, effect of stair-step nutritional regimen compared to the standard NRC recommended energy levels on growth rate, nutrient utilization, some selected blood metabolites, pubertal age, conception rate and economic analysis in ili- Ravi buffalo heifers were measured. Study lasted for 18 months during the years 2008- 20 I O. Twenty-two heifers, 6-8 month old, 98.57±5.07 kg average ody weight were divided into two equal groups and randomly assigned either control or stair-step nutritional regimen (SSNR) diets. The SSNR was designed in three phase program each having 6 months duration i.e., postweaning (7 to 13 month age), repubertal (13 to 19 month age) and pubertal/breeding (19 to 25 month age). In each phase, the treatment group during step 1, was fed on low energy diet (80% ME of NRC) for 4 months followed by high energy diet (120% ME ofNRC) for 2 months in step 2. The heifers in ontrol group were fed according to NRC (200 I) requirements of Holstein Friesian heifers continuously for 6 months. For both the groups individual feeding was carried out. Daily feed intake and fortnightly fasting weights were recorded. Nutrients digestibility and N balance trials were conducted during last week of each step during each phase. Blood samples were collected at the end of each low or high energy diets for blood metabolites analysis. Oestrus detection was done with the help of a teaser bull at age of 15-16 months. Transrectal ultrasonography was done to assess uterus and ovarian structures development. Measured blood serum progesterone concentration collected every 10 days interval at 09.00-10.00 hours during 18-20 months age by ELISA using commercial kit. The age and live weight at onset of puberty was recorded when heifer tood to be mounted by the bull first time in her life. The heifers detected in oestrus were bred by natural mating at approximately 12-15 hours of the onset of oestrus activity. Heifers not returning to oestrus were examined for pregnancy diagnosis through rectal alpation of uterus at 70-90 days post breeding. Data of feed onsumption during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertallbreeding phases were used to calculate the feed cost used per kg gain between the SSNR and control heifers.
During postweaning phase, heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (2.03 Meal/kg) ained significantly (P<O.OS) lower daily weights than those fed control diet (2.SS Meal/kg), When heifers fed high energy diet (3.01 Meal/kg), daily weight gain was significantly (P<O.O 1) higher in SSNR compared to control. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was poorer (P<O.OS) in SSNR heifers fed low energy diet compared to those fed control diet. But on high energy diet FCR was better (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group.
During prepubertal phase, there was no difference (P>O.OS) in weight gain between the heifers fed SSNR low energy diet (1.89 Meal/kg) and control diet (2.3S Meal/kg). But on high energy diet (2.80 Meal/kg) weight gain was higher (P<O.OS) in SSNR compared to control group. Average dry matter intake (DMI) was similar (P>O.OS) between the heifers of two groups. On low energy diet there was no difference (P>O.OS) in FCR between the two groups. But on high energy diet FCR was significantly (P<O.OS) better in SSNR compared to control group. Average DMI in heifers of both groups was similar (P>O.OS). During pubertal/breeding phase, similar trend of weight gain, DMI and FCR was found in SSNR versus control group as reported in prepubertal phase.
Intake of DM, organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) as percent body weight were statistically non-significant (P>O.OS) differet between the SSNR versus ontrol groups during all phases. Metabolizable energy (ME) consumption was significantly P<O.OS) lower in SSNR group fed low energy diet than the heifers fed control diet. But ME consumption was significantly (P<O.O 1) increased in SSNR group fed high energy diet than control group. Similar, trend of ME consumption was observed in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets during prepubertal and pubertal phases. Water to dry matter intake ratio in heifers during postweaning, prepubertal and pubertal phases were statistically similar (P>O.OS).
In all phases, apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) and control diets. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility was higher (P<0.05) when SSNR heifers fed low energy diet, but on high energy diet NDF digestibility was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control, respectively, during all phases with the exception of step I in the prepubertal phase and step 2 in pubertal phase where the differences were non-significant (P>0.05) between the groups. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility with SSNR low energy diet was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the heifers fed control diets during three phases. But on high energy diet, ADF digestibility was not different (P>0.05) between the two groups. Also N intake was not different (P>0.05) between the heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) diets and control diets, respectively, with the exception of step 2 in the postweaning phase when the control group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in intake of N compared to the SSNR group. Faecal N as well as Urinary N losses in heifers fed SSNR (either low or high energy) versus control diets did not differ significantly (P>0.05).
All heifers have shown haematological values which are almost similar in heifers of two groups. Except total cholesterol, concentration of urea N, glucose and macro minerals in serum did not differ between the two groups.
There was no significant (P>0.05) differences in age and weight at onset of puberty and number of services per conception between the two groups. Pregnancy rate in heifers fed on SSNR diet was 50% while on control diet was 57%. Fifty percent of heifer fed SSNR and 60% of heifers fed control diet as per NRC requirement had serum progesterone concentrations> 1.0 ng/ml in two samples collected 10 days apart before reaching puberty.
The overall feed costs incurred (42660.88 vs 44509.96 Rs./animal) on SSNR heifers was significantly (P<0.05) less than the control heifers fed according to NRC recommendations from weaning to breeding age.
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