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1. Current Pediatric Diagnosis and Treatment / 5th ed.

by Kempe, C. Henry.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: California: Appleton & Lange, 1978Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 618.92 Kempe 12021 5th 1978 CMS] (2).

2. Veterinary Acupuncture : Ancient Art to Modern Medicine

by Schoen, A.M.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Amber Pub Inc, 1994Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0895892 Schoen 16233 1st 1994 CMS] (1).

3. Kirk and Bistner's Handbook of Veterinary Procedures and Emergency Treatment

by Ford, Richard B | Mazzaferro, Elisa | Kirk, Robert Warren | Bistner, Stephen I.

Edition: 9th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Elsevier; 2012Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Ford 27514 9th 2012 CMS] (1).

4. Comparative Efficacy Of Injectable And Inhalation Anesthesia In Pigeons

by Matiur Rehman (2013-VA-858) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. M. Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: General anesthesia is frequently used throughout the word in birds and experimental animals for different purposes. There are two techniques were used for general anesthesia, one is injectable and other is inhalational. Different drugs used for injectable anesthesia are ketamine, medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine etc. Drugs used for inhalational anesthesia include isoflurane, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide, halothane etc. The present study was conducted to compared the different injectable and inhalational anesthetics for their effect on temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, induction time, anesthesia time, recovery duration and oxygen saturation in birds of different groups. For this purposes 15 pigeons were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups A, B and C. Each group contained 5 pigeons. Group A was treated with ketamine, group B with xylazine and group C with isoflurane. After administration of these drugs with respect to their group then we noted the temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate for every 15 min interval, and also noted the induction time, anesthesia time, and recovery duration for each group. Oxygen saturation was checked only in group C. The result of our trial was that, the ketamine treated pigeons of group A showed hypothermia, bradycardia and respiratory depression. The induction and recovery was fast but rough while the duration of anesthesia was long. The xylazine treated pigeons of group B also showed hypothermia, bradycardia and respiratory depression but their induction and recovery time was long and smooth. The muscles relaxation was present and there was low quality anesthesia, about all reflexes were present. Summary 37 The birds of group C which were treated with isoflurane did not show any significant change in temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate (TPR) and oxygen saturation. The induction and recovery both were fast and smooth. The duration of anesthesia was desirable, how long duration we need it gave the anesthesia of choice. The present study proved that isoflurane was the best anesthetic for the painful and long surgeries. The muscles relaxation was good. It has no side effects. The effect of isoflurane on TPR was negligible. The induction and recovery both are rapid and smooth. By using isoflurane all reflexes were absent. The data of injectable and inhalational anesthesia was analysed by ANOVA ONE, least significant difference (LSD) in all groups and pair t test in group C with the help of SPSS version 20. Isoflurane can be used as safe and durable anesthetic in pet birds as well as in animals. It has low cost as compared to other inhalant anesthetics like sevoflurane etc. It facilitate both owner and veterinarian in long run surgeries or other painful procedures. The results of this study helped the surgeons to choose the effective anesthetics both injectable or inhalational for performing safe surgery or other painful procedures to avoid adverse effects of anesthetics in different clinically birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2395-T] (1).

5. Sero-Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Sheep In Hazara Region

by Syed Touseef Hussain Shah (2013-VA-601) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Waseem Yaqoob.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The present study was conducted in two Districtsof Hazara Regioni.e. Abbottabad and Battagram District, with the collaboration of National Zoonosis Surveillance and Research Unit, Animal Sciences Institute (ASI), National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total of 300 venous blood samples of 5 ml each were collect¬ed from sheep of different areas of two Districts i.e. Abbottabad and Battagram, with 150 samples from each District. Then serums were dispatched to the National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), for the diagnosis of Brucella melitensis by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). The prevalence of the Brucella in sheep was determined as described by (Thrusfield 2013. The prevalence of brucellosis in Hazara Region by RBPT and I-ELISA was recorded as 4.67 % and 4.33 % respectively. From 150 samples of each district, 14 (9.33 %) and 13 (8.67 %) of samples were tested positive by RBPT and I-ELISA respectively in District Abbottabad whereas, no (0 %) samples were tested positive by RBPT and I-ELISA in District Battagram. Furthermore, on Tehsil wise sero-prevalence, only 2 (2.67 %) samples out of 75 were tested positive for brucellosis in sheep by both RBPT and I-ELISA in Tehsil Havelian, while in Tehsil Abbottabad 12 (16 %) and 11 (14.67 %) samples out of 75 were tested positive for brucellosis in sheep by RBPT and I-ELISA from district Abbottabad whereas, no positive samples were detected in Tehsil Battagram and Tehsil Allai by both RBPT and I-ELISA from district Battagram. Statistically there was a significant (>0.05) difference between the prevalence of brucellosis in sheep and area of Hazara Region. The demographic variables (age, sex and breed) were analyzed using Chi-square test on SPSS version 17.0 and statistically there was no significant (>0.05) difference between the prevalence of brucellosis in sheep and demographic variables i.e. age, sex and breed. The present study has shown that brucellosis is prevalent in sheep in the Hazara region. Female animals are more sensitive than their male counterparts. Sheep of breeding age are more vulnerable than the very young ones and Balkhi breed is more prone to the disease as compared to the Kaghani and Ramghani breeds. The Sensitivity and Specificity of the diagnostic test (RBPT) was determined as described by (Thrusfield 2013). The calculated sensitivity of Rose Bengal Plate Test was 100 % and its specificity was 99.6s5 %. The results of this study will be published to communicate the interesting findings and to increase the knowledge of veterinary and public health management. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of control measures, raising public knowledge on prevention methods, a complete surveillance system for the brucellosis in Hazara Region. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2394-T] (1).

6. Sero-Diagnosis And Associated Exposure Factors Of Brucelosis Among Trade Animals And Abbatoir Workers

by Madiha Ashraf (2008-VA-43) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis mainly infects food animals such as cattle, buffaloes. Brucella abortus is the principal cause of brucellosis in cattle and is shed from the infected animal at or around the time of calving or abortion. Brucellosis is zoonotic disease transmitted to humans both through Brucella abortus and melletensis. The present study was conducted on 200 animals privately owned and publically owned abattoir. An epidemiological questionnaire focusing on trade animals as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of Brucellosis infection was completed. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test. The serum samples positive for Brucellosis through RBPT further subjected to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay. The samples of cattle collected from publically owned abattoir are subjected to the RBPT and the result was 18% and privately owned abattoir have an RBPT result of 10% and samples of the buffaloes are subjected to the test of RBPT as an screening test which was respectively 20% and 8%. The samples are further subjected to the iELISA and the results was shown that through ELISA the result was respectively 12% and 4%. While results for the cattle declared the prevelance of brucella infection through indirect ELISA was 8% and 2% at public and private abattoir respectively. The abattoir workers had a high risk to the exposure to the transmission of the disease as it is world widely more zoonotic the workers found positive for the brucellosis at public abattoir through RBPT shown no positive results. While in private abattoir through RBPT there is 6.66% animals were positive. However we concluded the results through indirect ELISA the results found were 66.66% and 15.62% for the butchers and meat sellers respectively at public abattoir.so the butchers are prone to the infection of the brucella antibodies.in comparison with the private abattoir 33.33% was detected in the abattoir cleaner. Through indirect ELISA. Summary 50 The data originating from this study was tested thorough Chi square test while Odd ratio was calculated for risk factors. Statistical analysis was done using “SPSS version 20” and probability level <0.05 was considered significantly different. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2387-T] (1).

7. An Atlas of Surgical Approaches to The Bones and Joints of The Dog and Cat / 4th ed

by Piermattei, Donald L | Johnson, Kenneth A.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2004Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.70897471 Piermattei 19309 4th 2004 CMS] (1).

8. Tasks for the Veterinary Assistant

by Pattengale, Paula | Sonsthagen, Teresa F.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089073 Pattengale 18110 1st 2005 CMS] (1).

9. Elsevier's Veterinary Assistant Textbook

by Sirois, Margi.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: China: Elsevier; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Sirois 27511 1st 2013 CMS] (1).

10. Color Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of Cattle / 3rd ed

by Blowey, Roger W | Weaver, A. David.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: China: Elsevier; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.20896 Blowey 31037 3rd 2015 CMS] (3).

11. Dollar's Veterinary Surgery / 4th

by O,Connor, J.J.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi: CBS Publishers; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Connor 19417 4th 2005 CMS] (3). Checked out (1).

12. Rapid Review, ECG Interpretation in Small Animal Practice

by Oyama, Mark A.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08961 Oyama 31003 1st 2014 CMS] (1).

13. Comparative Efficacy Of Allopathic And Herbal Drugs Against Nematodes In Equines

by Muhammad Irfan (2008-VA-297) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parasitic problem has been a major mounting problem of equids which severely creates the hindrance in performance in equine which leads to weakness, emaciation, colic, diarrhea, anemia, thriftiness, loss of energy and ultimately death. Looking at the importance of equine and its utilization by poor farmers there is need to cure the malady. GIT Nematodes are prevalent in Equines in district Jhang. Novel combination of Abamactin + Praziquantel was very efficacious to subside parasitic load in Equines. GIT Nematodes have some effects on blood parameters (TEC, HB, and PCV). A total 200 (100 horses and 100 donkeys) from different areas of district Jhang were included in the study. For this, fresh fecal sample were carefully collected into a sealed container from each horse and donkey and were transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Each samples were examined for nematodes eggs and for larvae by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method and fecal culture technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. To study the effect of Gastrointestinal nematodes on various blood parameters of equine, blood samples were collected from selected animals and were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) by using Hematology Analyzer. For therapeutic trails, a total of 12 horses and 12 donkeys positive for nematodes were taken and divided into groups A, B and C comprising of 8 animals each. Group C was comprised of 8 animals as Positive control and fourth group D was comprised of 8 animals as negative control. Group A was treated with abamactin + praziquantel (EQUITAK) orally @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day and group B was treated with herbal ingredients Summary 49 (EVERZAN) @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day. Efficacy was determined on the basis of reduction of eggs in feces at day 0, 7th and 21th day (post-treatment). Data was recorded in a questionnaire regarding age, sex, breed, nutritional status and disease condition. The present study was designed to check the comparative efficacy of two different drugs such as Equitak (Allopathic) and Everzan (herbal) against gastrointestinal nematodes and its effects on blood parameters in both horses and donkeys. According to therapeutic trial, Equitak presented very good response against GIT nematodes by fast decreasing EPG in both experimental animals and showed its efficacy more than 80% but Everzan showed poor response against nematodes in both experimental animals and its efficacy less than 30%. By administering Equitak in both experimental animals gave good results regarding blood parameters such as total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and Hemoglobin (Hb) and its values had been continuously increasing in 7th and 21st day since administration. But in contrast to Equitak, Everzan showed poor response regarding blood parameters and values did not increased at 7th and 21st days. It has been proved that Equitak has its very strong effect against strongylus spp than other parasites that come under the category of roundworms. So Equitak proved more effective against nematodes in Equines than Everzan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2418-T] (1).

14. Family Doctor

by Dr. Abrar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Mashal Books; 1997Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616 abrar 16954 1st 1997 Medicine] (1).

15. Large Animal Clinical Procedures for Veterinary Technicians / 3rd ed.

by Holtgrew-Bohling, Kristin.

Edition: Third edition.Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Elsevier; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Bohling 31165 3rd 2016 CMS] (3).

16. Caudal Epidural Analgesia With Bupivacaine, Medetomidine Alone And In Combination In Dogs

by Usman Rashid (2013-VA-843) | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Prof. Dr. M.Arif Khan | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2105Dissertation note: Epidural analgesia is very old technique used for many regional surgeries in humans as well as in animals. It is very wonderful technique used for regional surgeries and is helpful for intraoperative management of high risk patients, perioperative analgesia, cesarean section, and forelimb amputation and have certain advantages over general anesthesia, include safety and low cost, reduces the use amount for anesthetics drug, and long-acting drugs, are helpful in residual analgesia for up to 24 hours. Bupivacaine Hydrochloride is amino-amine long acting local anesthetic. As compared to the lidocaine, it is four times more potent, and can show anesthetic effects up to 3-8 hours. It has high potency, prolong duration, and less degree of motor blockade effects with minimal neuro and cardio toxicity effects. Medetomidine hydrochloride is the most potent alpha-2 adrenoceptor selective agonist. It is a racemic mixture of two optical enantiomers which are, dexmedetomidine and levomedetomidine. When alpha-2 agonists administered epidurally they produce analgesia by stimulating alpha-2 adrenergic receptors present in dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and show antinociceptive properties due to their interaction with noradrenergic receptors of the spinal cord. The current project is designed to compare the analgesic and hematological efficacy of the Bupivacaine, Medetomidine alone and in combination as epidural analgesia in dogs. For this purpose 18 clinically healthy mongrel dogs weighing 12-15kg were selected. They were divided into three groups with each group contained six dogs (n=6). The groups were named as A, B and C respectively. Summary 44 In group A Bupivacaine HCl, at dose rate of 0.5mg/kg body weight Injected Epidurally, in group B Medetomidine HCl, at dose rate of 0.015mg/kg body weight while in group C combination of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride + Medetomidine Hydrochloride Injected Epidurally. Time to the onset, duration, ataxia, and the anatomic extent of the analgesia were recorded. Time from injection to loss of sensation was considered as onset of the analgesia. The presence of the analgesia was taken as lack of responses to “pin pricking” and by applying hemostat pressure. Positive responses to needle prick or hemostat pressure shows the presence and anatomic extent of analgesia. The tests were repeated after every 20 minutes until animals regain sensation. Ataxia was graded as 0=none, 1= mild, 2= moderate or 3= severe. Blood sample were collected directly from the Cephalic vein before and after administration of anesthetic drug. A total of 3 mL blood was collected each time in test tubes containing blood coagulating gel. First sample were taken before anesthetic drug administration and second sample were collected after 60 minutes for evaluation of Liver Function Test. Results of the present study proved that, minimum time to analgesic onset were shown by group C dogs, followed by group A and group B dogs. Maximum analgesic time duration was shown by group C dogs, followed by group B and group A dogs. After 20 minutes of drug administration ataxic response were same in group A and group C dogs, as 5 out of 6 dogs had sever ataxia. At 20 and 40 minutes after administration of drug, dogs of group A and group C showed maximum spread of analgesia as compare to group B dogs, at 60 minutes post drug administration, dogs of group, A, B and C showed maximum spread of analgesia. Liver function test were evaluated by three enzymes, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). Blood samples were collected before and after 60 minutes of drug administration. First these tests were evaluated within Summary 45 each group. ALP, AST and ALP values were non-significant in alone administration of Bupivacaine HCl and Medetomidine HCl, while significant rise in ALP value were observed in group C dogs, treated with Bupivacaine HCl in combination with Medetomidine HCl. When ALT, AST, and ALP were compared among all three treatments, their results were non-significant as with minor change in P-value in post 60 minutes of anesthetic drug administration, which showed that all three treatments are independent and did not effect these parameters. Elective and emergency surgeries of hind limbs are very common in dogs, which demand appropriate, best, and safest regional anesthesia, with minimum and prolong duration of analgesic time. Maximum, uniform, and rapid spread of analgesia and having least effects on serological parameters of the animal. Present study suggested that epidural administration of Bupivacaine HCl in combination with Medetomidine HCl proved to be the safest anesthesia by showing rapid onset, prolong duration of analgesia time, early recumbency of animal, with maximum anatomic extent of analgesia in short duration time. Combination of Bupivacaine HCl and Medetomidine HCl showed least effects on serological parameters of dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2434-T] (1).

17. In-Vivo Efficacy Of Aqueous And Alcoholic Extracts Of Hedera Helix Against Fasciolosis In Sheep

by Muhammad Faisal Raza (2008-VA-206) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is a common parasite of ruminants in many countries in the temperate climates and often causes severe economic losses. Infection with both F. hepatica and F. gigantica may also occur in occasionally causing large scale epidemics. These parasites adversely affect the health status of animals and cause enormous economic losses Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is a worldwide, one of the most used drugs for the control of fasciolosis but the efficacy may depend on the susceptibility of the strain involved in the drug. However, resistance of the liver fluke to TCBZ in naturally infected sheep has been reported. Plants are being used as anthelmintic as the allopathic drugs today which offer substitute to the use of synthetic chemicals. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous and methanolic extracts of H. helix against fasciolosis in sheep. For this purpose, adult sheep was used for In vivo trials. Animals were screened for the presence of liver fluke and 30 sheep positive for liver fluke infestation were used for therapeutic trials. They were divided into 5 groups. Group A and B were given single dose of aqueous extract of Hedera helix at concentrations of 1.13 gm/kg and 2.25 gm/kg body weight respectively. Animals in C and D group were given 1.13 gm/kg and 2.25 gm/kg body weight respectively, while sheep in E group were given Triclabendazole at dose rate of 1 ml/5kg body weight. Fecal samples from each animal was collected in the morning, starting from day 0 pre-treatment and at days 4,7 and 14 post-treatment and were evaluated for the EPG through Modified McMaster method. The comparative efficacy was analysed by two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 20.0. A probability levels ˂0.05 was considered as statistically significant. During In vivo experiment all the treatments showed significant reduction in EPG. The maximum reduction in EPG showed by crude aqueous extract (CAE) at day 4 post treatment at 1.13 gm/kg dose rate was 20.0012 %. There were no significant reduction in EPG at day 7 and 14 day for aqueous extract. The maximum reduction by aqueous extract at day 4 at dose Summary 29 rate of 2.25 gm/kg was 40.47 % and at day 7 it was 45.24 %, whereas there was no significant reduction at day 14 post treatment. The maximum reduction showed by crude Methanolic extract at dose rate of 1.13 gm/kg at day 4 was 29.54 %. At day 7 post treatment the reduction of EPG was 40.09 % and at day 14 the reduction was 43.18 %. The maximum reduction showed by crude Methanolic extract at dose rate of 2.25 gm/kg at day 4 was 56.09 %. At day 7 post treatment the reduction of EPG was 64.85 % and at day 14 the reduction was 68.29 %. The positive control treated with Triclabendazole showed the maximum reduction of 97.5 % in eggs per gram (EPG). So it is concluded from the study that the extracts of Hedera helix have the anthelmintic efficacy against liver fluke. The increase in dose rate of extracts may give better results. So there is need to conduct further studied and more trials on Hedera helix extracts under field conditions to achieve maximum efficiency levels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2431-T] (1).

18. Paratuberculosis : Organism, Disease, Control

by Behr, Marcel A.

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: Cabi; 2010Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.2089634 Behr 31239 1st 2010 CMS] (1).

19. Study On Autologous And Homologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Surgical Wound Healing Promoter In Rabbits

by Muhammad Shahid Tahir (2012-VA-996) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complex process in which tissue repairs itself with the complete or incomplete regeneration. During recent years, new advances have been employed in the monarchy of tissue healing by initiation of use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a wound healing promoter in both soft and hard tissue surgeries. Platelet rich plasma is highly potentiated with growth and healing factors that can lead to marked acceleration in the tissue adaptation, repair and healing as compared to PRP non-facilitated healing process. This study was conducted on 16 adult healthy rabbits contributing 2 different groups, each group with 8 rabbits. Rabbits of both groups were surgically operated for skin autogenous grafting. Group A received an application of autologous PRP subcutaneously and in the surroundings of the graft defect, while group B received homologous PRP. Efficacy of both autologous and homologous PRP was evaluated on the basis of selected macroscopic and microscopic (histopathological) parameters of tissue repair and healing. The results, obtained in form of grades, were statistically analyzed by graphical representations. A successful use of autologous and homologous PRP with the desired results did not only boost up the surgical success rate in the specie under study but it opened a new vista on the same lines for other species to bring a better wound healing process. This study uprooted the conventional methods of managing wounds associated with injuries and helped the animals to get confidently satisfactory health status. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2452-T] (1).

20. Prevalence Of Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats Under Range Management Conditions In Azad Jammu And Kashmir

by Imtiaz Ahmad (2009-VA-535) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad S. Anjum | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Fasciolosis is the disease of sheep, goats, cattle and other ruminants. Human and equines are unusual hosts in which instead of liver the flukes may found in lungs or under the skin. Transmission depends on an intermediate host lymnae snail. Animal ingest metacercaria, the worm migrates to the liver where it causes extensive damage and mature worm lives in bile duct. The disease occurs as an acute, sub-acute or chronic infection. Chronic Fasciolosis characterized by anemia, hypoalbuminaemia, emaciation, submandibular edema and loss of condition. Clinical disease is well known but sub clinical infections are often unnoticed, leading to marked economic losses, reduced milk yield, weight loss, reduced fertility and immunity, consequently leading to significant economic losses. Fasciolosis has recently been recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Infections in human may be asymptomatic but sometimes nonspecific pain in abdomen, anorexia, dyspepsia and vomiting may occur. Pain in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and jaundice occurs in chronic phase. Sometimes ectopic migration of worm causes abscesses in many organs. The present study investigates the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats at different geographic locations on the basis of altitudes in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. 4662 (sheep n=2242; goat n=2420) fresh fecal samples from sheep and goats were collected from three village/towns each of Mirpur, Poonch and Muzaffarabad Divisions. Stool samples were collected from 566 pastoral families of AJK to determine the zoonotic potential of the disease. Prevalence of the disease was calculated on the basis of centrifugal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The intensity of infection was calculated using the McMaster egg counting technique. The risk factors of the disease studied included altitude, season, sex, age, and effect of deworming and flock size on the rate of prevalence. An overall prevalence was recorded as Summary 111 17.88%. Prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep revealed 26.49% and that of goats 9.91%. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test which revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence rate in both species was recorded as15.09% at altitude <3000 feet, 25.00% at 3000-6000 and 15.74% at >6000. The highest prevalence was recorded at an altitude 3000-6000 feet. Chi- square values showed significant difference (P<0.05) among three different altitudes. The altitude of 3000-6000ft showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence showed 13.93% rates in spring and 21.77% in autumn. Chi-square values showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease, higher in autumn than Spring. Sex wise prevalence showed 16.67% in male and 18.59% in female animals. The data showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in Chi-square analysis. The prevalence of the disease in the age group below 1 year was 04.40%, 1-4 years revealed 17.73% disease and 36.18% in >4 year. The data showed significantly different (P<0.05) rates in all age groups. Highest prevalence was recorded in sheep and goats above 4 year of age and lowest in those below 1 year. The prevalence in animals with no recent history of deworming was recorded 23.22%. The data showed 15.37% disease in small flocks of sheep and goats <30 as compared to 18.72% in large flocks >30. Chi-square showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of the disease in large flocks. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the contribution of risk factors (epidemiological factors) to the variations in the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. All the epidemiological factors i.e. altitude, species, season, gender, age group, deworming and flock size were processed. The deworming appeared to be the most significant factor in the model contributing maximum variations in disease with highest Odds followed by age groups, Summary 112 species, season, altitude, flock size and gender. The risk factors for the Fasciolosis in sheep and goats were found, lack of practice of deworming, age group >4 year, species sheep, season Autumn, altitude 3000-6000 and flock size >30. The 75% of the disease prevalence was due to above mentioned risk factors. The deworming, specie goat, age group <1 year, season Spring, altitude <3000, and flock size less than 30 were appeared to be the protective factors in the Generalized Linear Model. The intensity of infection was analyzed through Factorial analysis for difference in species, altitude and season. The difference in eggs per gram of feces was found significantly different (P<0.05) in sheep and goats. The effect of season on egg per gram (EPG) of feces showed a higher mean values in sheep (191.49) and goats (219.72) in Autumn as compared to 158.04 and 180.61 in Spring. In both seasons the mean for goats was found higher than sheep. The effect was found significant (P<0.05), higher during Autumn. Factorial analysis of the data showed significant interaction (P<0.05) between species and altitude. The data showed mean values for sheep 174.04, 191.87 and 168.33 at altitude <3000, 3000-6000 and >6000 feet respectively. The mean values for goats were 232.22, 194.95 and 170.59. The data revealed higher mean for goats as compared to sheep on all three altitudes. Goats revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) number of EPG. POST HOC Tukeys test showed a non-significant difference in intensity of disease between <3000 and 3000-6000 feet, rest of the differences were significant (P<0.05). The overall prevalence in pastoral communities of AJK was 0.88%. The samples were collected from male and female of 4 age groups <10 year, 11-20, 21-40 and >40. The prevalence in male was 0.76 and in female was 0.98%. The data showed that age groups below 20 year were Summary 113 the susceptible groups in both sexes. The highest prevalence (2.25%) was found in female age group 11-20 year. Age groups above 20 year did not revealed any positive sample. 227 adult liver flukes were collected from livers of infected animals of different animal species (sheep, goats. cattle and buffaloes) and geographic locations for morphometric and molecular identification of the species of Fasciola. Flukes were identified on the basis of measurements of body length, body width, diameter of suckers, distance between oral and ventral sucker and distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the body. The measurements of F. hepatica showed a body length range 13-34mm with an average length of 21.51mm whereas, F. gigantica ranged from 28-52mm with an average of 42.27mm. The average body lengths of F. hepatica below 3000ft was 21.9, at 3000-6000ft was 21.07 and above 6000 ft was 22.00mm and that of F. gigantica was 42.05 and 42.44mm at 3000 and 3000-6000 feet. The measurements of F. hepatica revealed an average body width of 10.05mm, average diameter of oral and ventral suckers of 0.74 and 1.28mm respectively and average distance between the two suckers of 1.34mm. The readings for F. gigantica were 9.46, 0.89, 1.55 and 1.72mm respectively. Average distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the fluke in case of F. hepatica was 18.35mm at all three altitudes and host species of animals and it was 38.26mm in case of F. gigantica. The overall mean worm load was 13.56 worms per liver of animal with a range 5-26. The mean worm load of F. hepatica was 10.9 and that of F. gigantica 13.11. Mixed infections were noted at altitudes below 6000 ft. Infestation with F. gigantica was not found at altitudes above 6000ft and F. hepatica was encountered at all three altitudes. 51.98% of the recovered flukes were F. gigantica which showed the equal chances of infection with either species of Fasciola in AJK. The results revealed that F. hepatica was the fluke affecting animal population at altitude above 6000 ft and F. gigantica was the major fluke below Summary 114 3000 ft. At altitudes between 3000-6000ft, 36.20% of flukes were F. hepatica while its prevalence was reduced to 17.30% below 3000 ft. Once the species of the liver flukes were identified morphologically they were subjected to molecular conformation through amplification of the genomic DNA of the two species through PCR using two sets of species specific primers. In the PCR based on primer set 1, a product of 391 bp was generated from the genomic DNA of Fasciola hepatica whereas no product was generated from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. PCR based on primer set 2 amplified a 235-bp product from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. The molecular identification in the present study showed that morphometric identification of the two species is valid and standard population of both species were found present at different geographic locations and species of the animals of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir except F. gigantica not found above 6000 feet altitude. The ethno veterinary practices for Fasciolosis were documented through Participatory Rural Appraisal. A total of 173 respondents/key informants were interviewed during the study period in the study area. The majority of the traditional healers (n=33) elders of pastoral families (n=53) and sheep/goats owners (n=56) were above the age of 40 year. Veterinary officers (n=6) and assistants (n=25) were interviewed as a part of verification process. 31.69% of the respondents were found using allopathic anthelmintic along with ethno veterinary medicines. 53.52% of the respondents were using ethno veterinary medicines because of non-availability or cost effectiveness of allopathic anthelmintic. 95.18% of the respondents were using plants or part of the plant as traditional anthelmintic in their sheep or goats.18 plant families were identified during the survey which include Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Boraginaceae, Cannabinaceae, Chenopodaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Summary 115 Gentianaceae, Juglandaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Punicaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae. The species of medicinal plants identified during the study were Berberis lyceum, Nicotiana tabacum, Asparagus officinale, Calotropis procera, Aloe vera, Mallotus philippensis, Adhato davesica, Artemisia scoparia, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Artimisia maritime, Verbascum Thapsus, Acacia Arabica, Cordlia myxa, Cannabis sativa, Rhamnus purpurea, Juglansregia, Oxalis corniculata, Punica granantum, Artimisa fragrans, Swertia petiolata and Abutilon indicum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2430-T] (1).

21. Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons

by Muhammad Naveed Ali (2007-VA-114) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France). The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation. During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2495-T] (1).

22. Detection of Albendazole Resistance in Commonly Found Gastrointestinal Tract Nematodes of Sheep

by Muhammad Naeem (2007-VA-168) | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD Corrupted. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2491-T] (1).

23. Molecular Epidemiology, Biochemical and Antibiogram Studies of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis in Chilistani Cows in District Bahawalpur

by Abdul Qayyum (2012-VA-570) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Riaz Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis submitted without CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2500-T] (1).

24. Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care Medicine / 2nd ed.

by Kirby,Rebecca.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Kirby 31492 1st 2015 CMS] (1).

25. Differential Diagnosis in Small Animal medicine / 2nd ed.

by Gough,Alex.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: Wiley Blackwell; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075 Gough 31493 2nd 2015 CMS] (1).

26. Equine Emergency and Critical Care Medicine

by Southwood, Louise L | Wilkins, Pamela A. [Author; Editor].

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.108928 Southwood 31487 1st 2015 CMS] (1).

27. Exotic Animal Medicine: A Quick Reference Guide / 2nd ed.

by Jepson, Lance.

Edition: 2nd ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Elsevier; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Jepson 31231 2nd 2016 CMS] (1).

28. Veterinary Radiology

by Carlson.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Philadelphia Lea and Febiger 1961Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089757 Carlson 5976 1st 1961 CMS] (1).

29. Styding a study and testing a test: how to read the edical evidence / 5th ed.

by Riegelman, Richard K.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Philadelphia Lippincott 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 610.72 Riegelman 19038 5th 2005 Medical.Science] (1).

30. Comparative Potency Of Two Different Trivalent Vaccines Against Foot And Mouth Disease In Cattle Around The Area Of Ravi Campus Pattoki

by Muhammad Fahimullah Khan (2009-VA-137) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Foot and Mouth Disease is a highly contagious viral disease of all cloven footed animals. The best control strategy of this disease is effective and in time vaccination. A successful vaccination campaign depends on the serotype identification and specific vaccination against the prevalent serotype of the virus. The present study was designed to evaluate comparative potency of two anti-FMDV vaccines (UVAS-FMD, Deccivac Intervet) used in cattle around areas of Lahore Pakistan. Blood samples were taken from vaccinated animals on day 0, 30, 60 and 90 post priming. Antibody titer was evaluated with different route of administration and various adjuvant based vaccines. Four animal groups were made each containing 5 animals; in group 1 UVAS vaccine was used by Sub/ Cut route (gel based) at priming dose, followed by Intra Muscular (oil) on 30th day. In group 2 UVAS vaccine was given I/M (oil) as priming dose and booster (oil) I/M. In group 3 Deccivac (oil) vaccine was used I/M for priming and boosting. In group 4 Deccivac (oil) vaccine was used as Sub/ Cut for priming and boosting. The results revealed non-significant difference (p>0.05) among the four different groups administered with FMDV vaccines when evaluated at day 30 and significant difference (p<0.05) at day 60 and 90 post vaccination. Analysis of variance showed significant difference (p<0.05) in antibodies between groups and with in groups at day 60 and 90. Gel based vaccine gave quick antibody response which later maintained with oil based booster dose. The difference in antibody titers obtained in the present study was found non-significant (P>0.05) between the antibody titers of FMD trivalent vaccine of UVAS and Deccivac at 90th day of inoculation. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between the adjuvants of vaccine. Animals inoculated with priming dose of gel based vaccine followed by oil based boosting showed significantly high anti FMD antibody titer than animals inoculated with oil for both priming and boosting. There was significant Summary 54 difference (p<0.05) between the groups vaccinated with various routes of administration. The animals inoculated with priming dose through s/c followed by boosting dose i/m showed significantly high anti FMD antibody titer at 90th day of inoculation compared with those inoculated intramuscularly for both priming and boosting. The animals inoculated with oil based vaccine for both priming and boosting through S/c showed marked significant decreased in anti FMD antibody titer. The route of administration revealed significant difference (p<0.05) in antibody response within groups and between groups at day 30, 60 and 90. In all three readings the mean for sub/cut priming and IM boosting were found significantly high (p<0.05) as compared to other routes. In conclusion it is recommend from the study that FMD vaccination with sub/cut priming and booster dose with IM route. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2499-T] (1).

31. Comparative Efficacy of Steroids and Non Steroids Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Wound Healing In Equines

by Sajid Ali (2009-VA-129) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2502-T] (1).

32. Manamement of Small Animal Distal Limb Injuries

by Swaim Steven F.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: America: Library of Congress Cataloging in Publications; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.7089758 Swaim 31491 1st 2015 CMS] (1).

33. Sero-Epidemiology Of Johne’s Disease Along With Its Effect On Serum Biochemical Profile In Cattle In District D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Nasrullah (2009-VA-90) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD) or Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) is characterized by an incubation period of several years. It is a chronic non-treatable disease of animals causing enteritis which ultimately leads to economic losses to dairy and meat industries worldwide. To estimate sero-epidemiology of the JD through ELISA is inexpensive, efficient, single step and sensitive for the detection of antibodies in cattle and buffaloes. So, keeping in view the economic and public health significance of the disease, the present study was designed with the objective to estimate the sero prevalence of JD using indirect ELISA and to quantify the effect of JD on the level of serum proteins in cattle of D. I. Khan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Johne’s disease is prevalent in cattle of D I Khan that affects serum proteins level in dairy animals. For the study animals were well restrained and about 5 ml blood was collected in Non- EDTA coated vacutainer from the jugular vein of each animal using 5 ml disposable syringe, after collection and proper labeling samples were transferred in Ice packed cooler to Microbiology laboratory, Govt. College of Veterinary Sciences D.I Khan. Serum was collected at the top of the vacutainer with the help of disposable pipette and was stored in eppendorf tubes in deep freezer until transported to University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for further analysis. Data was captured on questionnaires about the clinical signs and symptoms, management practices and possible risk factors associated with Johne’s disease, was obtained from the owners. Summary 40 The collected serum samples were analyzed by Indirect ELISA using commercial ELISA kit (Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX, USA) according to manufacturer instructions. The ELISA positive samples were processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis using Biuret method (Doumas et al. 1981;Spencer and Price. 1977).The serum albumin was determined by Photometric colorimetric test (Bromocresole green (BCG) method (Spencer and Price. 1977).The globulin will be estimated by subtracting serum albumin from serum total proteins (Javed et al. 2010). Data regarding sero-prevalence by indirect ELISA were analyzed through Pearson's Chisquare Test, while data regarding the effect on serum protein was analyzed by simple t-test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. P < .05 was considered significant. The present study demonstrated (12.7%) prevalence of MAP in cattle population of D.I Khan. There were no significant effect of MAP on serum biochemical profile. The results of all variables studied as under breed, gender, age, vaccinated status and management system. The most frequent level was observed in females 13.7% as compared to males 0% (0/4). Among different age groups, higher sero-prevalence 33.3% were present at age group above 6 years while sero-prevalence of 7.1% in 2-3 years and 0% were recorded in age group 4-6 years. Statistically a significant different were present between these groups. Moreover, there was no relationship of vaccination status with disease because the prevalence recorded 16.6% and vaccinated cases positive were recorded 0% but there was no significance difference among two groups of animals. Breed wise risk factor statistically significant because the MAP cases were highly prevalent in non-descript cattle 25% as compared to crossbred 5.8% and Sahiwal 0% cattle breed. BCS category I had highest prevalence 66.6% while in BCS category II prevalence Summary 41 was 23.8% and in BCS category III the prevalence was 0% recorded. Statistically the BCS of the disease animals was significantly associated. Highest prevalence 100% were recorded above 60 days of diarrhea duration while 0% were recorded less than 60 days of diarrhea duration. Statistically the sero-prevalence of diarrhea duration was highly significant. Management wise sero-prevalence of Johne’s disease on the type of housing was higher in open 19.2% as compared to confined 6.8% showing non-significant difference statistically. Sanitation wise seroprevalence were higher in poor 19.2% as compared to good sanitation 6.8% showing also nonsignificant difference statistically. Sero-prevalence of disease was less in well water 0% as compared to tap water 25% showing there were a significant difference between the seroprevalence of Johne’s disease under different water conditions. The results of total protein analysis was statistically non-significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2526-T] (1).

34. Crop Repair Using Different Ingluviotomy Techniques In Pigeon

by Rashid Hussain (2007-VA-138) | Dr. Naveed Hussain | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Waseem Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Crop is the pivotal organ of the birds’ body. The primary function of the crop is the storage of food. When the crop is full,it becomes more prominent as well as slight pendulous and more prone to trauma. Such wounds lead to the crop fistula formation in birds. Fortunately crop has a good blood supply and heals well. Ingluviotomy performed by making an incision on left lateral cervical region over the crop to minimize disruption of vasculature and complications associated with tube feeding in recovery period. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).Thirty Pigeons weighing between 275 gm to 350 gm were managed from nearby area of Lahore and were kept in experimental cages of Surgery Section (CMS) of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques along with glue for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).These pigeons were divided into three experimental groups i.e. Group A, B and C comprising ten pigeons each. In group A comprising of ten (10) pigeons underwent single layer closure with the help of absorbable suture material (Vicryl®) 4-0 using simple continuous suture pattern. Temperature, pulse and respiration were observed at different days from day 1 to day 30 in all groups. The pigeon of group A (single layer closure), showed more variation in temperature, pulse and respiration as compared with the group B ( double layer closure) and C (closure with glue). The bird of group B showed less variation in temperature, pulse and respiration and was normal after few days of surgery. The birds of group C also showed fever and rise in temperature but it was less than the birds of group A and showed more variation in temperature, pulse respiration than birds of group B. Pigeons in Group A (single layer closure) showed poor healing in overall period. At day 30 only 30% of the birds showed complete healing while 40% bird were still in healing phase, the dead percentage was 30. While in term of leakage at day 20, zero percent of the birds SUMMARY 49 showed leakage while no leakage percentage was 70% and the dead percentage was 30. Pigeons in Group B (double layer closure) showed significant good healing during the research period. At day 30 total of 80% of the birds were completely healed while 20 % bird in healing phase, percentage of no wound healing and the dead was zero. In term of leakage, at day 20 total of 100% of the birds were showed no leakage, leakage percentage was zero percent and the dead percentage was zero. In group C ( closure with glue) At day 30 , 50% of the birds were completely healed, 20% birds were in healing phase, no wound healing percentage was 10% , dead percentage was 20 and wound dehiscence was zero percent. While in term of leakage, at day 20 only 50% of the birds showed no leakage, leakage percentage was 30% and the dead percentage was 20 %. In term of postmortem changes it was noticed that fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen was less in double layer closure birds it showed good healing. In birds treated with single layer closure showed more fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen while in group where glue is used less narrowing of crop lumen and more fibrosis was seen which showed poor healing. Conclusion The verdict based explanations for better and reliable closure technique for ingluviotomy in pigeons using double layer closure is that this procedure enables proper apposition of crop edges and in addition, there is less tension at apposed site. Besides this, there is more vascular supply in the crop area,that enhances faster and reliable healing of crop repair. As the double layer closure stands to be novel procedure for crop repair, it should be used by avian surgeons worldwide. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2518-T] (1).

35. Detection of Antibodies For Mycobacterium Avium Sub-Specie Paratuberculosis in Sheep Population Along With Its Associated Risk Factors in District Rahim Yar Khan

by Muhammad Arif Rizwan (2014-VA-228) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Arfan Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants. The disease manifest itself in sense of trade restrictions production losses. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is manifested by an incubation period of several years. During subclinical stage of infection, paratuberculosis pass out in feces through which the disease get approaches to other animals in herd. It is also shed in the milk of infected animal, cannot be killed even on pasteurization and in human beings cause a disease (Crohn's disease). Johne’s disease is somewhat difficult to detect in animals having sub clinical infection. Moreover, the animals in the early stages of infection is often has an immune response that is detectable by ELISA which is not elicited by the animal in time. ELISA is affordable, efficient, one-step and in sheep and goats is very sensitive for the detection of antibodies. So, keeping in mind the economic and public health importance of this disease, present study was formulated with the purpose to detect the MAP in sheep in district in Rahim Yar Khan. 5 ml blood samples, total 100 (n=100 sheep) blood sample out of which 50 animals were selected on the basis of clinical signs (shooting diarrhea, decrease in milk production and weight loss in spite of good appetite) and 50 animals were selected from the surrounding exhibiting no clinical signs but on suspicion of being carrier from local animal markets, different slaughtering site of animals and in periphery of District, RahimYar Khan. The data regarding all the animals was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. Serum was separated by centrifugation and was stored in deep freezer having temperature (-400 C) until analyzed by indirect ELISA through commercial ELISA, Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Paratuberculosis Screening) and results was recorded through ELISA reader. The ELISA positive serum samples was processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis. Sero-detection of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium sub-specie paratuberculosis (MAP) was estimated based on indirect ELISA results. In present study the overall prevalence in sheep for mycobacterium avium sub specie paratuberculosis in district Rahim Yar Khan in different marketed and slaughtering animals irrespective of breed age and sex. When the serum samples of the suspected sheep were subjected to the serum biochemistry for analysis of total proteins in the body of sheep, it was overall decrease in the serum proteins of the sheep (p<0.05) which were infected with MAP while using the paired t-test statistics. On the other hand, it was found 92% malnutrition, 77% poor sanitation, 85% combine housing, 87% open grazing and 29% tick infestation they may act as a source of infection for spreading of paratuberculosis. Sheep than goats is high in the prevalence of the MAP. There is no doubt that Johne’s disease infected herds may suffer severely. However, as a whole, the economic loss to the sheep industry is of questionable significance. Johne's disease is zoonotic potential threat that it represents as a problem. The sheep industry is in an exceptional position, given its low incidence or occurrence of paratuberculosis to set in motion a strategy to confine or control the spread of malady. The national control of MAP will be a huge undertaking because of subtle nature of this disease and relatively poor performance of tests that are currently available. It is necessary to develop specific best management practices in the sheep industry, taking into account the biology and ecology of the disease. The implementation of the program against Johne's disease is an important proactive step.However, MAP has struck the sheep industry for many years and will probably continue to remain a major challenge for the foreseeable future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2519-T] (1).

36. Handbook of Clinical Anaesthesia

by Pollard, Brain J.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Edinburgh: Chruchill Livingstone; 2004Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089796 Pollard 17302 2nd 2004 CMS] (1).

37. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery:Vol.1

by Slatter, Dougals.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Saunders; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 13527 2nd,Vol.1 1993 CMS] (1). Checked out (1).

38. The Merck Veterinary Manual

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 13715] (1).

39. Effects Of Partial And Complete Splenectomy On Blood Parameters Of Rabbit

by Waleed Iqbal (2009-va-151) | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Hammad bin Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A comparative study of 2 procedures i.e. partial and complete splenectomy was performed to assess their clinical application. For this, 16 experimental rabbits were divided into 2 groups i.e. A and B with 8 rabbits in each group. In Group A, complete splenectomy whereas in group B, partial splenectomy was performed. The parameters evaluated for the success of splenectomy procedure were erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet count and readings were observed on day 0 (before surgery) and day 10, 20 and 30 (after the procedure). Erythrocyte count The values of all the 8 rabbits in group A, when recorded on day 0, were falling in the physiological range of erythrocyte count (5-8 x 106/uL), as all the rabbits were healthy and non-operated. This is in accordance with the physiological findings as depicted by Merck in 2015. Later on, when the second reading was obtained at day 10 (after surgery), a decrease in the level of erythrocytes was noted (within normal range) in 6 rabbits of this group. This is in compliance with the findings of Mole (1925) who observed an immediate drop in erythrocytes after complete splenectomy. Similarly Dellenback et al. (1969) has also reported a decrease in haemoglobin concentration after splenectomy procedure though his study was on beagle dogs. On the other hand, Lorber et al. (1958) has also reported obvious change in erythrocyte count after such procedure. This decrease in erythrocyte count immediately after splenectomy might be partly due to haemorrhage at the operation site and partly due to the removal of spleen which may replenish the loss of erythrocytes. Furthermore this removal of spleen must temporarily upset the balance of the haemopoietic system. However anemia was recorded in only 2 rabbits i.e. rabbit no. A2 and A4 where the erythrocytes value had dropped below the normal range. Chaudhary et al (1997) has also reported anemia in dogs after complete splenectomy and related it to the loss of spleen-iron regulatory function. The iron storage was impaired temporarilyand furthermore there is loss of iron from kidneys. This might result in decreased erythrocyte count as well as synthesis of erythrocyte was also impaired due to depletion of iron from body (Waldmann et al., 1960). . The third reading was taken on day 20 post-operatively and it was noted that the value of erythrocyte concenteration dropped further in rabbit no. A1, A3, A5, A6, A7 and A8 though the values were still in normal range, indicating that the body homeostasis had not managed to bring the erythrocyte count back to its day 0 normal level. Similar findings were reported by Mole on 21 days and Bolbol et al. in 1981 had reported the same findings but his study was in sheep. On the other hand, the two rabbits which showed anemia on day 10 started recovering at day 20 and their erythrocyte level showed improvement though it was lower than its original value but was falling in normal range indicating the restoration of erythropoiesis in body. When the last reading was taken on day 30, the erythrocyte levels of all rabbits were almost near to 0 day normal values. Our finding is in compliance with Mole (1925) who stated that this increase in erythrocytes after day 10 to day 30 was due to a persistence of the old erythrocytes which would otherwise have been destroyed in the presence of the spleen. The drop in erythrocyte count at day 10 and 20 was significant (P < 0.05). But the ultimate value on day 30 returned to the normal range and differ non-significant with 0 day value. In group B, unlike group A, the drop in erythrocyte level was also recorded but drop was non-significant which ultimately returned near to 0 day value on day 30. When group A was compared with group B, a non-significant drop in erythrocytes was recorded (P > 0.05) on day 10, 20 and 30, though there were fluctuations. Mole (1925) found similar results in his partial splenectomized rabbits. Leucocyte count When the leucocyte count was evaluated in group A, contrary to the findings of erythrocytes in this group, a significant increase in no. of leucocytes was recorded, with the highest value recorded at day 10 in all rabbits except A6 where there was a consistent drop recorded on day 10th, 20th and 30th. This unusual depression in leucocytes in A6 might be due to stress but these values were still within normal range. Similar findings were reported by Lifshitz in 1937 and Bessler in 2004 in rats. Increase in these leucocytes after complete splenectomy is due to the susceptibility of body for intermittent and transient type of nonspecific septicemia as stated by Weinstein et al. in 1983. Lifeshitz (1937) also concluded that one of the functions of spleen is to exert an inhibitory effect on leucopoietic centers When leucocyte values were recorded in group B rabbits, a similar significant increase was recorded in all the rabbits of this group and the values in B1, B2, B3, B4 and B7 were more than the physiological ranges whereas the increase was within physiological rabge in B5, B6 and B8. Thereafter the leucocytes number started dropping on day 20 and ultimately came to physiological range on day 30. But the level was still higher than 0 day values and a significant difference was recorded. When leucocyte count of group A was compared with partial splenectomised rabbits of group B, a significant increase (p < 0.05) was noted in group B on day 10, which kept falling uniformly in all rabbits except B5, where the values dropped abruptly from 11.10 to 7.89 on day 30. Palmer also observed marked leucocytosis after partial splenectomy but his study was on rats and he stated that this marked leucocytosis after partial splenectomy is due to inflammation at surgery site which didn’t produced in complete splenectomy. A significant increase of leucocyte number was recorded on day 30 in group B as compared to group A. Platelet count: The third parameter recorded was platelet count which revealed a significant thrombocytosis (P < 0.05) on day 10, 20, and 30 of each rabbit of group A and final values on day 30 were more than the normal range. In 2006, Bidus et al. also observed thrombocytosis after complete splenectomy however his study was performed on humans. Thrombocytosis may be related to the removal of whole splenic tissue which is the storage organ for platelets (Mole. 1925). Balz and Minton (1975)also performed splenectomy in patients and found an acute increase in platelet count. Contrary to this, in group B, platelet number significantly increased on day 10 but thereafter kept on dropping on day 20 and 30 and the final values were in normal ranges except in rabbit B6 in which platelet count kept on increasing on day 20 and then dropped to near 0 day value on day 30. Similar pattern was seen in partial splenectomised rabbits in the study of Mole (1925). Decrease in platelet count from 10th day to 30th day post-splenectomy indicated that left over splenic tissue has started its normal physiological function of restoring platelets. However, overall platelet count fluctuations in partial splenectomized rabbits were non-significant (P>0.05). Using repeated measurement ANOVA test, when the overall comparison of group A and B was made in terms of erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet count, considering the values on day 0 and day 30, a non-significant difference was observed in erythrocyte count (P=0.154) and platelet count (P=0.984) between both the groups. However significant difference found in leucocyte level (P=0.013), between both groups (figure 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7). Mean value of leucocyte count in group A was 9.410 (S.D=0.504) as compared to group B in which mean was 11.445 (S.D=0.504) indicating that complete splenectomy is better than partial splenectomy. Compiling the overall results, keeping in view the values of all parameters in both groups, we concluded that partial splenectomy procedure has no superiority over the complete one. Both the procedures have almost similar results except some temporary fluctuations in studied parameters. Wherever, the splenectomy is required, one can go for either procedure. However, complete splenectomy is better choice of procedure due to difficulties seen during removing partial spleen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2548-T] (1).

40. Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs

by Muhammad Haseeb Saeed (2008-VA-241) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program. Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton. This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2528-T] (1).

41. Immunotherapeutictrials Of Newcastle Disease In Domestic Pigeons

by Mohsin Hassan (2009-VA-391) | Dr. Saeed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pigeon belongs to the avian family, Columbidae with in the order Columbiformes. They are strong kept by the humans for variety of purposes such as food, hobby(racing) and treatment of various diseases. However, pigeons are susceptible to a variety of diseases, but viral diseases are more common. Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute, highly contagious viral disease in birds, which can cause high level (up to 100%) mortality in chickens, the most important natural host of the disease, but it can also affect a wide variety of avian species, causing severe disease. This disease is endemic in Pakistan and has a huge impact on the poultry industry. Besides vaccination if hyper immune yolk is properly harvested and purified it can be used in field condition for the treatment of infected birds .Therefore this study had been conducted to check the effectiveness of hyper immune yolk in treatment of experimentally infected birds.Suitability in usage of hyperimmune yolk in field condition aginst NewCastle Disease.In order to get the hyper immune yolk 10 eggs from Big Bird hatchery were collected.Antibody titer against NDV in egg yolk was determined by Haemagglutination inhibition test HI their titer was 1:512 which was significant for trial.Birds were separated into five groups A, B, C, D and E. They were challenged with NDV and treated with hyper immune yolk in different concentration.Group A was given hyper immune yolk first then after 24 hour NDV was given, Antibody titers at different days were calculated .Geometric Mean Titer (GMT) values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log2 `2.23, log2 3.23, and log2 3.18 respectively.Group B hyper immune yolk and NDV were given simultaneously in group the GMT values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log2 log2 2.35, and log2 3.19 an log2 3.22 respectively.Group C NDV was given first then after 24 hour hyper immune was Summary 41 injected intramuscularly. Geometric Mean Titer (GMT) values of Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22were log2, log2 2.47, and log2 2.99 and log23.16 respectively.In Group D NDV given first then after signs and symptoms hyper immune yolk was injected.GMT values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log2 2.30 log2 2.83, and log2 3.06 respectively was calculated.Group E was kept as positive control it was infected with NDV only the GMT values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log22.13 log2 0.00, and log2 0.00 respectively was calculated. The hyper immune yolk containing 32 units against NewCastle Disease virus was injected in group A and B induced 80% protection.The yolk containing 64 units of antibodies was given in the group C resulted into 60% protection.Hyper immune yolk consisting 128 units of antibodies injected in the group D,in which clinical sign and symptoms of disease were shown given 60% protection against the New Castle Disease. From this experiment it is inferred that usage of 128 units of antibodies can induce protection against NDV infected birds and 32 and 64 units of HIY can be used as prophylactic measure. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2532-T] (1).

42. Point Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Along With Their Effect On Various Hematological Parameters In Commercial Dairy Herds In District Kasur, Punjab

by Inam Ullah (2007-VA-145) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Parasitic problem is a major constraint of ruminant production and causes great economic loss to dairy industry by retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of animals to other infections. Gastrointestinal helminthes are prevalent in dairy animals in and around district Kasur and have significant effect on the hematological parameters of the infected animals (Hypothesis). Samples were randomly collected from 200 apparently healthy animals (n = 100 cattle; n =100 buffalo). From each animal a hand full of fecal sample was collected directly from the rectum in a disposable polythene sleeve. Proper dress was adopted during sample collection. The samples were kept in refrigerator at 4oC for examination on same day or next day. Each animal sample was identified, labeled and information about age, sex, body condition, management, current disease, vaccination, deworming. (Performa attached) are recorded. Samples were brought to Medicine Lab, CMS, UVAS, Lahore, for examination of helminthes eggs in the fecal samples. For hematological examination samples were refered to university diagnostic lab (UDL) UVAS, Lahore. Out of 100 cattle 24 (24%) were found positive and out of 100 buffalo 37 (37%) were found to be positive for gastrointestinal helminthes. It can be seen that prevalence was more in buffalo as compared to cattle. The species wise prevalene for cattle was Toxocara 29.16 %, Haemonchus 12.5%, Fasciola 4.1%, Strongyloids 12.5%, Trichostrongyloids 12.5%, Ostertagia species 8.33 % and mixed infections were 8.33% and for buffaloes it was Toxocara 35.13 % , Haemonchus 16.21%,, Fasciola 5.40%, Strongyloids 13.51% , Trichostrongyloids 16.21%, Ostertagia species 10.81% and mixed infections was 8.11%. Female cattle and buffalo (31.72%) were more prone to infection than male animals (14.28%). The age wise prevalence for less than 6 month, 6-12 month, 1-2 years, 2-3 years Summary 47 and more than 3 years was 52.5%, 78.26%, 16%, 14.04% and 20% respectively. The haemotological values for cattle and buffaloes infected with gastrointestinal helminth for TEC (%), Hb (g/dl), MCV (fl), MCHC (g/dl), Lymphocyte (%), Monocyte (%), Eosinophil (%) and Basophils( %) are 4.07±0.065, 7.010±0.052, 48.45 ± 0.20, 28.26 ± 0.074, 53.72 ± 0.112, 3.143 ± 0.117, 4.067 ± 0.021, 0.298 ± 0.031 and 5.09 ± 0.76, 8.012 ± 0.058, 50.56 ± 0.21, 30.71 ± 0.085, 55.82 ± 0.114, 4.167 ± 0.236, 5.076 ± 0.023, 0.301 ± 0.034 respectively. Data regarding the prevalence and associated risk factors were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. The data regarding hematological study were analyzed by Students T-test using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 20. P < 0.05 were considered significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2531-T] (1).

43. Infestation Rate And Therapeutics Of Scabies In Cats

by Asma Fatima (2008-VA-247) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Khalid Abdul Majeed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Cats are commonly known as friendly companion of man. The cat is domesticated pet animal and has been widely kept as companion. Feline scabies is one of the most common and severe skin diseases of cats, caused by sarcoptic mange. Despite the high prevalence and severity of the disease, many aspects of feline scabies remain poorly understood. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the study on cat scabies is limited in Pakistan. A total of 214 cats were examined of these 96 (44.9%) were positive for sorcoptic mange it was observed that mange infestation was highest in cats under 1 year and above 2 year of age. Whereas the lowest in 1.5 year of age cats. As regard the sex wise prevalence of mange infestation it was high in female cats than males. The samples were taken from the suspected cats having some skin problem irrespective of breed, sex or age, from Pet Center UVAS Lahore and Private clinics. After confirmation of the disease by skin scrapping test and identification through morphological standards, 5 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of cat in a clean test tube containing a few drops of 1% EDTA as anticoagulant. Then these test tubes were labeled with specific number to each blood sample along with date of collection and hematological and serological studies were undertaken on the samples. The cats were divided into two groups (Group A and B) for treatment trial, each group will consist of further 4 groups, each group containing 4 cats and 16 cats in each group. Group A was treated with the Ivermectin 0.04mg/kg BW s/c on every week for consecutive 4 weeks. Group B was treated with Doramectin s/c 0.6mg/kg BW on every week for consecutive 4 weeks. To evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment, skin Summary 25 scrapings were collected from each treated cat at 0 day before treatment and at 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day post-treatment. But blood samples were analyzed at 0 day, 14th, 28th day, subjected to hematocrit, Hb, counting of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs), and differential leukocytes count RFT (blood urea Nitrogen, Creatinine), LFT (ALT, AST, ALP, Total Bilirubin). Out of 214 the positive cats for the Scabies were 96 so the overall infestation rate was 44.9% in cats. The cat scabies is mostly occur in more than 24month age of cats and on secondly age group was 07-12month. For therapeutic trail 32 cats were brought into clinical trial , each clinical score contains four cats and total 32 cats have been divided into 2 groups viz. Group A(Ivermectin) and Group B(Doramectin). In group A ivermectin 0.4mg/kg B.W S/C weekly for continuous four weeks. In group B Doramectin 0.6mg/kg B.W S/C weekly for continuous four weeks. There was no change in WBCs, significant increase in RBCs, also increase in creatinine, but significant decrease in ALT, ALP, Bilirubin, and BUN. There was no change in AST. After four weeks of treatment trail ivermectin have better reduction rate of parasite. The ratio of pet animal was very less as compared to stray cats as the stray animal have no barrier to control the spread of disease. The percentage of previously infected and then cured animal or having disease history is less than that of newly infacted cats. This study proposed that the hospital acquired infection were more, the reason may be the contaminated clinical utensils or attendant’s hands. Scabies is the disease which spreads more in those animals which were in grouping as compared to randomly moving cats and very less in individual cats. Scabies is one of the most possible contact diseases. The more the contact more will be the chance of disease occurrence. The number of cats and percentage was very less of primary flea infestation, in the consequence of scabies infection. The fungal infection also existed at the same time of scabies Summary 26 infection and there were about 33 cats having fungal infection. As this disease is the cause of anemia, so it may be the one of the great source of bacterial infection as the hair loss is the major sign of this disease, the internal and external bacteria may infect likewise. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2529-T] (1).

44. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutical Study On Giardiasis In Sheep And Goat

by Syed Ans Mujtba (2014-VA-233) | Dr. Wasim Yaqub | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In small ruminants parasitic infestation is one of the major constraints to the livestock industry in developing countries. It adversely affects economic performance, mainly by retarded growth rates, lower FCR, and reduced milk and meat production. Beside this the animal housing is also an issue, as the farmers are mostly of low financial status animals are often kept in houses where the parasites find favourable environment for their survival and propagation. A number of parasitic species and other associated risk factors have been defined in transmitting various protozoan parasites to the sheep and goat. However there is lack of published and explained data regarding the above mentioned risk factors in different zones of Patoki. So in this phase of study risk factors recording and prevalence of giardia were performed for sheep and goat. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia in small ruminants, its treatment and blood examination before and after treatment. Giardia species are involved in causing giardiasis, that is ultimately responsible for immense of the economic losses by retarded growth, lowered FCR and reduced milk and meat production under varying housing conditions in sheep and goat (Hypothesis). This present study was conducted at Pattoki clinic of University of Veterinary and Animal sciences (UVAS) Lahore. Animals from public as well as from private farms were also included in this study. A total of 700 animals (n=350 sheep, n=350 goats) were examined for screening of Giardiasis by faecal sampling. The data regarding animals breed, age of animal, clinical history, feeding, housing and various treatment protocols as well as feedback was entered in the questionnaire. 5 gms of faecal from each animal (N=700) collected. Samples were stored at 4 C for further processing. The affected animals were divided into 3 groups i-e A, B, and C. For the therapeutical study Metronidazole, Albendazole and Ishq Pecha Extract to the group A, B & C respectively. In the haemotological examination CBC was performed followed by the collection of 5 ml of the blood aseptically. Animals from areas of poor sanitary system and suspected area, having poor BCS, diarrhoea, anorexia, rough hair coat were included in the study. A total of 64 positive animals were selected, which further divided into 3 groups A, B, and C, Each group having 16 animals and 2 sub group. In Group A, Metronidazol 25 mg/kg orally for 5days, Group B, Albendazol 10 mg/kg bid for 5 days orally were given while Group C, Ishq Pecha Extract (Liquid) was given. Efficacy of the treatment determined on the basis of absence of CPG via Zinc Sulphate faecal flotation method. After the 5 days consecutive treatment of positive goats, the samples were drawn days from the relative groups to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for lowering the CPG. The data thus collected was analyzed statistically by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this study that 75 samples were found positive indicating the prevalence of giardia i-e 10.7. And the efficacies of different drugs as Metronidazol 48.67%, 68% and 85.77% on day 3rd, 7th and day 14th respectively, Albendazol , indicated its efficacy was 27.88%, 0% and 69.52% on day 3rd, day 7th and day 14th. While, Ishq Pecha Extract showed an efficacy of 15.6%, 31.54% and 52.95% against Giardiasis. It is apparent from the above mentioned findings that Metronidazole has highest efficacy than albendazole. Therefore the use of metronidazole against giardiasis in sheep & goats has been preferably recommended. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2537-T] (1).

45. Effect Of Platelet Rich Plasma On Full Thickness Skin Transplant In Dogs

by Ali Raza (2009-VA-154) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complicated mechanism that includes inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling stages. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a small volume of blood plasma fortified with platelets and growth factors that enhance the healing by stimulating proliferation of blood vessels and formation of granulation tissue. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of autologous and homologous platelet rich plasma on full thickness skin transplant reconstructive surgery in dogs. The dogs were divided in two groups A and B, each with four clinical cases. In groups A and B, autologous and homologous PRP was used respectively as skin graft healing promoter. The macroscopic parameters of the study included colour, edema, exudation and microscopic parameters acute inflammation, fibroblast proliferation and granulation tissue formation. All these observations were made on 3, 7 and 14 days post-operatively. Conclusion On the basis of findings of this study: it was concluded that autologous PRP is a better wound healing promoter as compared to homologous PRP with minimal post operative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2555-T] (1).

46. Handbook of Small Animal Dentistry

by Emily, P.

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: Pergamon Press; 1990Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08976 Emily 13658 1st 1990 CMS] (1).

47. Coccidiosis

by Davies S.F.M.

Edition: 1st Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: London: Oliver and Boyd Edinburgh Publications; 1963Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 619.005 Davies 7054 1st 1963 CMS] (1).

48. Comparison Of Suturing And Sutureless Techniques For Gastrotomy Closure In Canines

by Muhammad Atif (2007-VA-133) | Dr. Naveed Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Gastrotomy is suggested in case of gastric dilatation with volvolus, gastric foreign bodies, gastric retention, out flow obstruction, hypertropicgastropathy, gastric neoplasia, and gastroduodenal ulceration. Gastrotomy closure technique after gastric surgery is very crucial to avoid post-operative complication like peritonitis. Different techniques are considered to close gastric incisions like absorbable suturing material, stapler suture and use of adhesive glue. These techniques give different kind of effects on gastrotomy closure. The present study was carried out on 12 adult mongrel dogs with an average of 15 to 20 kg body weight. They were divided into three groups, each group having 4 animals and designated as group A, B and C. Standard Gastrotomy procedure was performed in group A B and C. After performing surgery, the dogs of group A were sutured by cushing suture, followed by continuous lambert suture by 2/0 synthetic absorbable suture. While in group B dogs, stapler sutures were used to close gastric incision and in dogs of group C, incision site was closed through use of tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Comparison of all suturing and sutureless techniques was carried out through Physical evaluation, food, water intake and defecation, Weight loss / gain, Complete Blood Count, Leakage evaluation by contrast radiography and postmortem findings. It was concluded that suturing technique (using absorbable suture material in two layers) maybe considered much better than other two methods (adhesive glue and stapling) economically, due to use of ease and least post-operative complication. Although glue may be considered as second option due to easy handling, minimum fibrosis, least stenosis and better healing time. Stapling may be the third one SUMMARY 55 because it experiences difficulty to fire, greater chances of infection due to staples and more prone to leakage and stenosis. The results of this study will help veterinarian, field workers and pet practioners to use suturing technique as most effective and appropriate technique for gastrotomy closure in terms of better healing, less blood loss and least chances of post operation complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2559-T] (1).

49. Textbook of Large Animal Surgery

by Oehme, Frederic W.

Edition: 2ndMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi: Affiliated East-West 2012Availability: No items available Checked out (1).

50. Effects And Remedial Measures Of Aflatoxin B1 On Bovine Calves In Punjab

by Omer Naseer (2002-VA-65) | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Aflatoxins B1 are most toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi in/on foods and feeds, probably best known and most intensively researched aflatoxins globally. AFB1 have been associated with several diseases, e.g. aflatoxicosis in livestock, pets including humans throughout the world. Occurrence of AFB1 is influenced by certain environmental factors like geographic location, agro-economic practices and susceptibility of feed commodities to fungal invasion during pre-harvest, storage, and processing periods. AFB1 has grabbed greater attention than any other mycotoxins due to their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As the absolute safety will be never achieved, most of the world struggled to limit aflatoxin exposure by imposing regulations on feed commodities. So, in this study, we had collected 67 concentrated samples, thirty six samples from Gujranwala and thirty one from Kasur to examine the occurrence of aflatoxin B1. The aims of this study were to investigate the aflatoxin B1 in calf feed, effect of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 on productive performance of calves and determine the comparative efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin binders and liver tonics against AFB1 in bovine calves. Feed samples were obtained from different livestock farms and cattle feed mills, toxin levels in each feed sample were determined by HPLC. AFB1 level was higher at feed mills (40.33±2.21 ppb and 49.0±1.95 ppb) than farms (34.96±2.65 ppb and 44.95±2.41 ppb) both in Gujranwala and Kasur respectively. Fungus was isolated and grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar on the basis of microscopic characters and species within genus characterized by colony characters/macroscopic characters, mostly Aspergillus species was present in the feed samples which produce mycotoxins. The second most prevalent species were the Fusarium. Mucor and the Pencillium were respectively third and fourth in number. Our results have shown that Alternaria was not present in Gujranwala and Rhizopus was absent in the feed samples collected from the Kasur. Out of mycotoxin contaminated concentrate feed samples, the highest frequency of Aspergillus (43.3%) was observed, followed by Fusaram (38.8%), Mucor (8.9%), Penicillium(5.9%), Rhizopus (1.5%) and Alternaria species (1.5%). Our results also indicated that growth of Aspergillus spp. can be minimized by controlling the different factors like pH, temperature, light and humidity, which are essential for the proper growth and development. The antifungal activity of methanolic extract of clove, neem and garlic was also determined in which maximum MIC showed by garlic. Thirty six bovine calves of 6 to 12 months of age were kept in UVAS, Pattoki campus (Ravi Campus) .in four different replicates having 9 animals each. Different concentrations, i.e. 0.6 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was administered along with concentrated feed and check out productive performance along with physiological profile. The most pathological concentration of aflatoxin B1 in experiment number 3 was given to the two groups of bovine calves along with two different commercially available mycotoxin binders i.e. Yeast based and second one was clay based HSCAS mycotoxin binder at recommended doses. Efficacy of mycotoxin binders on feed samples was analyzed by using HPLC and also evaluates the productive performance of the animals.Efficacy of two liver tonics i.e.silymarin and choline chloride was observed on CBC, LFT and RFT of bovine calves. Present study has clearly displayed the adverse effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney in bovine calf. Results indicated that HSCAS mycotoxin adsorbent was able to fully detoxify aflatoxin B1. Silymarin had great impact on the liver to cope the adverse effects of the AFB1 as compared to the choline chloride, which was proved with the help of CBC, LFT and RFT. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2630-T] (1).



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