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201. Epidemiology Of Parasitic Load And Therapeutic Control Against Ecto And Endorparasites With Ivermectin In Horses

by Rubina Hassan | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present research project was designed to study the efficacy of ivermectin i.e. LG EUVECTIN inj. against ectoparasites, endoparasites and blood parasites in horses. For this purpose, apparently healthy, weak, emaciated horses showing the clinical signs of parasitism, brought to Outdoor clinics, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore and Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (S.P.C.A) were checked. Out of these 84 animals 25 (29.76%) were found positive for ectoparasites through the skin scraping examination under the microscope. From these 84 animals 28 were checked for endoparasites and through the coprological examination 25 (89.29%) were found positive. From 84 horses, 5 (5.95%) horses had mixed type of infection i.e. positive for both ecto- and endoparasites. Ectoparasites found in 25 positive cases were mites (29.76%) and no ticks or lice infestation was found i.e. Zero percent prevalence. The endoparasites found were mainly the G.!. T. nematodes (round worms) i.e. 25 (89.29%) cases were positive for round worms while 2 (7.14%) cases out of these 25 were also infested with tapeworms and liver tlukes were zero percent. Infected horses were treated with LG Euvectin injection (Ivermectin 1.0% w/v) through subcutaneous injection at dose rate of 1 ml/50kg (0.2mg/kg) body weight once on zero day. Eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was counted on a day, 7th and 14th day. Recovery rate with ivermectin against ectoparasites and endoparasites was 76% and 88% respectively. A total of 50 horses were bleed for blood parasites, none of them were found positive. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0791,T] (1).

202. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Nematodes Infestation In Wild And Dometic Pigeons And Its Effects On Various Blood Components

by Tauqeer Basit, M | Dr. Khalid Pervez, Prof.CMS | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Associate | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: Apparently healthy one hundred wild and one hundred domestic pigeons were purchased from the local market which were kept for a period of thirty days under observation. They were subjected to coprological examination for the presence of nematode eggs. One group of forty naturally infested wild pigeons and other group of forty domestic pigeons were selected. They were infested with Ascaridha columba, Capillaria obsginata and Ascaridia gjj one or more type of nematodes. All the forty domestic pigeons as well as forty wild pigeons were divided into eight groups comprising of ten pigeons each. Among the domestic pigeons three groups i.e. D1, D2 and D3 were treated with Ivermectin, Oxfendazole and Piperazine respectively while the fourth group i.e. CD was titled as an un-treated control group. Similarly the three groups i.e. WI, W2 and W3 of wild pigeons were treated with Ivermectin, Oxfendazole and Piperazine respectively while the fourth group i.e. CW was kept as controlled untreated group. Egg per gram was done on day zero, tenth and twenty first day of experiment. On zero day of experiment after taking the fecal samples Ivermectin, Oxfendazole and Piperazine were administered in DI and WI, D2 and W2, D3 and W3 groups of pigeons respectively. The efficacy rate of Oxfendazole, Ivermectin and Piperazine in the domestic pigeons was 60%, 100% & 80% respectively while the efficacy percentage for wild pigeons was 50%, 100% and 80% with the treatment of Oxfendazole, Ivermectin and Piperazine. The Ivermectin treated group showed the best results in term of lowest EPG st day post treatment and hemoglobin estimation was maximum i.e. 10.8mg/dI in DI and WI as compared to control group. Similarly TLC was minimum i.e. 0.2million Ofl 21st day of the experiment in the lvermectin treated group of domestic pigeons. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0794,T] (1).

203. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Against Gastrodiscus In Horses

by Wasim Ahmad Malik | Dr. Khalid Pervez, Prof.CMS | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Mr. Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: This study was conducted to work out the prevalence of gastrodiscus infection in Lahore district and to check the efficacy of three different drugs i.e. Oxfendazole, Albendazole and Ivermectin againstastrodiscus infection in horses. This disease is cosmopolitan in distribution. Five hundred faecal samples of horses were collected and coprological examined by fresh smear method to determine 30 naturally infected horses by Qastrodiscus infection. These animals were divided into three groups i.e. group A, group B and group C. Each group was comprising of 10 animals. Groups A, B and C were treated with Oxfendazole, Albendazole and Ivermectin, respectively. The prevalence of gastrodiscus infection at Lahore area o.nd out to be 6%. The eggs per gram (EPG) counts was estimated using MacMaster technique at zero day (pre-medication), 3rd day, 7th day and 14th day (post-medication). Groups A, B and C were treated with Oxfendazole, Albendazole and Ivermectin at companies recommended dose rate of 1.2 ml/2 kg body weight, 1 ml/13 kg body weight and 1.0 ml/50 kg body weight, respectively. After medication at 3rd, 7th and 14th day EPG count was measured. It was observed that at 3rd day Oxfendazole, Albendazole and Ivermectin showed the efficacy 51.36%, 60.52% and 17.5%, respectively. At 7th day the efficacy of Oxfendazole, Albendazole and Ivermectin was found to be 58.18%, 72.63% and 7.5%, respectively. At 14th day the efficacy of Oxfendazole, Albendazole and Ivermectin was found to be 59.09%, 75.26% and 3.5%, respectively. The average efficacy of Oxfendazole, Albendazole and Ivermectin was found to be 56.21%, 69.47% and 9.5%, respectively. Hence Oxfendazole and Abendazole showed better results as compared to Ivermectin. It was concluded Oxfendazole and Albendazole were safe against Gastrodiscus in horses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0795,T] (1).

204. Effect Of Partial And Complete Nephrectomy On Various Blood Parasmeters In Dogs

by Wasif Latif, Sh | Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr.Nisar Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: Certain diseased conditions like renal calculi, renal cyst, malignant tumors, trauma, congenital anomalies, immune mediated, genetic, aging, poisoning, bacteria, virus and parasite leads to loss of partial or complete renal activity. This loss is usually irreversible so partial or complete removal of damaged kidney is necessary to save the animal from these life threatening conditions. The present study was undertaken to ensure the effects of partial and complete nephrectomy on various blood parameters. The purpose of any surgical procedure is restoration of normal anatomy and rapid return of function. For this purpose, partial nephrectomy and complete nephrectomy was experienced in group A and B, comprising 4 animals each. Effects of both the techniques were evaluated on the basis of clinical parameters, blood chemistry, hematological findings, radiographic examination and histopathological findings. It was observed that both the techniques are effective to save the life of animal but in completely nephrectomized dogs the values observed at different intervals i.e. 1S 4th and 8th post-operative week were recorded high. Two animals from group A were kept for longer duration i.e. 4 months in which all the values were in normal limits when tested after 4 months. On the other hand, partially nephrectomized dogs in group B showed normal clinical, biochemical and hematological values at the end of experimental period i.e. 8th week. Hence, it is concluded that loss of partial or complete function of one kidney is compensated by the contra lateral organ in the presence or by removal of damaged partner. Research has proved that both the techniques (complete and partial nephrectomy) do not bring any significant change in the biochemistry of the animal so that these techniques can be tried to save the life of patient in proportion to the extent of defect. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0814,T] (1).

205. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Anthelmintics Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Sheep In Thesil Okara

by Haq Nawaz Ali | Mr.Iftikar Gul Ahmed | Dr.Muhammad | Mr.Muhammad Anees | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to check the anthelmintic efficacy of three drugs. For this purpose eighty sheep of local breed, positive for gastro-intestinal nematodes were selected from the area of Tehsil Okara (Purijab) and were divided randomly into 4 groups (20 animals in each group). Group A, B and C were medicated with Oxfendazole (4.5mg/kg body weight orally), Albendazole (5mg/kg body weight orally) and Ivermectin (.2mg/kg body weight s/c) respectively and group D remained as untreated control group. Egg per gram (EPG) of the faeces were noted on "0" day before medication and on 7th, 14th and 21st days after medication. The efficacy of these drugs were calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after treatment. These drugs showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts. Efficacy of Oxfendazole (Oxavet) was 98:35%, 99.48% and 99.82% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Albendazole Albazole) was 95.30%, 97.21% and 97.77% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively Efficacy of Ivermectin (Ivojec) was 90.10%, 100% and 100% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. It was observed from the study that Ivermectin (Ivojec) was more effective than Oxfendazole (Oxavet) or Albendazole (Albazole). However, Oxfendazole showed beiter efficacy thail that of Albendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0818,T] (1).

206. Prevalence Of Ascariasis Buffalo And Cow Calves Salughtered At Lahore Abbatoir And Its Impact On Some Blood Parameters

by Umer khan | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar khan | Dr.Muhammad Athar khan | Dr.Nasir Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Ascariasis is a major veterinary problem in most of the developed and under-developing countires of the world. It is considered to be highly responbsible for substantial economic losses. The present project was designed to achieve the following objectives: 1) To detect the Prevalence of Ascariasis in buffaloe and cow calves. 2) To study the effect of Ascarids on various blood parameters (Hb, TLC and DLC). For this purpose 230 buffalo calves and 210 cow calves were selected which were brought to Lahore abbattoir for slaughtering purpose and samples were collected before slaughtering. For the prevalence of Ascariasis in young buffalo and cow calves, faecal samples of 230 buffalo calves and 210 cow calves were processed through coprological examination. Out of 230 buffalo calves faecal samples 31 were found to be positive for Ascariasis giving a percentage of 13.47%. Similarly out of 210 faecal samples of cow calves, 26 wre found to be postitive for Ascariasis giving a percentage of 12.38%. Similarly in these animals blood prmeters ie. Hb estimation total leukocytic count and differential leukocytic count were tested. Result showed varying values due to some other mixed infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0820,T] (1).

207. Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Caesalpinia Crista,Nigella Sativa And Oxfendazole In Broilers With Experimentally Induced Ascaridia Galli Infection

by Sayed Zahid Ali Shah | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar khan | Dr.Azhar | Dr.Khalid parvaez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The study was conducted to study the effects of two herbal drugs that is Caesalpinia crista and Nigella sativa against a standard allopathic drugoxfendazole againstexperimentally induced Ascaridia galli infection in broilers chicken. A total number of 130 day old broiler chicks were used in this study. The birds were divided into five groups i.e. A, B, C, D on 25th day post-infection and group E. Each group having 20 birds. On 25th day post infection before treatment 5 birds from each group were slaughtered and presence of worms was confirmed, on 30th day post infection all birds were slaughtered and worm count was done. Birds in group A were kept as positive control group and no medication was used in this group. Group B was treated with Caesalpinia crista seed powder as methanol extract at the dose rate of 50 mg/kg body weight once orally and its efficacy was found to be 70.83%. Group C was treated with Nigella sativa seed powder as methanolic extract at the dose rate of 50mg/kg body weight once orally and its efficacy was recorded to be 57.5%. Birds in group D was treated with standard allopathic drug oxfendazole at the dose rate of 10mg/kg body weight once orally and its efficacy was found to be 90.83%. The efficacy of drugs were calculated on the basis of reduction in total worm count after treatment. It was concluded in this experiment that Ascaridia galli infection in poultry adversely effect the weight gain of the birds and the birds consume high feed intake but lower weight gain. So the results in feed conversion ratio are also effected badly by Ascaridia galli infection. On the basis of above data it can be concluded that indigenous medicinal plant drugs or their extracts posses anthelmintic principles. These studies have brought us further nearer to the pin pointing of the active principles of these indigenous medicinal plants. It has become further evident that many of the local plants and herbs can be efficiently used to economically treat some common helminth infections of the local species and treated species does not suffer from any serious side effects as it occurs in allopathic drugs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0821,T] (1).

208. Effect Of Betaine And Vitamin C On Antibody Satus Of Heat Stressed Broilers

by Hafiz Abid Gulzar Farooqi | Dr.Muhammad sarwar khan | Dr.Athar khan | Dr.Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The study showed that all the treatments (control without heat stress, control under heat stress, vitamin C and Betafin) had an effect on weight gain, feed consumed, feed conversion ratio and antibody levels in serum against Newcastle disease virus vaccine. The data showed that group A (control without heat stress) had the highest average weight gain i.e. 1400.15gm per bird followed by group D (Betafin 1354.95gm per bird, group C (vitamin C) 1332.00gm per bird and group B (control under heat stress) 1290.13gm per bird. The highest average feed consumption was observed in group C (vitamin C) 2634.80gm per bird followed by group A (control without heat stress) 2621.00gm per bird, group D (Betafin) 2613.33gm per bird and group B (control with heat stress) 2464.76gm per bird. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of group B (control with heat stress) i.e., 2.14 was poorest followed by group C (vitamin C), 1.95, group D (Betafin) 1.90 and group A (control without heat stress 1.84. The highest level of antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine was group A (control without heat stress) i.e. GMT = log2 7.0 followed by Group D (Betafin) GMT = log2 6.6, Group C (vitamin C) GMT = log2 6.0 and Group A (control with heat stress) GMT=log2 4.9. On the basis of results obtained, it could be suggested that desert cooler is one of the appropriate method for minimizing the effect of heat stress and for improving the immune status of birds especially against NDV followed by addition betafin and vitamin C in rations of birds in hot summer season in our country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0822,T] (1).

209. Comparative Efficacy Of Intramedullary Pilling And Cerclage Wiring For The Repair Of Long Oblique Tibiotarsus Fracture In Avian

by Waqar Azeem | Dr.Muhammad Arif khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr.Asim Khalid Mahmood | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present project was designed t find out most effective and accurate method of internal fixation in avian long oblique tibiotarsal fracture repair. For this purpose 12 indigenous chickens of both sexes were selected and randomly divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C comprising four birds each. Long oblique tibiotarsal fractures were created in either of the limb. In group A these fractures were repaired with single intramedullaiy pin. K.E. wire f 2.5mm diameter was used for this purpose. In group B, 2 - 3 full cerclage wires were applied where as both these techniques were used simultaneously in the birds of group C to achieve the goal of fracture stabilization. The birds were kept uptil 8 weeks post operatively. The fracture healing procedure was monitored on weekly basis. The birds were slaughtered at the end of experiments period and postmortem examination was conducted to see the gross lesion over the fracture site. The data thus obtained from the results revealed that the use of single intra medullaiy pin along with 2 - 3 full cerciage wire application showed an excellent and smooth healing potential for the repair of long oblique tibiotarsal fracture. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0828,T] (1).

210. Effect Of Replacement Of Feed Additive Antibiotics (Flavomycin)With Differet Levels Of Propionic Acid,On Bralier

by Hafiz Nadeem Ahmad Nasir Bhatti | Dr.Muhammad Athar khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr.M.Sarwar khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Main theme of this study was to seek out the effects of replacement of feed additive antibiotic (Flavomycin) with different levels of propionic acids on broiler performance. To conduct this study a private poultry farm was chosen to see the results in field condition and parameters observed were growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, mortality and economics. Two hundred day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups of 40 chicks each. These birds were examined for 42 days. Group A was the control group, whereas groups B, C and D were supplemented with 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% propionic acid, respectively. F'lavornycin was supplemented in feed for group E. The data thus collected was analyzed statistically. The results showed that group A (control) served to be the best with minimum feed intake. Group-B (0.4% propionic acid) resulted in good FCR, more feed intake but was not economical. Group-C (0.6% propionic acid) did not prove beneficial in any aspect whereas group-I) (0.8% propionic acid) proved good weight gain, more feed consumption, but it was not economical. Group-E (Flavomycin) consumed more feed and resulted in good weight gain. This was the only group which proved economical supplementation. It was concluded that production results gained by Flavomycin (growth promoting antibiotics) were better than the addition of propionic acid (organic acid) but propionic acid also improved production results. The use of propionic acid was not economical as compared to Flavomycin. Overall results of propionic acid were poorer than Flavomycin but better than control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0833,T] (1).

211. Comparative Chemoterapy Of Three Coccidiostats On The Naturally Occurring Coccidiosis Inpeafowls At Lahore Zoo

by Rana Akif Saeed | Prof.DR.Khalid parvaiz | Dr.Kamran | Dr.M.Sarwar khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to eval nate the comparative efficacy of Amproliuin (LC.M. 24% Amprollum; Snam Pharma), Madurarnicin (Madicox; Pak Vet) and Suiphaqulnoxaline (Coccidak; Nawan Laboratories) aga I flst COCCI dl osis In corn mon Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) at Lahore Zoo and Jalio Park. rIlhT.ee hundred and two faecal samples of the birds were examined at the Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, with direct smear method and also flotation techniques for the identification of coccidlal oocysts. Ninly six samples out of 302 were found positive for the coccidial infection. Out of ninty six infected birds, forty were chosen randomly for medication and divided Into four groups A, II, C and D, each comprising of 10 birds (A treated with Amprolium, B = treated with Maduramicin, C = treated with Suiphaquinoxaline and group D was kept untreated control). Faecal samples of experimental. bir(Is were examined for counting of oocysts per gram of faeces on day "0" (pre-medication) with McMaster technique (Kelly, 1974). Faecal egg counts were again carried out on days 3, 5, 10 and 14 of post-medication and percentage reduction of OPG was calculated. Amprolium showed 53.94%, 70.79%, 84.26% and 93.25% efficacy, while maduramicin with the efficacy of 44.73%, 64.48%, 80.78% and 89.47% and suiphaqulnoxailne showed 57.65%, 77.65%, 85.88% and 97.88% efficacles on days 3, 5, 10 and14, respectively, depending upon the faecal oocysts scores on the respective days. Suiphaquinoxaline was found to be the most effective (97.88%) among the three coccidiostats and amprollum was the second most effective (93.25%). The maduramicin was the least effective (89.47%) coccidiostat in this study). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0834,T] (1).

212. Chemotherapeutical And Hematological Studies Of Experimentally Induced Cocidiosis In Pigeons

by Rashid Ghaffar | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed for the Chemotherapeutical and Haematological studies of induced coccidiosis in pigeons. For this purpose three anticocidials were used. These were ancoban (Amprolium), Supercoc (Sulphaquinoxaline) and Phytocox (Herbal Product). These were used alone and with the addition of vitamin A and K. Some Haematological Studies were also done i.e. total Leucocytic Count (TLC), differential leucocytic count (DLC) and Haemoglobin (Hb) estimation. One hundred and twenty healthy young pigeons were obtained and were provided coccidiosis free feed. These pigeons were divided into eight groups viz; A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H comprising 15 birds each. 30,000 viable sporulated oocysts were inoculated directly into the crops of pigeons of group A to G. The medication was started on day 4 post-inoculation of oocysts. Group A, B and C were given Ancoban, Supercoc and Phytocox, respectively. Groups D,E and F were given Ancoban, Supercoc and Phytocox (Herbal Product), respectively with the addition of vitamin`A and K. The Group G was infected, untreated control while group H was uninfected, untreated (Healthy) control. The clinical signs were more pronounced in the groups that were treated without the addition of vitamin A and K.The highest efficacy of the drug was found in group E which was 99.36%. Haemoglobin estimation was done on day 0, 4, 9 and day 14. It was concluded that haemoglobin values were decreased after clinical signs had appeared. Total leucocytic count was also done on day 0, 4, 9 and day 14. There was increase in TLC after infection had occurred and started to decrease after day 9. The differential leucocytic count, lymphocytes decreased while heterohils and monocytes were increased and eosinophils and basophils showed variation in their number was compared to control group. The oocyst count was done on day 4, day 9 and day 14 post-inocultion of oocyst. The efficacy of the drug given to the group E was 99.40% which was the best among all the groups. The result of the present study showed that supercoc (sulphaquinoxaline) with addition of vitamin A and K was comparatively better drug for the control and treatment for cocidiosis in pigeons. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0841,T] (1).

213. Comparative Efficacy Of Screqing And Plating For The Repair Of Mid-Shaft Metacarpal Fracture In Dogs

by Shehla Gul Bokhari | Dr. Muhamad Arif Khan | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Muhamad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: The present research work was conducted to find the most effective method of internal fixation for the repair of short oblique mid-shaft metacarpal fracture in dogs. For this purpose, 12 mongrel dogs of either sex were selected and randomly divided into three groups, i.e. A, B and C, comprising four animals each. Short oblique third metacarpal fractures were created in either limb with the help of surgical saw, chisel and hammer, under general anesthesia (Pentothal sodium). In Group A, internal fixation was carried out using a miniature finger plate of size: 2.7mm. On the other hand, internal fixation in Group B was achieved by the application of a single cortical bone screw (size: 2.7mm).Group C served as the Control group and in these animals, no method of internal fixation was applied. The post-operative period was monitored by regular clinical evaluation of wound healing, lameness examination of the dogs at walk and trot, respectively, and the radiographic assessment of callus formation after every 15 days' interval. Post-mortem examination of each animal was also conducted at the end of the 12 weeks' experimental period, to check the gross lesions at the fractured site. Finally, the data thus collected was statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance. The healing of the wound was quite promising in Group A, delayed and complicated in Group B and satisfactory in Group C. Lameness subsided remarkably in Group A, so that after 12 weeks, the dogs returned to their normal gait with a fully functional limb both, at walk, as well as, at trot. However, in Group B, the dogs recovered slowly, with signs of obvious lameness even on termination of the experimental period. Similar findings were observed in the dogs belonging to Group C, which depicted the picture of marked lameness in their gait. Radiographic evaluation carried out for the three groups, showed evidence of ideal bone union with a desired amount of callus formation in Group A, which was not found in dogs of the other two groups. On post-mortem examination, gross lesions were also found to be of superior degree in the plated dogs when compared to the animals in the other groups. Besides this, statistical analysis also revealed that the technique of plating had an edge over those cases which were left untreated. Hence, on the basis of clinical picture, it was concluded that plating was the best suited method for the ideal repair of short oblique metacarpal fractures, especially in those precious breeds of dogs which are kept for athletic and hunting purposes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0845,T] (1).

214. Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal, Homoeopathic And Standard Drugs Against Coccidiosis In Broilers

by Muhammad Ali | Dr. Muhammad Athar khan | Dr. Khalid | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of four different drugs against coccidiosis. A total 240 day old broiler chicks were purchased and reared for 42 days under standard managemental condition. The birds were randomly divided into six groups comprising of 40 birds each. Group-A was medicated with Anjbar, Group-B medicated with Bael, Group-C medicated with Mere sol, Group-D medicated with Darvisul liquid. Group-E was kept as infected, unmedicated, while group-F served as uninfected, unmedicated control. All groups except that of group-F were given challenge dose of infection on day 22nd. The oocysts were counted on 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th day post-infection. The weight gain and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Record of mortality was maintained and postmortem of dead birds was performed. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using two way analysis of variance and least significant differences between treatment. It was concluded that Aegle Marmelos (Bael fruit) and Darvisul liquid showed better results in term of wight gain, feed consumption, reduce oocyst count, as compared with Anjbar and Merc sol Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0849,T] (1).

215. Effect Of Prophylactic Measures Against Coccidiosis In Broiler Breeder Chicks

by Imtiaz Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The experiment was designed to study the effect of coccidiosis vaccine in comparasion with chemo-prophylactic and therapeutic measures against coccidiosis and their effect on weight gain, mortality and blood parameters in broiler breeder birds. For this purpose one hundred and twenty day-old broiler breeder chicks were obtained from local market and reared in the Experimental room of the Medicine Section, College of Veterinary Sciences (CVS), Lahore under standard managemental conditions upto 49 days of age. The birds were fed on commercial coccidiostat free feed purchased from the market The following materials (vaccines, medicine, caeca) were used 1. Local vaccine (Eimeria vaccine) was obtained from Parasitology Laboratory, CVS., Lahore. 2. Imported vaccine (Immucox; Vetec Laboratories, Canada) was purchased from the market. 3. Amprolium 60% was purchased from Grace Pharma, Lahore. 4. The infected caeca of broiler chicks was obtained from different farms and diagnostic laboratories. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler breeder birds were divided into eight groups comprising of 15 birds in each group. Different groups were arranged according to the following pattern: Group A. was non-infected control group, group-B was infected control group. Infection was given on day 22, group-C was vaccinated infected group. Local vaccine was given on 3rd and 10th day of age followed by the dose of 30,000 sporulated oocyst at 22nd day of age. Group-D was vaccinated with local vaccine (non infected). Group-E was vaccinated infected group. Imported vaccine was given at 7th day followed by infection at 22nd day. Group-F was vaccinated with imported coccidial vaccine, non-infected group. Group-G was infected and treated group. Infection was given on day 22 of age and the birds will be treated with Amprolium 60% at the dose of lg/2 litre of drinking water for 5 consecutive days. Group-H was non-Infected, treated with Amprolium 60% at the dose of lg/2 litre of drinking water for 5 consecutive days. The weight of birds was weekly recorded starting from day one upto the end (42nd day) of the experiment. Faecal examination for the counting of oocyst per gram of faeces were recorded after every 4th day of the administration of infection. It was observed that the performance of the birds of group D (noninfected, vaccinated with local vaccine) was the best as compared to all other experimental groups. However, group E (infected, vaccinated with Imported coccidial vaccine) was also given good performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0850,T] (1).

216. Prevalence And Treatment Trials Against Gastrodiscus Infestation And Its Effect On Various Blood Components In Horses

by Muhammad Ali | Prof. Dr. khalid pervez | Dr. kamran ashraf | Dr. muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was conducted to work out the prevalence of gastrodiscus infection in Lahore area and to check the comparative efficacy of one patent (Albandazole) and two Herbal Drugs i.e. Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Nigella Sativa (Kalonji) against Gastrodiscus infection in Horses and its effect on various blood components including Hb, TLC, and DLC the purpose of this experiment was tomention extensive Pharmacological Experimentation on indigenous drug which result in the discovery of some potent Anthelmintic Drugs which would be a break through in limiting Gastrodiscus infection in horses. Furthermore, it could contribute to the improvement of our economy by making an industrial use of these resources and by saving foreign exchange via exporting these medicines abroad. In addition to these, studies were expected to contribute to the rationalization of Eastern / Unani system of Medicine, practiced by HKIMS and SIANAS. To accomplish the study six hundred faecal samples of horses were collected and coprologically examined by fresh smear method to determine 40 naturally infected horses by Gastrodiscus infection. The 40 infected animals were divided into four groups i.e. group A, group B, group C, and group D comprising 10 animals. Each groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Kalonji, respectively were as group D was control and remain untreated. The prevalence of Gastrodiscus infection at Lahore areas was found to be 6.6%. The Egg per gram (EPG) counts was estimated by using Macmaster technique at zero day (pre-medication), 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day (post-medication). Groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Neem and Kalonji seeds dose rate of 10ml/10kg body weight, 500 mg/kg body weight and 1gm/kg body weight, respectively. After medication at 3rd, 7th and 10th day EPG count was measured. It was observed that at 3rd day, Albandazole Neem and Kalonji showed the efficacy 50%, 4769% and 9.09% respectively. At 7th day, the efficacy of albandazole neem and kalonji was found to be 66.66%, 53.84%, 20% respectively. At 10th day, the efficacy of albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 95%, 60% and 27.27, respectively. The average efficacy of Albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 70.5%, 53.6% and 18.78%, respectively. Hence, Albandazole, and Neem showed better results as compared to Kalonji. It was concluded that Albandazole and Neem were safe against Gastrodiscus in Horses. HAEMATOLOGY In the present study forty blood samples from naturally infected horses with different intensities of infection were examined for haematological studies to know the changes in the blood picture due to Gastrodiscus. The blood samples were collected premedication i.e. on Zero day and then on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post-medication. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected animals on Zero day. The normal haemoglobin value was 10.5 to 15.5 g/dl. This value became near to normal on 7th day post-medication and went on increasing upto 10th day as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The study regarding the total leukocytic count concluded a mild increase values of TLC, but after treatment these values decrease to normal level as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The haematological finding of the present study are in complete accordance with the results of Chaudhry et al., (1991) and Peal et al. (1989). The reported that there was decrease in hemoglobin values of infected animals as compared to healthy animals. It is tempting to speculate that the decrease in haematological values may be due to the blood sucking habit of the parasite. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0851,T] (1).

217. Clinico-Biochemical Studies On Detomidine Analgesia And Effects Of Its Combinatios On Animals

by Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the newly introduced imidazole derivative, drug "detomidine" with alpha-2 adr2noceptor binding properties, and its various combinations in animals. A clinico-hiochemical study was carried out to explore the various aspects of a novel sedative and analgesic drug. Analgesia was evaluated by performing castration in small ruminants, rumenal fistulization in large ruminants, skin prick test, electric stimulation, and developing an experimental colic model in donkeys. The parameters used to evaluate analgesia revealed that detomidine has greater potential to lessen the pain during minor and major surgical interventions in different animals. However, its local usage to achieve paravertebral and epidural analgesia proved that detomidine produces general effect after getting into the circulation and very poor local effect. It has been concluded that the drug can be used as preanaesthetic with chloral hydrate and pentothal sodium anaesthesia to perform major surgical exercises in equine and canine respectively. In addition it has an edge over other sedative drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on various physiological parameters of the animals. Clinical trials have proved that detomidine "a novel sedative and analgesic" is a drug of choice for restraining, examination, and minor and major surgical manipulations on equine, bovine, caprine, ovine and canine species without any untoward effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0867,T] (1).

218. Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Breeding And Game Horses In Lahore Division

by Syed Muhammad Jaafar Fayyaz | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Azhar | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in 400 breeding and game horses from various sources in Lahore Division was analysed. Two serological tests namely Rose bengal plate and standard tube agglutination tests were employed. The Rose bengal plate test served for initial screening and the sera declared positive by Rose bengal plate test were further analysed through standard tube agglutination test, which served for quantitation of Brucella antibodies. A higher incidence of disease prevalence was recorded through Rose bengal plate test than standard tube agglutination test. The overall prevalence of the disease investigated by Rose bengal plate test was 2.5% and with the standard tube agglutination test was 0.25% in horses. The male horses had a prevalence of 0.74% by the Rose bengal plate test, female horses demonstrated a prevalence of 6.15% by Rose bengal plate test and 0.76% by standard tube agglutination test. The higher prevalence of disease was observed in female horses. While interpreting the age group relationship of the disease. It was found that adult and old animals had a higher prevalence than the young animals. The horses over 10 years of age exhibited 7.95% disease incidence by Rose bengal plate test and 1.13% by standard tube agglutination test. Only 1.54% disease prevalence was investigated in horses below 10 years of age by Rose bengal plate test. Sero prevalence of brucellosis was only detected in horses recruited from Race Cource and Phool Nagar, whereas sera of all the horses belonging to Army, Police, Rangers, Race Club and Aitchison College was negative to brucellosis. It may be due to good management of horses, good nutrition, lack of stress and no contact with cattle. The sera with SAT titre of 1:40, were considered positive while the sera showing titre of 1:20 were declared doubtful. There is need to adopt an eradication programme for brucellosis especially because of its zoonotic importance and a continuous threat to livestock industry in the shape of heavy economic losses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0868,T] (1).

219. Comparative Effect Of Zinc Bacitrcing And Propionic Acid On The Performance Of Broiler Chicken

by Nadeem Akram | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Anjum | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The idea of the study was to replace feed additive antibiotics with organic acids. Therefore diets supplemented with different levels of propionic acid were compared with diet supplemented with feed additive antibiotic zinc bacitracin in order to determine their effects on the performance of broiler birds. One hundred day-old chicks were selected for the experiment and arranged into five groups A, B, C, D and E. There were 20 chicks in each group. Group A served as a control while the diets of group B, C and D were supplemented with 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8 % propionic acid. The diet of group E was supplemented with feed additive antibiotic zinc bacitracin. The parameters selected for the experiment were Feed consumption, Weight gain, Feed conversion efficiency, Morbidity and mortality and Economical analysis of various treatment groups. The experiment was conducted at Animal Nutrition Section of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The results thus obtained were statistically analyzed. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between group A (control) and group C (supplemented with 0.6% Propionic acid) in case of feed consumed and weight gained. There was no significant difference between various treatment groups in terms of feed conversion efficiency. As far as economics is concerned group E (supplemented with zinc bacitracin) was the most economical group among the various treatment groups. The use of propionic acid proved costly as compared to feed additive antibiotic zinc bacitracin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0869,T] (1).

220. Clinico Epidemiological Study Of Bacterial Causes Of Respiratory Syndrome In Cattle And Buffalo Around Lahore

by Ahtasham-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents associated with respiratory tract infections in cattle and buffalo. For this purpose 100 clinically sick cattle and 100 clinically sick buffalo of both sex and age were examined. The samples were taken randomly from the Outdoor Hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Lahore. various District Veterinary Hospitals of Lahore and Private Veterinary Clinics of Lahore during September 2004 to February 2005. All the animals presented during the above mentioned period were clinically examined. Those showing signs of cough and nasal discharge were clinically examined, and their respiration rate, pulse rate, temperature and lung auscultation was performed. The frequency of clinical signs were observed and found it as, abnormal lung sounds 36.5%, Nasal discharge 69%, Cough 73%, Anorexia 93.5%, Depression 90.5%, Dyspnea 28%, Fever 84.5%, Increased pulse rate 66%, Increased respiratory rate 76.5%, Increased breath sounds 64.5% and Loud breath sounds 56%.Whereas no above mentioned signs were observed in control group. A total of 200 samples of nasal mucus were collected from 100 clinically sick cattle and l00 clinically sick buffalo. Nasal swabs were collected from clinically sick animals. Nasal swabs collected from the nasal cavity of the affected animals, in gamma sterilized cultural swabs, were properly labeled and kept at 4°C till further processing. Each affected animal was also tested For Bovine Tuberculosis using Single Intradermal Test. Smears were made from each nasal swab, stained with Gram's staining and was examined for the presence or absence of bacteria. Each positive bacterial swab was inoculated in nutrient broth, tubes, which was incubated at 37°C and then examined after different intervals of time for turbidity. A loopful of material from positive turbid broth was streaked on the nutrient agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Different types of colonies were purified. Smears were prepared from each type of colony, stained with Gram's staining and examined under oil immersion lens. The staining and morphological characteristics were recorded. Out of total 200 samples, only 152 were positive for bacterial contamination. The prevalence so calculated was 76% amongst the animal examined. A total number of I 52 isolates belonging to the genera Pasteurella, Streptococcus. Staphylococcus. Escherichia and Mycobacteriurn were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological, staining, cultural and biochemical characters of the organisms isolated from nasal mucus of cattle and bLiffalo. Of these Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from 43 (21 .5%), Pasteurella multocida 3 I (I 5.5%), Escherichia coli 11 (5.5%), Streptococcus 29 (14.5%), Staphylococcus 23 (11.5%) and Mycobacteriurn bovis 15 (7.5%). The main objective of this study was to assess and record the incidence of various bovine respiratory tract infections and to study the bacterial etiological agents involved in the production of respiratory tract syndrome. The etiological agents were identified by cultural and biochemical characteristics of isolates. These findings will help in devising proper and early measures required to cure the disease and to boost LI the prodLictive performance of these ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0870,T] (1).

221. Effect Of Dose And Route Of Ivermectin On Lice Infested Domestic Pigeons

by Assad Ullah | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Azhar | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the prevalence of lice infestation in pigeons and to study the efficacy of Ivermectin against lice infestation in pigeons. A total of 300 pigeons were examined to study the prevalence of lice infestation in domestic pigeons in different localities of Lahore (pigeon owners and aviaries) during the month of April, 2004. Out of 300 birds examined 271 birds revealed lice with an overall incidence of 90.33% of lice infestation. Permanent mounts were prepared from specimens collected from different birds. On the basis of morphological characters and taxonomical features the specie of lice identified was Columbicola columbae (Slender Pigeon Louse). The efficacy of Ivermectin was determined on the basis of reduced number of lice from the body of pigeons in group A, B and C, group D served as untreated infested control and group E served as healthy control group. Birds were examined on days zero, 3, 7 and 10 of the experiment. On day 10, efficacy of Ivermectin was 91.66%, 75% and 83.33% in group A, B and C respectively. Haematological examinations were made to compare the blood picture of infested birds treated with Ivermectin , infested birds kept as control and healthy control birds. Blood parameters studied were: Haemoglobin Estimation and Differential Leukocytic Count. The results of haematological examination showed a significant increase in haemoglobin level of birds treated with Ivermectin, there was a significant decrease in differential leukocytic count of treated birds. The values thus recorded were analyzed statistically using computer program MSTAT. The present project was designed to study the prevalence of lice infestation in pigeons and to study the efficacy of Ivermectin against lice infestation in pigeons. A total of 300 pigeons were examined to study the prevalence of lice infestation in domestic pigeons in different localities of Lahore (pigeon owners and aviaries) during the month of April, 2004. Out of 300 birds examined 271 birds revealed lice with an overall incidence of 90.33% of lice infestation. Permanent mounts were prepared from specimens collected from different birds. On the basis of morphological characters and taxonomical features the specie of lice identified was Columbicola columbae (Slender Pigeon Louse). The efficacy of Ivermectin was determined on the basis of reduced number of lice from the body of pigeons in group A, B and C, group D served as untreated infested control and group E served as healthy control group. Birds were examined on days zero, 3, 7 and 10 of the experiment. On day 10, efficacy of Ivermectin was 91.66%, 75% and 83.33% in group A, B and C respectively. Haematological examinations were made to compare the blood picture of infested birds treated with Ivermectin , infested birds kept as control and healthy control birds. Blood parameters studied were: Haemoglobin Estimation and Differential Leukocytic Count. The results of haematological examination showed a significant increase in haemoglobin level of birds treated with Ivermectin, there was a significant decrease in differential leukocytic count of treated birds. The values thus recorded were analyzed statistically using computer program MSTAT. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0871,T] (1).

222. Clinicotherapeutic And Haematological Studies Of Coccidiosis In Qualis

by Muhammad Zahir Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of different anticoccidials i.e. Coxigon and Toltrazuril and their effect on blood values in quails. A total of 100 young healthy quails were purchased and raised for a week in good husbandry and hygienic conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D, comprising of 25 birds each. Group A was treated with Toltrazuril, while group B was treated Coxigon. Group C was infected, non medicated and group D was uninfected control group. All the groups except D were given primary challenge doses of infection. The oocysts count was done on day zero, 3, 5 and 7. Record of mortality, morbidity was kept and postmortem of dead birds was also performed. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) test, to detect the differences between the treatments and means. It is concluded that Toltrazuril as anti-coccidial revealed significant (P<0.05) difference among all the treatments in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency, oocyst count, reduction and decrease in mortality ratio and help a lot to normalize the blood values of quails. The results of other anti-coccidial i.e. Coxigon was not satisfactory, due to less decrease in mortality ratio, feed intake and weight gain and help little to normalize their blood values, and group C was infected non medicated showed great mortality and morbidity rate as compared to other groups. The results of this study will help to the Feed Farmers in choosing the best anti-coccidial drug, while the farmers will get choice amongst anti-coccidial drugs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0872,T] (1).

223. Prevalence Of Ecto And Endo Parasites In Cross Bred Cattle At Lahore And Its Chemotherapy With Ivermectin

by Saleem Khan Niazi | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present project had been designed to study the prevalence of Ecto and Endo parasites in crossbred cattle of all age groups and to test the efficacy of ivermectin (Ivergen-Symans) at recommended dose rate by the company against ecto and endo parasites in naturally infected cross bred cattle. For this project 400 crossbred cattle were scanned to isolate 60 infected animals. These 60 animals were divided in to 3 main groups i.e. A, B, and C, comprising 20 animals each. Each main group was subdivided into four sub groups, comprising 5 animals each and were marked as Al, A2, A3, & A4, Bi, B2, B3, B4 and Cl, C2, C3 & C4. Out of total 400 animals, which were scanned 278 (69%) animals were found positive having ecto- endo- and mixed parasitic infection. Faecal samples of all 400 animals were tested for GIT nematodes, out of which 158 (40%) animals were found positive, skin scrappings of all 400 animals were tested for ecto-parasites, out of which 68 (17%) animals were found positive. 52 (13%) animals were found positive for mixed infection of both ecto- and endo-parasites. The results of the present study revealed that Ivergen is highly effective at extremely low dosage against wide variety of nematodes and arthropods parasite, so it is recommended for field use. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0873,T] (1).

224. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Against Git Nematodes And Their Effect On Blood Parameters In Sheep And Goats

by Naseeb Ullah | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of various drugs; 1) Albendazole (Farbenda), 2) Oxfendazole (Oxafax) and 3) Karanjwa (Caesalpenia crista) against naturally infected GIT nematodes in sheep and goats under field condition in and around district Kohlu, Balochistan and to find out their effect on some blood parameters; 1) Haemoglobin, 2) Total leukocyte count and 3) Differential leukocyte count and to detect the prevalence For this purpose 180 sheep and goats naturally infected coprologically were examined. Out of 180 sheep and goats 106 were found positive showed 58% prevalence. For the treatment protocol, forty naturally infected and ten non-infected were selected and divided randomly into five groups having ten sheep and goats in each group viz A, B, C, E and D. Group A was treated with Albendazole 1ml/20mg body weight. Group B was treated with Oxfendazole 1ml/5kg body weight. Group C was treated with Karanjwa (Caesalpenia crista) @ 2mg/kg body weight. Group E was kept infected non-medicated control group. Group D was kept non-infected non-medicated control group. In group A the eggs per gram of faeces were 22,700 on day zero and no eggs were found on day 7th which was treated with Albendazole. It has been observed from the result that Albendazole showed 100% efficacy on day 7th. In group B which was treated with Oxfendazole with egg per gram of faeces were 23,200 on day zero 22,800 on day 7th and no egg were found on day 14th. It has been observed from above results that the Oxfendazole shown 95% efficacy on day 7th and 100% efficacy on day 14th. In group C which was treated with Karanjwa, the eggs per gram faeces were 19,500 on day zero 22,100, on day 7th 31,800 on day 28th. Group E which was kept infected non-medicated control group, the egg per gram were found on day zero, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th, 20000, 23700, 27500, 31200 and 35300. On the haematological study the haemoglobin and lymphocyte level were decrease as compared to non-infected control group whereas the value of leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil were increased as compared to normal group. In group A and B the haemoglobin and lymphocyte value slightly increase on day 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post-medication. Moreover, the values of leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil were slightly decrease on day 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post-medication in group A and B. It has been observed from above study that Albendazole and Oxfendazole shown their effect on blood parameters, whereas group C which was treated with Karanjwa have shown no effect on faecal egg count and blood parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0902,T] (1).

225. Comparative Efficacy Of Intramedullary Pinning With Full Cerclage Wires And Screwing For The Repair Of Mid Shaft Long

by Muhammad Siraj | Dr. Mohammad Arif khan | Dr. Mohammad | Mr. Hamad bin rashid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The principles of fracture treatment have always been the anatomical reduction and rigid immobilization of the fracture segments. There are different methods of external and internal implants for the stabilization of fracture. The external implants include Plaster of Paris (POP), Thomas Splint, Kirschner Ehmer (K.E) apparatus and Simple Bandage, whereas the internal implants include Intramedullary Pinning, with or without wiring, Rush Pins, Half Pin Splintage, Transfixation Screws and compression or conventional neutralization plates. The present project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different established techniques of internal implants such as intramedullary pinning with multiple full cerclage wires and cortical screws alone for the repair of mid shaft long oblique tibial fracture in dogs. The study was carried out on 12 mongrel dogs of either sex, irrespective of breed and age which were divided into two groups, Group-A and Group-B, comprising 6 dogs each. In Group-A, an iatrogenic long oblique mid shaft tibial fracture was induced which was then reduced and immobilized with conical screws alone after taking lag effect, while in Group-B, after the induction of fracture similarly, intramedullary pins with multiple full cerciage wires were used for rigid immobilization of the fracture segments. The dogs were kept for a period of 100 days and the efficacy was judged on the basis of physical examination, radiographic evaluation and postmortem findings. The results of the study clearly revealed that intramedullary pinning with multiple full cerclage wires were the better method/technique for the repair of mid shaft long oblique tibial fracture in dogs as compared with screwing alone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0906,T] (1).

226. A Study Of Babesiosis In Calves At Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad And Adjacent Areas

by Nadeem Niazi | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Javed Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Bovine babesiosis (Piroplasmosis, Texas fever, redwater, tick fever) is a febrile, tick-borne disease of cattle, caused by one or more protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia and generally characterized by extensive erythrocytic lysis leading to anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, and death. There are probably at least six Babesia species responsible for bovine babesiosis. Most can be categorized as being small or large Babesia. Morphological and serological differences are used to distinguish the different species. The two that are of most concern in our country are Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis which are inflecting considerable losses to the livestock especially cattle. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of babesiosis in cow calves at livestock experimental station Qadir Abad and adjacent areas of District Sahiwal and to find out the comparative efficacy of two babesicidal drugs i.e Fa-try-banil (diminazene aceturate) Prix Pharmaceutica. Lahore, Pakistan and Imizol (Tmidocarb dipropionate) ICI, Pakistan. In this study effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters i.e hemoglobin estimation and total ervthrocytic count was also studied. For this purpose 415 calves were examined for the presence of babesiosis. Out of these 30 calves were found positive showing 7.2 percent prevalence. For treatment purpose 40 calves were selected randomly i.e. 30 infected and 10 healthy. i'hcse were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D comprising 10 animals each. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of blood smear method. The animals of group A were treated with Fa-try-banil (dirninazene aceturate) @ 3.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly at day zero. Four out of 10 calves recovered at 3" of injection, one calf recovered 7 day of 1S' injection, 4 calves recovered at 10th day of injection. This drug showed 90% efficacy while the calves of group B were treated with Imizol (Imidocarb dipropionate) lml/l00 kg body weight at day zero. Seven out of 10 calves recovered at 3rd day of injection, two recovered at 7 day of injection and remaining recovered at l0" day of 1S1 injection. This drug showed 100 percent efficacy at 10th day. Animals of group C served as infected untreated control and group D served as healthy non-infected control. Comparative efficacy of both the drugs was determined on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and babesia from the blood. No side effects of the drugs were noted. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocytic count pre-medication. It has been observed from the present study that Imizol was the drug of choice for the treatment of babesjosis in calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0908,T] (1).

227. Incidence Of Ecto Parasites &Therapy Of Tick Infestation In Cattle Of District Dera Ghazikhan

by Muhammed Ramzan | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Allah Devyia Khan Khosa | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The project was designed to find out the prevalence of ecto-parasites and to evaluate and compare the efficacy of Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadirachta Indica (Neem) against tick infested cattle. These animal were randomly divided in groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having ten animal in each group. Animal in group A, B, C were treated with Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadirachta Indica (Neem). Animals in group D served as infected non-treated whereas animals in group E served as healthy and un-treated control. The efficacy of Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadiracht Indica (Neem) on 14thi day post-treatment 100%, 60% and 0% respectively. Whereas animals in group D remained positive throughout the course of treatment whereas healthy animals in group E remained negative throughout the course of treatment from this result it was noted that Ivermectin is the drug of choice in the treatment of tick infestation. No side effect were observed with this drug. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0914,T] (1).

228. Comparative Study Of Flank Vs Midline Approach For Overiohysterectomy In Cats

by Mudassir Ahmad Rana | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Ovariohysterctomy is one of the most commonly performed operation in cats and is indicated for both medical and behavioral reasons. The most common indication of ovariohysterectomy is elective sterilization which avoids all objectionable sexual behaviors and over population. Ovariohysterectomy is the treatment of choice for most uterine diseases and it greatly reduces risk of mammary neoplasia. The method of performing ovariohysterectomy in cats must be affordable, safe, reliable & convenient. In the past different approaches have been tried for ovariohysterctomy in cats viz. linea alba(ventral midline) and vertical flank. But the relative efficacy of the approaches has not been determined in the past in our conditions. The objective of our study is to compare and evaluate these two approaches in our environmental conditions. The Flank approach was found to be relatively better than the Ventral midline approach in our conditions in terms of convenience, reliability, safety with rapid recovery and less postoperative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0917,T] (1).

229. Sero-Epidemiological And Haematological Studies On Toxoplasmosis In Cats, Dogs And Their Owners in Lahore

by Azeem Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Mr. Kamran | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution, caused by Toxop1asna gondii and is very common in cats, dogs and human. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of the disease, the current study was conducted to find out the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in cat, dog and human population in Lahore city and to determine the possibility of transmission of toxoplasmosis from cats and dogs to their owners. For this purpose serum samples from cats (ii=25 domestic, n=25 stray) dogs (n=50 domestic, n=50 stray) and human (n=25 cat owners, n=50 dog owners, ii=50 people having no contact with cats and dogs, ii=25 UVAS, Employees) were collected and analyzed by using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) to find out the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cat, dog and human population. Overall 56% cats were seropositive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Stray cats had the high prevalence (64%) followed by domestic cats (48%). Overall, 53%, 25%, 10.7%, 10.7% cats were seropositive at screening dilution of 1:16, 1:64, I : 128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence (71%) was detected in cat in the 7 year or above age group. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (56.5%) and female (55.5%). The sero-positivity percentage of toxoplasmosis was highest in local breeds of the cats (64%) followed by Himalayan and Persian (50%) and Siamese breed of cat (46%). Furthermore the domestic cats, which had wandering habits, had higher seropositivity (62%) than the cats, which had not these habits (41%). The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was high in the cats receiving raw meat (66%) however the prevalence in the cats receiving commercial cat food and kitchen prepared/left over human food was 40% and 44.4%, respectively. Overall 39% dogs were sero-positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Stray dogs had the high prevalence (50%) than the domestic dogs (28%). Overall 46%, 28.2%, 15.3% and 10.2 % dogs were sero-positive at screening dilution of 1:16, 1:64, 1:128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence of toxoplasmosis (45.9%) was recorded in dogs of age group of >1-3 years. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (35.4%) and female (35.4%). The sero-positivity percentage was highest in local breeds of dogs (50%) followed by German Shepherd (42%), Bulldog , Labrador Retriever and Russian (33%), English Pointer (30%), Alsatian, Bull Terrier and German Pointer (25%) and Greyhound (20%). Dogs having access to house as well as yard has the highest prevalence (40%) following the dogs having access only to yard (25%) and the dogs kept strictly at homes had the lowest prevalence (16%). Dogs fed raw meat had a relatively high prevalence of toxoplasmosis (40%) than the dogs fed commercial dog food and home cooked food had prevalence of 18.7% and 2 1.4%, respectively. Overall 22% human were sero-positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. The highest seropositivity was observed in cat owners (3 2%) followed by dog owners (26%), UVAS, employees (20%) and the lowest sero-positivity (14%) was observed in people having no contact with dogs and cats. Overall 63.6%, 27.2%, 3.0% and 6.0% human were seropositive at screening dilution of 1: 16, 1:64, 1: 128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence of toxoplasmosis (26%) was observed in people of 30-40 years or above age group. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (21.9%) and female (22.2%). There was decrease in haemoglobin level of cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. There was significant decrease in total leukocytic count of cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Nutroplielia, lymphocytopenia, cosinopenia and monocytopenia was observed in cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0920,T] (1).

230. Clinico-Therapeutical And Haematological Studies On Babesiosis In And Around The Livestock Experimental Station Qadirabad in Lohi Sheep

by Asif Rashid | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Javaid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Ovine Babesiosis is a serious haemoparasitic disease of sheep. it is caused by two hemosporidian parasites i.e. Babesia motasi and Babesia ovis, transmitted by ticks. The disease results into death due to fever, excessive destruction of RBC's, anemia, haemoglobinuria and icterus. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of babesiosis in Lohi sheep in and around the Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad and to study the effect of 2 anti-protozoan (babesicidal) drugs i.e.Diminazene diaceturate (Diminazene; star lab.) and Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol; ICI) on the recovery and health of animal. The effect of hernosporidian parasites on various blood parameters was also studied. The parameters included: Haemoglobin (Hb) estimation and Packed Cell Volume (PCV). For this purpose 310 Lohi sheep were examined for the presence of babesiosis. Out of 310 Lohi sheep, 30 were found positive showed 9.67% prevalence. For treatment protocol, thirty naturally infected and ten noninfected sheep were selected and divided into four groups having ten sheep in each group i.e. A, B, C and D. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of blood smear method, which revealed the presence of Babesia. The parasite appeared as piriform bodies within the light pink erythrocytes. The animals of group A were treated with diminazene (Diminazene diaceturate) at a dose rate of 3.5mg/kg body weight at zero day. Three out of ten animals recovered at 3rd day of first injection, three animals recovered at 7th day of first injection, two recovered at 10th day of first injection, while two animals did not show any improvement and might be chronically infected. This drug showed 80% efficacy at 10th day while the animals of group B were treated with Imizol (Imidocarb dipropionate) at a dose rate of 2mg /kg body weight at zero day. Six out of ten animals recovered at 3rd day of first injection, three recovered at 7th day of first injection and remaining one recovered at 10th day of first injection. This drug showed 100% efficacy at 10th day. Animals of group C were served as infected untreated control while animals of group D were served as healthy control. Efficacy of drugs was detected by negative blood smear. Imizol gave best results where as Diminazene was second in efficacy against babesiosis. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease in .Hb and PCV in group A and C on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post medication as compared to group B. From the results of present study, it has been concluded that Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol) was the drug of choice for the treatment of ovine babesiosis in Lohi sheep when given at the dose rate of 2mg/kg body weight by intramuscular route. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0921,T] (1).

231. Comparative Therapeutic Trials Against Coccidiosis In Dogs

by Maryam Nisar | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of coccidiosis (Isosporiosis), to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Co-trimoxazole &Furazolidone and to study the effect of Isosporiosis on blood parameters. For this purpose the faecal samples of two hundred dogs were examined in the Medicine laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore by direct smear method, and also concentration technique for identification of Isospora oocyst. Out of two hundred dogs thirty-six were found positive for the coccidial infection, showing the prevalence of Isosporiosis as 18%. For chemotherapeutic trials, thirty naturally infected and ten non-infected dogs were selected and divided randomly into four groups having ten dogs in each groups viz A, B, C and D. Group A was treated with Co-trirnoxazole at the dose rate of 15mg/kg (orally) and group B was treated with Furazolidone at the dose rate of 8mg/kg (orally). Group C was kept as infected non-medicated control. Group D was kept as non-infected and non-medicated control. Faecal samples of experimental dogs were examined for OPG counts on day zero (pre-medication), 3rd, 7th and 10th day of medication and percentage reduction of oocyst was calculated. Cotrirnoxazole showed 63%, 90%and 97% efficacy whereas Furazolidone showed 63%, 89.8%and 95% efficacy on day 3, 7 and 10, respectively. Statistical analysis of data revealed non-significant difference (P>0.05) between the groups A, B and D (-ye control) on day 7 and 10 of treatment. Based on criteria of percentage reduction in the number of oocyst in faeces, it was observed that Co-trimoxazole was the most effective (97%) followed by Furazolidone (95%) against Isosporiosis in dogs. Haematological study revealed that the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume were lower in groups A, B, and C as compared to non-infected control group. Whereas as a result of treatment in-group A and B the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume gradually increased on day 3, 7 and 10 post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Cotrimoxazole and Furazolidone showed their effect on blood parameters as a result of curing Isosporiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0922,T] (1).

232. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Balantidium Coli In Cattle Around River Ravi Bank Lahore

by Ch. Qasim Bilal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of Balantidium coli and to evaluate the efficacy of Terramycin, Dysen forte, Flagyl against naturally occurring balantidosis in cattle under field conditions around the river Ravi bank Lahore. The faecal samples from animals were collected directly from rectum of animals and brought to the laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for coprological examination. For this purpose two hundred cattle were examined coprologicaly around the bank of river Ravi in Lahore. Out of 200 cattle, 50 were positive, so the prevalence of Balantidium coli in cattle was 25%. Out of 50 positive animals thirty two cattle having balantidiosis were selected for chemotherapeutic trials and eight non effected cattle were selected and divided into five groups viz. A, B, C, D and E comprising eight animals each. The animals of Group-A were treated with oxytetracycline capsules (Terramycin) @ 8mg/kg orally, Group-B with secnidazole tablets (Dysen forte) @ 10mg/kg orally, Group-C with metronidazole tablets (flagyl) @ 25mg/kg orally. The animals in Group-D were serving as infected untreated control group and Group- E were serving as untreated healthy control. The efficacy of drugs was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and by reduction in number of cysts/trophozoites on zero, 3, 7 and 1 0 day post medication. Efficacy of oxytetracycline (terramycin) was 25%, 50% and 62.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. Efficacy of secnidazolc (dysen forte) was 37.5%, 75% and 87.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. Efficacy of metronidazole (flagy) was 12.5%, 25% and 37.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Dysen Forte was more effective than Terrarnycin or Flagyl. However, Terramycin showed better efficacy than that of Flagyl. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0927,T] (1).

233. Incidence, Chemotherapy And Haematology Of Strongylosis In Horses Of District Layyah

by Kashif Mahboob | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. A. D. Khan Khosa | Prof. Dr, Khalid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the infection rate of strongylosis, to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Endoectiven, Vermox, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Oxfendazole, to study the effect of strongyloids on blood parameters in horses of district Layyah. Horses were examined for the presence of strongylosis coprologically, till 50 horses naturally infected with strongyle spp. become available. Fifty horses were found positive for strongylosis out of eighty seven horses, so the infection rate of strongylosis was 57.47%. Fifty positive animals were randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each comprising of 10 animals. Another group F comprising of healthy horses was made. Each animal of group A was treated with Endoectiven (8 mg/kg body weight.), group B was treated with Vermox (10 mg/kg body weight), group C was treated with Neem (375 mg/kg body weight), group D was treated with Systamex (10mg/kg body weight) while group E was kept as positive control (untreated) and group F was kept as negative control (uninfected untreated). The efficacy of anthelmintics was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 7 and 14 post treatment. Efficacy of Endoectiven (Closantel) was 0 % and 0 % on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Vermox (Mebendazole) was 91.93% and 95.16% on day 7and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) was 6.89% and 8.62% on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Systamex was 96.82% and 98.4 1% on day 7 and 14 respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Oxfendazole was found most effective than Mebendazole, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel, while Mebendazole showed better results than Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel. Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) showed better results than Closantel. Haematological parameters showed significant reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and packed cell volume (PCV). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0961,T] (1).

234. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Helminthases In Parrots At Lahore Zoo.

by Ashgar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the incidence of helminthiasis in all breeds of parrots and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different broad spectrum anthelmintics, albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) and levamisole (Nilverm drench, ICI) used against the nematodes at Lahore Zoo. For this purpose, 130 Faecal samples were collected group wise in clean polythene bags, properly labeled for identification and examined for the identification of helminths. Eighty eight out of 130 were positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia gaul have individual percentage as 73.86% and 26.14% respectively. Of 88 positive birds belonging to different breeds of parrots, 72 of the same age, weight and number were devided in three equal groups (24 each) i.e. A (love birds peach face breed), B (budgerigar ring necked breed), and C (Alexandrine parrots, Blossom headed parakeet and Blue fronted amazon breeds), while in group D (Cockatiel, Blue ring necked parakeet, Eclectus parrot and African grey parrot breeds), only uninfected and untreated birds were kept. Drug therapy was only induced to the group A i.e. albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) @ 0.lml/kg body weight and group B (levemisole hcl (Nilverm, ICI) @ 5m1/litre of water, while infected but non treated birds were placed in group C. Faccal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of egg/gram of faeces on day"O" (pre-medication) with McMaster egg counting technique (Soulsby, 1982). Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 3, 7 and 10 of medication and percentage reduction of EPG calculated. The overall prevalence of gastro intestinal helminthes in different breeds of parrots was found as 67.69%. Albendazole was found to be the more effective (96.33%) among the two anthelmintics while levamisole was less effective (84.90%). The EPG rise up to 8.98% at day 10 post medication in untreated group C was noted while no infection was observed in group D through out the experimental study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0962,T] (1).

235. A Study Of The Theileriosis Sheep At Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadurnagar District Okara

by Zia Ur-Rehman | Prof.Dr.Muhammas Sarwar Khan | Mr.Muhammad Avais | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: In the present course of research 400 sheep from Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar Okara had been examined for the evidence of theileriosis by using Giemsa stain blood smear, lymph node smear methods and by clinical signs. Out of 400 animals 66 were found positive for theileriosis by observing blood smears with giemsa stain. The over all infection rate was 16.5%, while 43 sheep were exhibiting the clinical signs of malignant ovine theileriosis which was 65.15% Of total infected sheep. All the animals which were clinically positive were also lymph node smear positive. Distribution of infection among different age groups was observed as 17.3% in lambs and 16.20% in adults while distribution among sexes was as 15.8% in males and 16.6% in females. The clinical trials were conducted on positive sheep by treating them with oxytetracycline and buparvaquone. In this part of experiment 30 positive and 10 negative sheep were placed in four groups with 10 animals in each group. Ten positive sheep were kept in group A and were treated with Rimoxyn and 10 other positive animal were placed in group B in which Butalex was used against ovine theileriosis. Group C also comprises of 10 positive sheep and serve as positive control while 10 sheep of group D which were found negative against theileriosis served as negative control. The drug used in group A i.e., Rimoxyn show 30% efficacy, 3 animals recover on up to 7th day and no more found recovered on day 10. In group B Butalex was used which showed 90% efficacy in the whole study, 7 out of 10 recovered up to day 7 and 2 more positive sheep recovered at 0 day. Blood parameters (Hemoglobin estimation, Total Leukocytic count TLC Differential leukocytic count DLC) were studied to observe the effect of protozoa and use of different drugs on various blood parameters. Variable results were observed in different blood parameters. In groups A and B significant difference (P<0.0001) between hemoglobin level of day 0, 7 and 10 was observed, while there was insignificant difference in the values of Total Leukocytic count (TLC) at day 0, 7 and 10. In DLC, insignificant difference observed in the percentage values of neutrophils, monocytes and basophiles while significant differences were in percentage values of lymphocytes and eosinophils both in group A and B. The animals of group C were kept as infected/positive control. Statistical analysis showed that there was insignificant difference between hemoglobin level of day 0, 7 and 10, results of Total Leukocytic count TLC were also found insignificant. In Differential leukocytic count DLC, insignificant difference was observed in the percentage values of all five types of leukocytes i.e., neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophiles. The hematological values of group D were also found insignificant, animals of this group were kept as healthy control. With the results of present study, it has been concluded that buparaquone (Butalex) was the drug of choice for the treatment of ovine theileriosis in Lohi sheep when given at the dose rate of 2.5mg/kg body weight by intramuscular route. It has been further observed that there is a need of further research in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant ovine theileriosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0981,T] (1).

236. Therapeutic Trials In Helminthic Diarrhoea Of Sheep And Goats

by Muhammad Ijaz | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Kamran | Dr.Muhammad Avais | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Sheep and goats, although representing an important source of animal protein in third world countries such as Pakistan, seem to have benefited little from veterinary care and production improvement. Although adapted to local climatic and nutritional conditions, economic production of small ruminants is hampered by infectious and parasitic diseases coupled with inadequate management. A study of gastrointestinal helminthes of sheep and goats in Lahore has been conducted, covering a period of 3 month (September to November, 2007). During this study the infection rate of GIT helminthes that causing diarrhoea in sheep and goat was studied a total of 300 animals (n=l 50 sheep, n1 50 goats). The animals presented at the Outdoor Hospital, LXepartment of Clinical Medicine and Surgery (CMS) and various private and government hospitals were examined for the presence of helminthes. The faecal samples were collected and examined by Direct Smear Method and Salt Flotation technique for the presence of helrninth eggs, where as McMaster technique was used for EPG count to determine the drug efficacy. The result of present study revealed an overall infection rate of GIT Helminthes (66.34%) in sheep and goats. When compared the infection rate of GIT Helminthes in animals species it was found that the infection rate of GIT Helminthes is higher in sheep (70.67%) as compared to goats (62%). When compared the class wise infection rate of GIT Helminthes in sheep, an increased infection rate of Nematodes (54.67%) was observed followed by Trematodes (14.67%) and Cestodes (1.34%). Similar patten was observed in case of goats for Nematodes (48%), Trematodes (10%) and Cestodes (4%). Following species of helminthes were recovered and identified. Haemonch us con tortus Strongylus papillosus, Trichiuris globulosa, Trichostrongylus spp. Ostertagia circumcinta. Two species of Trematode and oae species of Cestode was recorded during the present study that was Fasciola hepatica, Cotylophoron cotylophorum and Mon iezia expansa, respectively. Among the Nematodes Haemonchus contortus was recorded to be the highest in sheep and goats with an incidence of (40%) and (28%), respectively followed by other Nernatodes of sheep, Strongylus papillosus (4%), Trichiuris globulosa (2.67%), Ostertagia circurncinta (2.67%), Trichostrongylus spp (1.34%), respectively. Trematodes and Cestodes recorded in sheep were Fasciola hepatica (14.67%), Cotylophoron cotylophoruin (4%) and Moniezia expansa (1.34%), respectively. The Nematodes species of goats were found as Haemonchus contortus (28%), Strongylus papillosus (6%), Trichiuris globulosa (4.67%), Trichostrongylus spp (1.34%). Ostertagia circuincinta (2.67%). Trernatodes species in goats was Fasciola hepatica (10%), Cotylophoron cotylophoron (6.67%) and Cestodes were Moniezia expansa (4%). The efficacy of Ricobendazole (albendazole sulphoxide) was reported to be (67%), (90%) and (98%) at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was higher than Albcndazole (47%), (88%) and (96%) at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. Lowest efficacy of Garlic powder against helminth parasites was reported as (8%), (16%) and (2 1%) at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. When compared day wise as well group wise efficacy of Albendazole, Ricobendazole and Garlic powder shows the significant difference (p<O.O5) was reported among the groups. Ricobendazole reduced the EPG significantly followed by Albendazole and Garlic powder compared with control positive group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0982,T] (1).

237. Disgnosis Of Theileriosis In Buffalo Through Blood Smear Examination And Pcr In District Lahore

by Mukhtar Ahmad | Dr.Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was designed to determine diagnosis and infection percentage of Theileriosis in buffalo in and around District Lahorë, and to design the primer for Theleria parasite with Microscopic Examination. For this purpose blood samples were collected from 300 buffaloes randomly from 20 villages, during the month of May, June, July and August of 2007 in and around District Lahore. Screening was done by blood smears, stained by Giemsa’s staining technique and later the blood sample from same animals was also processed by PCR. The blood smear showed Theileria, piroplasms, including cocci, rod, and signet-ring, with diameter of 0.5-1.5 micrometer. The blood parameter i-e PCV, Hb concentration and TEC showed presence of microlytic hypochromic anemia in diseased animal. On the basis of microscopic examination overall 44.66% (134/300) prevalence was recorded. On the basis of PCR test prevalence of Theleria parasite 5 9.66% (179/300) was recorded show the presence of carrier animal in buffalo population in district Lahore. The result had shown high efficacy of PCR as compare to microscopic examination. It is anticipated that present study was proved helpful in diagnosis of Theileria in infected as well as in carrier animals in District Lahore and will be beneficial for further study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0983,T] (1).

238. Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Cryptosporidium Parvum In Dairy Calves

by Amar Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian agent of diarrhoeal disease affecting many mammals, including dairy calves. Calves infected with this enteropathogen may either be asymptomatic or manifest mild to profuse diarrhoea and dehydration. Keeping in view the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves, the current study was conducted to find out the prevalence in dairy calves, in and around Lahore and also to find out the most effective therapeutic measure to control the infection. For this purpose, 500 faecal samples (n=250 cow calves, n=250 buffalo calves) from different dairy farms and home-bred dairy calves were collected and analyzed by using faecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 25.6% Calves were shedding C. parvum with a slightly high infection rate in the cow calves 27.2% than buffalo calves 24%. The highest infection rate was recorded in 1-30 days age group of dairy calves as 50.81% and 42.02% in the cow calves and buffalo calves, respectively. The infection rate of C. parvunm in the dairy calves of cow breeds indicated relatively high infection rate in crossbred cow calves (28.18%) than the Sahiwal cow calves (20%) and Nih Ravi buffalo calves (24%). The pattern of oocyst shedding was negatively correlated with increase in age, highest in the 1-30 days age group and lowest in the age group ranging from 9 months to 1 year and above. Diarrhoeac calves were infected significantly higher than the nondiarrhoeac calves indicating a direct relationship of diarrhea with C. parvum infection. Diarrhoea was the highest contributing factor to infection in 1-30 days age group with 58.97% infection rate in both the cow calves and 48.88% in buffalo calves than the nondiarrhoeac calves of the same age group as 36.36% and 29.16%, respectively. The infection rate was not associated with the sex of the dairy calves and the infection rate was almost equal in both the sexes. The cumulative rate of infection was relatively high (30.28%) in the physically healthy calves than weak (21.5%) and emaciated (19%) calves. Milk suckling calves were infected almost two times more than the ones utilizing both milk and fodder and almost 7 times of the fodder eating calves. The calves kept on dirt yards were infected more (28%) than the ones on the paved floor (21 .11%). A significantly high infection rate was observed in the cow calves and buffalo calves having some sort of contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats (31.3%) and (25.80%) respectively, than the calves having very little or no contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats as 19.27% and 12.12% in cow calve and buffalo calves, respectively. The results of the comparative efficacy of a.zithromycin and cotrimoxazole and kalvangi showed that azithromycin was the most effective of the three in treatingcryptosporidial infection in dairy calves under field conditions. It resulted in significant reduction in the oocyst shedding and consequently, better weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain may be due to its vitamins, enzymes and Nigellone and Thmoquinone acting as an immune system booster. The results of Azithromycin in the present study on the overall weight gain of calves was significantly higher than the other two drugs used in the study suggesting it as a drug of highest efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0985,T] (1).

239. Detection And Chemotherapy Of Balantidium Coli And Its Effect On Hemoglobin In Buffaloes Around Lahore

by Muhammad Atif Tarar | Prof.Dr.Khalid Pervez | Prof.Dr Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Balantidium coli infection has been reported in dog, water buffalo, crossbreed cattle, camel and chimpanzee. Balantidiosis manifests as diarrhea, dysentery, severe colic pain, tenesmus, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. The present project was designed to study the detection of Balantidium coli and efficacy of ampicillin, secnidazole and neem seeds against naturally balantidiosis infected buffaloes, around Lahore. In addition, the effect of balantidiosis on hemoglobin was also studied. The present study was conducted on buffalo reared in and around Lahore. For the prevalence, two hundred buffaloes were examined coprologically around Lahore. Out of 200 buffaloes, 40 were found positive, so the prevalence of Balantidium coli in buffalo was 20%. Out of 40 animals, eighteen buffaloes having balantidiosis were selected for chemotherapeutic trials and six untreated infected were also selected and divided into four groups, having six buffaloes in each group viz. A, B, C and D. The animals of group A were treated with ampicillin (inj. Penbritin), at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly for three days, according to the manufacturer instructions. Animals of group B were given secnidazole (Dysen forte), at a dose rate of 1 0mg/kg body weight orally for one day, according to the manufacturer instructions. Animals of group C were treated with Melia Azadarch (Neem), at a dose rate of 200mg/kg of body weight orally for one day. The animals in group D were serving as untreated infected control. Faecal sample were collected and observed at day 0 (pre medication) and at day 3, 7 and 10 (post medication). The efficacy of drugs were analyzed on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and by reduction of cysts/trophozoites. The data thus obtained was analyzed statistically. Efficacy of ampicillin (in Penbritin) was 16%, 16% and 33% on day 3, 7 and 10 respectively. Efficacy of secnidazole (Dysen forte) was 25%, 66% and 83% on day 3, 7 and 10 respectively. Efficacy of Melia Azadarch (Neem) was 16%, 33% and 50% on day 3, 7 and 10 respectively. Statistical analysis of various groups in respect of therapeutic study showed that group A shows significant mean difference with group B and C, group B shows significant mean difference with group A and D, group C shows significant mean difference with group A and D and group D shows significant mean difference with group B and C. From the results of present study, it has been observed that secnidazole (Dysen forte) was the drug of choice for the treatment of bovine balantidiosis, given at the rate of 10 mg/kg body weight orally. However neem seeds showed better efficacy than that of ampicillin. For hematological studies, the blood was collected from each selected buffalo at day 0 (pre medication) and day 3, 7 and 10 (post medication). The hemoglobin analysis was done by Sahli's Method. The hemoglobin estimation was done on day 3, 7 apd 10 post-medication. The mean values of Hb concentration of group A at day 0, 3, 7 and 10 post-medication were 9.9 ± 0.68, 9.9 ± 0.68, 9.9 ± 0.66 and 10.0 tO.66 measured in g/dI respectively. The mean values of Hb concentration of group B at day 0, 3, 7 and 10 post- medication were 9.4 ± 1.60, 9.4 ± 1.61, 9.5 ± 1.45 and 9.6 ± 1.51 measured in g/dl respectively. The mean values of Hb concentration of group C at day 0, 3, 7 and 10 post- medication were 8.2 ± 0.64, 8.2 ± 0.56, 8.3 ± 0.58 and 8.3 ± 0.53 measured in g/dl respectively. The mean values of Hb concentration at day 0, 3, 7 and 10 post-medication were 8.2 ± 0.80, 8.2 ± 0.80, 8.2 ± 0.82 and 8.2 ± 0.80 measured in g/dl respectively. Statistical analysis of various groups in respect of haematological studies showed that group A shows significant mean difference with group C and D. Group B shows significant mean difference with group C and D. Group C group shows significant mean difference with group A and B. Group D shows significant mean difference with group A and B. It is concluded that at day 0 (pretreatment), the hemoglobin value was normal in group A and B and close to the normal range in group C and D. On day 10 (post treatment), Hb value was increased in groups A, B, C and no change in Hb value of group D. This is due to the treatment of balantidiosis which causes bloody diarrhea with severe haemorrhages. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0986,T] (1).

240. Comparative Efficacy Of Y-U Antral Advancement Flappyloro Plasty And Inverted Pylorous Duodenal Plasty As A Relief to Pyloric Stenosis in Experimental Dogs

by Muhammad Imtiaz | Prof.Dr Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Asim Khalid | Prof.Dr Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Y-U Antral advancement flap pyloroplasty and inverted pyloi'us duodenal plasty as a solution to pyloric stenosis in dogs. Study was conducted on twelve healthy clogs with same age and body weight. The dogs were divided into three groups i.e A, B and C' comprising of four animals each. The dogs in group A and B were subjected to Y-U Antral advancement flap pyloroplasty and inverted pylorus duodenal plasty respectively whereas dogs in group C were kept as control. All the dogs were kept at surgery section department of C.M.S (Clinical Medicine and Surgery), UVAS Lahore throughout the experimental period for two months postoperatively. Prior to surgery, extreme cautions were observed to assure a successful attempt of this operation. The two techniques were evaluated on the basis of best effectiveness of the techniques as a relief to gastric outlet obstruction i.e. improvement in lurninal diameter post-operatively, development of adhesions, ease in surgery, healing at the operation site and least post operative complications. The evaluation of the procedures used were made on the basis of clinical observation, gastric emptying time, contrast radiography and post euthanasia assessment. The results of this study clearly indicated that the efficacy of Inverted pylorus cluodenal plasty was better than Y-U antral acivancenient flap pyloroplasty in tenns of convenience, short duration of operation, less post operative complications, increased the diameter of lumen and to provide better gastric drainage in short period of time. '[he technique can easily be used by an average practioner work in the field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0987,T] (1).

241. Comparative Efficacy Of The Transverse Pylorpplasty And Y-U Advancement Pyloroplasty As A Relief To Pyloric Stenosis in Dogs

by Ayesha Safdar Ch | Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Asim Khalid Mehmood | Prof.Dr..Zafar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Stomach is important and biggest dilatation of alimentary canal which mainly serves the purpose of digestion of food. The stomach has two extremities cardia and pylorus, it also has fundus and body. The pyloric extremity is connected with the duodenum by pyloric canal. The gastric emptying of food is controlled by pyloric sphincter. Many problem have been diagnosed in the pylorus such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, neoplaisa, chronic gastritis, drugs and chemicals resulting in pyloric stenosis. Various surgical attempts were made in the past to treat such problems, these includes pyloromyotomy, pyloroplasty, transverse and YU advancement pyloroplasty and partial or complete pylorectomy. Keeping in view the importance of this part of stomach two surgical procedures were tried Transverse pyloroplasty and YU advancement pyloroplasty as a solution to the obstructive problems of the pylorus. Although these techniques are well established methods and have been used by the various surgeons in the past as a remedy to the stenotic problems of the pylorus but no work has been done on comparative efficacy of these two procedures concerned. The present project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of these two techniques. Twelve healthy mongrel dogs were selected and were divided into three groups comprising four animals each.ln group A Transverse Pyloroplasty , in group B YU Advancement Pyloroplasty was performed and dogs of C group were kept as control. The efficacy of the procedures was evaluated on basis of physical examination, radiographic evaluation, and postmortem examination. Laparotomy was performed in aseptic condition and pylorus was exteriorized in both the groups. In dogs of group A, longitudinal incision was given over the pylorus which was closed in transversed fashion. After checking any leakage at the operated site the abdomen was closed in routine manner. In group B, Y shaped incision was given at the pylorus which was converted into U. Dogs of group C were kept as control and they were not subjected to any surgical procedure. Barium study procedure was performed in the dogs of all groups to estimate the rate of gastric emptying and post mortem was preformed to evaluate the change in diameter of the pylorus. The results of this study clearly indicated that although both the techniques are effective in increasing the diameter and improving the gastric emptying but Y U Advancement Pyloroplasty was more useful and effective procedure. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0988,T] (1).

242. Compartive Study Of Different Injectable Anaesthetic Combinations In Equine

by Muhammad Fahad | Mr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof.Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The scope of anaesthesia is consistently increasing with the increase in number of operations with the increasing population of equine in veterinary practice. To fulfill the demands of the owners the veterinary surgeons are taking keen interest to get the advanced knowledge and latest information about the equipments and there uses in the veterinary practice to save the life of their patients. Hence the need of a satisfactory anesthetic combination for equine in field conditions is mandatory. In the present project three different drugs in different combinations were tried in fifteen animals of equine species to find out the best combination for the surgical interventions in the field conditions. The animals were divided into three groups of five animals each and designated as group A, B and C, and numbered 1-15. Group A was anaesthetized with acepromazine and ketamine, group B with xylazine and ketamine and group C with diazepam and ketamine combination. The efficacy of these combinations was measured on the basis of the nature of anesthesia induction, duration, depth, recovery and economics aspect. It was concluded that group C with diazepam and ketamine was the best combination and group B with xylazine and ketamine as the 2’ choice of anaesthetic combination in field conditions in equine. Group C was not recommended as it never produced the surgical depth of anaesthesia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0990,T] (1).

243. Repair Right Sided Diaphragmatic Hernia Using Autogenous Jejunal Graft In Dogs

by Miss Rasha | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Asim Khalid Mehmood | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to evaluate the viability and healing process of the perfused jejunal graft as an implant for the repair of canine diaphragmatic hernia. Diaphragmatic defect was created in 12 healthy mongral dogs irrespective of age and sex. A window was established through obliqus externus and obliqus internus muscles to have an access to the diaphragmatic crus. The jejunum was identified through the same window and a part of required dimension was ressected with intact blood supply. After resection the integrity of jejunum was restored by end to end anastamosis. After making the window identifies the jejunum. And ressect the selected part according to the diaphragmatic defect along with its blood supply. Then the jejunal graft was sutured on the diaphragmatic defect. A diaphragmatic defect of 4X4cm in size was created experimentally on right muscular portion of diaphragm through subcostal/paracostal approach. Experimental dogs were evaluated individually at 20th, 40th and 90th day post operatively .The defect was later on grafted using autogenous perfused jejunum. The size of jejunal graft was sufficient enough to cover the defect 4X4cm created in diaphragm. Clinical examination of the experimental animals was conducted in respect of dyspnea, signs of shock, cynosis and pain. The observations, with respect to the given parameter varied significantly. Physical examination of experimental animals was undertaken with respect to body temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate during post-surgical period. All the dogs showed good post-surgical recovery with minor complication only in the first week after surgery. Diaphragmatic outline was found intact when examined through plain chest radiography. Post-mortem examination revealed no evidence of discoloration, necrosis, injuries and bleeding but the adipose tissue deposit were found at the site of diaphragmatic repair. Histopathological examination of repaired site of diaphragmatic defect revealed fibrous tissue deposits. CONCLUSION The results of present study clearly indicated that the use of perfused jejunal graft with intact blood supply was a viable option and a better choice for the repair of diaphragmatic defect through right paracostal/ subcostal approach in dogs. The use of perfused jejunal graft resulted in lower chances of infection in comparison with synthetic! mesh material reported in literature and was also an economical procedure for the repair of diaphragmatic hernia. RECOMMENDATION Based on the findings of the present study use of autogenous perfused jejunal graft with intact blood supply is recommended as first choice of surgical treatment for the repair of diaphragmatic hernia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1006,T] (1).

244. Detection And Chemotherapy Of Sub Clinical Mastitis In Dairy Catlle And Buffaloes

by Muhammad Jamil | Dr.Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr.Muhammad Iqbal | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The aim of this study was to detect subclinical mastitis in bovine and to find out the most appropriate antibiotic for its treatment. For this purpose, Milk samples were taken aseptically from 500 apparently healthy animals (n= 250 cattle and n= 250 buffaloes) for screening tests. Two different tests, Surf Mastitis Test (SMT) and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) were used. Milk samples declared positive by both of the above mentioned tests, were subjected to culture sensitivity test. Six different antibiotics were evaluated i.e. Enrofloxacin, Norfioxacin, Amoxicillin, Oxytetracycline, Gentamicin and penicillin G. On the basis of sensitivity test; two topmost drugs were selected and be given to two equal groups of animals. Each group was comprised of equal number of cattle and buffaloes. Each antibiotic was given for 5 days as intramuscular (IM) injection. A positive and a negative control groups were also kept. To detect the in-vivo efficacy of antibiotic, again the milk samples of all the groups were examined by SMT and SCC on day 10 and day 20 of first injection. The results obtained were the following; Sub clinical mastitis was found 42.8% in cattle and 37.6% in buffaloes. Out of the total of 201 mastitis positive milk samples cultured, bacterial growth occurred in 98 (48.75%) of milk samples. The various bacterial species isolated from milk samples of cattle and buffaloes were E. coli Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus, Kiebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Pasteurella with overall percentage of 50 %, 17.34 %, 3.06 %, 12.24%, 10.20%, 2.04% and 5.10 % respectively. The in vitro efficacy of Enrofloxacin was found to be the best one i.e. 77.55 % followed by Norfioxacin (67.34 %), Gentamicin (53.06 %), Oxytetracyclin (30.61 %), Amoxicillin (22.44 %) and Penicillin G (4.08 %). After chemotherapy, there was significant difference between treatment groups and control groups (P<0.05). The difference in the efficacy of enrofloxacin and norfioxacin was statistically non significant (P>0.05), however mathematically, the recovery rate by enrofloxacin was greater (93.75%) then norfioxacin (87.50%). Recovery rate was more at day 20 for both antibiotics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1008,T] (1).

245. A Study On Mastitis In Pregnant And Non Pregnant Cattle And Comparative Clinical Trials At Bahadur Nagar

by Sajid Mehmood | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Muhammad Avais | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Mastitis is a mutifactorial disease-complex resulting from pathogenic- host-environment interaction. The local information on the epidemiological dimensions of mastitis in Pakistan is extremely inadequate. This information is imperative for planning an intervention strategy for this costly dairy disease. All immunization procedures developed against the disease have been remained unsuccessful due to multiple etiological agents. The aim of present project was to study the incidence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis in pregnant and non pregnant cattle at Livestock Experimental Station, Bahadur Nagar and to conduct the comparative clinical effectiveness of parentral and intramammary treatment routes. The incidence of clinical mastitis at Bahadur Nagar, Okara was 18.6 % (56/300) and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis was 3 1 .6% (89/300). Research was conducted to determine the association of some host, management and housing determinants with clinical mastitis in cattle. Analysis of data showed that the relative risk for clinical mastitis increased with the increment of age. Similarly the chances of occurance of mastitis increased with increase in lactation number and stage of lactation. The length of dry period during the preceding gestation was inversely proportion to the risk for clinical mastitis. The managemental data showed that risk factor for mastitis was maximum with calf stimulus. Teat dipping found to be an important measure to prevent from mastitis.. When housing data was analysed it was found that risk was maximum for the animals kept on brick floor and minimum for those kept on katcha floor. Risk for clinical mastitis was higher in animals kept with uneven surfaces. The relative risk gradually decreased when the frequency of dung removal increased. The misuse of antibiotics at low level over longer period may cause the therapeutic failure and the development of drug resistant (uni-or multi-resistant) strains of staphylococci and other bacteria. Therefore, regular studies on the antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates are needed for the effective and economical treatment of the disease. For this purpose milk sample was examined by Whiteside test. Clinically positive naturally infected animals was divided into four groups A, B, C and D. Group A, B, C was treated with Enrofloxacin (Encure-l0, Nawan Laboratories, Karachi) l/M, Enrofloxacin (Encure-l0, Nawan Laboratories, Karachi) 1/Mm, Enrofloxacin (Encure-l0, Nawan Laboratories, Karachi) I/M and I/Mm respectively and group D acted as positive control. Another group E, comprised of healthy non infected animals acted as negative control. The efficacy of drugs was evaluated on the basis of clinical recovery of the animals and Whiteside test pretreatment and post treatment results. It was found that best route of treatment was intramammary route. It was also found that clinical as well as sub-clinical mastitis was more prevalent in non pregnant but lactating animals than that of pregnant animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1009,T] (1).

246. Split Thickness Autogenous Transplantation In Dogs

by Muhammed Shakeel Ejaz | Asim khalid Mehmood | Hamad Bin rashid | Prof.Dr.Nasim | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The skin is one of the largest body organs and serves as the body's first line of defense. It receives different injuries due to accidents among which, bite wounds are the most common. Dogs and cats have an abundance of loose skin over the trunk area, contrary to this very little loose skin is present over the head and limbs. This poses a difficulty in treating large wounds with first intention healing, resulting into wound complications as contamination, longer duration. high prices and non cosmetic results. In the present project, a graft of skin was taken from the trunk area and sutured on the defect created on the limb. For this fifteen mongrel healthy dogs of either sex were selected and divided into three groups of five animals each as group A, B, and C. In group defect of 3 x 3 sq-cm, in group 'B' defect of 4 x 4 sq-cm and in group C defect of 5 x 5 sq-cm was created and the survival of the grafts on these defects were evaluated. As a control, similar defects were created on contra-lateral limbs of each group and were left to heal by second intention. The results of this study indicate that there is no clinical difference in the survival rate of the three different sizes of the grafts used and the success rate was 80%. Hence they could be easily used in clinical cases with a promising success rate. However; strict post operative management is indicated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1026,T] (1).

247. A Study Of Detection & Chemotherapy Ascariasis In Paddock Horses,Donkeys & Mules.

by Abhullah khan | Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Azhar Maqbool | Muhammed Avais | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Equines constitute an important and integral part of livestock of the country for their utility and service. Parasitic infections pose an inevitable threat to the equine industry. Ascariasis is one of the major veterinary problems of developed and under developed countries of the world. It is considered to be highly responsible for great economic losses in the form of stunted growth, weight loss and death in severe cases. Keeping in view, the present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of ascariasis among paddock horses, donkeys and mules along with evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics for therapeutic and prophylactic use. For this purpose paddock horses (n150), donkeys (n=150) and mules (n150) of Army Remount Depot Mona were examined coprologically for ascarids and their The faecal samples were processed at Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore by Direct Smear Method and Salt Flotation Technique for detection of ascarid eggs, while eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces were determined by employing McMaster Egg Counting Technique. The overall prevalence of Ascariasis in paddock horses, donkeys and mules was recorded as 36.00%, 31.33% and 28% respectively. The infection rate was higher in animals of fewer than 2 years of age i.e. 64, 56 and 52 percent as compared to animals over 2 years old i.e. 22, 19 and 16 percent respectively. For chemotherapy trials the positive cases from each category were divided into three groups consisting of six animals each. The animals of first group were treated with Doramectin @ 0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneously, second group with Garlic 0.2gm/kg body weight orally and the third group kept as positive control. A fourth group consisting of six negative animals from each category was kept as negative control. Eggs per gram (EPG) of animals of all the groups were determined at Day 0 (Pre-treatment) and day 3, 7, and 14 (Post-treatment). The efficacy of the drugs was determined on the basis of reduction in EPG. The efficacy of Doramectin against the ova /larvae of Parascaris equorum was recorded as 81.48%, 92.59% and 92,59% at day 3, 7 and 14 respectively in horses, 41.93%, 87.10% and 80.64% at day 3, 7 and 14 respectively in donkeys and 66.66%, 81,48%and 81.48% at day 3, 7 and 14 respectively in mules. The efficacy of Garlic Powder was very low as compared to Doramectin and recorded as 44.44%, 48.15% and 44.44% at day 3, 7 and 14 respectively in horses, 37.95%, 5 1.61% and 5 1.61% at day 3, 7 and 14 respectively in donkeys and 18.52%, 33.33% and 33.33% respectively in mules. Low efficacy of Garlic may be due to insufficient extraction of allicin, the antiparasitic ingredient in garlic. Thus further study is recommended to determine the safe and efficacious dose rate and frequency of garlic to obtain desired anthelmintic effect of allicin. Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant difference between drugs (Doramectin and Garlic power) and between control and treated groups of horses, donkeys and mules. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1031,T] (1).

248. Epidemiology Seriodiagnosis And Chemoprophylaxis Of Theileriosis In Cattle

by Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof.Dr.Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Prof.Dr.Kahlid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The field study was carried out in indigenous and cross bred cattle in three districts of Punjab namely, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi during the year from September 2006 to August 2007. A total of 1200 cattle were selected as reference population comprising of 600 Sahiwal and 600 Cross bred animals. 300 blood samples were collected during each season by taking 100 samples from each district. The results of field study on the basis of PCR showed that prevalence of Tannulata during summer was highest 46.7% in both breeds of cattle while lowest prevalence was recorded in winter, 4.6 % and autumn season 4.3% . The breed wise prevalence of Tannulata was lower, 11.5 % in sahiwal cattle compared with 20.2 % in cross bred cattle. The mortality rate of 2.8% was noticed only in cross bred cattle with highest mortality recorded in district Rawalpindi ,64.7% and lowest in district Multan,29.4% .The positive percentage of Tannulata was higher,61.5%(234/380) in females as compared to males ,38.4% (146/3 80) of both breeds. The positive percentage in much animals was highest, 32.4 %( 123/380) in both breeds while lowest was recorded in heifers, 11.1 %( 42/3 80). In males of both breeds 26.3% (100/3 80) positive percentage was seen in adults above 1 year of age while lower, 12.1% (46/3 80) was recorded in young animals up to 1 year of age. The prevalence of Tannulata was highest,l2.2% in district Lahore in both breeds while lowest prevalence, 9.33% was seen in district Rawalpindi. The efficacy of PCR test was highest ,31.6% followed by microscopic lymph node smear examination,8.25% and microscopic blood smear examination,6% in diagnosis of field challenges of Theileria. During the present study mixed infection with Babesia bigemina, 158%, was recorded in reference population. TLc breed wise prevalence of Babesia bigen'iina was higher in cross bred animals 33.33 % compared to 17 % in sahiwal cattle respectively along with 6% prevalence of the ileria specie on blood smear examination. The overall economic losses of 3.39 million were calculated during the present study in three districts under study. The stocking pattern was highest (47%) for herd size of 1-2 animals while lowest herd size (12%) of 5-6 and above 6 was recorded. The survey of ectoparasites showed the highest prevalence of ticks,66.7% recorded in district Lahore while prevalence of lice was highest,36.3% in district Rawalpindi and prevalence of mange mites was highest ,4% in district Multan. The highest prevalence of Hyalomma 12.0%, followed by Boophilus 8.1% Haemaphysalis 5%.and Rhipicephalus 3.1% were recorded. During the present study the species of Hyalomma identified were Hyalomma a. anatolicurn (65.2%) and Hyalomma n-zarginatum marginaturn (34.8%).The examination of salivary glands revealed that Hyalomma a. anatolicum (87%) and Hyalomma marginatum inarginatum (20.8%) were infected with T. annulata sporozoites. It was observed that the population of ticks was heaviest in the month of June, mid September to mid October with lowest infestation during the month of November. No ticks were noticed on animals from December to February. The taxonomical study of Hylomma species showed the difference between both sexes and in different developmental stages. The two species of Hyalomnia in the present study were differentiated on the basis of structural features in adults. The pre-oviposition & oviposition periods recorded during spring were longest i.e 9 days and 12 days respectively. The incubation period of the ova of Hyalomma in summer and autumn was longest i.e 20 days. Mean survival period of unfed larva of Hyalomma was recorded as 56 days while for nymph it was 65 days. Larval and nymph engorgement period was longest in spring i.e. 9 days and 7days respectively while for adult the mena engorgement period in spring was longest i.e 9 days .The larval and nymph moulting period was longest in spring i.e 16 days and 17 days respectively . Amount of blood sucked in mg by first instar of Hyalomma ranged from 0.132 -0.126mg while for second instar it ranged from 140-79mg and for third instar it was 237-180 mg. The eggs were oblong in shape and measured 0.470 X 0.420 mm in size with weight of 0.041 rng on an average. It was observed that the maximum number of eggs laid by a single female tick in spring varied from 3720 to 3918, in summer from 2611 to 2961 and in autumn from 2423 to 2606. The bionomical study showed effect of varying temperature and humidity on the development of different stages of Hyalomma tick. The effect of constant temperature (30°C) and varying humidity showed mean pre-oviposition period of mid October with lowest infestation during the month of November. No ticks were noticed on animals from December to February. The taxonomical study of Hylomma species showed the difference between both sexes and in different developmental stages. The two species of Hyalomnia in the present study were differentiated on the basis of structural features in adults. The pre-oviposition & oviposition periods recorded during spring were longest i.e 9 days and 12 days respectively. The incubation period of the ova of Hyalomma in summer and autumn was longest i.e 20 days. Mean survival period of unfed larva of Hyalomma was recorded as 56 days while for nymph it was 65 days. Larval and nymph engorgement period was longest in spring i.e. 9 days and 7days respectively while for adult the mena engorgement period in spring was longest i.e 9 days .The larval and nymph moulting period was longest in spring i.e 16 days and 17 days respectively . Amount of blood sucked in mg by first instar of Hyalomma ranged from 0.132 -0.126mg while for second instar it ranged from 140-79mg and for third instar it was 237-180 mg. The eggs were oblong in shape and measured 0.470 X 0.420 mm in size with weight of 0.041 rng on an average. It was observed that the maximum number of eggs laid by a single female tick in spring varied from 3720 to 3918, in summer from 2611 to 2961 and in autumn from 2423 to 2606. The bionomical study showed effect of varying temperature and humidity on the development of different stages of Hyalomma tick. The effect of constant temperature (30°C) and varying humidity showed mean pre-oviposition period of that the values of TEC, TLC, and PCV and hemoglobin decreased considerably. Comparison of normal average with affected average values increased in Cross bred cattle while for Sahiwal cattle the values increased for lymphocytes and decreased for neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. The experimental study showed highest preyalence of disease in adult animals as compared to young animals by all diagnostic tests. The prevalence of disease in young animals at 12 months of age was highest (85.7% by MLE,71 .4% by MBE,85.7% by IFA & PCR in Sahiwal while 71.4% by MLE & MBE, 89% by IFA, 100% by PCR in cross bred animals. ) while lowest percentage of disease was seen at 3 months of age by all tests.The highest specificity and sensitivity ,96% and 75% respectively for PCR test was recorded while for MBE lowest specificity and sensitivity ,76% and 44% respectively were calculated. PCR analysis of the samples with 6u1 of MgCl2 gave successful results . It was found out that primers set A anneal at Tm 55 °C while Primer set B anneal at 60°C. The expected 721-bp fragment was generated from T. annulata DNA with primer set N5 1 6/N5 17721 -bp liagment with 0.00040% parasitemia, corresponding to 19 parasites per ml while primers 989 and 990 amplified the expected 1098 bp fragment of DNA. All animals that were positive by microscopic examination were also positive by IFA as well as PCR. The therapeutic trials showed efficacy of buparvaquone @ J/M 2.5 mg /kg body weight and Calotropisprocera @ 0.3mg! Kg dose orally.8 doses on alternate days was 60% and 100% respectively. After completion of treatment with Cal otropis procera no tick infestation was seen while ticks were present on the body of that the values of TEC, TLC, and PCV and hemoglobin decreased considerably. Comparison of normal average with affected average values increased in Cross bred cattle while for Sahiwal cattle the values increased for lymphocytes and decreased for neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. The experimental study showed highest preyalence of disease in adult animals as compared to young animals by all diagnostic tests. The prevalence of disease in young animals at 12 months of age was highest (85.7% by MLE,71 .4% by MBE,85.7% by IFA & PCR in Sahiwal while 71.4% by MLE & MBE, 89% by IFA, 100% by PCR in cross bred animals. ) while lowest percentage of disease was seen at 3 months of age by all tests.The highest specificity and sensitivity ,96% and 75% respectively for PCR test was recorded while for MBE lowest specificity and sensitivity ,76% and 44% respectively were calculated. PCR analysis of the samples with 6u1 of MgCl2 gave successful results . It was found out that primers set A anneal at Tm 55 °C while Primer set B anneal at 60°C. The expected 721-bp fragment was generated from T. annulata DNA with primer set N5 1 6/N5 17721 -bp liagment with 0.00040% parasitemia, corresponding to 19 parasites per ml while primers 989 and 990 amplified the expected 1098 bp fragment of DNA. All animals that were positive by microscopic examination were also positive by IFA as well as PCR. The therapeutic trials showed efficacy of buparvaquone @ J/M 2.5 mg /kg body weight and Calotropisprocera @ 0.3mg! Kg dose orally.8 doses on alternate days was 60% and 100% respectively. After completion of treatment with Cal otropis procera no tick infestation was seen while ticks were present on the body of animals treated with buparvaquone. With herbal treatment the animals showed diarrhoea for first 10-12 hours after administration of every dose on alternate days but animals recovered spontaneously without any antidiarrhoeal treatment. The results of CBC showed the characteristic macrocytic hypochrornic anemia in theileriosis was recovered by Calotropis procera treatment. The of result of LFT's and kidney function tests post treatment with Calotropis procera showed no toxicity of drug. In group C the characteristic signs of disease were noticed. The results of prophylactive trials with both drugs showed delay of 23 days in the onset of clinical disease with buparvaquone while clinical disease was not seen in second group that was prophylactively treated with Calitropis procera. The in vitro trials with both drugs to check the acaricidal activity supported trials with Calitropis procera as having acaricidal within 3 hours while no such effect was noticed with bupasrvaquone in vitro trials. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1033,T] (1).

249. Clinico -Therapeutical Trials Of Lactic Acidosis In Small Ruminants

by Haq Aman Ullah | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: During the present study clinical examination of 200 small ruminants (sheep and goats) any breed, age and sex with the history of diarrhea was performed at the Outdoor Hospital, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences Lahore and adjacent areas. A total of 38 animals were diagnosed positive for the disease. Temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, rumen pH, serum pH, ruminal movements and ruminal protozoa of affected animals were studied before and after treatment with two drugs magnesium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate. It was found that rectal temperature, rumen pH, blood pH, ruminal movements decreased significantly in lactic acidotic sheep and goats before treatment as compared to control group. While increased pulse and respiration rate were observed in lactic acidotic group before treatment as compared to control group. Thirty diseased and ten healthy animals were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D each having ten animals. Group 'A" was provided with magnesium hydroxide at a dose rate of 1.11 g/ Kg body weight orally mixed in water at a rate of 450 g/ 3.5 liter once, group "B" was treated with sodium bi carbonate at a rate of lg/ kg body weight orally once, group "C" was kept as diseased untreated control and group "D" acted as healthy control. Mean values obtained before treatment were rectal temperature 99.74 F° + 0.67153, lOO.59F° 1 0.75580, 101.25 F° ± 0.49448 and 102.86 F° ± 0.30155 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Rectal temperature values after treatment were 102.47 F° ± 0.2 1294, 101.9 + 0.27849, 101.19 F°±0.41965 and 102.95 F° ± 0.16142 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean pulse rate values for group A, B, C and D before treatment were 100.6/mm ± 3.40008, 97.2/mm ± 4.24745, 103.6/min ± 2.5636 and 86.3/min ± 1.85626 respectively while after treatment were 88.55/min ± 1.77768, 92/min ± 1.75123, 94.3/min ± 1.90938, 86/min ± 1.06460 respectively. Mean respiration rate values before treatment were 24.1min ± 0.86218, 28.2/min ± 2.52020, 24/min ± 0.84329 and 19.8/min ± 0.59256 for group A, B, C and D respectively while after treatment were 20.55/min ± 0.78953, 22.8/min ± 0.80001, 24.5/min ± 0.79234 and 20.7/min ± 0.66751 respectively. Mean rumen pH values obtained before treatment were 4.43 ± 0.14533, 4.49 ± 0.13287, 4.76 + 0.17075 and 6.39 ± 0.13699 while after treatment were 5.66 ± 0.17125, 5.41 ± 0.13506, 4.94 ± 0.18683 and 6.42 ± 0.08035 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean d pH values obtained before treatment were 7.18 ± 0.04667, 7.1 ± 0.05375, 7.21 ± 0.05044 and 7.33 ± 0 .02808 while after treatment were 7.37 ± 0.02806, 7.25 + 0.02390, 7.18 ± 0.03837 and 7.41 + 0.0383 7 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Ruminal protozoa were completely absent in ruminal fluid of lactic acidotic group. Ruminal stasis was also observed in lactic acidotic group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1052,T] (1).

250. Helminths In Peafowl (Pavo Cristatus) At Lahore Zoo

by Abdul Basit | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the infection rate of helminths in peafowl and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different broad spectrum anthalmintics. For this puiose, eighty seven different breeds of peafowl like Blue peafowl, Java green peafowl, White peafowl, Black shoulder peafowl, Emerald peafowl and Pide peafowl of different ages, both male and female were selected which were present at Lahore Zoo. Faecal samples of 87 birds were collected in clean polythene bags, properly labeled and examined for the identification of helminths in the laboratory of Clinical Medicine & Surgery department, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore. Faecal samples were examined by direct smear and centrifugal floatation methods for qualitative examination. For quantitative examination McMaster Egg Counting technique was used. Moreover, chemotherapeutic trials were conducted by making four groups of birds. Albendazole (Methyl [5-(Prophylthio)-IH-Benzimidazole-2-yl] carbonate) (Selmore Pharma) at the dose rate of O.lml per k.g. of body weight in drinking water and Pyrantel Pamoate (1 Methyl-2-(2[2-thienylj-l, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydropyrimidine, 4, 4-methylenebis (3- hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid) (Pfizer) at the dose rate of O.lml per k.g. body weight oral suspension only once in the experimental trial was used and there percentage efficacy was determined. Drugs were administered orally to each bird using crop needle. After the collection and laboratory examination of pre-medicated eighty seven faccal samples, the positive birds of different breeds of peafowl were divided in to three equal groups that were A, B and C. Forty nine out of 87 birds were positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae, Ascaridia gaul, Davenia pro glotina, Capillaria columbae and Acuaria spiralis with there individual percentage was 36.73%, 26.53%, 6.12%, 18.37% and 12.24% respectively. Out of 49 birds 48 positive birds were divided in groups, each group consisted of 16 birds respectively. Group 'A' consisted of (Blue peafowl, Java green peafowl, White peafowl, Black shoulder peafowl and Emerald Peafowl, Pide peafowl). Group 'B' consisted of (Blue peafowl, Black Shoulder peafowl, Emerald peafowl and White Peafowl, Java green, Pide peafowl). In group 'C' birds included were (Blue peafowl, White peafowl, Pide peafowl and Black shoulder Peafowl, Emerald peafowl). While in group 'D' (White peafowl, Java green peafowl, Pide peafowl & Blue Peafowl) only uninfected and untreated birds were kept. Drug therapy was only induced to group A i.e. Albendazole 0.lml/kg body weight and group B Pyrantel pamoatc 0.lml /kg body weight, while infected but untreated birds were placed in group C. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in different breeds of peafowl pre-medicationwas found as 56.32 %. While the healthy birds were 43.68%. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 03, 07 and 10 post-medication and percentage reduction of EPG calculated. On day three the percentage efficacy of Albendazole was 44.76%, on day seven 73.01%, and on day ten 94.92% respectively. In the same way percentage efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate on day three was 29.27%, on day seven 50.13% and on day ten 78.34%. The percentage EPG rise up to 3.75%, 6.24% and 6.99% at day 03, 07 and 10 in untreated group C was observed. While no infection was observed in group D through out the experimental study. In the current study no mortality of peafowl was found so no postmortem examination was conducted. There was no any side effect of Abendazole and Pyrantel pamoate was found in both the groups which were A & B respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1053,T] (1).



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