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101. Management Of Vaccinal (Nobilis Gumboro D-78) Stress In Broiler Chicks

by Amir Qadeer Nizami | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Kamran | Dr.Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: This project was planned to know the effects of vaccinal stress by infectious bursal disease (IBD) live virus vaccine (D-78) strain and to determine the methods by certain compounds to overcome the stress. Three hundred and thirty (330) day-old birds were reared upto 42 days. Ten birds out of 330 were slaughtered at zero day of the experiment, for estimation of maternal antibody titre. The remaining 320 birds were randomly divided into four equal groups i.e., A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control. Group B was vaccinated but non-medicated, Group C was vaccinated and treated with vitamins for three post-vaccination days and group D was vaccinated and treated with aspirin for three post-vaccination days. Blood samples were collected on days 14th, 28th and 42nd for detection of antibody titer against IBD. Blood samples were collected from 10 randomly selected birds of each group after 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th day postvaccination. In this project following parameters were studied (i) estimation of serum biochemical substances, (ii) heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio, (iii) estimation of antibody response against IBD vaccine (iv) adrenal gland body weight index, (v) pathological studies of adrenal glands and (vi) economics of the flock. It was analyzed whether this management was an economical procedure or not by estimating the expenses, on raising the management of these stressed birds with aspirin and vitamin. It was estimated that aspirin and vitamin both check the stress to a certain extent. The birds expressed vaccination stress for variable period ranging from 1-2 days post-vaccination. In field conditions whether the flock is small or large aspirin and vitamins can be therapeutically given to control the stress and these two agents are not expensive, so they do not have any marked effect on economics of any flock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0663,T] (1).

102. Effect Of Stress Following Vaccination (Bur - 706) Against Infectious Bursal Disease In Broilers

by Ilyas Rasheed | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Habib-ur-Rehma | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The project was designed to detect and control vaccination stress, following vaccination with live intermediate type infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine administered orally and also its effects on immune response in commercial broiler chicks. Comparative efficacy of aspirin and multivitamins was determined to combat the sress. One hundred and sixty day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, B. C and D, each group having 40 birds. Group A was kept as control, B was vaccinated but non-medicated, C was given multivitamins alongwith vaccine for 3 postvaccination days and group D was treated with Aspirin for 3 postvaccination days. Blood samples were collected on days 1st, 14th 28th and 42nd for detection of antibody titer against IBDV. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected 10 birds of each group after 24, 48 and 72 hours of vaccination for ascertaining the following parameters, heterophil/lymphocyte ration, estimation of serum biochemical substances (protein, glucose and cholesterol). On day 42, adrenal gland/body weight ratio and pathological lesions in adrenal gland wre noted. An effort was also made to ascertain the economics of flock at the end of the experiment. No significant statistical difference among birds of different groups was noted in the following parameters: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical substances and adrenal gland/body weight ratio. Vaccine did not cause detectable stress in broilers. Multivitamins therapy showed positive effects on the immune response growth traits of the birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0670,T] (1).

103. Effects Of Stress Folowing Vaccination (Avinew) Against Newcastle Disease In Broilers

by Asaf Jamal Khan, Major M | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Irshad | Dr.Sohail Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: This experiment was designed to find out the degree of stress and immune status in response to vaccination (Avinew) against ND and also to know the effects of two therapeutic agents, i.e. multivitaminsand aspirin, on efficacy of the vaccine. One hundred and sixty day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D, each group having 40 birds. Group A was kept as control, B was vaccinated but non-medicated, group C was given multivitamins alongwith vaccine for 3 post-vaccination days and group D was treated with aspirin for 3 post-vaccination days. Blood samples were collected on days 1st, 14th, 28th and 42nd for detection of antibody titer against NDV. Blood samples were collected from 10 randomly selected birds of each group after 24, 48 and 72 hours of vaccination for study of heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and estimation of serum biochemical substances (protein, glucose and cholesterol). On 42nd day of the experiment, adrenal glands of 10 randomly selected birds from each group were examined for adrenal/body weight ratio and gross/histopathological lesions. At the end of the experiment the economics of the flocks was also calculated. "AVINEW" (freezed dried live VG/GA vaccine) against Newcastle disease, activated the immune response of the chicks without any significant stress. It provided a reasonable and persistent antibody titer. Multivitamins supplementation showed immuno-potentiating effect and also positive trend in growth traits. The effect of aspirin on immune response and weight gain was variable. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0674,T] (1).

104. Detection & Control Of Vaccination (Gumboro Vaccine Nobilis Strain D-78 Stress Against Infectious Bursal Disease

by Subtain, Syed M | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr . Asim Aslam | Dr . Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: This research programme was intended to ascertain the stress produced after vaccination with live intermediate type of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine, which was administered orally through drinking water. It was also intended to manage the effects of vaccination stress with the supplementation of vitamins and aspirin. One hundred and sixty day old layer chicks were divided into four experimental groups i.e. A, B, C and D, 40 birds in each group. Group A was kept as control (non-vaccinated), B was given vaccine but not medicated, group C was administered vaccine as well as multivitamins for 3 days post-vaccination while group D was also medicated with aspirin for 3 days post-vaccination. The studied parameters were: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical analysis (serum protein, glucose and cholesterol), determination of antibody response against IBDV. At the end of experiment (42nd day) adrenal glands were isolated from 10 randomly selected birds from each group. The glands were subjected to gross and histopathological Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0678,T] (1).

105. Evaluation And Management Of Stress Induced By Vaccination Against Coccidiosis In Broilers

by Irfan Asghar, M | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr . Asim Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of vaccination stress on the performance of broilers by "Coccivac" vaccine against coceidiosis. Different blood factors like heterophil / lymphocyte ratio, total serum proteins, serum cholesterol, serum glucose levels and adrenal gland/body weight ratio, and pathological exmination of adrenal gland were used to appreciate the effects of stress in broilers. Vety-stress check and vitamin C were found useful in combating vaccine stress; the use was also economical. The results of this study represents an endaveour to suggest effective post vaccination measures for improving health status of broiler chiccks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0681,T] (1).

106. Studies On Stress Induced Effects In Broilers Following Vaccination (Hydro Poultry) Against Hydropericadium

by Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Sameera Akhtar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The project was aimed at determining the vaccination stress follow hydropericardium syndrome vaccine (hydro-poultry vaccine, simple vaccine; Adenovirus type-4 Pak) by subcutaneous route under wing at 12th day of age and comparative efficacy of multivitamins and aspirin to combat it. One hundred and seventy day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 40 birds each. Ten-day old broiler chicks were used for collection of blood sample by cardiac puncture for detection of maternal antibody titre. Birds were kept for the period of 42 days. The birds of group A served as unvaccinated, unchallenged control. Group B was given vaccine and no treatment. Group C was given vaccine and multivitamins for 3 days post-vaccination group D was given vaccine and aspirin for 3 days post vaccination. Blood samples were collected from 10 randomly selected birds from each group at different post vaccination (Against HPS) periods i.e. 24, 48 and 72 hrs for serum biochemical analysis and 10 birds from each group at 14th 28th ad 42' days for determining antibody response against hydropericardium syndrome. 10 birds of each group were slaughtered on 42 days for collection of adrenal glands. The following parameters were studied (1) determination of heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (ii) estimation of serum biochemical analysis (Total Serum Protein, serum glucose, serum cholesterol). (iii) determination of adrenal body weight ratio (iv) gross pathological and histopathological examination of adrenal glands (v) estimation of antibody response against hydropericardi um syndrome vaccine. Inactivated virus vaccine against hydropericardium was unable to induce any stress in broiler chicks and the above mentioned parameters can act as good indicators for detection of vaccination stress to some extent. Multivitamins played a minor role in improving the condition of bird whereas, aspirin did not seems to be much effective in this study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0707,T] (1).

107. Effects Of Different Hydropericardium Syndrome (Hps) Vaccine On Lymphoid Organs Of Broilers

by Aziz ul Haq, Shaikh | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Khalid Munir Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: Autogenous and oil based vaccines are used to protect the broilers against Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different types of vaccines against HPS, their effects on growth traits and the immune organs (bursa and thymus), and immunomodulatory effects on immunity against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus. Effort was also made to measure the extent of stress caused by different types of vaccines against FTPS. For this purpose 250 day-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups A, B, C, D and E. On day 12 of age the birds of group B were vaccinated with an oil based Angavac vaccine and birds of groups C, D and E were vaccinated with formalinized killed vaccines prepared from liver homogenates of affected birds by different manufacturers locally, while birds of group A were kept as unvaccinated/untreated control. Blood was collected from 10 birds of each group on 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-vaccination i.e. day 13, 14, 15 and 16 of age for preparation of slides for differential leukocyte count. Serum was collected from 10 randomly selected birds of each group on day 14, 28 and 42 of age for determination of antibody titres against NDV, IBDV and HPSV. Oil based vaccine evoked a slow steady and persistent pattern while formalinized killed vaccine provoked enhanced early level which decreased rapidly and did not persist to a level of protection uptil 42 days of age. Negative immunomodulation was observed due to all types of HPS vaccine against antibody titre of ND. The extent of immunomodulation was mild in case of oil based and severe in case of formalinized killed HPS vaccines. But no immunomodulation observed against antibody titres of IBD. The stress was a result of all types of vaccines. The oil based vaccine produced transient type of stress as compared to severe and prolonged stress produced by the formalinized killed HPS vaccines. It can be concluded that the oil based Angavac vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome exerts low level of stress and with persistent high antibody titres improves health status of flock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0708,T] (1).

108. Detection And Control Of Vaccination Stress In Pullets Against Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Avinew)

by Shakila Khanum | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Muhammad Akram Munir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The project was carried out to detect the stress in layer chicks caused by vaccination against Newcastle disease. It alsi intended to find out the role of vitamins and aspirin in combating vaccination stress. One hundred and seventy (170) day-old layer chicks were obtained from the market. 10 day old chicks were utilized to determine maternal antibody Litre against NDV. Four groups were made at random comprising of 40 birds each. These were labelled as A (control group), B (vaccine), C (vaccine + vitamin) and D (vaccine + aspirin). The studied parameters in the experiment were: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical analysis, adrenal! body weight ratio, pathological examination of adrenal glands as well as detection of antibody response against NDV. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no considerable stress was induced in the birds vaccinated against NDV vaccine. It was also concluded that vitamins have a positive effect on immune response and growth rate of bird. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0722,T] (1).

109. A Study On The Pathogenesis Of Yolk Retention In Broiler Chicks

by Kashif Aziz Khan | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Shahnnaz Hamid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection, off-feed period between hatching and housing, first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed) on yolk absorption. In Experiment-1, yolk sac infection was introduced in half of chicks while remaining acted as negative control. In Experiment-2, one third chicks were housed 24 hours after hatching, one third after 48 hours and remaining one third after 72 hours. In Experiment-3, one third chicks were offered feed immediately after housing, one third after 24 hours and remaining one third after 48 hours. Water was offered to all chicks immediately after housing. In Experiment-4, one third chicks were fed with commercial starter ration, one third with ground corn during first 24 hours followed by commercial starter ration and remaining one third were offered with 2% sugar solution in first 24 hours followed by commercial starter rations. Body weight, yolk sac weight, yolk sac/body weight ratio, estimated yolk absorption and composition of yolk was studied for each group. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0726,T] (1).

110. Effects Of Lincomycin And Spectinomycin Combination On The Immune Response Of Newcastle Disease Virus Vacinated

by Rahat Munir Chaudhry | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The project was designed to observe the effects of Lincospectin on the immune system of broiler chicks. Chicks divided in groups A, B and C were offered Lincospectin at 225mg/kg; 450mg/kg and 112.5 mg/kg body weight levels, respectively. All the chicks in various treatment groups were reared upto day 42 and the effects of Lincospectin on organ body weight indices, gross lesions on liver, spleen, thyrnus and bursa of Fabricius, and immune response of chicks against Newcastle Disease Virus vaccination, were determined. The organ body weight indices of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius and liver did not indicate significant differences (P>0.05) amongst the Lincospectin treated and untreated groups. However, the bursal body weight ratio of chicks in groups A, B and C at day 7 were significantly higher than those of group D. The data obtained on the analysis of HI antibody titre against Newcastle Disease Virus on days 1,7,14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 indicated that the geometric mean HI titres of Lincospectin treated groups (A, B and C) were quite different from each other and the chicks of group A had the best sero conversion. It was concluded that over all group A had the best immune response against NDV vaccination. This study indicates that Lincospectin at a dose rate of 225mg/kg body weight did not interfere in the immune response of chicks to NDV, helped in better wiehgt gains upto day 42 and did not cause any gross or histopathological lesions in the organs like thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen or liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0756,T] (1).

111. Effects Of Supplementation Of Selenium And Zing Alone And In Combination On The Immune Response Of Broiler Chicks

by Ashfaq Ahmad | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was designed to investigate whether different levels of selenium and zinc alone and in combination in diet had any effect on the immune response of broiler chickens. For this purpose two hundred and twenty five day-old broiler chicks were taken and equally divided into three different trials i.e. A, B and C. Trial A was supplemented with selenium (Se) at four different rates 0.18, 0.5, 1.0 and 0.0 mg/kg in groups Al, A2, A3 and A4, respectively. Trial B was supplemented with zinc (Zn) at four different rates 40, 80, 120 an zero mg/kg in groups Bi, B2, B3 and B4, respectively. Trial C was supplemented with Se + Zn at rates of 0.18±40, 0.5±80, l.0±120 and 0.0±0 in groups Cl, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Immunomodulatory effects o Se and Zn were evaluated by conducting hurnoral immune response against Newcastle disease vaccine (ND vaccine), delayed hypersensitivity reaction, weights of immune organs, growth traits and economy. Highest humoral immune response was observed in groups A3 (Se 1.0 mg/kg), B3 (Zn = 120 mg/kg), C3 (Se = 1.0 mg/kg + Zn = 120 mg/kg). rp1.e groups A4, B4 and 04 which were kept without Se and Zn supplementation had the lowest Immoral immune response. Delayed hypersensitivity index was highest in groups A3, B3 and C3, while lowest in control groups A4, B4 and C4. There was positive effect of Se and Zn on the histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, thyrnus and spleen. Body weight gains were also highest in A3, B3 and C3 and FCR was best in groups A3, B3 and C3. Weights of bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen were also highest in groups A3, B3 and C3, while lowest in the control groups A4, B4 and C4. On the whole immunomodulatory effects of supplementation of Se and Zn ir combination were better than individual supplementation of Se and Zn. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0759,T] (1).

112. A Study On Effect Of Different Antibiotics On The Immune System In Broiler Chickens

by Shahzad Ahmed | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The project was designed to study the effect of entrofloxacin and oxytetracyclone on the immune system and blood parameters. A total number of 120 day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into three equal groups; A, B and C at therapeutic dosage, each groups contined 40 birds. Group A and B were kept as medicated with enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline respectively, while group C was non medicated. All groups were vaccinated against ND, IBD and HPSon day ( 7, 21), (14,24) and 15 respectively. Groups A and B were medicated at therapeutic dose at 5th to 15th day and 21st to 25th day respectively. The experimental period was 42nd day. On day 42 organ body weight indices, gross lesions on spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and kidneys were observed. Determination of immune response against Newcastle disease, IBD and HPS diseases estimation of blood parameters, DLC, TLC and TEC were conducted on day 1st, 14th 28th and 42nd. Histopathology of spleen, thymus bursa of Fabricius and kidney were also studied. The study indicated that geometric mean of antibody titre were low in group B (Medicated with oxytetracyline) than group C (medicated with enrofloxacin) and A (control) Gross and pathological lesions were not found in any visceral organ (spleen, thymus, bursal) of groups A, B and C. There were no significant difference in weight of spleen, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and kidney of all group. Total leucocyte count and total erythrocyte count were low in groups B, than A and C on day 14, recorded after 10 day medication. In differential leucocytic count, lymphocyte were increased in group B than group A and C, whilte heterophil were decreased in group B than A and C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0761,T] (1).

113. Effect Of Different Routes Of Vaccination Against Newcastle Disease On Lymphoid Organs Of Broilers

by Rabia Salam | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Khalid | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to compare two routes (intraocular and drinking water) of vaccination against Newcastle disease in terms of protection against velogenic field isolate of NDV by noting immune response and morphological changes in Harderian gland, Bursa of Fabricius and thymus of broilers. This project would also help to evaluate role of Harderian gland to generate local and humoral immunity in response to eye drop and drinking water vaccination against NDV. For this purpose, a total of 160 day-old chicks were procured from local commercial hatchery. At day 7 birds were randomly divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C, D comprising 40 birds each. Group A and B were vaccinated through ocular and oral route respectively. While groups C and D were kept as control. At day 21, groups A and B were revaccinated through the same routes. At day 28, groups A, B and C were further sub-divided into two subgroups each i.e. Al and A2, Bi and B2, Cl and C2, respectively. Subgroups Al, Bl and Cl were challenged, ocularly while subgroups A2, B2 and C2 were challenged orally with velogenic field isolate of NDV. Ocular vaccination resulted in higher level of circulating antibodies and increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland. It can be inferred that ocular vaccination stimulated Harderian gland to produce strong lcal protective immunity both in ocular and oral mucosa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0774,T] (1).

114. Comparative Immunopathological And Immunosuppressive Effects Of Three Different Gumboro Vacine Strains

by Rana Muhammad Ayyub | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was planned to know the comparative immunosuppressive effects of three different Gumboro live vaccine strains on ND vaccination and to choose the least immunosuppressive out of these three vaccine strains. A total of 100 chicks were divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D), 25 birds in each group. All the birds of all the groups were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on 5th and 21st day of age. Specific IBD vaccine was given to specific groups at l4t1 day and 28th day of age. Group A was given intermediate plus strain vaccine (228 E strain), group B was given intermediate strain vaccine (Strain D78) and group C was given another intermediate strain vaccine (Bursine-2 strain), on both days of IBD vaccination, as per schedule. While group D was unvaccinated control. Immune organs including bursa, thymus and spleen were examined for their gross and microscopic pathological changes, before and after IBD vaccination. For this purpose, these organs were collected at 13th j7th and 31st days of age. At j3th day, gross and histopathological examination showed no lesions in any case of any group (as so far no IBD vaccine was given ). At 17th and 31st days, gross and histopathological examination revealed more severe lesions in group A, moderate lesions in group B, mild lesions in group C and no lesion in immune organs of group D. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed, to study the comparative humoral immunosuppressive effects of these IBD vaccines on antibody titre against ND vaccination, on birds of each group. Statistical analysis showed that 228 E vaccine strain (group A) while, D78 vaccine strain (group B) was less immunosuppressive but, on the other hand Bursine-2 vaccine strain (group C) was least immunosuppressive. No humoral immunosuppression was observed in unvaccinated control group D. This study suggests the use of Bursine2 strain of IBD vaccine, in a flock at risk of ND infection, as it has least immunosuppressive effect against ND vaccination. Therefore, still the need of the hour is to choose the most proper IBD vaccine strain, among all the available strains in the market, which can provide excellent protection against IBD infection as well as has least immunosuppressive effects on ND vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0775,T] (1).

115. Effect Of Asocrbic Acid And Acetylsalicylic Acid Supplementation On Performance Of Broiler Checks Exposed to Heat Stress

by Bilal Anwar | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid on the performance of broiler chicks exposed to heat stress. A total number of 100 chicks were purchased from a local hatchery and divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D A and E) having 20 birds each. Group A was kept is control. Group B was kept at (34-36°C) only during 3rd and 4th week. Group C was kept at 34-36°C) and Sb-Asper-C was also supplemented only during 3rd and 4th week. Group D was kept at (34-36°C) only during 5th and 6th week. Group E was kept at (34-36°C) and Sb-Asper-C was also supplemented only during 5th and 6th week. All the birds were vaccinated with Lasota NDV strain on day 1 and 14. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated at end of experiment. Serum samples were collected on day 1, 14, 28 and 42 of life for determination of geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition (GMHI) titer against NDV. Five birds from each group were slaughtered on day 28 and 42 for the pathological examination of bursa, thymus and spleen. Ratio of weight of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight were also calculated on day 28 and 42. The data was analysed statistically. Our results indicated that heat stress increased the FCR of the birds but decreased the immune response (GMHI) and ratio of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight of the birds. On gross pathological examination, heat stress caused atrophy of bursa, spleen and thymus but no microscopic changes were observed. This study also indicated that Sb-Asper-C (containing ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid) supplementation during heat stress had beneficial effects on FCR, serum antibody development and ratio of weight of bursa, thymus and spleen to body weight of birds. It is concluded from this experiment that the Sb-Asper-C (containing ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid) has expressed itself as an anti-heat stressor and also shown to be an immunopotentiating agent under heat stress. So Sb-Asper-C is recommended in heat stressed birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0777,T] (1).

116. The Effect Of Experimentally Induced Yolk Sac Infection With Staphylococcus Aureus On Immune Status Of Broiler Chicks

by Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to study the effect of experimentally induced yolk sac infection with Staphylococcus aureus on immune status of broiler chicks. For this purpose one hundred day-old chicks were procured from local market and were randomly divided into two groups, A and B having fifty chicks each. Confirmed pathogenic isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated into the yolk of each chick of group A while group B acted as control. Ten chicks from each group were slaughtered at interval of 48 hours i.e. on 3rd 5th 7th, and 9th day of the experiment and serum and yolk were collected. Experimental parameters included pathological examination of yolk sac, yolk sac weight/body weight ratio, antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in serum and yolk and analysis of fractional serum proteins. Results showed that yolk sac weight/body weight ratio was higher in treatment group than in control group. Marked pathological changes (abnormal colour, consistency and odour) were also observed in unabsorbed yolks of the infected group. Geometric mean titres of maternal antibodies against NDV were significantly lower in serum while higher in yolk of the infected group as compared to control one. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for serum protein analysis and percent area covered by each protein fraction was calculated. The percent area covered by most fractions of serum protein was lower in infected chicks than the control chicks. It is therefore concluded that experimental yolk sac infection with Saphylococcus aureus leads to decreased maternal antibodies absorption from infected yolks and altered serum proteins indicating decline in the immunity of the chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0786,T] (1).

117. Effect Of Experimental Yolk Sac Infection With Escherichia Coli On Immune Status Of Broiler Chicks

by Muhammad Salah-ud-Shah | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was designed to evaluate the effect of experimental yolk sac infection with E. coli on immune status of broiler chicks. One hundred day old broiler chicks were divided in to two groups i.e. A and B containing 50 birds each. Experimental infection with E. coli was given intra yolk to group A on day-1 of experiment, while group B was kept as control. Ten chicks from each group were sacrificed to collect serum and yolks on 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th day. Parameters studied were pathological examination of yolk sac, yolk sac/body weight ratio, antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus and analysis of fractional serum proteins. Results of this experiment showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to gross pathological changes of yolk sac (enlarged, discoloured, abnormal consistency and congested blood vessels) and increased yolk sac/body weight ratio. Geometric mean titer against NDV was decreased in serum and yolk of treatment group. Analysis of fractional serum proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed that percentage area covered by most of serum protein fractions was decreased in treatment group as compared to control group. It was concluded that intra yolk infection with E. coli resulted in pathological changes of yolk sac, increased yolk sac/body weight ratio and decreased immunity, which was evident from decreased maternal antibody titers and altered serum proteins profile of chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0790,T] (1).

118. Mercury Intoxication In Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idella)

by Shehar Yar Khan, M | Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.H.A.Hashmi | Dr.Muhammad Nadeem Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to study the effects of mercuric chloride (HgCI2) toxicity in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For this purpose 360 fish were procured from local fish farm and after one week of acclimatization, lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of HgCI2 was determined. Follow this two experiments were conducted to study viz, acute and chronic effect of mercury poisoning. For acute phase experiment 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgC12 at sublethal dose rate of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively. Group A acted as control group. Skin, gills and kidneys were collected after 48 and 96 hours for histopathological study. For chronic phase experiment 72 fish were divided into five equal groups (E, F, G, H and I). Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCI2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 nig/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively. Group E acted as control group. Skin, gills and kidneys were collected from each group after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days for histopathological study. In mercury exposed groups normal morphology of epidermis was disturbed and number of immature cells were increased. Overall skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments. On certain areas there was sloughing of respiratory epitheliurn in mercury exposed groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions. Certain areas of kidney showed disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and interstitial tissue and consequent dilatation and thickening of glomeruli and renal tubules. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, and necrosis was also evident. In chronic phase experiment effects of HgC12 on clinical signs and growth rate of fish were also studied. There was suppression of growth in chronic exposure groups (G, H, & I). Restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements were also observed in treatment groups. Suppressed growth rate was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that mercury intoxication not only resulted in marked histopathological changes and abnormal clinical signs but also depressed the growth rate. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0800,T] (1).

119. Mercury Intoxiation In Rohu (Rabeo Rohita)

by Waseem, M | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Sharif Mughal | Dr.Zafar Iqbal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the effect of Mercuric chiorkie (TIgCI2) toxicity in Labeo rohita (Rohu). For this purpose 175- famred fish Laheo rohita were bought from a local hatchery, kept and managed at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. After one week of acclimatization fish were exposed to mercuric chloride for acute and chronic phase to different sub-lethal doses of mercury. For acute phase experiment 40 fish were divided in to 4 equal groups viz A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCI2 at sub-lethal dose rate of 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 mg/I respectively while group A served as control group. Liver, skin and gills were collected after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase experiment 50 fish were divided in five equal groups viz F, G, 11, 1 and 3 were given mercuric chloride (HgCI2) at sublethal dose rate of 0.04mg/i for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 days respectively. Whereas group E which served as control further subdivided into five groups viz Ei, E2, E3, E4 and E5 had 25 fish maintained in 5 aquaria. Liver, skin and gills were collected from each group after 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 days respectively for pathological studies. In treatment groups normal histology of liver disturbed and there observed necrosis, pycnotic nuclei, cellular infiltration, congestion, degeneration, deformation and dilatation of ducts. Histology of skin showed changes like pycnosis, necrosis, deposition of salts, degeneration and vacuolization of epithelial cells. Histopathology of gills also showed a wide range of lesions like hypertrophy of lamellae, larnellar fusion, club shaped lamellae, dis-integration, congestion and hemorrhages. In chronic phase experiment effects of HgCI2 on clinical signs and growth rate of fish were also studied. Restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements were observed in treatment groups. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment fish. It was concluded that mercury intoxication not only results in marked histopathological changes and abnormal clinical signs but also results in depressed growth rate. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0805,T] (1).

120. Detection And Control Of Vaccination Stress Following Vaccination With Live Virus Newcastle Disease Vaccine And Its Effect on Immune Response Commmercial Broiler Chicks

by Zahid Jawad | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr. Khushi Muhamma | Dr.Javed Rashid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This study intended to ascertain the vaccination stress following live Newcastle disease vaccine by oral route and to determine the comparative efficacy of probiotic and vitamins to combat it. One hundred and forty day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 35 birds each. The birds were kept for 45 days alter vaccination with Bio-LaSota by oral route on 21st day. Chicks From group A was kept as control. Group B was given vaccine and no treatment. Group C was given vaccine and only brobiotic (protexin). Group D was given vaccine and only vitamins (Vitaoligosol). Seven birds of each group were slaughtered on 22nd day, 23th, 24th and 25th day and remaining 7 birds of each group were slaughtered on day 45th, for collection of blood samples. The blood samples from 7 randomly selected birds were collected on day 16, 30th and day 45th for determination of antibody t.itre. The following parameters were studied: (i) determination of hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio (Ii) estimation of antibody response against Newcastle disease vaccine (iii) estimation of serum biochemical substances (iv) Determination of adrenal gland body weight index and (v) Pathological study of adrenal glands. Live virus vaccine against Newcastle disease caused vaccination stress in broiler chickcns. The birds expressed vaccination stress for a variable period ranged from 1 to 2 post-vaccination day. But these results were more accurate if level of corticosteroids was detected. In future, a more comprehensive study is required to devise simple and reliable methods for detecting stress in poultry in field conditions and also to suggest therapeutic and prophylactic measures for relieving the birds from the state of stress. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0806,T] (1).

121. Detection And Control Of Vaccination Stress Following Vaccination With Inactivated Virus Newcastle Disease

by Kanwar Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Javed Rashid | Dr.Khushi Muhammady | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This study was intended to detect and control of the vaccination stress following vaccination with inactivated virus Newcastle disease vaccine intramuscularly (i/rn) and its effects on immune response in commercial broiler chicks. One hundred and forty day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups i.e. A, 13, C and D having 35 birds each. Chicks from group A were kept as control. Group B was given vaccine and no treatment. Group C was given vaccine and probiotic (protexin). Group 0 was given vaccine and vitamins (Vitaoligosol). Seven birds of each group were slaughtered on 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th day post vaccination and remaining 7 birds of each group were slaughtered on day 45th, for collection of blood samples. The blood samples from 7 randomly selected birds were collected on day 16th, 30th and 45th for determination of antibody titre. The following parameters were studied: (i) determination of heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (ii) estimation of antibody response against Newcastle disease vaccine (iii) estimation of serum biochemica' substances (iv) determination of adrenal gland body weight index and (v) pathological study of adrenal glands. Inactivated virus vaccine against Newcastle disease induced transient stress in broiler chicks and detection of serum biochemical substances (protein, glucose and cholesterol) can act good indicators for detection of vaccination stress. Protexin and vitaoligosol played minor role in combating vaccination stress in this study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0807,T] (1).

122. Effect Of High Dietary Calcium And Low Phosphorus On Urinary System Of Broiler Chicks

by Majeed Ansar | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Nisar | Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to examine the effect of high dietary calcium and low phosphorus on urinary system of broiler chicks. A total of ninety (day-old) broiler chicks were divided into3groups designated as A. 13 and C. The birds were given starter feed in the first 3 weeks of their life and the finisher feed in the remaining 3 weeks of the experiment. The calcium phosphorus ratio in the feed for groups A, B and C was 1 : 0.5, 2: 0.5 and 3 : 0.5 respectively, throughout the experiment. The birds of group A served as control. Various parameters studied included, determination of serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, estimation of Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), kidney body weight ratio, gross pathological examination of urinary system and histopathological examination of kidney. The birds of groups B and C, fed high dietary calcium and low phosphorus revealed hyperealcaemia and hypophosphataemia in their sera. The FCR values of groups A, B and C, came to be 1.728, 1.876 and 2.089 respectively, reflecting inferior feed conversion efficacy of treatment groups as compared to the control one. The mean kidney body weight ratio of groups A, B and C was 9.41, 11.95 and 16.08 respectively, thereby indicating adverse effects of high calcium and low phosphorus on kidney body weight ratio of experimental birds. The urinary system of the experimental birds, in general, displayed inflammatory lesions, showing abnormalities of colour, size, shape and texture of kidneys and ureters. The latter also experienced occlusion and distention. The microscopic examination of the experimental birds showing gross pathological lesions revealed common hostopathological changes, involving glomeruli, tubular cells and interlobular veins, comprising increased cellularity, degeneration, haemonrrages etc. The findings of the present study have shown the adverse effect of high dietary calcium and low phosphorus on urinary system of broiler birds. It is therefore, suggested that for obtaining optimal growth and performance of broilers, a diet with calcium and phosphorus ratio of 1.0 : 0.5, may be formulated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0808,T] (1).

123. Effect Of Feeding Organic And Inorganic Selenium With And Without Combination Of Vitamin E On The Immune System Of Broiler Chickens

by Imran Hussain, M | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Kamran | Dr.Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present project was designed to investigate the effect of organic and inorganic selenium with and without combination of vitamin E on the immune system of broiler chickens. For this purpose 130 (one day old) broiler chicks were taken and divided into three different groups i.e. A, B and C. Group A and B consisted of 60 chicks each while group C consisted of 10 chicks. Group A was further sub divided into six sub groups Al, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 which were fed on organic selenium at the dose rate of 0.25, 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.0 mg/kg and vitamin E at the dose rate of 0, 200, 0, 200, 0 and 200 lU/kg respectively. Group B was further sub divided into six sub groups Bi, B2, B3, B4, B5 and B6, which were fed on inorganic selenium at the dose rate of 0.25, 0.25, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.0 mg/kg and vitamin E at the dose rate of 0, 200, 0, 200, 0 and 200 lU/kg respectiyely. Group C received no selenium and vitamin E and served as control group. Immunomodulatory effects of selenium and vitamin E were evaluated by measuring haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). Pathological examination of lymphoid organs, lymphoid organs weight/body weight ratio, growth traits and economy were also studied. Highest immune response was observed in sub groups A6 and B6 as compared to control group that had the lowest immune response. There was no effect of organic and inorganic selenium with and without combination of vitamin E on the pathology of bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus as compared to control group. Lymphoid organs weight/body weight ratio was also highest in sub groups A6 and B6 while lowest in control group. Body weight gain was highest in sub groups A6 and B6 as compared to control group. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was also best in sub groups A6 and B6 as compared to control group. To summarize, the immunomodulatory effects of supplementation of organic selenium with and without combination of vitamin E were better than supplementation of inorganic selenium with and without combination of vitamin E. Moreover, the effects of organic or inorganic selenium with combination of vitamin E were better than the supplementation of organic or inorganic selenium without combination of vitamin E. It can be concluded that feeding of organic/inorganic selenium with and without combination of vitamin E is not only beneficial for health status of birds but also economical and cost effective for the farmers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0817,T] (1).

124. Study On The Experimental Inoculation Of Mycoplasama Gallisepticum In Chemically Immunosuppressed Broiler

by Hassan Mujtaba Naqvi | Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Masood Rabbani | Prof.Dr.Ikram | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The project was carried out to study the effect of Mycoplasma gallisepticarn infection in chemically immuno-suppressed and normal broiler chicks by recording weight gain, calculating feed conversion ratio, detecting the immune response against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine and observing the pathological changes in lungs at gross and histopathological levels. For this study 180 day-old broiler chicks were purchased. The birds were divided into three equal groups i.e. A, B and C having two replicates in each group. The birds of group A were subjected to immunosupression using cyclophosphamide and challenged with M. gallisepticum at day 14 of age. The birds of group B were not immuno-suppressed and only challenged with M. gallisepticum at the same day while the group C was kept as control. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio was studied at day 14 of age before inoculation and at days 24, 34 and 44 of age after the inoculation. The blood and lungs samples from each group were also collected at day 14 of age before inoculation and at days 24, 34 and 44 of age after the inoculation for detection of immune response against NDV vaccine and for observing the pathological alterations, respectively. Lowest weight gain was recorded in birds of group A which was both immuno-suppressed as well as infected with M. gallispecticum (PcO.05) amongst the three treatment groups. Similarly, feed conversion ratio of the group A was significantly lower (P<O.05)than those of group B and group C. Geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition (GMHI) titers against NDV vaccine of immunosupressed and M. gallisepticum infected birds was lower than those of M. gallisepticum infected and control birds. Gross pathological findings of the lungs of infected birds revealed congestion, consolidated spots, haemorrhages and accumulation of frothy material. The bronchi of the infected birds showed caseous exudates. Histopathological changes in lungs of infected birds depicted odema, hyperplasia of alveolar walls with massive mononuclear cell infiltration. This mononuclear cell infiltration was also seen in alveoli of infected lungs. However, these gross and histopathological changes were more severe in group A (immunosuppressed and M. gallisepticum infected) than that of group B (M. gallisepticum infected). No such gross or histopathological changes were observed in the control group C which was neither immunosuppressed nor infected with M. gallisepticurn. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0825,T] (1).

125. Effect Of Type Of Initial Feeding On Yolk Sac In Broiler Infected With Escherichia Coli

by Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr.Zafar Iqbal | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad sarwar khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The project was designed to observe the effect of type of initial feeding on yolk sac in broilers experimentally infected with Escherichia coil. For this purpose chicks were divided into 7 groups having 20 chicks each. On day 1, yolk sac infection was introduced in groups A, B, C, D, B and F while group 0 remained as control. Group A was fed wheat bran, group B fed on ground maize, group C fed on commercial starter ration (CSR) and 2% glucose solution, group D fed on CSR and 6% canola oil, group B fed on CSR and enzymes mixture (Driselase), group F fed on CSR and group G fed on CSR for first five days of experiment. Simple commercial starter ration was fed to all groups after 5th day of experiment. Body weight, yolk sac weight, yolk sac/body weight index, estimated yolk sac absorption and chemical composition of yolk was studied for each group. Results of experiment showed that simple commercial starter ration give better results as initial feed in broilers infected with E. coli infection rather than using wheat bran, ground maize, 2% glucose solution with CSR, 6% canola oil with CSR or enzymes with CSR. It was observed that feeding commercial starter ration in E coli infection, in early life of chick led to increase weight gain, decrease in yolk sac weight and yolk sac/body weight index, increased estimated yolk absorption and better absorption of moisture and protein from yolk Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0827,T] (1).

126. Effects Of Excessive Sodijm Salts In Feed Of Broiler Birds

by Farrukh Ali Khan | Dr. Shakil Akhtar Khan | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: This study was conducted on broiler birds for 6 weeks to investigate the effect of excessive sodium salt i.e. sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on immune status of birds, against NDV by haemagglutination inhibition test. Presence of edematous lesion on postmortem examination, estimation of serum sodium concentrations by spectrophotoinetry and calculation of FCR and weight gain was also performed. A total of 100 (one day old) broiler chicks were purchased and were divided in 4 groups A, B, C and D. The birds of group A were fed on 0.36% NaCI in feed, group B was fed on 0.36% NaHCO3 in feed and the birds of group C were fed on feed having 0.18% NaC1 and 0.18% NaHCO3. The group D was control group fed on routine feed having 0.18% total sodium salts. They were maintained under similar hygienic managemental conditions and were provided feed and water ad libitum The results showed that the birds of group A had better feed conversion ratio as compared to the birds of group B, C and D. Whereas birds of group D had poor FCR as compared to the birds of group A, B and C. The results showed that birds of group A had better weight gain as compared to the birds of group B, C and D. Whereas birds of group D had poor weight gaul as compared to the birds of group A, B and C. On analysis of serum sodium concentration, the birds of group A had maximum sodium concentration and birds of group D had lowest serum sodium concentration. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the serum sodium levels of all groups except within group B and C. The highest GMHI titer against ND virus was observed in sera of birds of group D and the lowest ill the sera of birds from group A. No edematous lesions were observed in birds of any group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0839,T] (1).

127. Comparative Studies On The Sensitivity Of Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Microscopic Examination For The Detection of Trypanosoma Evansi in Horses

by Muhammad Asif Muieed | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Mr. Asim Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was standardized and its efficacy was evaluated against microscopic examination i.e. Giemsa stained smear method ['or the diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection (Surra) in horses. l3lood samples were collected from 100 suspected horses from different localities in Lahore. Under aseptic precautions blood smears were prepared, after drying and fixing with methanol, slides were stained by Giemsa stain method of staining. By stained blood smear method 5 out of 100 horses were found positive For T. evansi infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on the blood of' the same suspected horses to evaluate its efficacy in the diagnosis of' T. evansi infection and to compare its diagnostic value against the microscopic examination method currently in use. For this purpose total genomic DNA was extracted from suspected blood samples. The PCR reaction was performed in a 50tl reaction mixture containing I X Taq BuFfer, 0.2 mM dNTP Mixture. I .5 mM MgCIl2 2.5 U/1i1 Taq Polymerase. 4uM of' each primer, 2 ul of DNA extracted and 31.5 p1 of DNase - free deionised water. The tubes containing the mixture were subjected to 30 cycles of amplification in a thermocycler. During each cycle the sample of' DNA was denatured at 93° C' For 30 seconds, annealed at 45° C For 30 seconds and extended at 720 C For I minute. Prior to the cycling and at the end of' cycling the mixture was subjected to incubation at 93° C for a period of 3 minutes and final extension at 72° C for a period of 5 minutes, respectively. PCR product was then characterized by 2.5% of agarose gel electrophoresis. To confirm the presence of DNA and to estimate its size it was compared with a DNA ladder and was photographed with a Polaroid camera. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed 16 positive cases out of 100 above mentioned suspected cases. These 16 positive cases diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also included animals, which were diagnosed by stained blood smear method. It can be concluded that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a superior and sensitive (16%) in comparison with the microscopic examination i.e. Giemsa stained smear method (5%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more effective in cases where the parasitemia is low and this test could be used in other species of animals especially camels where the disease is more chronic and difficult to confirm by. other routine methods. PCR would not only ensure early diagnosis and treatment in individual animals but can detect animal reservoirs of infection and would help to eliminate threat to equine and camel herds which are grazed and housed together and where blood sucking mechanical fly vectors are ever present. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0860,T] (1).

128. Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infectionin Butchers And Buffaloes By Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Latex Agglutination Test

by Rana Sajjad Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Naeem Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic zoonotic infection is usually aymptomatic in immunocompetent persons although it may be present as lymphadenopathy, febrility, etc. but it is a life threatening opportunistic infection in congenitally infected patients and in immunocompromised individuals (those with AIDS, malignancy, organ transplantation, etc). Human beings become infected with T. gondii usually by ingesting oocysts in food and water contaminated with cat feces or by consuming tissue cysts in undercooked meat. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on serological tests latex agglutination test (LAT). Detection of specific DNA seems to be of clinical value in the ingestion of patients infected with toxoplasmosis. In this study, latex agglutination test was used for the detection of the antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based on the amplification of repetitive B1 gene of T. gondii. The study was based on a total of 200 samples involving 50 butchers, 50 buffalo's sera and whole blood respectively. LAT established an overall infection of T. gondii in butchers and buffaloes as 20 % and 22 % respectively. The PCR analysis confirmed this T. gondii prevalence in butchers and buffaloes. LAT proved to be an efficacious method for routine serological screening for antibodies to T. gondii. The costly and sophisticated PCR results in our investigation showed good correlation with the serological data of these patients showing that LAT can be used as an alternation to PCR. The results demonstrated that PCR analysis of clinical samples of patients suspective for acute toxoplasmosis including those with an acquired infection presented by lymphadenopathy can be a promising diagnostic method that enables direct detection of parasitic DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0861,T] (1).

129. Diagnosis And Prevalence Of Trypanosoma Evansi In Camels Through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) And Haematocrit Centrifugation Thechnique (HCT) in Punjab (Pakistan)

by Jahanzaib | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The most important protozoan disease of camels is trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi. There was little epidemiological information on the prevalence of infection. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of Trypanosorna evansi in camels through haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total number of 100 camels of different age and sex groups were selected from different localities including Bahawalpur, Lahore, Gujranwala and faisalabad to find out the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Punjab (Pakistan) and to evaluate the sensitivity of PCR assay and HCT for the diagnosis Trypanosoma evansi. Blood samples were collected and examined by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence was recorded as 4% and 13% by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction. The positive samples by the polymerase chain reaction also included the positive animals by the haermatocrit centrifugation technique. The results showed that PCR was more sensitive method for the detection of trypanosomiasis as compared to the haematocrit centrifugation technique. Thus PCR can be used for the diagnosis of camel trypanosornosis during both acute and chronic phases of infection, and for use in the evaluation of treatment. Application of PCR to field diagnosis is therefore clearly indicated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0862,T] (1).

130. Effect Of Potassium Chloride And Sodium Bicarbonate Suplementation On Thermotolerance Of Broileers Exposed to Heat Stress

by Muhammad Tahir Naseem | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Kamran | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6ºF) to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level. Thermostress lead to significant in decrease (P<0.05) weight gain, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, while FCR was increased. During heat stress, KCl and NaHCO3 at levels of 1.5% and 0.5% respectively, improved weight gain, and FCR and significantly increased (P<0.05) serum potassium and bicarbonate level. The results showed that combination of KCl and NaHCO3 supplementation alleviated the negative effects of heat stress in broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0863,T] (1).

131. Toxicological Effects Of Feeding First Cut Sorghum Vegeation And Stalks To Rabbits

by Shahzad Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Naeem Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the hematological and biochemical changes due to toxicity caused by sorghum (stalks, leaves) in rabbits and compared with grass feeding. For this purpose 18 rabbits of almost same body weight and age were randomly divided into three groups (6 animals per group) designated as A, B and C. Animals of each group were caged separately. Group A was fed on grass; group B was fed on sorghum stalks; group C was fed on sorghum leaves. Sorghum samples were collected from different fields A, B, C and D, near Bund road Lahore. From each field four samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate. Nitrate analysis in sorghum stalks and leaves showed that in all the four fields there was high level of nitrate in stalks as compared to leaves and nitrate content both in stalks and leaves was high in field A as compared to field B, C and D. This high level of nitrate in sorghum was due to excessive use of nitrogen containing fertilizers by farmers. Therefore group B and C was fed on sorghum stalks and leaves of field A for 30 days in experimental room of Pathology, UVAS, Lahore. Blood samples were taken from marginal ear veins of all rabbits aseptically with the help of syringe at the start of the experiment and then at the interval of 10 days till the expiry of the experiment. Hematological studies revealed erythrocytopenia, leukocytopenia, decreased hemoglobin and lowered erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in group B as compared to group A and C from day 10 to 30. Biochemical analysis reveled methemoglobinemia and high level of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of group B as compared to group A and C from day 10 to 30. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0864,T] (1).

132. Molecular Diagnosis Of Bovine Tuberculosis In Humans

by Muhammad Bilal | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Mnsur-uddin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. In humans it is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and occasionally by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium africanum. Bovine tuberculosis caused by M bovis is the main cause of enteric TB in humans. it is transmitted through milk, meat and dairy products. It is also recorded that it can also cause pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. A study was conducted to detect the M bovis in human pulmonary sputum samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate M bovis from M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Sputum of 400 patients was randomly analyzed with PCR assay. Two (0.5%) out of 400 sputum samples were positive for M bovis while remaining were positive for M tuberculosis. Over all 0.5% cases were positive for M bovis causing pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. The two positive cases were analyzed in the background of their history. History revealed that both of them belong to different families and areas were in close contact with animals for a long time. It suggested that they caught infection from animals. It was an evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis of M bovis in humans. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0865,T] (1).

133. Effect Of High Dietary Fat On Serum Cholesterol And Fatty Liver Syndrome In Broiler

by Imran Ahmed Qureshi | Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. H. A. Hashmi | Prof. Dr. Nisar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broiler. For this purpose 90 (day-old) chicks were procured from local hatchery. They were divided into three groups A, B and C having 30 chicks each. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing plant and animal fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. Group A acted as control. Experimental parameters included serum cholesterol values and pathological changes in liver. The serum cholesterol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than that of control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was greater in birds fed on animal fat that on plant fat. Grossly the livers of group B and C were enlarged in size, paler in colour, soft in consistency, having petechial haemorrhages, deposition of fat and fibrin. The livers of group A were grossly normal. Histopathologically, livers of group B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nuclei to the periphery of the cell. Addition of dietary fat from animal and plant sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0866,T] (1).

134. Molecular Detection Of Babesia Bigemina And Babesia Bovis In Carrier Cattle By Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

by Muhammad Suleman | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Babesiosis is a highly important disease in the world, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. A wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally man are affected by this disease, which is transmitted by ticks and has a worldwide epidemiological distribution. While the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections also occurs in other domestic animals , including horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. The present study targeted the carrier cattle infected with Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, as they are difficult to detect because of the low numbers of parasites that occur in peripheral blood. However, diagnosis of low-level infections with the parasite is important for studying the transmission and standardizing epidemiological studies. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of the gene from the parasite, and tested the ability of this method to detect carrier cattle. A study was conducted to detect the. Babesia in blood samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis by using specific primer in carrier cattle. Blood samples of 100 cattle were randomly analyzed with PCR assay 29 (29.0%) out of 100 blood samples were positive for babesiosis in which 18% were positive for Babesia bigemina and 11% were positive for Babesia bovis, While the Light Microscopy detected only 18 (18%) out of the same samples. The samples found positive by LM were reconfirmed during the PCR assay but no sample was found to be having both Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis infections simultaneously. Thus it is concluded that PCR is a reliable molecular diagnostic technique to detect low level of infections in carrier animals in a population and thus could be used as an effective screening tool for the control and eradication of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0929,T] (1).

135. Pathogenesis Of Salmonellosis With Respect To Carrier States In Poultry And Its Public Health Impact

by Younus, M | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Prof.Dr.Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The present research endevour was made to study and investigate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings. The objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only' produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. In this study 400 samples were collected and were distributed and detailed as; poultry feed (n=100), poultry intestines (n100 Small and n=100 Large intestines) and eggs (n=100) were collected for the identification of the organism through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella enteritidis in the poultry feed was 20,15,10,15 and 10 for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher respectively (P>0.05). The positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella typhimurium for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher feed was 15,10,10, 10, and 10 respectively (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between layers feed and broilers feed as far as identification of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium was concerned (P>0.05) but the prevalence range of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimuilum from poultry feed was 10-20% which was biologically significant. The positivity percentage rate of Salmonella enteritidis for small and large intestine in Desi birds (local breed) was 2 and 16 % respectively. Where as for broilers in small and large intestine it was 4 and 18% respectively. The positivity of Salmonella typhimurium in small and large intestine of Desi birds was 2 and 14% where as in broilers it was 4 and 16% in the small and large intestine respectively. There was a significant difference (P <0.05) between the positivity of percentage of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium as far as identification of Salmonellae from Desi and broiler meat was concerned. It was found that 16%, 8%, 16'Y0 and 16% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella enteritidis in layer egg albumin, Desi (local breed) eggj albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the detection of Salmonellae. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, Desi (local breed) double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% respectively. It was found that 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella lyphimurium in layer egg albumin, Desi egg albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the' detection of Salmonella. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 8%, 4%, 8% and 4% respectively. The positively rate for Salmonella typhimurium in both albumin and yolk was relatively less in both albumin and yolk of layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs. Statistically there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) but the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from different eggs ranged between 4-16% and 4-12% respectively which was biologically significant. The Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated, identified and grown on the artificial and selective media. The virulence of the organisms of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were estimated through calculation of LD50. It was found as 10358/mI and 103/ml for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium respectively, having significant difference (P< 0.05). In order to understand the pathogenesis and carrier states of salmonella organisms in poultry, a group of 300 broiler birds were procured and divided into three groups were studied upto the age of 3 months. The infection was orally given on the 7th day of their age. As an average 86.74% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella enteritidis in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05). Similarly an average 94.94% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella typhimurium in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05) but non of the samples of Small and Large intestine of control group (Group-C) were found positive for Salmonella enleritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. There was a significant difference between Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in large intestine of poultry (P< 0.05). The histopathology of different organs of broiler chickens i.e liver, lung, spleen, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, bursa of fabracious and lean muscles at different phases of disease was also conducted for the better understanding of pathogenesis due to salmonellosis. The principal lesions in the liver at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and haemmorrhage. No lesions were recorded in liver after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the lungs at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration,' mild necrosis, vascular congestion and haemrnorrhages. No lesions were recorded in lungs after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the spleen were mild leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and congestion at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in spleen after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the kidneys were marked tubutar necrosis with glomerular degeneration and Ieukocytic infiltration and haemmorrhages at the age of 14 to 28 in groups A and B. No lesions were1 recorded in kidneys after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the small intestine were degeneration of mucosa with inflammatory cells, necrosis, inflammation, superficial ulceration on mucosal lining of intestine at the age of 14 to 21 days. No lesions were recorded in small intestine after 21 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of the large intestine were leukocytic infiltration with necrosis and inflammation at the age of 14 to 91 days. The lesions were recorded up to 91 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of Bursa of1, fabricious were atrophy & necrosis of bursal follicles and leukocytic infiltration at the age of 14 to 21 in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in Bursa of fabricious after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of lean muscle were muscular degeneration and necrotic areas at the age of 14 to 21 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in lean muscles after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever and food poisoning in humans. The chain of transmission started fron poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end host. Finally, the 400 samples of stool and blood from 200 human patients (100 suspected of typhoid fever and 100 suspected of food poisoning) were also collected from four different hospitals from urban area of Lahore for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. A total of 14% and 10% stool samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in case of suspected typhoid fever patients respectively. Similarly 6% and 2% blood samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected typhoid fever patients and also as for as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients of each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals. CONCLUSION A series of five experiments were conducted and carried out to study and explore the project Pathogenesis of Salmonellosis with respect to carrier states in poultry and its public health impact." For this purpose, in the 1st phase, identification, isolation and characterization of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was attempted. It was followed by the estimation of LD 50 and carrier states and histopathological study at different phases of disease in broiler chickens experimentally infected with Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium to ascertain the nature of carrier states in terms of maintenance of the Salmonellae by different organs leading to histopathological changes and finally to the stage of shedding of the organism through the feces in the environment. Dissemination to human beings and the Public health impact of Salmonellosis was studied in the human subjects who consumed the meat and eggs of the carrier birds which were followed by testing their stool and blood samples through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this way the pathogenesis and chain of Salmonellas enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infection through poultry feed, meat, eggs and humans beings was transmissible. However, the humans were considered as dead end host. It was concluded that Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was maintained in the large intestine of the poultry and has transmitted from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs to human beings and thus, causing typhoid fever and food poisoning. RECOMMENDATIONS /SUGGESTIONS Major aim of this research endeavour was to help in understanding the basic principles involved in the chain of infectious cycle of SalmoneUosis. In addition to that the application of the quality control of poultry products with respect to Salmonella infection to broiler chicks and broiler meat available in the market for human consumption is the ultimate goal of this project. The objective was to reduce the risk of Salmonellosis in poultry and humans. The following measures are suggested. 1. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN POULTRY! ANIMALS A. Monitoring o The poultry and their environment should be monitored by frequente testing of Salmonellae. o Bacteriological profile of poultry house environment. o Serological testing of flock and removal of infected birds. o Culturing of tissues from selected birds. o Egg sheils, egg albumin & egg yolk culturing. B. Hygiene and Sanitation o Eggs from infected layer flocks should be pasteurized before consumption. o Salmonella positive breeder flocks should be given pellet feed. o Hatching sanitation o Proper disinfection of hatching eggs. o Proper sanitation and disinfection of farm premises. o The provision of salmonella-free feed i.e pellet feed is of prime importance for the prevention of salmonella infections of poultry flocks and parent flocks. o Control of rodent, insects and wild birds C. Managemental o For routine treatment of eggs and progeny, only those antibiotics should be used that do not cause microbial resistance against drugs widely used in humans o Resistance of Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp. to fluoroquinolones has become a public health risk. This does not exclude well targeted and transient use of antibiotics as essential measures in salmonellosis control programmes. o Vaccination of breeder flock is recommended for decrease of the salmonella infection pressure. 7 1. MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN HUMANS A. Meat and Eggs o Wrap fresh meat in plastic bags at the market to prevent blood from1 dripping on other foods. o Cook poultry products at temperature of 170°F for breast meat and at 180°F for thigh meat. o Avoid eating raw or under cooked meat and egg. o Cook poultry meat and egg thoroughly. o Purchase only inspected grade AA eggs and animal food products. o Handle raw eggs carefully: o Keep eggs refrigerated o Throw away cracked or dirty eggs. o Do not eat half fried and half boiled eggs. o Wash hands immediately after handling raw poultry or raw eggs. o Full fried and full boiled eggs should be used for eating to prevent food borne Salmonellosis problem. b. PERSONNEL HYGIENE MEASURES o Washing of hands with soap and warm water before and after handling foods, after using the bath rooms. o Refrigerate foods properly. - Use bleach to wash cutting boards and counters used for preparation immediately after use to avoid cross contamination of other foods. o People who have Salmonellosis should not prepare food for others. o Educate the food handlers and persons who prepare food. Educational programmes covering pre- and post harvest food safety procedures, especially salmonella control, should be initiated in the animal and food production sectors for the public awareness. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0938,T] (1).

136. Standardization Of Avian Leukosis Diagnostic Techniques Through Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Confirmation With Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (Elisa)

by Abdul Razzaq (M.Phil) | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Ch | Mr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr.Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Avian Leukosis Virus type J infection of chickens is a neoplastic disease affecting chickens. ALV-J is of great economic significance not only because of tumor mortality, but also because of decreased egg production in meat breeding stocks, increased rate of infections, poor response to vaccination and weight suppression in broilers. There is wide spread prevalence of ALV-A and ALV-J in commercial chicken flocks. For control of ALV's eradication programmes based solely on dam testing may be less effective than those where dam testing is combined with procedures to mitigate early horizontal transmission in progeny chicks. For this purpose PCR along with antigen capture ELISA was used in combination for detection of ALV-J proviral DNA, and ALV group specific antigen i.e. p 27 antigen of ALV-J. Polymerase chain reaction technique was standardized by using improved version of H7 primers specific for ALV sub group J targeting env gene encoding gp85 for the detection of avian leucosis virus type J and its confirmation was carried out by comparing it with antigen capture immunosorbant assay which measures group-specific antigen (GSA) i.e. p27 antigen. Feather pulp and serum samples from 50 broiler birds of up to 7 weeks of age were randomly selected from 10 different broiler poultry farms of district Lahore Pakistan. The prevalence of ALV-J was 22 % for antigen capture immunosorbant ELISA and 34 % for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0943,T] (1).

137. Standardization Of Tuberculin Test In Buffaloes And Detection Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Blood Through PCR

by Asad Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. In bovine it is mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Bovine tuberculosis caused by M bovis is the main cause of enteric TB in humans. It is transmitted through milk, meat and dairy products. Bovine TB is still a significant zoonosis in many parts of the world and it accounts for 25.8% of TB in man. A study was conducted to standardize the tuberculin test in buffaloes and to detect the M bovis in buffalo blood samples through PCR based techniques. A total of 100 buffaloes were tested by Single Comparative Cervical Intradermal Tuberculin Test (SCCIDTT) for this research and 100 blood samples were also collected from the same under aseptic condition. Data was also collected from owners & milkers of buffalo before and after SCCIDTT. A PCR (is a nucleic acid-based technique that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of micro-organism) assay was described which could detect M bovis in blood samples. Blood of 100 buffaloes was randomly analyzed with PCR assay. Over all two (2.0%) out of 100 buffaloes were found positive to tuberculin test while fifty four (54 %) out of 100 blood samples of the same buffaloes were found positive for M bovis in PCR. The positive cases were analyzed in the background of their history. History revealed that the animals herd was crowded and were reared much closed to each other for a long time. It suggested that they got infection from other animals. It was an evidence of bovine tuberculosis of M bovis in buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0951,T] (1).

138. Comparison Of Multiplex Pcr & Conventional Methods For The Diagnosis Of Tuber Culosis (TB) in Human, Buffalo & Cattle in Lahore District

by Naima Mumtaz | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rarf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis, one of the most widespread infectious diseases, is the leading cause of death due to single infectious agent among humans and animals in the world. It is endemic in Pakistan with about 1.5 million people infected, and Pakistan ranks seventh among the 22 high-burden tuberculosis countries worldwide (WHO, 2006). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of human TB, but an unknown proportion of cases are due to Mycobacterium. bovis. The study was conducted in Lahore to compare the multiplex PCR and conventional methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis caused by M tuberculosis and M bovis in 300 humans' sputum and 1000 bovines' milk samples. Conventional methods included Ziehi Neelsen staining, culture and biochemical tests. For M tuberculosis and M bovis the pncA gene and specie -specific 500 bp fragments were targeted respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR was found statistically significant in comparison to Ziehl Neelsen staining and culture for the differential diagnosis of TB. Pyrazinamide resistance was found in 15 (34.8%) out of 43 isolates recovered from media inoculated by sputum and milk. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0954,T] (1).

139. Comparative Studies On The Sensitivity Of Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Conventional Serological Methods For the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellqsis

by Raheela Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Prof. Dr. Asim | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The polymerase chain reaction was standardized and its efficacy was evaluated against Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Milk Ring test (MRT) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 200 cows and buffaloes from Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab. Under aseptic measures 200 serum and 200 milk samples were tested by RBPT, MRT and PCR on both milk and serum samples in both cows and buffaloes as described in materials and methods. RBPT showed high sensitivity values (27.7% in cows and 45.2% in buffaloes) than serum PCR (25% in cows and 3 9.6% in buffaloes) but on other hands MRT showed low sensitivity (11.1% in cows, 25.4% in buffaloes) and high specificity (98.4% in cows and 93.6% in buffaloes) than milk PCR with sensitivity of 13.8% in cows, 29.4% in buffaloes and specificities of 95.2% in cows and 89.3% in buffaloes respectively. The comparison of PCR assays conducted on both types of samples showed high sensitivity of serum PCR against milk PCR. The comparison of RBPT and MRT in both species showed high sensitivity of RBPT than MRT. But due to low positive predictive value of RBPT and instability in its results in both species it is concluded that there is no significant difference in PCR and serological methods so no single test can be used for the exact diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0957,T] (1).

140. Diagnosis Of Bovine Tuber Culosis In Deers Kept In Captivity By Pcr And Tuberculin Test

by Zeeshan Nayyer | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, granalomatous, highly communicable, zoonotic and debilitating disease. The etiological agents of tuberculosis belong to the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis. A total of 50 blood samples from emaciated deers were collected from deer’s kept in captivity suspected from TB. These samples were subjected to DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction and tuberculin test for the sensitivity and specificity of these tests.The results obtained were analyzed by standardization of PCR for M. bovis. PCR is a nucleic acid based technique that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of microorganism. Results indicated that 4% and 20% of deers were positive for M. bovis infection with the tuberculin test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) respectively. From the results it is evident that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is more sensitive than the tuberculin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and gives much higher percentage of positive cases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0970,T] (1).

141. Diagnosis Of Surra In Equines By Indirection Fluorescent Anitobody

by Malik Ahsan Nadeem | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Kamran | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Trypanosomiasis (‘surra) is the most widely distributed arthropod- born protozoan disease affecting the equines. This study was conduàted to check the efficacy of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the diagnosis of Surra. For this purpose 200 blood samples were collected from horses and donkeys from different areas of Gujranwala district. Thin blood smears were prepared on clean glass slides and blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Serum was transferred into the vacutainers and transported to laboratory. The serum was separated by centrifugation and stored at -70°C. 200 thin blood smear slides were fixed with methanol and subjected to Giemsa stain for further microscopic examination. Then the 200 thin blood smear slides were fixed with acetone for further processing in indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The prevalence rate of 2% and 6% by using thin blood smear and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was obtained respectively. The results helped us to determine accuracy of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for diagnosis of Surra. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0994,T] (1).

142. Diagnosis Of Paratuberculosis (Johne,S Disease) In Cattle And Buffaloes Through Histopathological Techniques And Polymerase Chain Reaction

by Farhan Anwar Khan | Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof .Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Paratuberculosis, one of the infectious disease, is the emerging cause of poor health, low productivity and finally death due to single infectious agent among dairy and beef yielding animals (cattle and buffaloes) in the World. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the most common cause of bovine Johne's disease. The study was conducted in Lahore to compare conventional methods and PCR for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis caused by M avium subspp. paratuberculosis in 300 cattle's and buffalo's tissue samples (150 of each specie), including terminal ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Conventional methods included Ziehi-Neelsen's (ZN) acid fast staining and histopathology. For M paratuberculosis insertion sequence IS 900, specific 626 bp fragment, were targeted. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR was found significant in comparison to Ziehl Neelsen staining and histopathology for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle and buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1011,T] (1).

143. Detection Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis And Mycobacterium Bovis From Spum And Blood Samples Of Human Using a Duplex PCR

by Asma Nawaz | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Azhar | Dr.Muhammad Younas Rana | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is common infectious disease in the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of tuberculosis in the humans. Tuberculosis is endemic in Pakistan with about 1.5 million people infected. M.bovis is the major cause of gastrointestinal tuberculosis in humans. The study was conducted in Lahore to compare 100 blood and 100 sputum samples from patients of active tuberculosis. The methods employed were conventional methods including Ziehl-Neelsen staining, culture on Lowenstein Jenson medium and biochemical tests. The Duplex PCR and conventional methods for diagnosis of tuberculosis caused by M.bovis and M.tuberculosis were compared on the sputum and blood samples. For M.tuberculosis and M.bovis the pncA gene and the species-specific 500-bp fragments were targeted in the Duplex PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Duplex PCR was found statistically significant in comparison to the conventional methods including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis caused by M.tuberculosis and M.bovis. Therefore Duplex PCR is a better choice of diagnostic test in the clinical setups where clinical urgencies necessitate a reliable, sensitive and specific test with the results in a short time period. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1054,T] (1).

144. Pathology Of Naturally Infected Broilers With Mycoplasma Gallisepticum And Its Diagnosis Through Pcr

by Aamir Islam | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Mansur- | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Two hundred broiler birds (200) showing the clinical signs of respiratory signs from fifty (50) poultry farms located in and around Lahore District were analyzed for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The tissue samples (trachea and lungs) were subjected to PCR using for Mycoplasma gallisepticum 16S rRNA gene amplification with a set of primers (MG14-F and MG13-R). Out of 200 samples, 86 were found positive with MG. These positive samples were further analyzed for histopathological changes. Lungs showed hemorrhages, congestion and massive necrosis. Lymphocytic infiltration and oedema was also observed in lungs sections. Liver showed coagulative necrosis around the central vein, congestion and infiltration of lymphocytes. Similarly, heart section revealed necrosis and degeneration in cardiac muscles. Trachea revealed the epithelial and mucosal infiltration with lymphocytes. Hypertrophy of epithelial mucosa and catarrhal exudates recorded in trachea. Sloughing of the mucosa and sub mucosa of varying degree was noted in trachea. Few birds showed no obvious changes in the organs but were positive on PCR analysis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1055,T] (1).

145. Comparison Of Different Diagnostic Techniques For John'S Disease In Small Ruminants

by Saba Badar | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din | Dr.Asim Aslam | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Paratuberculosis is one of the most hazardous infectious diseases, causing heavy economic losses due to poor health, low productivity and high fatality rate among domestic and wild ruminants. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of Bovine Johne's disease. In this study PCR were used to detect the presence of the Acid Fast Bacillus Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, in the intestinal tissues and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of small ruminants causing Paratuberculosis. PCR was compared to HEY medium culture on the Herrold's Egg Yolk Media. The samples were collected from Lahore Slaughter house and brought to the Molecular Pathology Laboratory at the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The study was conducted to compare PCR and the HEY medium culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis caused by M avium subsp. Paratuberculosis. A total of 500 tissue samples, 250 of the ileum and 250 of the mesenteric lymph nodes were collected randomly for the identification of Johne's disease. All samples were inoculated on the HEY medium prepared in the same laboratory aseptically. Followed by DNA extraction through the Kit method then run the PCR for insertion sequence IS 900, specific 626 bp fragment, were targetted in the genome of M paratuberculosis. The results of the study showed more samples detected positive by PCR as compared to conventional culture methodology. Also they showed in the mass of 500 tissue samples that more bacilli are prone to the samples of small intestines than associated mesenteric lymph nodes. Regarding the sensitivity of the two techniques the PCR seemed more sensitive to detect the mycobacterium in the tissues than the conventional, laborious and time consuming HEY medium culture technique; though culture has been used as golden standard in this study also. When statistically analyzed results were insignificant due to small sample size. The study will help in comparison of the two latest techniques for the diagnosis of M paratuberculosis, to check the validity of the better technique. In this study the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was checked and compared with culture on the HEY medium staining for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in small ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1077,T] (1).

146. Immunohistochemical And Pathomorphological Studies Of Chronic Granulomatous Enteritis (John'S Disease) in Bovines

by Muhammad Shahid | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Paratuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is a peril for both livestock and human beings. The present project was designed to study the pathmorphological changes induced by the organism and standardize more reliable diagnostic techniques to identify the M paratuberculosis. Tissue samples from ileurn and mesenteric lymph nodes were randomly collected from 1 50 cattle and buffalo, each in present study that was conducted in Lahore. Gross lesions were recorded on a Performa. The samples were subjected to acid fast staining of smears from pellets after density gradient centrifugation and paraffin embedded tissue sections. All the samples also subjected to polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The smears prepared from bacterial pellets of mucosal and cortical scraping of terminal ileum and MLN were stained indicated 11.4 % small intestine and 12.7% lymph nodes of cattle's and 8.7% and 10.7% lymph nodes of buffalo's tissue samples were positive. ZN staining of paraffin embedded tissue showed 8.0 % small intestine and 10% MLN of cattle's and 6.0 % of small intestine and 8.7% MLN in buffalo's tissue samples were positive. On basis of PCR 5.4% intestinal tissue samples and 6.0% MLN of cattle were positive. 3.4% intestinal tissue samples and 07(4.7%) MLN of buffaloes were positive. In buffaloes 4.0% intestinal tissue samples and 6.0% MLN were positive by IHC. In cattle 6.7% intestinal tissue samples and 8.0% MLN tissue samples were positive by IHC. In cattle, 27/150(18.0%) animals showed lesions in both intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes while 5/32 (15.7%) animals showed lesions in lymph nodes only. Out of 27/150(18.0%) intestinal tissue samples, 20/27 (74.1%) samples showed corrugation of the intestinal mucosa while 7/27 (26%) showed diffuse thickness. In buffalo, 24/150 (16.0%) animals showed lesion in both intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes while 2/26 (7.7%) animals showed lesion in lymph nodes only. Out of 24 intestinal tissue samples, 19/24(79.2%) with gross lesion, samples showed corrugation of the intestinal mucosa while 5/24(20.9%) showed diffuse thickness. In histopathology 20/27 samples of cattle showed focal granulomatous lesions while 7/27(26%) samples showed sever infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes while 28/32(87.5%) lymph nodes showed infiltration of paracortical and cortical region of the lymph nodes with macrophages ,lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells While 4/32 (12.5%) samples showed moderate infiltration of macrophages. In buffaloes 19/24 (12.7%) samples showed focal granulomatous lesions while 5/24 (20.9%) samples showed sever infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes while 22/26 (84.7%) lymph nodes showed infiltration of paracortical and cortical region of the lymph nodes with macrophages ,lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells While 4/26 (15.4%) samples showed moderate infiltration of macrophages. The sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemical method was found significant in comparison Ziehl-Neelsen staining and histopathology for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle and buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1078,T] (1).

147. Polymerase Chain Reaction And Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (Rflp) By Using Ssu-r DNA Amplification for the Species Specific Diagnosis of Trypanosomiasis in Horses

by Naveed Sabir | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: In the current research project, a pari-trypanosome polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized by using 18S single sub unit ribosomal DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was also optimized and evaluated for the species specific diagnosis of the trypanosomiasis in horses. Blood samples from one hundred (100) suspected horses were collected aseptically from different localities of Lahore. Fresh blood smear was prepared from each sample. After drying and fixing with absolute methanol, the slides were stained with Giemsa stain. Microscopic examination of stained blood smears revealed 8 positive samples out of one hundred (100) suspected horses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on the same trypanosomiasis suspected blood samples to evaluate its sensitivity. Genomic DNA was extracted by using Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Fermentas mci., USA). The PCR was performed in a 50 tl reaction mixture. The tubes containing PCR mix were subjected to amplification cycles in a thermocycier after adjusting the amplification conditions. After completion of the amplification cycles, the PCR product was characterized by 1.2 % agarose gel electrophoresis along with 100 bp DNA ladder to estimate the size of the PCR product and the gel was photographed with a Polaroid camera. PCR gave a higher percentage of positive cases i.e. 21% as compared to microscopic examination. Semi-nested polymerase chain reaction was carried out on product of the first run amplification by using same reaction mixture and amplification conditions except for template DNA. In case of semi-nested PCR 1 tl of the simple PCR product was used. Semi-nested PCR gave 100% (21/21) results. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was conducted on nested products of the positive samples. A reaction mixture of 20 1iJ was used and samples were incubated over night at 37 °C in an incubator. The restricted products were characterized by 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis along with 100 bp DNA ladder and photographed with Polaroid camera. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the nested products revealed that none of the species including T. congolense, T. theileri, T. brucei and T. vivax was found in all (2 1%) positive animals having trypanosoma infestation. It can be concluded from current study that a pan-trypanosome polymerase chain reaction is a superior and sensitive test as compared to Giemsa stained blood smear examination. The test can not only be used for early diagnosis of the trypanosomiasis but it can also be used to screen out the carrier animals those act as a reservoir of the infection for the horses and other susceptible animals. The advantage of this test is its sensitivity, universal applicability and the existence various possibilities for restriction enzyme analysis of the amplified region depending on the trypanosome species. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1079,T] (1).

148. Tissue Residue Studies Of Enrofloxacin In Broilers Chicks

by Irfan Irshad | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the second largest industry of Pakistan. Antibiotics are enormously used in poultry both for prophylactic and treatment purpose. Irrational use of antibiotics in poultry industry has led to the serious concern among the general public. It has also resulted in emergence of drug resistance in many susceptible organisms. The present study has therefore been planned for quantitative detection of Enrofloxacin residues; in tissues (liver, kidney, fatty tissues and muscles) of broiler birds. So, the present study was designed to detect Enrofloxacin residues in tissues of birds reared under experimental conditions and routinely slaughtered at different poultry shops. The study was completed in two phases. In phase-I, tissue samples from 75 broiler birds reared at Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore were analyzed for quantitative detection of Enrofloxacin by HPLC. In phase-TI, the 25 broiler birds were purchased from various poultry shops of different local markets of Lahore. Tissue sample (Liver, Kidney and thigh muscles) from these broiler birds were also analyzed for quantitative detection of Enrofloxacin by HPLC. In experimentally reared birds, the highest concentration of Enrofloxacin observed was 306ng/g. In the birds injected with Enrofloxacin intramuscularly the overall highest concentration was 68ng/g. The concentration in kidney, liver and thigh muscles was in the range of 28-64 ng/g, 26-63 ng/g, 26-68ng/g in kidney, liver and thigh muscles respectively in birds injected with drug intramuscularly. The drug residues were detected up to 120 hours post treatment in intramuscularly injected birds. In orally treated birds level of Enrofloxacin in the kidney, liver and muscles were between 56-2 17 ng/g, 29- 306 ng/g ,27- 170 ng/g. The residues were detected up to 96 hours post treatment in birds given Enrofloxacin orally. The result of phase-Il showed that among the 75 market samples, 10 (40%) muscles, 8 (32%) liver and 7 (28%) kidney samples showed the Enrofloxacin residues. Out of 25 samples in which Enrofloxacin residues were detected 20 (80%) samples showed the residues concentration above MRL. This study helped us in drawing true picture about Enrofloxacin drug residues in poultry meat and it is clearly indicated that proper withdrawal time is not being observed while marketing birds. This poses a great health concern for end consumer. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1086,T] (1).

149. Study On The Normal Haematology And Biochemistry Of Blood Of Cattle

by Muhammad Zubair Khan | Dr. M. Irfan | Tufail Muhammad Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: One hundred clinically noramal and healthy cattle from birth to adult age were studied for different haematological and biochemical parameters. 1. Significantly higher values for haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, paced cell volume and glucose were seen in animals below 12 months of age as compared to older age groups. 2. Significantly higher cholesterol level were seen in lactating compared to non-lactating animals. 3. There was no significant variation in the total and differential leucocyte count of animals below and above 12 months of age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1117,T] (1).

150. Studies Of Postmortem Changes In Layer Birds Which Die At Various Stages In Life At Poultry Farms Around Lahore.

by Ishtiaq Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Irfan | Dr. Tufail Muhammad Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1980Dissertation note: A total of 50,0C birds from 8 poultry farms around Lahore were included in these studies. The ages of these birds varied from I to 9 weeks and 4.1 to 50 weeks. Nine different diseases were prevalent at these farms which were confirid from flock histories, clinical symptoms, postmortem findings, laboratory investigations and histopatholagical studies which were carried on 542 birds out of 4,100 birds which died. The incidence of these diseases was as follow: Newcastle disease 17.5 percent, coccidiosis 7.26 percent, colibacillosis 5.31. percent, prolapse cf the oviduct 5.10 percent, spirochaetosis 4.48 pcrcent, cannibalism 3.62 percent, heat stroke 1.35 percent, rztritional deficiency 0.48 percent and lyznphoid leukosis 0.16 percent. The characteristic postmortem chanes and correlation of age vdth the diseases are discussed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1141,T] (1).



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