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1. Food Science and Technology

by Awan,J. A.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: Unitech Communication; 2011Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 664 Awan 29740 1st 2011 Food.Science] (4), UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Awan 29738 1st 2011 Food.Science] (6).

2. Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Manufacturing / Manual 6

by Manley, Duncan.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK : CRC Press, 1998Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664.7525 Manley 20390 1st 1998 Food.Science] (1).

3. Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Manufacturing / Manual 1

by Manley, Duncan.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: CRC Press; 1998Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664.7525 Manley 20385 1st 1998 Food.Science] (1).

4. Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Manufacturing / Manual 5

by Manley, Duncan.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: CRC Press; 1998Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664.7525 Manley 20389 1st 1998 Food.Science] (1).

5. Determination of Biogenic Amines (Histamine & Putrescine) in Sea Fish Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal

by Faseeha Farooqi (2012-VA-541) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. M. Athar khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Dissertation note: Biogenic amines (BAs) which are the nitrogenous compounds with lower molecular weight and they are formed by the decarboxylation of free amino acids by bacterial activity in food products during fermentation process and storage of the food (Sorungbe, 2005). Diet having high concentration of these complexes are the main source of biogenic amines in body.The most communal biogenic amines which are identified in food are Putrescine, tyramine, histamine and cadaverine. Uncontrolled microbial enzymatic activity of bacteria causes them to accumulate in food (Adam et al. 1999). Foods having high quantity of biogenic amines includes fermented vegetables, meat products, fish products, juices, dairy productand alcoholic beverages e-g wine and beer. When biogenic amine histamine is ingested it first reaches to the gastrointestinal tractwhere, it binds to some specific receptors if the detoxification system is not capable to remove it (Jarisch, 2004). Biogenic amines in bodyinvolves inmany important physiological functions, if their level is high in the body then it signify a direct danger to human well-being. There are some drugs e-g ethanol inhibit enzymes of biogenic amines catabolic pathways (Bodmeret al. 1999). Presence of biogenic amines can be bad indicator for meat it shows the presence of bacteria in meat which caused spoilage of meat (Miceal et al. 2007). More quantities of biogenic amines in processed, cooked and fresh foodstuffs can be associated to low sterile quality meat. Histamine which is most common biogenic amine acts as vasodilator and neurotransmitter on cardiovascular system and on central nervous. If histamineexceeds to certain level in body then it causes vomiting,diarrhea,headaches, cramps,stomachache, nausea, migraineand hypotension (Moreira et al. 2008). Histamine stimulatesthe smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus, often increases the exoneration of acid release from gastric mucosa, diarrhea, stomach ache and cramps. Another signs ofhistaminases causes the allergic reactions to the skin which includes pruritus flush and urticarial. Reduction of biogenic aminesin food industry is amission for the future (Prithwiraj et al. 2010). Improvement of diagnostic standard approaches for identification of biogenic amines in food product is good attention not only because of their toxicity level, on the other hand it can also be used as food quality indicators, consenting biogenic amine checking from raw materials to the ready to eat food. In corresponding, techniques for the identification of biogenic amines generating bacteria been established to access risk of biogenic amines formation in food content and to avoid their accumulation in eatable stuff. Safety of food is the main obligation that should be fulfilled during manufacturing process. While high intensity of biogenic amines are associated to customer health and their deliberations in food still not sufficiently standardized by governing organizations (Lehane et al. 2000). At present time, there are certainly no common regulations which defines the parameters and limits of biogenic amine tolerance in food products. Biogenic amine levels are irregularly distributed in food product on the other hand more control must be used on fermented food products of local source or got with traditional procedures (Paulsen et al. 2007). It is assumed that the existence of biogenic foodborne harming or poisoning is generally underestimated for the reason that of misdiagnosis and under reporting. We believes that the scientific diffusion of the tools that identify or determine the development of biogenic amines in food and the hazards related to their consumption might contribute to increase the alertness and awareness of hands involved which encourages the more responsible portion and consumption of better protection and quality of food (Patange et al. 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2201,T] (1).

6. Biscuit, Cookies and Cracker Manufacturing / Manual 2

by Manley,Duncan.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Wood Head; 1998Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664.7525 Manley 20386 1st 1998 Food.Science] (1).

7. Food Process Design and Evaluation

by Singh, Rakesh Kumar | Singh, Rakesh K.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : CRC Press; 1995Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Singh 19172 1st 1995 Food.Science] (1).

8. Food Hygiene for Food Handlers

by Trickett, Jill.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Hong Kong : Cengage Learning Vocational; 1996Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664.1 Trickett 16311 2nd 1997 Food.Science] (1).

9. Production Of Synbiotic Product Containing Galacto-Oligosaccharides And Saccharomyces Boulardii And Evaluation Of Its In Vitro Bifidogenic Effect

by Farah Javed (2013-Mphil-1110) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Miss Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food are not only used to satisfy hunger or provide nutritional support but also used to prevent diseases that are based on nutrition and thus improve the health of consumers (Menrad, 2003).A food that is same in appearance and consumption to conventional food but has physiological benefits and prevents diseases is known as functional food (Sangwan et al. 2011). Functional foods are used to provide benefit to intestinal microflora. The most important functional food are prebiotic and probiotic. The combination of prebiotic and probiotic are known as synbiotics. The symbiotic is effective as that of prebiotic and probiotic. The probiotic is used to reduce the impurities from prebiotic mixture. This is very important to know the functional property of functional food (Sangwan et al. 2014) that is galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in present research. GOS are most effective prebiotic which are beneficial to intestinal microbiota. Other health effects are stool improvement, mineral absorption, weight management and also improve the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus (Macfarlane et al. 2008). The Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast and used as probiotic. It is thermo tolerant yeast and optimally grows at body temperature i.e; 37ºC. Due to this property S. boulardii can be used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Another function of this yeast is the reduction of monosaccharides from prebiotic mixture. The purposes of present research work are to reduce the monosaccharides form mixture of GOS and the production of synbiotic product containing GOS and S. boulardii. For this GOS were produced through transgalactosylation procedure using lactose as substrate. S. boulardii was grown separately and incubated with the mixture of GOS. After that symbiotic product was formed and lyophilized it. The total count of yeast was determined in lyophilized mixture. The in vitro bifidogenic effect of GOS and lyophilized product was also checked. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2291-T] (1).

10. Effect On Lipid Profile Parameters By The Addition Of Orange Juice In Diet Of Hypercholesterolemic Patients

by Zeshan Ali (2012-VA-616) | Dr. Naureen Naeem | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Mrs. Rahat Naseer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Orange juice;arich source ofvitamin C,folate,andflavonoidssuchashesperidine, induceshypocholestremicresponsesinanimals.Previousepidemiologicstudiessuggestedthat ahighintakeoffruitandvegetablesisassociatedwithareducedriskofcoronary heartdisease(Borsetal.1990).Thebeneficialeffectcould berelatedtominorcomponents,especially flavonoids,whichare proposedtoexerttheiractionby inhibitingLDLoxidation (CooksandSamman1996).Orange juice might beneficially decrease blood lipid profile in subjects with hypercholesterolemia(Charleux1996). Fiftysubjectshavingelevated totalcholesterol andLDLcholesterolincludedin thestudy.Participantswas incorporate2cups(5000mL)oforange juicedailyintotheirdiets,eachdoseoveraperiodof3 weekfollowed by a 5-weekwashoutperiod.Plasma lipid,folateandvitaminC(acompliance marker) concentrationsmeasuredat baseline,aftereach treatment, and afterthewashout period.Obtained resultswereanalyzedbyusingstatisticaltoolANOVA (two-way)onStatistical PackagefortheSocialSciences (SPSS) softwareversion 21.0.0.Attheendofthis studywewereabletoconcludethe variationin lipidprofile parametersbyorangejuiceconsumption.EitherOrangejuicecanbeusedtoimproveblood lipidprofilein hypercholesterolemicsubjects. At the end of the study period the significantly increased HDL- cholesterol and decreased LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio had not reverted to initial values. In fact, the decrease in the LD-HDL cholesterol ratio and increased HDL- cholesterol at the time of washout tend to be higher as compared to the detected in 3rd period. Moreover it was also observed that subjects consuming processed orange juice showed different results of HDL and LDL-HDL cholesterol concentration, subjects consuming fresh orange juice had elevated level of HDL and decreased ratio of LDL-HDL ratio as compared to those who intake commercially available processed orange juice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2309-T] (1).

11. Hemoglobin Replenishment Trend In Pregnant Female In Relation To Dietary Intake

by Muhammad Amir Rasheed (2014-VA-781) | Ms. Frasat Rizwan | Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmad Nagra | Ms. Rahat Naseer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Anemia is defined as, low concentration of hemoglobin. IDA is the most prevalent form of anemia especially in developing countries. It becomes more threatening in pregnancy. It is greatly linked with dietary habits choices. It can be substantially improved with proper dietary choices which can be improved by nutrition education. Low dietary intake of iron in pregnancy may be improved by nutritional education. Gravidas females will be divided into two groups; Group A (Controlled group) and Group B (experimental group). Group B will be guided by nutritional education about the IDA, but Group A will not be guided. Clinical tests of patients will be performed three times, with an interval of one month. CBC and serum iron level test will be conducted. The data will be analyzed by t-test using SPSS version 20.0. P values ≤ 0.05 will be considered significant. This study will help to assess the relationship of Iron deficiency anemia with pregnancy in relation to dietary intake. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2329-T] (1).

12. Effect Of Omega-3 Enriched Eggs On Oxidative Stress In Healthy Human Subjects

by Mubeen Rafiq (2008-VA-432) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Nosheen Aziz | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. M. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Oxidative stress caused by increased production of free radicals due to altered antioxidant enzyme defense, increased lipid peroxidation and reduced levels of essential fatty acids. It is possible that the oxidative injury can be prevented by dietary supplementation of omega 3 fatty acid and antioxidants. Omega-3 fortified eggs might be helpful in decreasing oxidative stress in healthy human subjects. Efficacy study of omega-3 fortified eggs was conducted against oxidative stress through biochemical analysis of biomarkers of oxidative stress e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase.Eighteen volunteers were selected and divided in three groups (control, omega-3 supplements + vitamin E and omega-3 fortified eggs). At 0, 30th and 60th day, blood sample was collected and further examined. The data will be analyzed through Analysis of Variance with repeated measures (rANOVA) technique. The significance level will be defined as P ≤0.05 and means will be compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range test for significance difference. Omega-3 bio fortified eggs that would be useful for decreasing the oxidative stress in healthy human subjects.P value is less than 0.05 and results indicate that omega 3 fortified eggs may helpful in decreasing oxidative stress in humans. Also results showed that omega 3 fortified eggs are helpful in improving lipid profile by increasing HDL levels and decreasing LDL levels, decrease in triglyceride and cholesterol also a plus point of this product as it is economic, easy to access and nutritious. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2358-T] (1).

13. Assessment Of Variour Nutrient's Intake In Pregnant And Lactating Women Through Food Frequency Checklist And 24-Hour Dietary Recall In Lahore

by Hasiba Munir (2008-VA-435) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Nosheen Aziz | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poor nutritional status during pregnancy is a contributory factor in maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Widespread household food insecurity (58.1% households are food insecure) and poor knowledge about nutrient requirements in pregnant and lactating women are the major cause of nutritional deficiencies. This study is planned to assess nutrients’ intake among pregnant and lactating women and to compare with standard requirements. A cross sectional survey design was used to assess the nutrients’ intake of 110 pregnant and 110 lactating women from 6 Union Councils (two urban, two per-urban and two rural Union Councils) of Lahore and Rajanpur districts. Nutrients’ intake was assessed by using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to interview the pregnant and lactating women at one point in time. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference was measured through anthropometric measures, 24 hour dietary recall, and food frequency was used to assess nutrients’ intake. The data was analyzed bychi-square and cross tabs using SPSS version 20.0 and was presented in percentage, frequencies and charts to assess the nutritional deficiencies.Significance level was defined as p≤ 0.05. The results shows that majority of the women were deficient in energy and nutrient's intake through daily diet. In both districts pregnant and lactating women were not consuming their required amount of various nutrient's according to their maternal status. Results show significant difference in Lahore and Rajanpur districts most of the nutrient's deficiency was present in Rajanpur as compare to Lahore. Severely low dietary intake of various nutrients was calculated and analyzed. According to the results dietary intake of various nutrients was severely low in selected women with following percentage protein was 39.1%, folate 40%, B12 20.5%, B6 74.5%, vitamin C 30.5%, vitamin A 14.1%, vitamin D 69.1%, calcium 26.8%, iron 96.8% and zinc 70.9%. These results shows very adverse situation of important nutrient's intake of pregnant and lactating women through diet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2357-T] (1).

14. Determination Of Heavy Metals In Various Types Of Candies And Chocolates Available In Local Markets Of Lahore

by Muhammad Suleman Najib (2007-VA-307) | Dr. Naureen Naeem | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer practices, the usual thought is that food ought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Heavy metals are presentin sweets like candies, chocolates and gums, which are favorite food for children and pregnant women. Lead, Nickel and Chromium are major toxic heavy metals. Main source of lead exposure in children are food, air, water and soil.Accumulation of Lead in different parts of the body has adverse effects and causes many diseases.When chromium is ingested in excess amounts, it induces many toxicity symptoms in human body. At higher levels, nickel accumulates in the lungs and may cause bronchial haemorrhage. Other symptoms include nausea, weakness, dizziness, etc. In Pakistan food safety is on the verge chaos specially there is no sufficient data available on heavy metals in confectionary products. Therefore present study was designed to aware the consumer specially children about hazards of heavy metal in candies and chocolates. Both Local and imported Candies and Chocolates samples (n=120) were collected from local shops anddepartmental stores of Lahore. Samples were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrometer for heavy metals examination in Environmental Science DepartmentLaboratory of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Concentration of lead in imported candies (n=30) and local chocolates (n=30) found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of Punjab Food Rules 2011(PFR) while imported chocolates (n=30) and local candies (n=30) were not found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of PFR 2011. The variation of nickel was not found within permissible value 0.025 mg/kg of PFA in all (n=120) imported chocolates, local chocolates, imported candies and local candies. Concentration of chromium in all types of samples (n=120) was high as compared to limit value 0.02 mg/kg of PFR 2011. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2356-T] (1).

15. A Handbook of Foods and Nutrition

by Blank, F. C | Food Science and Human Nutrition.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: Agrobios India, 2007Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Blank 20809 1st 2007 Food.Science] (3).

16. Textbook of Feed Processing Technology

by Nityanand Pathak.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India; Vikas Publishers; 1997Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Pathak 16242 1st 1997 A.Nutrition] (1).

17. Association Of Skipping Breakfast With BMI, Metabolic Syndrome And Cardiovascular Risk Factors In University Going Students

by Shakeel Ashraf (2012-VA-627) | Dr. Naureen Naeem | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Mrs. Rahat Naseer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Metabolic syndrome can be defined as disorder of energy utilization and storage, its diagnosis can be done if three out of five medical conditions occurs at the same time that are abdominal obesity, increased blood sugar level, elevated blood pressure, high serum triglyceride and low HDL levels in serum Previous studies have shown that there is strong association between skipping breakfast and metabolic syndrome. Skipping breakfast results in metabolic diseases like obesity, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, increased lipid profile. Two hundred students of university of veterinary and animal sciences and their acquaintances were selected with age ranging from 20-25 years. Fasting blood samples were collected from university students for biochemical analysis of lipid profile that included cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL and Glucose levels were determined using biochemical analyzer (Micro lab 300, Merk). Anthropometric measurements were done using their respective tools. The distribution of subjects in breakfast consumption groups was evaluated using the χ2 test. The mean and standard differences deviation were calculated for each breakfast consumption group. At the end it is concluded that skipping of breakfast might have hazardous effect on diet quality and metabolic disease risks. This can lead to development of potential hazardous risk factors like central abdominal obesity, elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels and decreased HDL levels. These risk factors if uncontrolled can lead to disease like diabetes, hypertension and heart attack in old life. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2391-T] (1).

18. Nutritional, Microbiological And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Yoghurt Prepared From Goat-Buffalo Milk Blends

by Noor Haider (2009-VA-661) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Due to the high nutritional quality, goat milk is considered important daily food. But in our country, less usage of goat milk is due to lack of information about its basic nutrients and nutritional benefits, which provides less profit to the goat owners. Present study has been designed to prepare yoghurt from goat-buffalo milk blends for physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological evaluation and to find out the best goat-buffalo milk blend for yoghurt preparation through organoleptic acceptability studies. Raw goat and buffalo milk was collected from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pattoki Campus, Pakistan and transferred to laboratory for analysis. After yoghurt preparation, chemical analysis was conducted for total solids, pH, ash content, lactose, cholesterol, protein, acidity and then physical analysis for viscosity and syneresis was conducted. Samples of yoghurt were microbiological analyzed for total viable count of Lactobacillus acidophilus, yeast, molds, coliforms by using different media. Yoghurt was also studied for sensory and nutritional evaluation after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of storage at 4 °C. The data obtained was statistically evaluated through two way ANOVA by applying CRD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2522-T] (1).

19. Linking Childhood Obesity With Excessive Use Of Digital Media

by Hafiza Nida Rehmat (2014-VA-534) | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Ms. Tehreem Hussain | Prof. Dr. Mansur Ud Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Obesity is one of the most prevalent problems all over the world particularly in children and adolescence that could lead to sedentary behavior and influence the dietary habits of children. The television food commercials have bad impact on children and increased brand advertisements may lead to unhealthy consumption patterns. The hypothesis of the study was excessive use of digital media can lead to weight gain in children. The sample of 400 children of class 4-6 was taken from private schools, Daar-e-Arqam school, Himayat-e-Islam higher secondary school and Al-Huda Educational Institute, Lahore.. Children of age 9-11 years was included from middle class group (monthly income 30,000-70,000/-). The demographic measurements were obtained by each student while having a personal interview with them. The anthropometric measurements (heights, weights, BMI, TSF, MUAC and MAMC) were taken by using specific measuring tools. The height were measured by stadiometers, weights by weighing machine and other anthropometric measurements by abs plastic medical body fat skinfold caliper meter. Growth charts were used to assess the degree of malnutrition (over nutrition or under nutrition). The questionnaire was filled by asking questions to the children in order to assess the relationship of body weight and digital media. Descriptive statistics and chi square, Pearson’s correlation (SPSS version 20) was applied on the data to assess either digital media has positive or negative relationship with children’s body weight. The age, gender and class are significantly associated with nutritional status of the students. The students of Lahore Pakistan like to use mobile and laptop and the duration of using mobile or laptop is positively associated with health status of the individual. Student has very busy life and they do not have spare time to watch television so it is not significantly 49 associated with health status of the individual. In such case, students have low physical activity and increase sedentary behavior. Parents do not allow their children to go out for games or activities because of security concerns or restrictions on girls especially. The physical activity is negatively associated with health status of the individual. The dietary habits of the individuals are badly affected due to the trends of junk and fast food consumption but it is not associated with food marketing campaigns in this study. The food marketing campaigns target young children for selling their products by advertising them in prime time of children programs but due to busy schedule of the individuals , they do not have time to be effected by them. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2579-T] (1).

20. Comparative Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of Various Nutritional Education Methods On Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of School Going Children.

by Khadija Jamil (2014-VA-532) | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Ms. Tahreem Hussain | Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Nutrition education is an essential component of nutrition intervention to improve dietary habits, food choices and to prevent nutritional deficiencies. During the developmental stage between 9-13 years the children experiences a period of remarkable physical, social-emotional, intellectual change and puberty begins to reshape their body. Poor dietary habits and lack of physical activity can be the main cause of poor nutritional status among school going children. Balanced diet has been promoted by health care professionals and food guide pyramid as a tool in relation to balanced diet. Along with basic energy and nutrients the concept of balance must be keep in mind. For proper growth and development and to prevent nutritional deficiencies it is important that children must adopt healthy eating patterns from the early stages of their life. The most important challenging task is to change attitude and modify the dietary behavior of children because most of the children do have information about healthy eating and proper nutrition. In order to change the unhealthy eating patterns of children to become permanent part of life style, nutrition education must provide to children by different nutrition education methods. The directive of the current research helped us to enhance the understanding of different nutritional educational methods and compared the results of three different nutritional education methods (audiovisual, brochure and oral) to improved students’ nutrition knowledge, attitude and dietary practices with the view of determining which method was the most effective. . To compare the effectiveness of nutrition education methods data was collected from three different private schools of Lahore. The study sample consisted of 166 participants. The participants were divided into three groups. In Group 1 nutrition education lectures were delivered through (audio visual), Group 2 nutrition education lectures were delivered through (brochures) and in Group 3 nutrition education lectures were delivered through (traditional oral method). Baseline data included weight, height, BMI and food frequency. The effects of various nutrition education methods on three groups were evaluated by using KAP questionnaire before and after nutrition education lectures delivered. Data were analyzed statistically through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t test. Level of significance was defined as (p<0.05). Study results demonstrated that majority of participants were normal weight with BMI 20.6±2.4 kg/m2. After three months, the post anthropometric measurements of students from different groups were indicating that the mean age, height and BMI from different schools were same when compared with baseline data. Dietary habits of the study participants in three groups (audiovisual, brochure, oral) were also assessed before and after nutrition education lectures were delivered. Analysis of food frequency questionnaire explored that few consumption of food items like milk, yogurt, chapatti, white bread, mutton increased with the passage of time which were statistically significant (p <0.05). The consumption of vegetables (potato and cabbage) and fruits (apple, guava and banana) were increased but they were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The effect of three nutrition education methods (audiovisual, brochure and oral) revealed significant changes on knowledge, attitude and practices before and after nutrition education lectures in three groups. Of the three methods audiovisual, brochure, oral), the mean score of correct answers on knowledge, attitude and practices about balanced diet before nutrition education intervention was less as compared to post test. Although there was a significant changes on knowledge attitude and practices between three nutrition education methods, but the results of the present study revealed that the highest mean score of correct answers on knowledge, attitude and practices was seen in group 1 (audiovisual) than in group 3 (oral) and lastly in group 2 (brochure), indicating audiovisual as the most effective method to improve nutrition knowledge, attitude and practices of children on balanced diet. The nutrition education lectures delivered through audiovisual method has shown to bring about an improvement in knowledge, attitude and practices on balanced diet as compared to other nutrition education methods (oral and brochures) used in the study. The present study demonstrated that after audiovisual, oral method was the second most effective to improve knowledge attitude and practices about balanced diet as compared to brochures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2596-T] (1).

21. Assessment Of Nutritional Status Of End Stage Renal Disease Patients On Maintained Hemodialysis

by Ayesha Batool (2014-VA-548) | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Mr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: End stage renal disease patients on MHD (maintained hemodialysis) have critical nutritional status. The state of nutrition is always critical for the recovery from any disease. An optimal health status assures good quality of life. The study aimed to assess the nutritional status of patients diagnosed with ESRD on maintained hemodialysis. Caloric and protein intake of patients was calculated and compared with standards. Inadequate dietary intake leads to protein energy malnutrition in patients with end stage renal disease on maintained hemodialysis. A sample of 240 patients identified with end stage renal disease (age 40-60 years) visiting outdoor patient department, department of nephrology, Sheikh Zayed Hospital and nephrology department Mayo Hospital, Lahore was selected. Sample was calculated using Yummny formula. Sample was selected through purposive sampling. Direct Nutrition assessment will be conducted through ABD. Anthropometric measurements included BMI, MAMC and TAPM (Appendices I). Biochemical tests included Creatinine, BUN, Serum albumin, total proteins and hemoglobin. Dietary intake was assessed through 24 hour diet recall and FFQ. PG-SGA form was used for screening of patients for malnutrition. The study found that the nutritional status of ESRD patients on MHD is critically poor. 82% of the subjects of the study were moderately to severely malnourished. BMI of most of the patients were normal and thus it is not a reliable parameter to assess malnutrition among critically ill patients. The dietary intake data had shown significant difference between intake and requirements of calories (kcal/day) and proteins (gm/day). The MAMC and TAPM results interpreted that lean muscle mass is depleted in more than 70% of the patients. TAPM values were significantly related with protein intake and PS-SGA score. Thus, it is a reliable parameter for the assessment of malnutrition. Descriptive Summary 74 statistics, regression analysis, t-test, correlation, chi square and cross classification table was used to analyze data. Data was presented in form of graphs and tables. Statistical software SPSS version 22 was used to analyze data. Data thus obtained will serve as baseline data for improvement of nutritional status of ESRD patients. The study also validated the nutritional markers and parameters, which will be helpful in assessment of critically ill patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2605-T] (1).

22. Association Of Dietary Habits With Anthropometric Measurement And Academic Performance Of Children Enrolled In Grade Iv And V In Selected Schools Of Lahore

by Asifa Saleem (2013-VA-445) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Saeed Ahmed Nagra | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: More than 30% of Pakistan’s population lives below the poverty line. The poorest 20% of the population earn 6.2% of the country’s total income and most households in Pakistan spend almost half of their income on food. School age period is nutritionally important because this is the prime time to build up body stores of nutrients in preparation for rapid growth. Healthy children learn better. Dietary habits are associated with the anthropometric measurement and academic performance. Different schools in three categories (i.e., high, moderate and low fee structured) were surveyed and 50 children of grade IV and V (total 900 samples) from each school of each category in the district Lahore. Questionnaire was filled to get the information regarding the 24 hour dietary recall of the children and its effect on the anthropometric measurements and academic performance will be noted. Parameters included were age, gender, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), dietary habits and academic performance was assessed and the association of dietary recall with anthropometric measurements and academic performance were assessed. The collected data was analyzed by association SPSS. Analyzed data were represented in percentage, frequencies and charts to assess the association of dietary habits with anthropometric measurements and academic performance of children. The proposed study is expected to determine the role of dietary habits with anthropometric measurements and the academic performance of children. Summary 49 Mother’s education depends on the admission of students in better school. In High Fee structured schools, mainly the children of Private employees get admitted. Whereas, in Middle Fee structured schools, the children of government employees get admitted. Whereas, in Low Fee structured schools, the children of Government and Private Employees get admission. In class IV, 9 years old children get admitted. Whereas, in Low Fee structured Category, the students of 9 and 10 years age get admitted. It can be stated that in High Fee structured early aged children are admitted. In Class V, the children of 10 and 11 years has almost equal proportion of admission in different category of schools. In Class IV, female’s ratio was more as compared to male in each category of schools. Whereas, in Class V, equal proportion of male and female children got enrolled. The ratio of Obese children was more in High Fee Structured Category Schools, whereas, less in Moderate and Low Fee Structured Schools. The ratio of Under Weight was also more in students of each category of schools. The ratio of Obese, Overweight and Normal children of Class IV, was more in male children as compared to female, in High and Moderate Fee Structured Category Schools. Whereas in Low Fee Structured Schools, female children were Normal regarding BMI. In class V children, Normal BMI ratio was more in Girls, as compared to Boys, and Vice versa in other two categories of schools. In class IV students, Main number of students scored 70-79% and 80-89% in high fee structured schools marks and in Moderate Fee structured schools, mainly students scored 60-69% Summary 50 marks. In Low fee structured schools, score was 70-79% marks in last school examination. On the other hand, in class V students, Main number of students scored 80-89% in high fee structured schools marks and in Moderate Fee structured schools, mainly students scored 60-69% marks. In Low fee structured schools, average score of children was 60-69% marks in last school examination. Overall consumption was less than recommended by US Department of Health and Human Services and the American Heart Association (AHA). Association of Dietary Habits with anthropometric measurements was significant. There was a direct relationship between Dietary Habits with anthropometric measurements. Main proportion of children were under weight. Less children were normal and only a few 8% children were Overweight. The data has a direct relationship between dietary habits and Anthropometric measurements. There was also an indirect relationship between dietary habits and Academic performance. If we improve the Dietary habits of children then the score of children will not be high. On the average 67.85% children got above 90% marks in last school examination. The 52.81% children scored 81-90% marks in last school examination. Similarly, 62.35% children scored 71-80% marks. Hence it can be computed from the data that Dietary habits has a reverse relationship with academic performance of children. In view of the data discussed, it is concluded that dietary habits and life style plays and important role in the maintenance and promotion of the good health. The children who were taking adequate diet from all food groups have normal BMI and adequate muscle protein indicated by MUAC values. Underweight children eat less frequently than normal. Data analysis revealed that Summary 51 over all consumption of food was inadequate and nutritional status was also affected by meal frequency, meal timings, eating pattern and physical activity. There was no significant difference among normal and obese regarding meal frequency but unstructured eating pattern was observed. Through the children taking adequate calories the type of food taken was not proper. The food prohibition was more common in children. The prohibition of these food items.in children existed due to the absence of knowledge regarding nutritional value of the food items, personal likings and disliking. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2731-T] (1).

23. Role Ofprebiotic Galacto - Oligosaccharides In Rehablitation Of Gut Microbiota Distrubed By Antibiotic Therapy

by Toheed Ahmad (2014-VA-545) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Azmat Ullah Khan | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In this research work, GOS was availed by Friesland campina Domo, Vivinal® GOS powder. Galacto-oligosaccride rich in whey product and is white homogeneous powder, neutral to slightly sweet,and were fed to the patients of sore throat who were on antibiotic trial to check the growth of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteriu, E. coli and total plate count after disturbing micro flora.Then, by using the same concentrations of antibiotic for two group and prebiotics were fed orally to group one which was treatment group and other was control only depend upon antibiotic. After 0, 5, 10 and 15 days the fecal samples were collected aseptically to check the growth of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, E. coli and total plate count. Colony counting was done very to count the colonies.The plates were incubated at 37 ºC and numbers of colonies were counted on digital colony counter. The results showed that treatment groupof Lactobacilli showed significantly high growth of colonies as compared to control group.The two-other bacteria Bifidobacterium and E. coli species were also tested. Bifidobacteriumrecovered back as earliest it was possible due to the consumption of GOS while it was opposite in case of control. In case of control group Bifidobacteria did not recover back to its original condition even on 15th day of sampling.In case of E. coli and Total Plate Count results of colonies counting showed that day 0 and 10 show the maximum growth of bacteria, the day 10 and 15 were also similar in statistically results due to the rapid increment in rehabilitation of gut micro-biota but the situation in E. coli case were little different because microflora’s strains did not much disturbed and E. coli growth were high in both groups as compare to all other bacteria. This was due to the naturally developed immunity of E. coli against antibiotic.Results of control group of total plat count was checked and it was noticed that the growth of colonies was slow and the results of 0,5,10 and 15 days did match statistically as per requirement. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2725-T] (1).

24. Evaluation Of Lipid Lowering Effect Of Terminalia Chebula In Hyperlipidemic Patients

by Abdur Rehman (2013-VA-780) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Hyperlipidemia is regarded as leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis and found to be best recognized modifiable factor for heart diseases and atherosclerosis. The present study constitutes on T. chebulahaving hypolipidemic activity. Sixty patients were studied in four groups and treated with T.chebula (150 mg hydroalcholicextract) for group 1 (15 patients), T.chebula(150mg hydroalcholic extract) + Atorvastatin (10 mg) for group 2 (15 patients), T. chebula (75 mg hydroalcholic extract) + Atorvastatin (5 mg) for group 3 and Atorvastatin (10 mg) for group 4 respectively for 12 weeks. The primary endpoints were mean changes in LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, Triglycerides and Total Cholesterol levels at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days. Data are expressed as means ± standard error of mean (SEM) and minimum – maximum and was analyzed using Descriptive Statistics and Repetitive Measures. Values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant.The hydroalcoholic extract of T. chebula exhibits significant hypolipidemic activity when applied in different doses as compared to statin group. Lipid parameters like Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL and VLDL were decreased in all the 4 designed groups. However the statin groups have relatively high potential of decreasing Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL and VLDL when compared with the results of T. chebula extract. Group 3 have least hypolipidemic activity. Group 2 receiving exhibits highest results when compared with all the other 3 groups. Group 1 has the ability to significantly decrease Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL and VLDL when compared with group 4. Group 4 was taken as standard and found to significantly reduce the all lipid parameters used during the study.These results suggests a pharmacological indication on the traditional uses of T. chebula pericarp for hyperlipidemia and it can be determined that T. chebulahave a strong ability to reduce high lipid profile. The findings of proposed research are helpful in reducing modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2716-T] (1).

25. Assessment Of Post Prandial Glycemic Response Of Pasteurized Camel Milk In Comparison With Pasteurized Cow Milk Among Normal, Prediabetic And Diabetic Human Subjects

by Moeena Baig (2014-VA-770) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Habib ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Assessment Of Post Prandial Glycemic Response Of Pasteurized Camel Milk In Comparison With Pasteurized Cow Milk Among Normal, Prediabetic And Diabetic Human Subjects Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2739-T] (1).

26. Assessment Of Post Prandial Glycemic Response Of Pasteurized Camel Milk In Comparison With Pasteurized Cow Milk Among Normal, Prediabetic And Diabetic Human Subjects

by Moeena Baig (2014-VA-770) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Habib ur Rehman | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Assessment Of Post Prandial Glycemic Response Of Pasteurized Camel Milk In Comparison With Pasteurized Cow Milk Among Normal, Prediabetic And Diabetic Human Subjects Availability: No items available

27. Assessment Of Glycemic Modulation In Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats Through Feeding Camel Milk Whey

by Rabia Akram (2014-VA-769) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The number of people diagnosed with diabetes is increasing tremendously exhausting the ability of health care systems to deal with the epidemic. Therefore it is necessary to find scientific merits in traditional folk remedies to justify their claims. Number of investigational studies on the traditional belief that regular consumption of camel milk helps in the prevention and control of diabetes are done by experimentations on different animal models have given significant results. Therefore present project was designed for evaluation of camel milk whey as functional food against diabetes mellitus. In the first part of study whey was extracted and in the second part of study efficacy of camel milk whey as functional food against diabetes mellitus was evaluated in male Sprague dawley rats. Seventy two rats were induced diabetes by injecting Streptozotocin (50 mg/ kg) dissolved in cold 10mM of citrate buffer at pH of 4.5. Diabetes was induced in group I, II and III rats and feed on three types of diet (standard diet + water, standard diet + raw camel milk and standard diet + camel milk whey) respectively. After the induction of diabetes it was confirmed by checking the 8 hour fastening blood glucose level using the Abbot glucometer, rats with blood glucose greater than 200mg/dl were considered diabetic. Base line reading were recorded by decapitating 6 rats from each group. Parameters which were consider included serum blood glucose level(mg/dl), TGL (mg/dl), cholesterol (mg/dl), HDL (mg/dl) and LDL (mg/dl) further more to observe the changes at cellular level histopathology of liver and pancreas was also performed. Therefore the present study consisting of duration of 6 weeks showed that camel milk whey is concentrated with number of beneficial proteins that are helpful in reducing the blood glucose level significantly in diabetic rats as well as it also remarkably in creased the level of LDL. The histopathology report of organs i.e. liver and pancreas showed improvement gradually with the ongoing treatment and these improvements strongly prove Summary 38 that composition of serum not only improved temporarily but long term use of camel milk whey could not only help to improve serum composition but it also cases regeneration of degraded cells of pancreas and also improved the sinusoidal congestion in liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2773-T] (1).

28. Assessment Of Dietary, Food Concept And Lifestyle Practices Among Adults With Diabetes Mellitus

by Hina IQbal (2015-VA-831) | Dr. Azmat Ullah Khan | Mr. Haroon Jamshid Qazi | Dr. Sajid khan Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is among the top five global risks for mortality and comorbidity that could have long term impact on quality of life. However, the knowledge, practices, assessment of dietary patterns, food concepts, and healthy lifestyles in many diabetic patients has been inadequate. Many countries are trying to evaluate the factors that are understood best among the general population for a diabetic patientand the concern of the diabetic patients itself. Thus, there is need to arrangelarge-scale awareness programs for general public and use media to spread the message which could change the attitude of our public in the future. It was a cross-sectional study based on dietary lifestyle practices and food concepts among adults with diabetes mellitus. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire amongst 3400 type-2 diabetic patients from different government hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. The methods of data collection comprised of personal interview from the patients and a standardized, semi structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtained information on the socio-demographic individuality of the study participants, dietary patterns, lifestyle practices and prevalence of different food concepts among people with diabetes. Appropriate statistical test and description was used for presentation of results. It was found that gender, education, profession strongly contribute in the dietary pattern, life style and knowledge about the diabetes. Hence these factors should give more importance if we want to improve the quality of life of population by removing the threat of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, it was noted that many people are not aware of the practice to be followed in the diet when they come to care about the diabetic personnel. The prevalence of poor dietary practice was observed in more than fifty percent of the patients; it is therefore a major public health problem. More important factors that can determine the improvement in the patients was their dietary pattern. It was noted that food concepts were not clear among the respondents for the diabetes. The most important factors were female gender, low education and profession. Not getting diabetic nutrition education at hospitals, being despondency, difficulty of choosing relevant foods for their specific health problems, non-availability of fruits and vegetables, and thinking about the high cost of foods were important factors affecting dietary practices of type 2 diabetic patients. Finally, we would like to recommend to the health practitioners to give more attention to diabetic patients. Nutrition education programs in hospitals along with these different campaigns should be run as per the profession and education of the audience. It was also found that duration of the diabetes did not contributed on the knowledge about the food concepts and diabetes awareness. Hence, this factor is not important that how long the patients has been suffering from the diabetes mellitus. It is recommended based on finding to increase education by sensitizing the nutritionist and to educate the people of all professions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2917-T] (1).

29. Effect Of Camel Milk Lactoferrin Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Toxicity In Sprague Dawely Rats

by Nasreen Asghar (2014-VA-546) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Liver is a vital organ involved in regulation of several significant metabolic functions and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body as well as detoxification of chemicals, drugs and other metabolites Chronic Hepatitis and mortality due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is common in Pakistan. Camel milk Lactoferrin has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic properties. Liver cirrhosis is a serious and irreversible disease. it is common in Pakistan population which leads to mortality (Khan AA, 1995). (Anderson and Smith, 2001).These problems can be controlled by taking special measures. Nutraceutical foods like camel milk have many beneficial uses in this regard. Camel milk lactoferrin might be used for the cure of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCI4 in Sprague Dawely rats. Seventy five (75) male Sprague –Dawley rats were purchased from National Institute of Health Islamabad kept in animal house of UVAS Lahore and randomly divided into 5 groups under completely randomize design (CRD). In group (2-5) carbon tetrachloride (CC14) was subcutaneously injected with a mixture of 40% CCI4 (a mixture of pure CC14 and sterile olive oil) at 200 uL/100g body weight as single dose, 48 hrs before the starting of treatment or 0 day. After 48 hrs, rats were considered hepatic injured except the (+ve) control group. Among all groups, four groups –ve control, 30mg/kg/b.wt, 60mg/kg/b.wt and 90mg/kg/b.wt were supplied with standard diet plus Lactoferrin (in different concentrations and doses) orally, while control group were provided only standard diet throughout the efficacy study (30 days). Daily feed and water intake was monitored and cages were cleaned regularly. Body weight was recorded before decapitation throughout the experimental period. The efficacy studies data was analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA).Statistical significance was defined as P≤0.05.Means were compared for significance difference using Duncan‟s Multiple Range test (DMRt) and Least significance difference test (LSDt). Organ to body weight ratio and decreasing tendency in (-ve) control group was observed, while increasing tendency for body weight was observed in camel milk lactoferrin treatments groups during the study. In the present investigations, higher amount of transaminases (AST,ALT) and cholestatic liver enzyme (ALP) were observed however, their concentrations were significantly decreased significantly in camel milk lactoferrin treatments as compared to rising trend in (-ve) control group. Hypercholesterolemia is due to of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 and characterized by elevated levels of cholesterol .In the present research, it is concluded that camel milk lactoferrin treatments were effective in improving lipid profile.it is also obvious from the current results that camel milk lactoferrin treatments improved the hemoglobin (Hb) level although the effect was found non-significant .Likewise , results of present study also suggested that different treatments, time interval and their interaction had non-significant effects on white blood cells count in rats. Histopathology results of present study given exposed that CCl4 consequences prominent hepatic steatosis, hepatic cord rupture and necrosis .Post treatment of camel milk lactoferrin reduced the severity of CCl4 –induced liver intoxication. Fatty change and necrosis were improved in the histological sections of camel milk post-treated rats.(-ve) control group treated with CCl4 and basal diet showed severe hepatotoxicity, severe inflammation of hepatocytes and portal vein congestion, while group C and D treated with CCl4 ,basal diet and 30mg/kg/b.wt ,60 mg/kg/b.wt camel milk lactoferrin respectively showed moderate improvement in hepatotoxicity .group E treated with CCl4 and 90 mg/kg/b.wt lactoferrin showed mild hepatotoxicity in rats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2943-T] (1).

30. Evaluation Of White Sesame Seed Oil As A Functional Food Ingredient And Its Role To Mitigate Hyperglycemia

by Farhan Aslam (2011-VA-606) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: White sesame seed oil (WSSO) contains appreciable amount of various bioactive components including tocopherols, polyphenols, phytosterols and lignans (sesamin & sesamolin) known to have positive impact against certain diseases. Characterization of white sesame seed oil (PB Til-90) showed the presence of bioactive components make it suitable for human consumption. The comparison of WSSO based functional cookies and vegetable fat (VF) based cookies showed that energy and fat% were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in WSSO than VF cookies. At 60th day, mean moisture, peroxide value, and acidity were higher (P < 0.05) in VF cookies. Over time, protein and fiber% decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in both cookies but remained higher (P < 0.05) in WSSO at 60 days. By the end of the 60 days of storage time, moisture content in SO cookies increased approximately 34% (p < 0.05), while other components decreased significantly (p < 0.05) over time; (protein: -0.2%, fat: -3%, fiber: -5.5%, and ash: -7.9%). At 60 days there were significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups. Moisture was significantly higher in VF verses SO, whereas all other components were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in VF group compared to SO group; (protein: -7.6%, fat: -9%, fiber: -5% and ash: -11 %). Over time, from baseline to 60 days, peroxide value increased approximately 252% in SO cookies. Additionally, in SO, acidity, nitrogen free extract, and thiobarbituric acid values increased (35%, 3%, 54% respectively), while bioactive components, sesamin and sesamol, decreased significantly (p <0.05) over time (i.e., -0.22% and -1.2% respectively). A similar trend was observed in VF cookies. Over the period from baseline to 60 days, the mean rating on each attribute decreased significantly (p < 0.05) for each cookie type. For SO cookies, colour decreased by about -5.5%, flavour -8%, taste -16%, texture -11.6%, crispness SUMMARY 179 -8% and overall acceptability by -14%. A similar trend was observed in VF cookies. In VF cookies, the mean rating for colour decreased -9%, flavour decreased by -11%, taste decreased by -11%, texture decreased by -12%, crispness decreased by -7% and overall acceptability decreased by -5.5%. By day 60, there were significant (p < 0.05) differences in the sensory rating between groups. For efficacy study on rats, sixty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into standard diet groups (normal control, NCON, n=21) and (diabetic control, DCON, n=21) and a diabetic sesame oil (DSO) (n=21) group which were fed a diet containing 12% WSSO. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30 and 60 days. Differences between groups and across days were assessed with two-way repeated measures ANOVA. At baseline, GLU and INS were similar in both diabetic groups (mean 248.4 + 2.8 mg/dl) and (mean 23.4 ± 0.4 μU/mL) respectively. At 60 days, GLU was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in DCON (298.0 ± 2.3 mg/dl) as compared to DSO (202.1 ± 1.0 mg/dl). Activities hepatic antioxidant enzymes increased significantly (p < 0.05) in each variable across time from baseline to 60 days; SOD: (9.7 ± 0.1 to 15.5 ± 0.6 IU/mg), CAT: (6.6 ± 0.1 to 12.5 ± 0.8 IU/mg), GPx (11.1 ± 0.3 to 35.9 ± 3.2 IU/mg), APx (48.7 ± 1.6 to 76.1 ± 1.9 IU/mg) in the DSO group as compared to the DCON and NCON groups. In the DSO group, CK decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline (291.1 ± 0.9 U/L) to 60 days (245.5 ± 7.2 U/L) from both the control groups, while CK-Mb decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline (550.5 ± 3.9 U/L) to 60 days (510.8 ± 6.8 U/L) from NCON group but was not significantly different from DCON group. Among liver function tests, ALP increased over time in both diabetic groups (i.e., in DSO group from baseline to 60 days it raised from 246.7 ± 3.3 U/L to 277.7 ± 2.8 U/L) and at 60 days was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than NCON in both groups but were not significantly different from each other. In contrast, ALT from baseline (81.5 ± 3.7 U/L) to 60 days (67.4 ± 2.7 U/L) and AST from baseline (148.7 ± 3.5 U/L) to 60 days (118.3 ± 1.2 U/L) significantly decreased SUMMARY 180 (p < 0.05) in the DSO group as compared to DCON or NCON resulting in significantly lower values than both control groups by 60 days. At 60 days, urea in the DSO group decreased from baseline (38.5 ± 2.3 to 30.9 ± 1.1) such that it was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than both control groups. From baseline to 60 days, creatinine significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the two diabetic groups; in DSO group at baseline creatinine was (0.3 ± 0.0 mg/dl) and increased up to (0.4 ± 0.1) after 60 days whereas it remained fairly stable in the NCON group. At 60 days, creatinine was significantly higher in both the diabetic groups as compared to NCON. At 60th day; cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, and LDL was significantly lower (p < 0.05) and HDL significantly was significantly higher than DCON, and NCON. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the DSO or DCON groups in electrolyte balance, minerals, and hematological values. For efficacy study on humans, forty-six subjects with Type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into two equal groups (diabetic control, DCON) and diabetic sesame oil (DSO). At baseline, 30, 60, and 90 days, blood samples were drawn and analyzed. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the difference between groups and across time. In both groups GLU, INS, and HbA1c were not significantly different at baseline; (mean 187.07 + 5.63 mg/dl), (mean 12.12 ± 1.03 μU/mL), and (mean 7.55 + 0.37 %) respectively. At 90 days, GLU was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in DSO (137.83 ± 3.16 mg/dl) when compared with DCON (218.13 ± 5.92 mg/dl) while insulin was significantly increased in DSO (23.13 ± 1.15 U/ml) as compared to DCON (7.93 ± 0.38 U/ml). At 90th day HbA1c was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in DSO as compared to DCON. TBARS was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in DSO (1.08 ± 0.05 [MDA] nmol/ml) as compared to DCON (2.26 ± 0.07 [MDA] nmol/ml). In DSO, activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx) increased while in DCON these activities decreased significantly (p < 0.05) across time period. Biomarkers of liver, cardiac and renal functions improved significantly in SUMMARY 181 DSO as compared to DCON. At 90th day; cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, and LDL were significantly lower (p < 0.05) and HDL was significantly higher than DCON. There were no significant differences between the DSO or DCON groups in electrolyte balance, minerals, and hematological values. Conclusion: It was concluded that consumption of white sesame seed oil significantly improved blood glucose regulation, reduced oxidative stress, improved antioxidant activity and biomarkers hepatic, cardiac and liver enzymes in male sprague dawley rats and type 2 diabetic patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2950-T] (1).

31. Wardlaw's Perspectives in Nutrtion

by Bredbenner, Carol Byrd.

Edition: 10thMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New York McGraw; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 612.3 Wardlaw 32671 10th 2013 Food.Science] (1).



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